Philip Reid & The Statue of Freedom and Michelle Browder, Mothers of Gynecology

Philip Reid & The Statue of Freedom and Michelle Browder, Mothers of Gynecology

Philip Reid and The Statue of Freedom

 Philip Reid (c. 1820 — February 6, 1892) was an African American master craftsman and artisan who played a key role as the foreman in the casting of the Statue of Freedom sculpture atop the United States Capitol building in Washington D.C. He was born into slavery in South Carolina’s historic city of Charleston.

Commissioned in 1855, the initial full-size plaster model of Freedom was completed by American sculptor Thomas Crawford in his studio in Rome, Italy, but he died suddenly in 1857 before it left his studio. Shipped by his widow, packed into six crates, it finally arrived in Washington in late March 1859 and was then assembled and put on display in the Old Hall of the House, now National Statuary Hall.

In May 1860, self-taught sculptor Clark Mills was awarded the contract by the Secretary of War to cast Freedom at his foundry off Bladensburg Road, just inside the District of Columbia. In June 1860, casting of the statue began. The first step was to disassemble the plaster model for the statue into its five main sections in order to move it from the Capitol to the foundry. After its arrival at the Capitol an Italian sculptor, according to Mills’ son Fisk, was hired to assemble it.

However, when the time came to separate the sections, the Italian sculptor refused to help unless given a pay raise. Fortunately, Philip Reid figured out that using a pulley and tackle to pull up on the lifting ring at the top of the model would reveal the joints between the sections. The statue was successfully separated into its five sections and transported to Mills’ Foundry.

The government rented Mills’s foundry for $400 a month and supplied the materials, fuel and labor to cast the statue. Because of this arrangement, the names of the craftsmen and laborers were recorded each day in Mills’ monthly report. Philip Reid was listed as a “laborer” and was paid $1.25 a day, while other laborers were paid $1 day. There is no evidence that any of other men listed as laborers were black or enslaved. An enslaved worker was paid directly if he worked on Sunday; his owner received the payment for his work the other six days. Only Philip Reid was paid directly by the government for working on 33 Sundays.

Amid the Civil War, work on Freedom continued. Arriving in pieces, she was cast at the Clark Mill’s Foundry near Bladensburg, Maryland, under the care, ironically, of a mulatto slave.

On April 16, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed an act abolishing involuntary servitude in the District of Columbia, and district slave owners were allowed to petition for compensation. Clark Mills petitioned for compensation for eleven slaves, including Philip Reid, and included a description of Reid in the petition. Mills wrote that Reid was “aged 42 years, mullatto [sic] color, short in statue, in good health, not prepossessing in appearance but smart in mind, a good workman in a foundry…” Mills asked $1500 for Reid, but received only $350.40.

It is not known if Reid witnessed the assembly of the Statue of Freedom atop the Capitol Dome, but he was a free man when the last piece was put into place in December 1863. Two years later, in 1865, author S.D. Wyeth wrote in The Federal City, “Mr. Reed [as his name was spelled during the rest of his life], the former slave, is now in business for himself, and highly esteemed by all who know him.” Afterwards he was listed as “Philip Reed” in city directories and census records as a “plasterer.” In 1870 he was listed along with a wife, Jane, whom he had married in June 1862, and a two-year-old son. In 1880 his wife was listed as Mary P., a laundress.

Death records state that he lived into his seventies and died on February 6, 1892. Though he was initially laid to rest at Graceland Cemetery within view of the Capitol, research revealed that Philip Reid was disinterred and reburied in Columbian Harmony Cemetery in 1895. This cycle repeated itself when he was disinterred and reburied in National Harmony Memorial Park in 1959. On April 16, 2014, the 152nd anniversary of Emancipation in Washington, D.C., a memorial plaque was dedicated to Philip Reed in the cemetery that is now his final resting place.

In an address to Congress 70 years later, a long-time admirer of Lady Freedom, William A. Cox, recalled the facts surrounding Freedom’s construction:

“… the facts are that [Freedom’s] successful taking apart and handling in parts as a model was due to the faithful service and genius of an intelligent negro in Washington named Philip Reed (sic), a mulatto slave owned by Mr. Clark Mill, and that much credit is due him for his faithful and intelligent services rendered in modeling and casting America’s superb Statue of Freedom, which kisses the first rays of the aurora of the rising sun as they appear upon the apex of the Capitol’s wonderful dome.” (Congressional Record (1928), 1200)

