Persepolis: Khan Academy, Persepolis Historical Facts and Pictures, Persian Architecture in Photos, and More

Persepolis: Khan Academy, Persepolis Historical Facts and Pictures, Persian Architecture in Photos, and More

Khan Academy

Persepolis: The Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes

by Dr. Jeffrey Becker. Created by Smarthistory.

Growth of the Achaemenid Empire under different kings (underlying map © Google)

By the early fifth century B.C.E. the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire ruled an estimated 44% of the human population of planet Earth. Through regional administrators the Persian kings controlled a vast territory which they constantly sought to expand. Famous for monumental architecture, Persian kings established numerous monumental centers, among those is Persepolis (today, in Iran). The great audience hall of the Persian kings Darius and Xerxes presents a visual microcosm of the Achaemenid empire—making clear, through sculptural decoration, that the Persian king ruled over all of the subjugated ambassadors and vassals (who are shown bringing tribute in an endless eternal procession).

Kylix depicting a Greek hoplite slaying a Persian inside, by the Triptolemos painter, 5th century B.C.E. (National Museums of Scotland)

Persepolis would remain an important site until it was sacked, looted, and burned under Alexander the Great of Macedon in 330 B.C.E.

Plan of Persepolis (underlying image: Oriental Institute Museum via Google Arts and Culture)

Bull Capital from Persepolis, Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars, Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E. (National Museum of Iran) (photo: s1ingshot)

The Ap?dana palace is a large ceremonial building, likely an audience hall with an associated portico. The audience hall itself is hypostyle in its plan, meaning that the roof of the structure is supported by columns. Ap?dana is the Persian term equivalent to the Greek hypostyle (Ancient Greek: ????????? hypóst?los). The footprint of the Ap?dana is c. 1,000 square meters; originally 72 columns, each standing to a height of 24 meters, supported the roof (only 14 columns remain standing today). The column capitals assumed the form of either twin-headed bulls (above), eagles or lions, all animals represented royal authority and kingship.

Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars, Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E. (photo: Alan Cordova, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

19th century reconstruction of the Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars, Iran) by Charles Chipiez (photo: Pentocelo~commonswiki, public domain)

East stairway, Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars. Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E.

The Ap?dana stairs and sculptural program

The monumental stairways that approach the Ap?dana from the north and the east were adorned with registers of relief sculpture that depicted representatives of the twenty-three subject nations of the Persian empire bringing valuable gifts as tribute to the king. The sculptures form a processional scene, leading some scholars to conclude that the reliefs capture the scene of actual, annual tribute processions—perhaps on the occasion of the Persian New Year–that took place at Persepolis. The relief program of the northern stairway was perhaps completed c. 500–490 B.C.E. The two sets of stairway reliefs mirror and complement each other. Each program has a central scene of the enthroned king flanked by his attendants and guards.

even reflecting events that took place within the Ap?dana itself.

An Armenian tribute bearer carrying a metal vessel with Homa (griffin) handles, relief from the eastern stairs of the Ap?dana in Persepolis: (Fars. Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E.   (photo: Aryamahasattva, CC BY-SA 3.0)

The relief program of the Ap?dana serves to reinforce and underscore the power of the Persian king and the breadth of his dominion. The motif of subjugated peoples contributing their wealth to the empire’s central authority serves to visually cement this political dominance. These processional scenes may have exerted influence beyond the Persian sphere, as some scholars have discussed the possibility that Persian relief sculpture from Persepolis may have influenced Athenian sculptors of the fifth century B.C.E. who were tasked with creating the Ionic frieze of the Parthenon in Athens. In any case, the Ap?dana, both as a building and as an ideological tableau, make clear and strong statements about the authority of the Persian king and present a visually unified idea of the immense Achaemenid empire.

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/ancient-mediterranean-ap/ancient-near-east-a/a/persepolis

Persepolis Historical Facts and Pictures

Situated 70 kilometers northeast from Shiraz city in Iran, the Persepolis was once the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. Now among one of the World Heritage Centers, Persepolis literally means “city of Persians”.

Persepolis Map

Persepolis Map

Persepolis Photos

Persepolis

Architecture

Now in a ruined condition, this historical structure exhibits Achaemenid architectural style.  This 40 ft. high and 100 ft. wide complex is occupied with multiple halls, a wide terrace, corridors and a symmetrical stairway leading to the top.  The stairway delineates various literal and metaphorical relief scenes. The terrace displays inscriptions that prove Darius the great was the initiator of building this historical complex.

Persepolis Images

Persepolis Pictures

Ruins

The wide terrace comprises a number of gigantic ruined buildings, composed of grey dark marble. These ruins, now known as Takht e Jamshid, were known as Chehel Minar (the 40 pillars) in the thirteenth century. Three catacombs of rock are located behind the Takht-e-Jamshid.

Perspolis Chehel Minar

Takht e Jamshid

Interiors of Persepolis

The complex contains various halls and chambers inside its structure that include the Hall of Apadana, Tachar, Hadish, Talar-i-Takht, Darwazeh-i-Mellal, the Khazaneh, and Naksh-e-Rustam. The most spectacular hall of the complex, the Apadana Hall, comprising 36 columns is also the largest hall within the structure. The structure was built with square based fluted columns and mud brick walls. Tachar was the private chamber of Darius the great. The later addition Hardish was the private chamber of emperor Xerexes the Great. Tala-i-Takht, comprising 100 columns, served as the hall of throne.  The royal treasury or Khazaneh is preserved in a palace complex that was later developed by Artaxerexes III. The Naksh-e-Rustam is occupied with the tombs of the kings.

Persepolis Darwazeh-i-Mellal

Persepolis Hall of Apadana

Persepolis Naksh-e-Rustam

Persepolis Tachar

The site of Persepolis is an embodiment of past grandeur. Although in a ruined state today this majestic structure still has no equivalence and represents a distinct quality of an ancient civilization.

Quick Info

Founded: 6th century BCE
Periods: Achaemenid Empire
Cultures: Persian
Location and Address: Fars Province, Iran
Type: Settlement
Condition: In ruins
Attributes: UNESCO World Heritage Site
Website: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/114

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.thehistoryhub.com/persepolis-facts-pictures.htm

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://golshanhouse.com/index.php/tours/

University of Chicago

Oblique aerial view of the terrace of Persepolis from the northwest, taken during an aerial survey expedition in Iran.

View of the eastern stairway and columns of the Apadana (Audience Hall) at Persepolis, Iran, 5th century B.C.

Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius, Persepolis, Iran, 5th century B.C

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://news.uchicago.edu/story/exhibit-features-archival-images-persepolis-royal-complex-ancient-persia

Persian Architecture in Photos: Reliefs of Persepolis

By IFP Editorial Staff

January 2, 2020

The reliefs that adorn the ancient palaces of Persepolis are considered to be among the most prominent remaining antiquities in the world.

Extensive study is required to discover the secrets of considerable quantity and quality of the ancient complex’ reliefs.

Up to this date, however, no valid stylistic analysis on them has been published.