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Philip Reed also Philip Reid (c. 1820 – February 6, 1892) was an African American master craftsman who worked at the foundries of self-taught sculptor Clark Mills, where historical monuments such as the 1853 equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square, near the White House in Washington, D.C., the 1860 equestrian statue of George Washington in Washington Circle, and the 1863 Statue of Freedom in Washington D.C., were created. [1] He was born in c. 1820 into slavery in South Carolina‘s historic city of Charleston and was emancipated on April 16, 1862, under the District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act[2] After his emancipation, he assisted Mills in installing the Statue of Freedom atop the United States Capitol, which was completed on December 2, 1863. Reid began working as an enslaved apprentice to Mills in 1842, as a young man in his twenties, who was already recognized for his talents in the foundry industry. In the 1860s, after having worked at the foundry for almost two decades, Reid’s skills in working with bronze casting were recognized. In 1928, Tennessee Representative, Finis J. Garrett presented a paper honoring Reid for his “faithful service and genius”, and describing the key role he had played in casting the statue of Freedom, that is now part of the Congressional Record.[3][4] A memorial plaque honoring Philip Reed[Notes 1] was unveiled on April 16, 2014—the 152nd anniversary of Emancipation in Washington, D.C.—in the National Harmony Memorial Park in Hyattsville, Maryland. It reads, “Philip Reed The slave who built the Statue of Freedom atop the U.S. Capitol died a free man on February 6, 1892 and is buried here…”[5] In 2013, he was described by the Architect of the Capitol as the “single best known enslaved person associated with the Capitol’s construction history”.[6]


Reid—who was an enslaved African American from South Carolina—was born in c. 1820, and became enslaved to Mills when Reid was about 22-years-old, according to the 1864 petition made by Mills for compensation, after slavery had been abolished.[4] Reid remained enslaved to Mills for over twenty years, and was finally emancipated in 1863.

Reviews of Philip Reid’s contributions[edit]

In 1863, with the Statue of Freedom newly installed on the Capital, a newspaper correspondent wrote, “The black master-builder lifted the ponderous uncouth masses and bolted them together, joint by joint, piece by piece, till they blended into the majestic ‘Freedom’…. Was there a prophecy in that moment when the slave became the artist and with rare poetic justice, reconstructed the beautiful symbol of freedom for America?” The Senate Historical Office reprinted these words in their tribute to Reid—”Philip Reid and the Statue of Freedom”—which is part of their series, The Civil War: The Senate’s Story.[2]

During the 70th United States Congress in 1928, Tennessee Representative, Finis J. Garrett, submitted a paper by William A. Cox, describing Reid as an “intelligent negro”, a “mulatto”,[3][4] whose “faithful service and genius” led to the “successful taking apart and handling” of the Freedom statue.[3]

The 1928 Congressional Record Cox’s description of Reid’s role in constructing Freedom[3]:?1199–1200? Fox, who was a long-time admirer of the Statue of Freedom, said that it had arrived in pieces and was cast at the Clark Mill’s Foundry near Bladensburg, Maryland, under the care, ironically, of a mulatto slave. [3]:?1199–1200?

“… the facts are that [Freedom’s] successful taking apart and handling in parts as a model was due to the faithful service and genius of an intelligent negro in Washington named Philip Reed (sic), a mulatto slave owned by Mr. Clark Mill, and that much credit is due him for his faithful and intelligent services rendered in modeling and casting America’s superb Statue of Freedom, which kisses the first rays of the aurora of the rising sun as they appear upon the apex of the Capitol’s wonderful dome.”

—?William A. Cox. Congressional Record. 1928:1200

The Architect of the Capitol described Reid as the “single best known enslaved person associated with the Capitol’s construction history”.[6]

For more information, please visit the following link:

How an enslaved man helped create these iconic monuments in Washington, D.C.

PBS NewsHour 3,265 views Feb 18, 2023

Some of Washington, D.C.’s most familiar landmarks were built with the labor of enslaved people, their accomplishments largely lost to history. In part three of our series, “Hidden Histories,” we learn about one of those enslaved laborers, a sculptor named Philip Reid. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

 Michelle Browder, Mothers of Gynecology

Michelle L. Browder (with Deborah Shedrick), Mothers of Gynecology, 2021, found metal objects and other media, roughly 15 feet high (Mission for More Up campus Montgomery, Alabama, © Michelle L. Browder)oint

  • Artist and activist Michelle Browder’s monument reclaims the history of the enslaved Black women who underwent non-anesthetized medical experimentation by Dr. James Marion Sims in the late 1840s in Montgomery, Alabama. The monument includes a sculptural group that portrays the only three enslaved women whose names were recorded in Dr. Sims’ documentation of his experiments: Anarcha, Betsey, and Lucy. The identities of other enslaved women who suffered under Dr. Sims, whose names he did not record, are unknown.
  • James Marion Sims has long been celebrated as the father of gynecology for, among other things, developing a procedure to remedy vesicovaginal fistulas. The excruciating and repeated experimentation on enslaved Black women that led him to perfect this procedure, however, reflects the racist devaluation of Black humanity and prevailing perception of Black people as property in the mid-19th century. Sims justified these experiments in part because he, along with many other white people at the time, believed that Black people didn’t feel as much pain as white people (a racist belief which still impacts medical treatment for Black people today).
  • Browder’s monument includes larger-than-life-sized figures of the three women and the displaced womb of Anarcha. The bodies and womb are made from discarded metal materials that reference their inhumane treatment by Dr. Sims and other whites who perpetuated slavery. The women’s postures, hair, and adornments, however, serve to reinstate their identities and celebrate the power and resilience of Black women.