What follows are Fars News Agency’s photos of Persepolis reliefs:

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://ifpnews.com/persian-architecture-in-photos-reliefs-of-persepolis/

More Photos from my site in Pinterest

Ing’s comments

“Persepolis would remain an important site until it was sacked, looted, and burned under Alexander the Great of Macedon in 330 B.C.E.” Khan Academy  

I was very impressed with the construction of Persepolis, especially the artwork created.  I can imagine how busy the workers, artists, architectures and others who were involved in building this monument must have been.  Undoubtedly there was a big ceremony for the opening of the beautiful and unique complex.  Music in the air, and entertainment performed, with laughter and happy conversations making Persepolis come alive for the festive occasion.    

As I studied Persepolis History and discovered that it was burned and destroyed by Alexander the Great of Macedon.  It is sad that humans learn to fight and destroy others in order to gain power and wealth from looting.  This is the same as the Burmese (Myanmar) king burning and looting Ayutthaya, the second capital of Siam (Thailand) in 1767. 

There are wars in every part of the world, especially now, between Russia and Ukraine.  Putin still behaves in a similar way to aggressive leaders of past civilizations.  His greediness makes him forget humanity.  Ukraine is being destroyed by Putin’s bombs. Ukrainian civilians and soldiers have been killed by the thousands.  Putin is sending his Russian soldiers to be killed in even greater numbers.  I do not see the sense of Putin’s behave.  He is the only one causing all this destruction and no one on earth can do anything about it.  I can hardly believe that such a human still exists in this 21st century.  Where is the UN organization and the individual countries that call themselves developed and civilized.  Putin has been able to cultivate, gather power, and wealth, for himself for more than 20 years.  No one in Russia can oppose Putin if they think differently to him.  Those who oppose him will be jailed or killed. 

In the United States, Trump who considered himself a good friend of Putin and Kim Jong-un, the dictator of North Korea, has similar hunger for absolute power and wealth.  This also may apply to some Republican law makers in Congress obey and follow Trump.  Even if Trump does not regain the presidency, these Republican lawmakers can still take the presidency, and gain sufficient control of the government to destroy American democracy forever.  

Do we vote for the price of food in super markets or for freedom to keep democracy for the country and for future generations?

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, December 5, 2022

A Brief History of the Ancient Ruins of Ayutthaya in Thailand

https://theculturetrip.com/asia/thailand/articles/a-brief-history-of-the-ancient-ruins-of-ayutthaya-in-thailand/

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Afar: 11 Lost Cities, and Atlas Obscura: 14 Lesser-Known Ancient Sites

Afar: 11 Lost Cities, and Atlas Obscura: 14 Lesser-Known Ancient Sites

11 Lost Cities You Can Actually Visit

Rediscover these abandoned cities by traveling to see their ruins, where you can readily imagine their lost-to-time structures and civilizations.

Afar

Jen Rose Smith

More from Afar

The carvings and palace of Persepolis were rediscovered in the 20th century. Photo by Matyas Rehak/Shutterstock.

When the lost city of Kweneng, South Africa, was discovered, it wasn’t because someone found a fossil there or excavated it with a shovel. Instead, archaeologist Karim Sadr relied on LiDAR technology, which uses lasers to measure distance, to create detailed images of the surrounding Suikerbosrand hills, where Tswana-speaking people first built stone settlements in the 15th century.

It was a slow process that spanned more than two years, sort of a digital version of clearing vines from a hidden temple. Sadr pored over the data looking for patterns beneath the area’s thick brush. Rounded shapes emerged on the black-and-white LiDAR images, helping to reconstruct the lives of families who lived in the stone homesteads, herded cattle, and created ash heaps (typically the remainders of feasts) to flaunt their wealth. While scientists had long believed that the hills held a series of small, lost-to-time communities, Sadr’s finds extended far beyond the aboveground ruins already visible on the site. “There was no real ‘eureka’ moment,” said Sadr, “but it seems that one day I was looking at a collection of villages and the next day I saw a city.”

Cities such as Kweneng are forgotten for a variety of reasons, and their remains have always exerted a powerful draw on inquisitive travelers. While Kweneng’s visitor infrastructure isn’t quite as developed yet, there are plenty of other rediscovered cities to visit. Whether you’re among the dusty palaces at Xanadu or walking along ancient Troy’s battlements, you can channel your inner explorer while visiting these ruins, whose cultural breadth and evocativeness show how enduring lost cities can be.

Persepolis, Iran

Achaemenid Empire kings fortified a natural stone terrace into an imposing platform when they founded Persepolis in the 6th century B.C.E., leveraging the landscape to awe-inspiring effect and military advantage. After centuries in the sand, the delicate carvings, inscriptions, and palaces of Persepolis were excavated in the 20th century. Apadana Palace dominates the oldest part of the site, where travelers will see 13 of the original 72 towering stone columns—the only survivors of a 331 B.C.E. attack by Alexander the Great. If you travel to Iran, we recommend booking through a tour operator like Intrepid, which can help facilitate visas.

The architectural wonder of Petra is one of Jordan’s main attractions. Photo by Yongyut/Shutterstock.

Petra, Jordan

The entrance to Petra is designed for maximum impact, leading visitors from a shadowy gorge to views of soaring, tangerine-colored rock. Inhabited since prehistoric times, Petra was carved by Nabateans (who likely established it as the capital city in the 4th century B.C.E.) and is Jordan’s star attraction. It’s still easy enough to find solitude in the now-uninhabited desert site. Ditch the tour groups by climbing a steep pathway to the High Place of Sacrifice; its pair of monumental obelisks are believed to represent Nabatean gods.

Ciudad Perdida, a forest city in Colombia, takes five days to reach. Photo by Scott Biales/Shutterstock.

Ciudad Perdida, Colombia

Founded in the 9th century, this forest city developed a unique architectural plan of stone pathways, plazas, and houses over centuries, but dense jungle swallowed them shortly after the arrival of Europeans. The five-day trek to Ciudad Perdida (the only way to get there) is an adventure in and of itself. Brave the steep, muddy trail to reach ceremonial terraces and to meet Colombia’s indigenous Kogi and Wiwa people, who are some of the site’s modern-day guardians and live in the region.

Pompeii’s Temple of Apollo. Photo by Bahdanovich Alena/Shutterstock.

Pompeii and Herculaneum, Italy

Billowing ash from Mount Vesuvius dimmed the sky above Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 C.E., then buried the cities for nearly 17 centuries. While history this ancient often requires leaps of imagination, the tragic past remains eerily vivid here. Take a transporting walk through the cities, which are about a 20-minute drive apart, to see brilliant frescoes, visit the site of an ancient brothel, see the petrified bodies, and pay your respects in the Temple of Apollo.

The Palace of the Minoans in Knossos. Photo by Constantinos Iliopoulos/Shutterstock.

Knossos, Greece

The Minoan palace at Knossos was already ancient when Homer wrote his Odyssey, and it has myth and history layered into its Bronze Age foundations. Archaeologist Arthur Evans began excavations of the site on Crete in 1900; he linked his findings of the remains of the palace to the mythological labyrinth where the minotaur—a half-man, half-bull born to a Cretan queen—lurked in darkness. While that story remains unproven, travelers can judge the creature’s legendary origins for themselves when visiting the palace’s east wing, which is adorned with a fresco that depicts three figures and a giant vaulting bull.