Go deeper

Learn more about the Mothers of Gynecology park at The More Up Campus

“‘Father Of Gynecology’, Who Experimented on Slaves, No Longer On Pedestal In NYC”, from National Public Radio (April 17, 2018)

Linda Matchan, “The statue of a doctor who experimented on enslaved women still stands in Alabama. But now there’s also a monument to his victims.” The Washington Post, October 2, 2021

Remembering Anarcha, Lucy, and Betsey: The Mothers of Modern Gynecology”, episode of The Hidden Brain podcast, episode 20 (2016)

“‘The Mothers of Gynecology’ remembered in Montgomery monument,” from The Atlanta Journal Constitution (February 20, 2022)

Deirdre Cooper Owens, Medical Bondage: Race, Gender, and the Origins of American Gynecology (University of Georgia Press, 2017)

More to think about

A 2017 Alabama law, enacted to safeguard Confederate monuments, states that no monuments erected on public property for more than 40 years may be removed. With her ability to advocate for the removal of a 1939 sculpture of Dr. Sims in the city of Montgomery restricted, Michelle Browder chose to make a new monument to reclaim the history of the women upon whom Dr. Sims experimented. Discuss the impact of retaining monuments to individuals who perpetuated harm verses removing them. How can Michelle Browder’s new monument function in relation to the older monument to Sims*? Consider the choices Browder made in materials, size, and composition.

*The Sims monument is discussed and shown in the Mothers of Gynecology video.

Smarthistory images for teaching and learning:

More Smarthistory images…

Cite this page as: Michelle L. Browder and Dr. Beth Harris, “Michelle Browder, Mothers of Gynecology,” in Smarthistory, March 21, 2022, accessed February 28, 2023,

For more information, please visit the following link:

Artist Michelle Browder Creates ‘Mothers of Gynecology’ Monument to Enslaved Women Who Endured Experiments

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

The Mothers of Gynecology honored in an …

Monument to ‘Mothers of Gynecology’ unveiled in Montgomery –


Smarthistory on Twitter: “Michelle L. Browder, Mothers of Gynecology, 2021 #CivilRights #RethinkingMonuments #Montgomery #BlackHistoryMonth” / Twitter

 Mothers of gynecology statues honor Black women tortured for science

Artist Michelle Browder Creates ‘Mothers of Gynecology’ Monument to Enslaved Women Who Endured Experiments

Artist Michelle Browder Is Soon to Open A Museum and Clinic in Honor of The “Mothers of Gynecology” – America’s Black Holocaust Museum

Mothers of Gynecology, Montgomery, Alabama

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Monument to ‘Mothers of Gynecology’ unveiled in Montgomery –

Subjected to Painful Experiments and Forgotten, Enslaved ‘Mothers of Gynecology’ Are Honored With New Monument | Smart News| Smithsonian Magazine


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Alabama artist works to correct historical narrative around beginnings of gynecology | PBS NewsHour

warning: this video discusses racial violence

Michelle Browder, Mothers of Gynecology

Smarthistory 10,984 views Jan 19, 2022

warning: this video discussed racial violence Michelle L. Browder (with Deborah Shedrick), Mothers of Gynecology, 2021, found metal objects and other media, roughly 15 feet high (Mission for More Up campus Montgomery, Alabama, © Michelle L. Browder) speakers: Michelle Browder and Dr. Beth Harris speakers: Michelle Browder and Dr. Beth Harris

Alabama artist works to correct historical narrative around beginnings of gynecology 8:43 mins

PBS NewsHour  4,720 views Feb 27, 2023

The history of gynecology as a medical specialty has deep roots in the American South, but that legacy is as complicated as the history of the South itself. In partnership with the Under-Told Stories Project at the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota, Fred de Sam Lazaro reports from Montgomery, Alabama, for our arts and culture series, CANVAS, and the series Agents for Change. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: TikTok: Twitter: Instagram: Facebook: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

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Kadir Nelson An African-American Artist

Kadir Nelson An African-American Artist

                                                      Black History Is Our History: Dr. Carter G. Woodson, Also Known As The ‘Father Of Black History Month’

Black History Month is an annual observance originating in the United States, where it is also known as African-American History Month. It has received official recognition from governments in the United States and Canada, and more recently has been observed in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Wikipedia

Significance: to remember important people and events in the history of the African diaspora

Date: Wed, Feb 1, 2023 – Wed, Mar 1, 2023

Observed for: 53 years

Also called: African-American History Month

Event Length: Month

Observed by: United StatesCanadaUnited Kingdom

Kadir Nelson An African-American Artist

In honor of African-American History Month, I would like to present the art work of Kadir Nelson an African-American Artist.

Kadir Nelson

Kadir Nelson Illustrator

Kadir Nelson is a Los Angeles–based painter, illustrator, and author who is best known for his paintings often featured on the covers of The New Yorker magazine, and album covers for Michael Jackson and Drake. His work is focused on African-American culture and history. Wikipedia

Born: May 15, 1974 (age 48 years), Silver Spring, MD

Awards: Caldecott MedalSibert MedalMORE

Education: Pratt InstituteWill C. Crawford Senior High School

Nationality: American

Nominations: Caldecott MedalMORE

Known for: Magazine cover illustrations

U.S. History – Young Pap Left

ArtScans CMYK

HEART AND SOUL by Kadir Nelson 2:36 mins

HarperCollins Publishers 969 views Sep 29, 2011

Kadir Nelson, one of this generation’s most accomplished, award-winning artists, has created an epic yet intimate introduction to the history of America and African Americans, from colonial days through the civil rights movement.