The Caana complex is the tallest structure in Belize. Photo by PRLLL/Shutterstock.

Caracol, Belize

Trees curl around Caracol’s stone pyramids, which the Belize jungle overtook after residents abandoned the site in the 11th century. Its architectural achievements are impressive even by modern standards: Caana, the temple complex at the heart of Caracol, remains the tallest structure in the country at 141 feet, and archaeologists believe the Maya metropolis would have dwarfed the area of today’s Belize City. Rediscovered in 1938, Caracol draws far fewer visitors than nearby Tikal—plan an early-morning visit and you might have it to yourself.

The remnant fortifications of Machu Picchu were found in 1911. Photo by Cezary Wojikowski/Shutterstock.

Machu Picchu, Peru

Carved high in the Andes, Machu Picchu was a fitting sanctuary for the Inca, who honored the turbulent gods of the mountains. Emptied by the fall of the Inca Empire in the 16th century, the gorgeous synthesis of peaks and fortifications have drawn adventurers to Peru since the citadel was rediscovered in 1911. Journey to Machu Picchu by footpath, bus, or luxury train, then trek to the neighboring peak of Huayna Picchu for classic views across the main site.

An archaeologist used Homer’s “Iliad” to find Troy in 1870. Photo by Lillac/Shutterstock.

Troy, Turkey

A dramatic setting for the ancient world’s most consequential love triangle, Troy has a 4,000-year history that merges with myth near Turkey’s Aegean coast. Discovering Troy was a driving passion for Heinrich Schliemann, an archaeologist who used Homer’s Iliad like a treasure map and found the site in 1870. After you walk through the ancient fortifications and palaces here, see the troves they once held in the Troy Museum, which opened in October with interactive exhibits highlighting gleaming jewelry, marble statues, and other treasures.

Ubar was untouched in the middle of the Arabian peninsula for nearly 1,000 years. Photo by Damian Ryszawy/Shutterstock.

Ubar, Oman

As camels laden with frankincense crossed the Empty Quarter of the Arabian peninsula, travelers gathered for dates and gossip at trading posts deep in the desert. Lost to the blowing sand for nearly 1,000 years, Ubar is one such site; it was found in 1992 using images taken from space. Located on the southernmost edge of Oman, Ubar is two hours inland from the Arabian Sea city of Salalah. Make the trip to see stone walls and fortifications that are rising from the dusty ground as excavations proceed.

Xanadu is surrounded by grasslands in every direction. Photo by beibaoke/Shutterstock.

Xanadu, China

Kublai Khan ruled his empire from the city of Xanadu, surrounded by a grassland steppe that stretched to the horizon in every direction. Located about five hours northwest of Beijing, this is where Mongolian and Han cultures mingled, and travelers debated philosophy in gracious palaces and gardens. Find the remains of that cosmopolitan capital in Xanadu’s excavated temples, stone walls, and tombs, which were abandoned to the windy plains in the 15th century.

The La Danta pyramid towers above the Guatemalan forests. Photo by Dennis Jarvis.

El Mirador, Guatemala

Only an adventurous few will reach the ancient Maya city of El Mirador, which dates back to 1,000 B.C.E. and is shrouded by the largest tropical forest north of the Amazon. There are only two ways to get here: Charter a helicopter or trek two days from the road’s end at the village of Carmelita. Make the journey to El Mirador to climb La Danta, a towering pyramid whose crest swells above the surrounding canopy.

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14 Lesser-Known Ancient Sites Worth Building a Trip Around

Check out Atlas Obscura readers’ favorite archaeological wonders.

Atlas Obscura

  • Eric Grundhauser

Read when you’ve got time to spare.

More from Atlas Obscura

The Valley of the Temples in Agrigento (including the more contemporary “fallen” Icarus statue by the Polish artist Igor Mitoraj) is just one of the world’s incredible ruin sites. Photo credit: Andrea Schaffer / CC BY 2.0.

The ruins of an ancient city, temple, or necropolis are often the centerpieces of an adventurous trip: Stonehenge, Chichen Itza, the Great Pyramids. And there are other, perhaps lesser-known (depending on who you ask, of course) sites that are every bit as spectacular and worth planning an itinerary around. These places can let you walk in the footsteps of ancient people—sometimes without the crowds—to get a sense of the depth and richness of human history that you can’t get from any book or film. Atlas Obscura asked readers in their community forums to share their favorite ruins and archaeological sites. Any one of these places could be the focus of your next adventure.

Check out some of the submissions below, and if you have a favorite ruin or archaeological site that more people should know about, head over to the forums and keep the conversation going!

Photo credit: Teomancimit/CC BY-SA 3.0.

Göbekli Tepe

?anl?urfa, Turkey

“I’ve seen quite a few ruins around the world. I’m always in awe of rock-cut structures such as Petra in Jordan, the churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia, and Geghard Monastery in Armenia. But in my mind, nothing in the world can compare with the carved stone structures at Göbekli Tepe in Turkey. We’re so used to using the pyramids or Stonehenge as our standard for ancient, but these ruins rewrite history. Göbekli Tepe has been dated to 10,000 B.C., and it would be almost 7,500 more years before the pyramids were built! We are closer now to the construction of the pyramids (4,500 years) than between the pyramids and Göbekli Tepe. The large carved stones would be buried and lost near 7,000 B.C. The age, the scale, the state of civilization at that time (pre-farming) … it’s all absolutely mind-boggling and truly without peer anywhere else on the planet (so far!).” MITFlunkie

Photo credit: McKay Savage/CC BY 2.0.

Moray Ruins

Maras, Peru

“I was awestruck visiting Moray in Peru, a sunken terrace extending down over 30 meters. Much less crowded than Machu Picchu and just as impressive!” vb9923

Photo credit: Jos Dielis/CC BY 2.0.

Valley of the Temples

Agrigento, Italy

“Feels like being in Greece!” elokyrmse

Photo credit: katiebordner/CC BY 2.0.

La Ciudad Perdida

Magdalena, Colombia

“Reached only after a grueling five-day trek through the Colombian jungle, it’s almost 1,000 years older than Machu Piccu and was built by the indigenous people who lived in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. It was abandoned after the Spanish conquest and only rediscovered in the 1970s.” vb9923

Photo credit: MM/Public Domain.

Acrocorinth
Corinth, Greece

“On my first visit to Greece in 1985 I explored the Acrocorinth, or Upper Corinth. Like the Acropolis in Athens, it was the formation overlooking the city. Unlike the Acropolis it was nearly deserted and basically open. I don’t remember if anyone else was even there, but sheep were roaming among the ruins. It made me feel how travelers to Greece in the 18th century must have felt in the then-village of Athens. I’ve been to Greece a number of times since, and driven by on my way to my family’s hometown, but haven’t been back. I’m afraid it would be less wild now.” gjg64

Photo credit: Bradley Weber/CC BY 2.0.

Ostia Antica

Rome, Italy

“After watching a documentary about the ancient port of Rome we decided to visit Ostia before leaving our two-week visit to Italy. Wow! Our first impression was how we had the site almost to ourselves. It was as if the port was sleeping and awaiting our arrival. Far more intimate than sites like Pompei with an amazing forum and arena and enormous mosaics still in the process of restoration. Magical!” Bob_L

Photo credit: Tours in Croatia/CC BY 2.0.

Diocletian’s Palace

Split, Croatia

“Roman Emperor Diocletian’s Palace in Split, Croatia, was a pretty awesome place. And there was a flower show inside!” bowmancheryl

Photo credit: Arian Zwegers/CC BY 2.0.

Uxmal Pyramid

Yucatán, Mexico

“It’s great to read about so many incredible ruins in Mexico, one of my favorite places to visit. During a trip to the Yucatán, we skipped Chichen Itza to explore some of the lesser-known sites. Uxmal was by far the most impressive. Wandering about this magical place, virtually alone, we could feel something indescribable, a spirit from the past perhaps. It’s something I can still feel today.” michwillshea

Photo credit: yeowatzup/CC BY 2.0.

Volubilis Archaeological Site

Meknes, Morocco

“Volubilis, Morocco. The ruins of the Roman city were amazing to explore. An earthquake in the 18th century destroyed many of the buildings, and it’s now a preserved archaeological site. Considered to be one of the most remote cities of the Roman Empire.” clantongraphics

Photo credit: Continentaleurope/CC BY-SA 4.0.

?a?ar Qim

Malta

“More ancient than Stonehenge. Older than the Pyramids of Giza. It’s ?a?ar Qim, among the oldest of structures. Mysterious? Yes, to us, as are the pyramids and Stonehenge. But were they mysterious to the people who built them and hung out there? Contemplating all of this as you walk and explore and imagine is the best part of being there.” penelopeashe

Photo credit: Steven dosRemedios/CC BY-ND 2.0.

Copán Ruins

Copán Department, Honduras

“It’s hard to pick, but I think I’d have to go with Copán in Honduras. It’s not the most vertically impressive Mesoamerican site I’ve been to (that would have to be Tikal) and it doesn’t have the best setting (I’d vote for Palenque), but it has some of the most amazing carvings—detailed, baroque, and full of meaning. There’s even a stairway covered in Mayan hieroglyphs. The site museum is also off the charts. You enter by descending into a reproduction of a gateway into the underworld, and the centerpiece is a reproduction of a beautiful red temple they found buried under later works. Go early in the day and the morning squawks and flights of scarlet macaws in the jungle trees will make it even more magical.” aeddubh

Photo credit: Jim Greenhill, U.S. Army/Public Domain.

Ruins of Jerash

Jerash, Jordan

“It’s the most intact Roman city outside of Italy. And because of its location, it is also partly Greek, Byzantine, and Nabatean. It was a crossroads and ancient artifacts from many cultures ave been found there. We had the place mostly to ourselves when we were there.” — BrettElliott

Photo credit: Kroelleboelle/CC BY-SA 3.0.

Norba Ruins

Lazio, Italy

“When wandering the Italian countryside, we randomly came upon the ruins of the Latium town of Norba, which was destroyed in 82 B.C. by Lucius Cornelius Sulla when he marched on Rome.” wynoochie

Photo credit: David Taylor/CC BY 2.0.

Gran Quivira

New Mexico

“I love ruins! I have visited sites all over—Asia, Middle East, Central/South America, Africa—my favorites are in Israel. But I have a great fondness for the ruins I visited earliest in my life, in New Mexico, especially Gran Quivira.” jedwardboring

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Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia, USA TODAY, and PBS NewsHour

Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia, USA TODAY, and PBS NewsHour

Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia

In the aftermath of the January 6 United States Capitol attack, the proposal to form a bicameral commission failed due to a filibuster from Republicans in the Senate.[13] In late May, when it had become apparent that the filibuster would not be overcome, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi indicated that she would appoint a select committee to investigate the events as a fallback option.[14][15][16][17]

On June 30, 2021, the resolution, H.Res.503 – Establishing the Select Committee to Investigate the January 6th Attack on the United States Capitol,[18] passed on the House floor by a vote of 222 to 190, with all Democratic members and two Republican members, Adam Kinzinger and Liz Cheney, voting in favor.[19] Sixteen Republican members did not vote.[20] The resolution empowered Pelosi to appoint eight members to the committee, and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy could appoint five members “in consultation” with the Speaker.[21] Pelosi indicated that she would name a Republican as one of her eight appointees.[22]

On July 1, Pelosi appointed eight members, seven Democrats and one Republican, Liz Cheney (R-WY); Bennie Thompson (D-MS) would serve as committee chair.[23] On July 19, McCarthy announced the five members he would recommend as the minority on the select committee. He recommended that Jim Banks (R-IN) serve as Ranking Member, and minority members be Jim Jordan (R-OH), Rodney Davis (R-IL), Kelly Armstrong (R-ND), and Troy Nehls (R-TX).[24] Banks, Jordan, and Nehls voted to overturn the Electoral College results in Arizona and Pennsylvania. Banks and Jordan had also signed onto the Supreme Court case Texas v. Pennsylvania to invalidate the ballots of voters in four states.[25]

Logo of the committee

On July 21, Thompson stated in an interview that he would investigate Trump as part of the inquiry into Capitol attack.[26] Hours later, Pelosi said in a statement that she had informed McCarthy that she would reject the recommendations of Jordan and Banks, citing concerns for the investigation’s integrity and relevant actions and statements made by the two members. She approved the recommendations of the other three.[27] McCarthy then pulled all of his picks for the committee and stated that he would not appoint anyone on the committee unless all five of his choices were approved.[28][29]

After McCarthy rescinded his recommendations, Pelosi announced on July 25 that she had appointed Adam Kinzinger (R-IL) to the committee.[30][31] Kinzinger was one of the ten House Republicans who voted for Trump’s second impeachment.[32] Pelosi also hired a Republican, former Rep. Denver Riggleman (R-VA), as an outside committee staffer or advisor.[33] Cheney voiced her support and pushed for both of their involvement.[32]

On February 4, 2022, the Republican National Committee voted to censure Cheney and Kinzinger, which it had never before done to any sitting congressional Republican. The resolution formally drops “all support of them as members of the Republican Party”, arguing that they are, through their work on the January 6 House Committee, hurting Republican prospects in the midterm elections.[7][34] Kinzinger had already announced on October 29, 2021, that he would not run for reelection.[35] Cheney lost the primary for her reelection on August 16, 2022.[36]

 Members 117th United States Congress

The commitee’s chair is Bennie Thompson, and the vice chair is Liz Cheney. Seven Democrats sit on the committee, while only two Republicans sit on the committee.