Kadir Nelson: 2011 National Book Festival 43:42 mins

Library of Congress  2,292 views Nov 10, 2011

Kadir Nelson appears at the 2011 National Book Festival. Speaker Biography: Writer and illustrator Kadir Nelson, who began drawing at age 3 and painting at age 10, says, “I have always been an artist. It’s part of my DNA.” He began collaborating with writers in 1999, including choreographer Debbie Allen (“Dancing in the Wings”) and Ntozake Shange (“Ellington Was Not a Street”). Nelson debuted as an author with “We Are the Ship.” His current work is “Heart and Soul: The Story of America and African Americans” (HarperCollins). For transcript, captions, and more information visit….

Kadir Nelson: 2013 National Book Festival 28:03 mins

Library of Congress  2,841 views Dec 12, 2013

Kadir Nelson appears at the 2013 Library of Congress National Book Festival. Speaker Biography: The works of award-winning artist Kadir Nelson have been exhibited worldwide. He is a two-time winner of the Caldecott Honor Award as well as a Coretta Scott King Award. His clients include Coca-Cola, the U.S. Postal Service, Major League Baseball and Dreamworks SKG. His debut as a writer, “We Are the Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball,” won the Coretta Scott King Award. Nelson has just published a picture book biography, called “Nelson Mandela.” For captions, transcript, and more information visit…


The Undefeated 2019

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Undefeated
Author Kwame Alexander
Illustrator Kadir Nelson
Country United States
Language English
Publisher Versify/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Publication date April 2, 2019
Pages 40
Awards Caldecott MedalCoretta Scott King AwardNewbery Honor
ISBN 978-1-328-78096-6

The Undefeated is a 2019 poem by Kwame Alexander and illustrated by Kadir Nelson. The poem’s purpose is to inspire and encourage black communities, while also delivering a tribute to black Americans of all occupations in past years. The poem describes the toughness black Americans faced during times such as slavery, and segregation in America. Nelson’s illustrations also provide a visual for the meaning of the poem. The book was well received and won the 2020 Caldecott Medal and a Newbery Honor.[1] Kadir Nelson’s artwork also earned it a Coretta Scott King Award.[2]

We Are the Ship 2008     


4.3/5 · Goodreads

We Are the Ship got a 4.26 stars review on Goodreads.  92% liked this book Google users


“We are the ship; all else the sea.”—Rube Foster, founder of the Negro National League The story of Negro League baseball is the story of gifted athletes and determined owners; of racial discrimination and international sportsmanship; of fortunes won and lost; of triumphs and defeats on and off the field. … Google Books

Originally published: January 8, 2008

Author: Kadir Nelson

Genre: Young adult fiction

Awards: Sibert MedalCoretta Scott King Award for Authors

Nominations: Sibert MedalMORE,vid:o9R-WFPkUkg

In this video

00:44 Negro Baseball

02:34 Rhys Goose Tatum and Richard King Tutt

03:48 Hank Aaron

04:43 Willie Wells

Heart and Soul: The Story of America and African Americans 2011

Heart and Soul

Kadir Nelson’s Heart and Soul is the winner of numerous awards, including the 2012 Coretta Scott King Author Award and Illustrator Honor, and the recipient of five starred reviews.

The story of America and African Americans is a story of hope and inspiration and unwavering courage. This is the story of the men, women, and children who toiled in the hot sun picking cotton for their masters; it’s about the America ripped in two by Jim Crow laws; it’s about the brothers and sisters of all colors who rallied against those who would dare bar a child from an education. It’s a story of discrimination and broken promises, determination, and triumphs.

Told through the unique point of view and intimate voice of a one-hundred-year-old African-American female narrator, this inspiring book demonstrates that in gaining their freedom and equal rights, African Americans helped our country achieve its promise of liberty and justice—the true heart and soul of our nation.

Nelson Mandela 2013


One day when Nelson Mandela was nine years old, his father died and he was sent from his village to a school far away from home, to another part of South Africa. In Johannesburg, the country’s capital, Mandela saw fellow Africans who were poor and powerless. He decided then that he would work to protect them. When the government began to keep people apart based on the color of their skin, Mandela spoke out against the law and vowed to fight hard in order to make his country a place that belonged to all South Africans.

Kadir Nelson tells the story of Mandela. It is the story of a young boy’s determination to change South Africa and of the struggles of a man who eventually became the president of his country. Readers will be inspired by Mandela’s triumph.


5/5 · Scholastic Teacher Store

Nelson Mandela got a 5 stars review on Scholastic Teacher Store.

Did you like this book?

This stunning picture book biography of Nelson Mandela by Kadir Nelson is a receipient of the Coretta Scott King Honor award.In this lush, acclaimed book, award-winning author-illustrator Kadir Nelson … Google Books

Originally published: January 2, 2013

Author: Kadir Nelson

Genre: Biography

Awards: NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Literary Work – Children’s

Illustrator: Kadir Nelson

 Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story from the Underground Railroad 2007

Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story from the Underground Railroad


Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story
from the Underground Railroad

by Ellen Levine; illustrated by Kadir Nelson

Henry’s Freedom Box tells the true story of Henry, a young boy who grows into a man under the harsh conditions of slavery, all the time yearning to be free. After he is separated from his family for the second time (once as a son, once as a father), Henry comes up with the idea of mailing himself to freedom in the north.

What an inspirational, thought-provoking, and stunningly illustrated story. What makes it all the more magical is that it’s loosely based on the true story of a man who escaped slavery by mailing himself to freedom inside a wooden crate (An author’s note at the back shares what happened to Henry ‘Box’ Brown later in his life.) Illustrator Kadir Nelson has truly captured the humanity and emotions of the characters. Moving! This is an inspiring anytime read, but would be ideal for units on slavery and the Underground Railroad.

The book won quite a number of prestigious children’s book awards, including the Caldecott Honor in 2008. Additionally, the book was named to many ‘best books’ lists, including the American Library Association Notable Children’s Book in 2008 and the National Council for Social Studies Notable Social Studies Book in 2008.

See Inside Henry’s Freedom Box

Below are two sample pages from inside Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story from the Underground Railroad. What a beautifully illustrated book! The left is a portrait of the main character, Henry, as a child and the middle page shows Henry visiting his sick master, who had called for him. Henry wondered if perhaps the master would set him free, as some slaves were freed upon the death of their owners. Sadly, that was not why he was called to see the master.,vid:PdninoaI1Dk

In this video 9:53 mins

00:52 The master is ill

08:16 Arrival in Philadelphia

09:38 Outro

If You Plant a Seed 2015

The bestselling book about the power of one kind act from Caldecott Medal and Coretta Scott King Award winner Kadir Nelson.

“Timeless and delectable.”—School Library Journal

If you plant a carrot seed . . . a carrot will grow.

If you plant a cabbage seed . . . cabbage will grow.

But what happens if you plant a seed of kindness . . . or selfishness?

With spare text and breathtaking oil paintings, If You Plant a Seed demonstrates not only the process of planting and growing for young children but also how a seed of kindness can bear sweet fruit.

Kadir Nelson’s acclaimed books include The Undefeated, winner of the Caldecott Medal as the most distinguished picture book of the year, Heart and Soul: The Story of America and African Americans, and Moses: When Harriet Tubman Led Her People to Freedom.,vid:eDgIA3P8QMs

Book Description

for Change Has Come by Kadir Nelson

From the Publisher

The black and white images throughout are personal reflections, uniquely felt and rendered by award winning artist Kadir Nelson. They are accompanied by the uplifting words of Barack Obama and commemorate the movement and the moment that have changed our history. It’s a celebration of the power of inspiration. It’s a celebration of how far we have come and how determined we are to look ahead. It’s a celebration of pride, hope and joy personally felt and publically shared.

Most of all it’s a celebration of the 44th president – a new president and a new chapter in the American story.

Publisher description retrieved from Google Books.

Change Has Come Book Video 00:56

CBS 1,461 views Jan 6, 2009

A special video for Change Has Come: An Artist Celebrates Our American Spirit, with illustrations by award winning artist Kadir Nelson, published by Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Children’s Publishing. Change Has Come is a celebration of how far we have come and how determined we are to look ahead. It’s a celebration of pride, hope and joy personally felt and publically shared. Most of all it’s a celebration of the 44th president – a new president and a new chapter in the American story.



Salt in His Shoes: Michael Jordan in Pursuit of a Dream got a 4.24 stars review on Goodreads.

4.5/5Inside Out Club

Salt in His Shoes: Michael Jordan in Pursuit of a Dream got a 4.5 stars review on Inside Out Club.

92% liked this book

Google users


Michael Jordan. The mere mention of the name conjures up visions of basketball played at its absolute best. But as a child, Michael almost gave up on his hoop dreams, all because he feared he’d never grow tall enough to play the game that would one day make him famous. … Google Books

Originally published: 2000

Authors: Roslyn JordanDeloris Jordan

Genres: FictionBasketball story

Age range: 4 – 8 Years

Salt in His Shoes: Michael Jordan in Pursuit of a Dream

Deloris Jordan. Simon & Schuster Children’s Publishing, $17.99 (32pp) ISBN 978-0-689-83371-7

Michael Jordan’s mother and sister team up for an inspirational story about this athlete’s earliest on-court efforts. Nelson (Big Jabe) is also a strong player here; he contributes animated art, rendered in a cartoon style that is informal yet polished. In the opening scenario, a bully intimidates young Jordan during a basketball game at a neighborhood park, causing him to flub a pass. Michael tells his older brothers, “”I am really sorry, guys. If I were taller that wouldn’t have happened.”” When he asks his mother what will make him grow, she advises him to put salt in his shoes and say a prayer every night. Though he obliges Dand continues to practice shooting baskets at home Dhis efforts don’t immediately pay off. One day, his father convinces him that, rather than being tall, “”practice, determination, and giving your best”” are the keys to being “”a real winner,”” and Michael runs off to join his brothers in the park, where he makes the game’s winning shot. Though the book ends with a rather facile slam-dunk, the authors offer authoritative insight into this six-foot-six-inch-tall hoopster’s boyhood spunk as well as reassurance to young athletes impatient for a growth spurt. Nelson handily balances in-your-face on-court action with more reflective portraits of the player’s inner growth. All ages. (Nov.)