Chair Bennie Thompson

Vice Chair Liz Cheney

Majority Minority
·         Bennie ThompsonChair, Mississippi[37]

·         Zoe Lofgren, California[38]

·         Adam Schiff, California[39]

·         Pete Aguilar, California[40]

·         Stephanie Murphy, Florida[41]

·         Jamie Raskin, Maryland[42]

·         Elaine Luria, Virginia[43]

·         Liz CheneyVice Chair, Wyoming[44]

·         Adam Kinzinger, Illinois[45]

From left, Rep. Pete Aguilar, D-Calif., Rep. Adam Schiff, D-Calif., Rep. Zoe Lofgren, D-Calif., Chairman Bennie Thompson, D-Miss., Vice Chair Liz Cheney, R-Wyo., Rep. Adam Kinzinger, R-Ill., Rep. Jamie Raskin, D-Md., and Rep. Elaine Luria, D-Va., sit on the dais as the House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol continues, Monday, June 13, 2022 on Capitol Hill in Washington.

POOL PHOTO BY JABIN BOTSFORD USA TODAY

In July 2021, Thompson announced the senior staff for the select committee. They included:[46]

David Buckley as staff director. Served as CIA inspector general, and House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence minority staff director

Kristin Amerling as deputy staff director and chief counsel. Served as deputy general counsel at the Transportation Department and chief counsel of multiple congressional committees.

Hope Goins as counsel to the chairman. Served as top advisor to Thompson on homeland security and national security matters.

Candyce Phoenix as senior counsel and senior advisor. Serves as staff director of the House Oversight Subcommittee on Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.

Tim Mulvey as communications director. Served as communications director for the House Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Throughout August 2021, Thompson announced additional staffers for the select committee.[47][48] Those being:

Denver Riggleman, senior technical adviser for the January 6 Committee. He previously served as a Republican congressman from Virginia and was an ex-military intelligence officer.

Riggleman left the committee in April 2022.[49]

Joe Maher as principal deputy general counsel from the Department of Homeland Security

Timothy J. Heaphy was appointed as the committee’s chief investigative counsel.[50][51]

Investigation

The select committee’s work is ongoing. Its investigative teams each focus on a specific area like funding, individuals’ motivations, organizational coalitions, and how Trump may have pressured other politicians.[52] The investigation commenced with public hearings on July 27, 2021, when four police officers testified. As of the end of 2021, it had interviewed more than 300 witnesses and obtained more than 35,000 documents.[53] By May 2022, those totals had surpassed 1,000 witnesses and 125,000 records.[2] Some interviews were recorded.[54] As of the October 13th hearing, the select committee has conducted more than 1,000 depositions and interviews, reviewed hundreds of hours of videos (security camera footage, documentary footage, etc.) as well as hundreds of thousands of pages of documents collected throughout their investigation. .[55] While the investigation is still in progress, the select committee has been very cautious on what they publicly communicate on as it has only communicated some, but not all, of the information it has found.

The select committee has split their multi-pronged investigation into multiple color-coded teams.[56][57][58] The teams consist of:

Green Team, which is tasked with investigating the money trail and whether or not Trump and other Republican allies defrauded their supporters by spreading misinformation regarding the 2020 presidential election, despite knowing the claims were not true.

Gold Team, which is tasked with investigating whether members of Congress participated or assisted in Trump’s attempted to overturn the election. They are also looking into Trump’s pressure campaign on local and state officials as well as on executive departments, like the Department of JusticeDepartment of Homeland SecurityDepartment of Defense, and others to try to keep himself in power.

Purple Team, which is tasked with investigating Domestic violent extremist groups, such as the QAnon movement and the militia groups, the Oath Keepers and the Proud Boys and their involvement with the attack.

Red Team, which is tasked with investigating the planners of the January 6th rally and other “Stop the Steal” organizers and if they knew the rally would intentionally become violent.

Blue Team, which is tasked with understanding the threats leading up to the attack, how intelligence was shared among law enforcement, and their preparations or lack thereof.[59] Additionally, Blue team has access to thousands of documents from more than a dozen agencies that other security reviews did not have.[60]

Ultimately, the select committee’s findings may be used to inform new legislation. For example, in October 2021, committee members were already collaborating to draft a bill that would clarify the procedures for certifying presidential elections.[61] Election certification is governed by the 1887 Electoral Count Act.

The select committee’s findings may also be used in arguments to hold individuals, notably Donald Trump,[2] legally accountable. Possible criminal charges for Trump are obstruction of the electoral certification proceedings, which could carry a maximum sentence of 20 years;[62] “dereliction of duty” in not stopping the riot,[63] especially given testimony from his inner circle who say he was repeatedly advised to stop it;[64] and seditious conspiracy.[65][66][67] Other Republicans could face charges of wire fraud for telling lies in their fundraising efforts.[68][69]

A conviction, in turn, may be used to bar individuals from running for office in the future, as insurrectionists are constitutionally ineligible to hold public office. It is, however, unclear who enforces that.[70][71] In January 2022, lawyers challenged Representative Madison Cawthorn‘s eligibility to run for reelection,[72][73] and, in March 2022, Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene‘s eligibility was similarly challenged.[74] The first elected official to be removed from office for participating in the Capitol attack was Couy Griffin, a county commissioner from New Mexico. A judge removed him from office on September 6, 2022, citing the 14th Amendment and ruling that Griffin had participated in an “insurrection”.[75]

The select committee’s work may also aid the state of Georgia if it decides to prosecute Trump for solicitation of election fraud. On May 2, 2022, Fulton County‘s District Attorney Fani Willis opened a special grand jury to consider criminal charges.[76]

Simultaneous investigations by the Justice Department

Main article: United States Justice Department investigation into attempts to overturn the 2020 presidential election

The DOJ is probing the months-long efforts to falsely declare that the election was rigged, including pressure on the DOJ, the fake-electors scheme, and the events of January 6 itself. Potential charges against Trump include seditious conspiracy and conspiracy to obstruct a government proceeding.[77]

It was long anticipated that the House select committee would formally recommend that the Justice Department bring criminal charges.[78] At this point, however, it may not. Congressional committees typically are supposed to stick to legislative goals.[79] Congress does sometimes recommend criminal charges, but their “recommendation” or “referral” has no legal force in itself,[80] and the Justice Department is already investigating anyway. On September 25, 2022, Representative Schiff said he favored a criminal referral and hoped the committee would be unanimous on this point.[81]

The select committee is sharing certain information with the Justice Department: for example, the committee’s suspicion of witness tampering in Trump’s placing of a phone call to a witness.[82]

However, the committee has not yet fulfilled the Justice Department’s request that it turn over all its interview transcripts. The Justice Department sent a letter on April 20, 2022, asking for transcripts of past and future interviews. Thompson, the committee chair, told reporters he did not intend to give the Justice Department “full access to our product” especially when “we haven’t completed our own work.” Instead, the select committee negotiated for a partial information exchange.[83] On June 15, the Justice Department repeated its request. They gave an example of a problem they had encountered: The trial of the five Proud Boys indicted for seditious conspiracy had been rescheduled for the end of 2022 because the prosecutors and the defendants’ counsel did not want to start the trial without the relevant interview transcripts.[84] On July 12, 2022, the committee announced it was negotiating with the Justice Department about the procedure for information-sharing and that the committee had “started producing information” related to the Justice Department’s request for transcripts. Representative Thompson told CNN that they would likely “establish a procedure to look at some of the material” later in July after the eighth public hearing.[85] In an interview with Nicole Wallace on Deadline: White House, Representative Lofgren stated that the public will get the report at the same time as the DOJ, though the DOJ may receive an unredacted version of the final report.[86]