Salt in His Shoes: Michael Jordan in Pursuit of a Dream 8:28 mins

KV Teach 26,109 views Feb 25, 2021 #classroombookaday


Q&A with Kadir Nelson 3:37 mins

Scholastic  15,107 views Sep 26, 2013

Illustrator Kadir Nelson explains the inspiration, experiences, and processes behind his work. To view his artwork for The Art of Read Every Day, and to download Common Core-ready resources and information about Kadir Nelson, visit The Art of Read Every Day collection:

Meet the Illustrator: Kadir Nelson 11:59 mins

AdLit  16,124 views Sep 23, 2010

Kadir Nelson is a naturally gifted artist whose extraordinary talent continues to develop and be discovered. Before the age of 30, Nelson had already illustrated children’s books, sold paintings to celebrities, and worked on a movie directed by Steven Spielberg. In 2007 Kadir Nelson received a Caldecott Honor for his evocative illustrations in Moses: When Harriet Tubman Led Her People to Freedom. In 2008 he won a second Caldecott Honor for his artwork in Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story from the Underground Railroad. To view the full version of this and other author interviews, visit us at! is funded by the Ann B. and Thomas L. Friedman Family Foundation and Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Acclaimed artist Kadir Nelson on what influences his paintings 8:26 mins

PBS NewsHour 1,699 views Nov 20, 2022

Award-winning artist Kadir Nelson is known for his oil paintings that evoke both modern urban realism and the masterly works of turn-of-the century American painters. For our Weekend Spotlight, Geoff Bennett spoke to Nelson while he was in Washington, D.C., for the unveiling of his portrait of humanitarian chef José Andrés at the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

Artist Kadir Nelson – Illustrations of Pride and Soul CBS Sunday Morning 5 mins

Black Art News  3,175 views Jul 31, 2016

One of our favorite artists and illustrators, Kadir Nelson, whose work is found among the collections of some of entertainment’s elite stars like Debbie Allen, Michael Jackson, Will Smith and George Lucas, is visited by CBS Sunday Morning’s Ben Tracy. The artist touches on his work on magazines, albums, posters and postage stamps. Then there are the children’s books – more than two dozen in fact. Ben meets the illustrator who counts Norman Rockwell and N.C. Wyeth among his influences – and who explains what happens when his paintbrush takes up wings and begins to fly. For art news, everyday, visit us at: To Submit News:… Pinterest: Twitter: Facebook:


Kadir Nelson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kadir Nelson (May 15, 1974) is a Los Angeles–based painter, illustrator, and author who is best known for his paintings often featured on the covers of The New Yorker magazine, and album covers for Michael Jackson and Drake. His work is focused on African-American culture and historyThe New York Times describes his work as: “sumptuous, deeply affecting work. Nelson’s paintings are drenched in ambience, and often overt symbolism.[1] He has twice been a Caldecott honor recipient and won the 2020 Caldecott Medal for his book The Undefeated


In 1996, Nelson began his career as a conceptual artist for Steven Spielberg‘s feature film Amistad, and the animated feature film Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron. Nelson has since designed several commemorative postage stamps for the United States Postal Service including stamps featuring Wilt Chamberlain,[2] Joe Dimaggio,[3] and Richard Wright.[4] He has also authored and/or illustrated over 30 picture books including, Brothers of the Knight[5] by actress Debbie AllenWE ARE THE SHIP: The Story of Negro League Baseball,[6] which was featured on the cover of Sports Illustrated[7] magazine, and Heart and Soul: The Story of America and African Americans.[8] In 2013, Nelson was commissioned to paint his first cover for The New Yorker magazine, a portrait of Nelson Mandela.[9] Nelson has since created several memorable covers for the magazine including, Eustace Negro,[10] Schomburg Center, Harlem, New York,[11] and A Day at the Beach.[12]

Early life and education[edit]

Nelson was born in Washington D.C.,[13] and grew up in Atlantic City, New Jersey and San Diego, California, the son of author Emily Gunter and educator Lenwood Nelson.[14] He received his early training in art from his uncle, Michael Morris, who is an artist and art instructor.[15] Both his uncle and his high school art teacher taught him important artistic principles and techniques, including how to paint with oils. After developing an impressive portfolio during high school, Crawford High in San Diego, Kadir Nelson earned a partial scholarship to the prestigious Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York. Nelson earned his BFA from Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York in 1996.[16]


In August 1999, Nelson’s paintings depicting Negro league baseball scenes were featured in Sports Illustrated magazine on its opening Leading Off pages.[17] They were some of the first paintings in a series of works that led to Nelson writing and illustrating a book commemorating the history of the Negro Baseball Leagues entitled, We Are the Ship: The Story of Negro Leagues Baseball, published by Jump at the Sun in 2008.[6] Nelson’s critically acclaimed[18][19][20] authorial debut was created over the span of seven years and earned Nelson the Sibert Medal, a Coretta Scott King Author Award and Illustrator Honor. We Are the Ship was released by Brilliance Audio as an audiobook in 2009, narrated by voice actor Dion Graham.

In 2008, Nelson was commissioned by the US House of Representatives to paint the official portrait of Representative Shirley Anita Chisholm. The original painting hangs in the US Capitol Building in Washington DC.[21]

In 2017, Nelson was commissioned to paint a portrait of Henrietta Lacks to promote HBO’s upcoming film,[22] The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, based on the book by Rebecca Skloot. The painting was exhibited at the Reginald F. Lewis Museum in Baltimore, Maryland and other venues. The painting was later co-acquired by the Smithsonian museums National Portrait Gallery and the National Museum of African American History and Culture.[23]

Album cover art[edit]

Nelson created the mural used as cover art for Swizz Beatz‘s 2002 album Swizz Beatz Presents G.H.E.T.T.O. Stories.

In 2005, Nelson was contacted by Michael Jackson to create a commissioned painting of the King of Pop’s life story. The commission was delayed and shelved for several years until the untimely death of the singer in 2009.[24] Upon which Nelson was tapped to resume the portrait to be used later for the posthumously released album titled Michael.[25][26] On Friday, December 10, 2010, a 29,070-square-foot (2,701 m2) poster depicting the Michael album artwork was erected at the Rectory Farm in MiddlesexEngland, which broke a Guinness World Record for the largest poster in the world.[27]

In 2013, Nelson was contacted by recording artist Drake to create two covers for his album Nothing Was the Same.[28] The album artwork became a signature work for the recording artist, and the subject of multiple internet memes.[29] The album remained on the Billboard 200 sales chart for more than 400 weeks after its release in 2013.[30]

Recognition and honors[edit]

Nelson has received multiple Gold and Silver Medals from the New York Society of Illustrators. In February 2014, Nelson was awarded the Hamilton King Award for best illustration of the year. Nelson is also the recipient of three NAACP Image Awards for his illustrated picture books, and the New York Times Best Illustrated Book for We Are The Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball.

Nelson is a two-time Caldecott Honor Award winner. In 2020, Nelson won the Caldecott Medal and Coretta Scott King Award for his illustrations in The Undefeated.[31] He received an NAACP Image Award for the book Just the Two of Us. For his book, We Are the Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball, he received the 2008 CASEY Award for best baseball book,[32] the 2009 Coretta Scott King Author Award, and the 2009 Robert F. Sibert Informational Book Award.[33] His book, Nelson Mandela, was a Coretta Scott King Honor[34] book in 2014.[35]


Nelson has had exhibitions in galleries and museums throughout the United States and the world, including the Muskegon Museum of Art,[36] Chicago Art Institute, and The Studio Museum in Harlem.[37]

Kadir Nelson’s portrait of Henrietta Lacks was recently jointly acquired by The Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery and the National Museum of African American History and Culture. Lacks’ portrait was commissioned by HBO.[38]

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NASA: JPL News – Month in Review Wed, Feb 1, 2023

NASA: JPL News – Month in Review Wed, Feb 1, 2023

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology


NASA’s Perseverance Rover Completes Mars Sample Depot

Ten sample tubes, capturing an amazing variety of Martian geology, have been deposited on Mars’ surface so they could be studied on Earth in the future. Read More


NASA’s Juno Team Assessing Camera After 48th Flyby of Jupiter
Engineering data is being evaluated to determine why the majority of images taken by the solar-powered orbiter’s JunoCam were not acquired. Read More


NASA Measures Underground Water Flowing From Sierra to Central Valley
This source accounts for about 10% of all the water that enters this highly productive farmland, including rivers and rain. Read More


NASA’s Lunar Flashlight Team Assessing Spacecraft’s Propulsion System
The mission is characterizing its new “green” propulsion system and developing a modified plan for the briefcase-size satellite’s journey to the Moon. Read More


What’s Up – February 2023


Venus and Jupiter cozy up, the constellation Auriga makes a worthy target, and two star clusters you can find using Sirius and a pair of binoculars.

Watch Now

What’s Up: February 2023 Skywatching Tips from NASA 3:32 mins

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory  Jan 31, 2023

What are some skywatching highlights in February 2023? See Jupiter and Venus appear nearer each night, as they head for a close conjunction at the start of March. Use bright stars Capella and Elnath to identify the constellation Auriga, and then find your way to two distant star clusters using Sirius as a guidepost. 0:00 Intro 0:12 Moon & planet highlights 0:47 The constellation Auriga 1:52 Easy-to-find star clusters 3:10 February Moon phases Additional information about topics covered in this episode of What’s Up, along with still images from the video, and the video transcript, are available at….