Information received from Mark Meadows 

Donald Trump and Mark Meadows in 2020

In September 2021, the select committee subpoenaed former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows. Meadows initially cooperated but ultimately did not provide a complete set of requested documents[87] and sued to block the two congressional subpoenas. (Meadows did comply with a different subpoena, also January 6-related, issued by the Justice Department in 2022.)[88] On December 14, 2021, the full House voted to hold Meadows in contempt of Congress,[89] but the Justice Department decided not to criminally charge him.[90] The Justice Department does, however, believe the House subpoena was justified and that Meadows has only “qualified” immunity given that Trump is no longer in office[91][92] (as it argued in a July 15, 2022 amicus brief[93] filed at the request of U.S. District Court Judge Carl J. Nichols, regarding Meadow’s claim of immunity from the congressional subpoena).[94] On October 31, 2022, the judge ruled that the congressional subpoenas were “protected legislative acts” that were “legitimately tied to Congress’s legislative functions’.”[95]

In late 2021, before Meadows stopped cooperating, he provided thousands of emails and text messages.[96][87] that revealed efforts to overturn the election results:

The day after the election, former Texas governor and former Secretary of Energy Rick Perry sent Meadows a proposed strategy for Republican-controlled state legislatures to choose electors and send them directly to the Supreme Court before their states had determined voting results.[97][98]

Fox News host Sean Hannity exchanged text messages with Meadows suggesting that Hannity was aware in advance of Trump’s plans for January 6. The committee wrote to Hannity asking him to voluntarily answer questions.[99][100]

Representative Jim Jordan asked Meadows if Vice President Mike Pence could identify “all the electoral votes that he believes are unconstitutional”.[101]

The day after the riot, one text stated that “We tried everything we could in our objections to the 6 states. I’m sorry nothing worked.”[102][101]

Meadows also participated in a call with a Freedom Caucus group including Rudy Giuliani, Representative Jim Jordan, and Representative Scott Perry during which they planned to encourage Trump supporters to march to the Capitol on January 6.[103]

Meadows also exchanged post-election text messages with Ginni Thomas, the wife of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, in which they expressed support of Trump’s claims of election fraud. On November 5, in the first of 29 text messages, Ginni Thomas sent to Meadows a link to a YouTube video about the election.[104] She emailed Arizona and Wisconsin lawmakers on November 9 to encourage them to choose different electors, exchanged emails with John Eastman, and attended the rally on January 6.[105][106][107]

Some of the communications revealed Trump allies who privately expressed disagreement with the events of January 6 while defending Trump in public:

Donald Trump Jr. pleaded with Meadows during the January 6 riot to convince his father that “it has gone too far and gotten out of hand.”[108]

Similarly, Fox News hosts Brian Kilmeade, Sean Hannity, and Laura Ingraham asked Meadows to persuade Trump to appear on TV and quell the riot.[109]

In mid-2022, CNN spoke to over a dozen people who had texted Meadows that day, and all of them said they believed that Trump should have tried to stop the attack.[110]

One of the most revealing documents provided by Meadows was Trump.[118][113] Politico reported in January 2022 that Bernard Kerik had testified to the committee that Waldron also originated the idea of a PowerPoint presentation[111][112] describing a strategy for overturning the election results. The presentation had been distributed by Phil Waldron, a retired Army colonel (now owning a bar in Texas)[113] who specialized in psychological operations and who later became a Trump campaign associate. A 36-page version appeared to have been created on January 5,[114][111] and Meadows received a version that day.[115][116][117] He eventually provided a 38-page version to the committee.[114] It recommended that Trump declare a national security emergency to delay the January 6 electoral certification, invalidate all ballots cast by machine, and order the military to seize and recount all paper ballots.[115][116] (Meadows claims he personally did not act on this plan.[115]) Waldron was associated with former Trump national security advisor Michael Flynn and other military-intelligence veterans who played key roles in spreading false information to allege the election had been stolen from a military seizure of voting machines, which was included in a draft executive order dated December 16.[119][120] The next month, Politico published emails between Waldron, Flynn, Kerik, Washington attorney Katherine Friess and Texas entrepreneur Russell Ramsland that included another draft executive order dated December 16. That draft was nearly identical to the draft Politico had previously released and embedded metadata indicated it had been created by One America News anchor Christina Bobb. An attorney, Bobb had also been present at the Willard Hotel command center.[121][122]

Obstacles

Release of documents from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

One of the main challenges to the committee’s investigation was Trump’s use of legal tactics to try to block the release of the White House communication records held at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).[123] He succeeded in delaying the release of the documents for about five months. The committee received the documents on January 20, 2022.[124][125]

Some of the documents had been previously torn up by Trump and taped back together by NARA staff.[126] Trump is said to have routinely shredded and flushed records by his own hand, as well as to have asked staff to place them in burn bags, throughout his presidency.[127][128] Additionally, as the presidential diarist testified to the committee in March 2022, the Oval Office did not send the diarist detailed information about Trump’s daily activities on January 5 and 6, 2021.[129]

Trump’s phone records from the day of the attack, as provided by NARA to the committee, have a gap of seven-and-a-half hours that spans the time when the Capitol was being attacked. It is not that pages were removed from his call logs; rather, no calls during this period were ever logged,[129] suggesting he was using a “burner” cell phone during that time.[130] He is said to have routinely used burner phones during his presidency.[131] The committee had not subpoenaed his personal phone records as of July 2022.[132]

The committee began its request for the NARA records in August 2021.[133][134] Trump asserted executive privilege over the documents.[135] Current president Joe Biden rejected that claim,[136][137] as did a federal judge (who noted that Trump was no longer president),[138] the DC Circuit Court of Appeals,[139] and the U.S. Supreme Court.[140][141] While the request for NARA documents was being litigated, the committee agreed to a Biden administration request that they forgo obtaining certain documents from NARA relating to sensitive national security matters that had no bearing on events of January 6.[142]

Trump warning Republicans not to testify

Another difficulty is that Trump has told Republican leaders not to cooperate with the committee.[143][144][145][146] Messages intended to pressure witnesses may constitute witness tampering, punishable by up to 20 years in prison.[147] While hundreds of people have testified voluntarily,[148] the committee has also had to issue dozens of subpoenas[149] to legally compel certain uncooperative individuals to testify. Some people who were subpoenaed nevertheless refused to testify: Roger Stone and John Eastman pleaded their Fifth Amendment rights, while Steve Bannon and Mark Meadows were found in contempt of Congress. In December 2021, Michael Flynn sued to block a subpoena for his phone records and to delay his testimony, though a federal judge dismissed his suit within a day.[150]

Secret Service, DHS and Pentagon text messages deleted

Soon after the attack on the Capitol, the Secret Service assigned new phones.[151] In February 2021, the office of Department of Homeland Security Inspector General Joseph Cuffari, a Trump appointee, learned that text messages of Secret Service agents had been lost. He considered sending data specialists to attempt to retrieve the messages, but a decision was made against it.[152] In June 2021, DHS asked for text messages from 24 individuals—including the heads for Trump and Pence security, Robert Engel and Tim Giebels—and did not receive them. In October 2021, DHS considered publicizing the Secret Service’s delays.[153][154] On July 26, 2022, Chairman Thompson, in his capacity as Chair of the House Homeland Security Committee, and Carolyn Maloney, Chair of the House Oversight & Reforms Committee, jointly wrote to the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency about Cuffari’s failure to report the lost text messages and asked CIGIE chair Allison Lerner to replace Cuffari with a new Inspector General who could investigate the matter.[155] Additionally, renewed calls to have President Biden dismiss Cuffari have started gaining traction, with Senator Dick Durbin, who chairs the Senate Judiciary Committee requesting Attorney General Garland to investigate the missing text messages. However, as of July 2022, it is unknown if President Biden will fire Cuffari as he made a campaign promise to never fire an inspector general during his tenure as POTUS.

On August 1, 2022, House Homeland Security Chairman Bennie Thompson reiterated calls for Cuffari to step down due to a “lack of transparency” that could be “jeopardizing the integrity” of crucial investigations regarding the missing Secret Service text messages.[156] That same day, an official inside the DHS inspector general’s office told Politico that Cuffari and his staff are “uniquely unqualified to lead an Inspector General’s office, and … The crucial oversight mission of the DHS OIG has been compromised.”[157] Congress also obtained a July 2021 e-mail, from deputy inspector general Thomas Kait, who told senior DHS officials there was no longer a need for any Secret Service phone records or text messages. Efforts to collect communications related to Jan. 6 were therefore shutdown by Kait just six weeks after the internal DHS investigation began. The Guardian wrote that “Taken together, the new revelations appear to show that the chief watchdog for the Secret Service and the DHS took deliberate steps to stop the retrieval of texts it knew were missing, and then sought to hide the fact that it had decided not to pursue that evidence.”[158]

On August 2, 2022, CNN reported that relevant text messages from January 6, 2021, were also deleted from the phones of Trump-appointed officials at the Pentagon, despite the fact that FOIA requests were filed days after the attack on the Capitol.[159][160] The Secret Service was later reported to have been aware of online threats against lawmakers before the attack on the Capitol, according to documents obtained by the House select committee.[161]

Trump funding legal defense of Republicans who might testify against him

Trump’s Save America PAC has paid hundreds of thousands of dollars to lawyers representing over a dozen witnesses called by the committee. It is not illegal to pay someone else’s legal fees, but it raises the question of why Trump would do so and what kind of influence he might have over those people’s testimony.[162] On September 1, 2022, Trump said on a right-wing radio show that he had recently met supporters in his office. He said he was “financially supporting” them, adding: “It’s a disgrace what they’ve done to them.”[163]

The American Conservative Union is providing legal defense funds for some people who resist the committee. The organization says it only assists people who do not cooperate with the committee and who oppose its mission, according to chairman Matt Schlapp.[164]

Republican National Committee (RNC) claiming committee is illegitimate

Though the Republican National Committee has long insisted that the committee is invalid and should not be allowed to investigate, a federal judge found on May 1, 2022, that the committee’s power is legitimate.[165]

Witness not appearing for public hearing

Bill Stepien, Donald Trump’s final campaign manager, cancelled his plans to testify for the second hearing, under subpoena, an hour before it started, due to his wife’s going into labor, resulting in a delay of 45 minutes while the Select Committee scrambled to rearrange its presentation, with Bill Stepien’s lawyer to read a statement for him.[166][167] Instead, they used clips of his deposition.[168]

Public findings

United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack public hearings

2021 public hearings

The House select committee began its investigation with a preliminary public hearing on July 27, 2021, called “The Law Enforcement Experience on January 6th”.[169][170] Capitol and District of Columbia police testified, describing their personal experiences on the day of the attack, and graphic video footage was shown.[171]

2022 public hearings

Part of this section is transcluded from Public hearings of the United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack(edit | history)

In 2022, the Committee held live televised public hearings.[172] The New York Times presented a detailed summary of the eight hearings held in June and July.[173]

During the first hearing on June 9, 2022, the chair and vice-chair (Democrat Bennie Thompson and Republican Liz Cheney, respectively) said that President Donald Trump tried to stay in power even though he lost the 2020 presidential election. Thompson called it a “coup”.[174] Cheney said the hearings would present evidence showing that Trump used a seven-part plan, culminating in the January 6 attack on the Capitol. The committee has been calling live witnesses, most of whom are Republicans, and some are Trump loyalists.[175][176] They testified under oath. The committee is also making extensive use of video from a number of sources, including sworn deposition testimony obtained earlier. During this hearing, the committee shared footage of the attack, discussed involvement of the Proud Boys, and included testimony from a documentary filmmaker and a member of the Capitol Police.

Officer Caroline Edwards and documentary filmmaker Nick Quested before testifying on June 9, 2022, during the opening of the committee hearing to investigate the attack on the Capitol.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

Washington Metropolitan Police Department officer Daniel Hodges, left, and former Washington Metropolitan Police Department officer Michael Fanone arrives as the House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol holds its first public hearing to reveal the findings of a year-long investigation, at the Capitol in Washington, Thursday, June 9, 2022.

SCOTT APPLEWHITE, AP

Sandra Garza, the long-time partner of Capitol Hill Police Officer Brian Sicknick who died shortly after the January 6 riot and U.S. Capitol Police Sgt. Harry Dunn (right) reacts as a video of rioters entering the Capitol plays during the opening of the select committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY 

The second hearing on June 13, 2022, focused on evidence showing that Trump knew he lost and that most of his inner circle knew claims of fraud did not have merit. William Barr testified that Trump had “become detached from reality” because he continued to promote conspiracy theories and pushed the stolen election myth without “interest in what the actual facts were.” [177][178]

Former Attorney General Bill Barr says he made it clear to President Donald Trump that claims of election fraud weren’t true.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The third hearing on June 16, 2022, examined how Trump and others pressured Vice President Mike Pence to selectively discount electoral votes and overturn the election by unconstitutional means, using John Eastman‘s fringe legal theories as justification.[179]

Former Vice President Mike Pence in a video during the opening public hearing of the Jan. 6 committee on June 9, 2022.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

Greg Jacob (left), former counsel to Vice President Mike Pence testifies along with J. Michael Luttig, retired judge for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit and informal advisor to the Vice President during the House select committee to investigate the Jan.6th attack on the Capitol on June 16, 2022.

JARRAD HENDERSON, USA TODAY

A video plays showing an image from Jan. 6, 2021 of a gallows in front of the U.S. Capitol on a large screen during the opening moments of the House select committee to investigate the Jan.6th attack on the Capitol on June 16, 2022.