NASA Scientists and Satellites Make Sense of Earth’s Subtle Motions
What can hidden motions underground tell us about earthquakes, eruptions, and even climate change? NASA scientists are using data gathered 400 miles above Earth to find out. Read More

NASA’s TESS Discovers Planetary System’s Second Earth-Size World
The newly discovered planet and its Earth-size sibling are both in the habitable zone, where liquid water could potentially exist on their surfaces. Read More

NASA Wants You to Help Study Planets Around Other Stars
The Exoplanet Watch project invites you to use your smartphone or personal telescope to help track worlds outside our solar system. Read More


NASA Space Missions Pinpoint Sources of CO2 Emissions on Earth
A case study involving Europe’s largest coal-fired power plant shows space-based observations can be used to track carbon dioxide emissions – and reductions – at the source. Read More


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System’s Second Earth-Size World

Jan. 10, 2023

Newly discovered Earth-size planet TOI 700 e orbits within the habitable zone of its star in this illustration. Its Earth-size sibling, TOI 700 d, can be seen in the distance.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Robert Hurt

The newly discovered planet and its Earth-size sibling are both in the habitable zone, where liquid water could potentially exist on their surfaces.

Using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scientists have identified an Earth-size world, called TOI 700 e, orbiting within the habitable zone of its star – the range of distances where liquid water could occur on a planet’s surface. The world is 95% Earth’s size and likely rocky.

Astronomers previously discovered three planets in this system, called TOI 700 b, c, and d. Planet d also orbits in the habitable zone. But scientists needed an additional year of TESS observations to discover TOI 700 e.

“This is one of only a few systems with multiple, small, habitable-zone planets that we know of,” said Emily Gilbert, a postdoctoral fellow at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California who led the work. “That makes the TOI 700 system an exciting prospect for additional follow-up. Planet e is about 10% smaller than planet d, so the system also shows how additional TESS observations help us find smaller and smaller worlds.”

Gilbert presented the result on behalf of her team at the 241st meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle. A paper about the newly discovered planet was accepted by The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

TESS Finds System’s Second Earth-Size Planet

NASA Goddard  Jan 10, 2023

Using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scientists have identified an Earth-size world, called TOI 700 e, orbiting within the habitable zone of its star – the range of distances where liquid water could occur on a planet’s surface. The world is 95% Earth’s size and likely rocky. Music credit: “Dream Box” by Carl David Harms from Universal Production Music Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Scientific Visualization Studio Sophia Roberts(AIMM): Lead Producer, Narrator Jeanette Kazmierczak (University of Maryland College Park) – Lead Science Writer Robert Hurt (JPL/Caltech): Animator Scott Wiessinger (KBRwyle) – Producer Aaron E. Lepsch (ADNET): Technical Support This video can be freely shared and downloaded at While the video in its entirety can be shared without permission, the music and some individual imagery may have been obtained through permission and may not be excised or remixed in other products. Specific details on such imagery may be found here: For more information on NASA’s media guidelines, visit If you liked this video, subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: Follow NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center · Instagram · Twitter · Twitter · Facebook: · Flickr

Watch to learn about TOI 700 e, a newly discovered Earth-size planet with an Earth-size sibling.

Credit: Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Robert Hurt/NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

TOI 700 is a small, cool M dwarf star located around 100 light-years away in the southern constellation Dorado. In 2020, Gilbert and others announced the discovery of the Earth-size, habitable-zone planet d, which is on a 37-day orbit, along with two other worlds.

The innermost planet, TOI 700 b, is about 90% Earth’s size and orbits the star every 10 days. TOI 700 c is over 2.5 times bigger than Earth and completes an orbit every 16 days. The planets are probably tidally locked, which means they spin only once per orbit such that one side always faces the star, just as one side of the Moon is always turned toward Earth.

TESS monitors large swaths of the sky, called sectors, for approximately 27 days at a time. These long stares allow the satellite to track changes in stellar brightness caused by a planet crossing in front of its star from our perspective, an event called a transit. The mission used this strategy to observe the southern sky starting in 2018, before turning to the northern sky. In 2020, it returned to the southern sky for additional observations. The extra year of data allowed the team to refine the original planet sizes, which are about 10% smaller than initial calculations.

“If the star was a little closer or the planet a little bigger, we might have been able to spot TOI 700 e in the first year of TESS data,” said Ben Hord, a doctoral candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park and a graduate researcher at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “But the signal was so faint that we needed the additional year of transit observations to identify it.”

TOI 700 e, which may also be tidally locked, takes 28 days to orbit its star, placing planet e between planets c and d in the so-called optimistic habitable zone.

Scientists define the optimistic habitable zone as the range of distances from a star where liquid surface water could be present at some point in a planet’s history. This area extends to either side of the conservative habitable zone, the range where researchers hypothesize liquid water could exist over most of the planet’s lifetime. TOI 700 d orbits in this region.

Finding other systems with Earth-size worlds in this region helps planetary scientists learn more about the history of our own solar system.

Follow-up study of the TOI 700 system with space- and ground-based observatories is ongoing, Gilbert said, and may yield further insights into this rare system.

“TESS just completed its second year of northern sky observations,” said Allison Youngblood, a research astrophysicist and the TESS deputy project scientist at Goddard. “We’re looking forward to the other exciting discoveries hidden in the mission’s treasure trove of data.”

More About the Mission

TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and operated by Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Additional partners include Northrop Grumman, based in Falls Church, Virginia; NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley; the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian in Cambridge, Massachusetts; MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory; and the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. More than a dozen universities, research institutes, and observatories worldwide are participants in the mission.

News Media Contact

Calla Cofield

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.


Claire Andreoli

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.


Written by Jeanette Kazmierczak

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.


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