JARRAD HENDERSON, USA TODAY

The fourth hearing on June 21, 2022, included appearances by election officials from Arizona and Georgia who testified they were pressured to “find votes” for Trump and change results in their jurisdictions. The committee revealed attempts to organize fake slates of alternate electors and established that “Trump had a direct and personal role in this effort.”[180][181]

From left, Rusty Bowers, Brad Raffensperger and Gabriel Sterling testify on June 21, 2022, before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The fifth hearing on June 23, 2022, focused on Trump’s pressure campaign on the Justice Department to rubber stamp his narrative of a stolen election, the insistence on numerous debunked election fraud conspiracy theories, requests to seize voting machines, and Trump’s effort to install Jeffrey Clark as acting attorney general.[182]

From left, Steven Engel, Jeffrey Rosen and Richard Donoghue are sworn in June 23, 2022, before testifying before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The exclusive witness of the sixth hearing on June 28, 2022, was Cassidy Hutchinson, top aide to former White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows.[183] Conversations within Trump’s inner circle revealed White House officials knew, days in advance of January 6, that violence was possible. Her testimony showed Trump knew supporters at the Ellipse rally were armed with AR-15s and other weapons and that he wanted less stringent security checks at his speech. Trump planned to join the crowd at the Capitol and became irate when the Secret Service refused his request. Closing the hearing, Rep. Liz Cheney presented evidence that witness tampering may have occurred.[184]

Cassidy Hutchinson, aide to former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows, testifies before the House Select Committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol, Tuesday, June 28, 2022, at the Capitol in Washington. Part of her testimony included an account of Donald Trump allegedly ordering his Secret Service to take him to the Capitol on Jan. 6, trying to grab the steering wheel of his transport vehicle and being stopped by Secret Service agent Robert Engel.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

The seventh hearing on July 12, 2022, showed how Roger Stone and Michael Flynn connected Trump to domestic militias like the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys that helped coordinate the attack.[185][186][187]

A photograph of former National Security Advisor to former President Donald Trump Michael Flynn with Oath Keepers is projected on a large screen during a public hearing of the House committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Stephen Ayres (right) testifies during a public hearing before the House committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol. Ayres was criminally charged for his actions during the Capitol insurrection. Right is Jason Van Tatenhove is a former spokesperson for the Oath Keepers.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

 The eighth hearing on July 21, 2022, presented evidence and details of Trump’s refusal to call off the attack on the Capitol, despite several hours of repeated pleas from numerous officials and insiders. According to The New York Times, this final July hearing focused on evidence and witness testimony that highlighted two significant positions that the select committee wanted to communicate to the American people. First, Rep. Liz Cheney made the case that Trump should never hold office again, asking: “Can a president who is willing to make the choices Donald Trump made during the violence of Jan. 6 ever be trusted with any position of authority in our great nation again?” Secondly, there were urgent calls for legally-binding federal investigations into the actions of the former president and his associates: “If there is no accountability for Jan. 6, for every part of this scheme, I fear that we will not overcome the ongoing threat to our democracy,” Rep. Bennie Thompson said. “There must be stiff consequences for those responsible.”[173]

Matthew Pottinger and Sarah Matthews are sworn in July 21, 2022, before testifying before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

Matthew Pottinger Former Deputy National Security Adviser for Trump Administration

Sarah Matthews Former Deputy Press Secretary for Trump Administration

Pat Cipollone Former White House Counsel

Donald J. Trump’s tweet

Cassidy Hutchinson, aide to former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows, testifies before the House Select Committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol 

The ninth hearing on October 13, 2022,[188][189] may be the final hearing, though vice-chair Cheney wants more hearings.[188][189][190][191] The hearing presented video of Roger Stone and evidence that some Trump associates planned to claim victory in the 2020 election regardless of the official results.[192][193] The committee voted unanimously to subpoena Trump for documents and testimony[190][191]

House Speaker Rep. Nancy Pelosi, (R), Ca., appears in video footage during the Oct. 13, 2022 hearing of the committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol in Washington DC.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Rep. Liz Cheney, R-Wyo, makes a motion to subpoena former President Trump during the Oct. 13, 2022 hearing of the committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol in Washington DC.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Final report

The committee may release an interim report.[194] The committee is expected to hire a writer to help produce its final report, which will be presented in a multimedia format.[195][194] Though it had been expected to release a report before the midterm elections,[196] as of September the committee was looking at “the end of the year” (before the 117th Congress ends).[197][49]

For more information, please visit the following links:

https://www.google.com/search?q=jan.+6+committee+hearings+wikipedia&oq=Jan.+6+Committee+hearings&aqs=chrome.4.0i512l5j69i61l3.6083j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

https://www.usatoday.com/picture-gallery/news/politics/2022/06/10/jan-6-committee-hearings-capitol-riots-photos/7570769001/

 

January 6 United States Capitol attack 

Wikipedia

On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump’s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 9 – 4:25:53

PBS NewsHour 883,270 views Streamed live on Oct 13, 2022

WARNING: This video may include graphic or disturbing depictions of violence. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the Capitol has announced another public hearing. It will be the first public committee event since July, when the last hearing concluded for a summer break. Since then, the committee has continued to compile witness testimony and evidence, according to committee chair Rep. Bennie Thompson, D-Miss. The hearing was originally scheduled for Sept. 28, but was postponed as Hurricane Ian approached landfall in Florida. The committee is now slated to gavel in Oct. 13 at 1:00pm EDT. Join the PBS NewsHour’s digital coverage beginning at 11:30 a.m. EDT with a look back at key moments from the eight public hearings held over the summer and a look ahead to the next. The last committee hearing in July focused on President Donald Trump’s actions on Jan. 6, 2021, as hundreds of his supporters broke into the U.S. Capitol. The hearing guided viewers minute-by-minute through the deadly afternoon, from the end of Trump’s speech encouraging supporters to march to the Capitol to a video he released late that afternoon telling the rioters they were “very special” but they had to go home. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48HH4LVn07g&t=2s

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 8 – 2:56:39

PBS NewsHour 1,280,464 views Streamed live on Jul 21, 2022

WARNING: This video may include strong and disturbing language and images. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its eighth public hearing July 21. The hearing is expected to focus on what then-President Donald Trump was doing during the three plus hours that his supporters were attacking the U.S. Capitol in an effort to stop the certification Joe Biden’s presidential victory on Jan. 6, 2021. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 8 p.m. ET. To preview the hearing, beginning at 7 p.m. ET, the PBS NewsHour will take a look back at the last seven public hearings and Digital Anchor Nicole Ellis will host a conversation looking ahead at what can be expected to come out of the July 21 primetime hearing. The hearing comes after the committee on July 12 focused on the role of far-right extremist groups like the Proud Boys and Oath Keepers ahead of the attack and the role that Trump and his allies played in stoking baseless theories of election fraud ahead of the insurrection. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 7 – 6:46:08

PBS NewsHour  1,601,465 views Streamed live on Jul 12, 2022

WARNING: This video includes strong and disturbing language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its seventh public hearing July 12. It is not yet clear what the focus of the hearing will be about. To preview the hearing, the PBS NewsHour’s Nicole Ellis will speak with NewsHour’s Laura Barrón-López at 12:45 p.m. ET. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET. The hearing comes after the committee on June 28 focused their hearing on the testimony of Cassidy Hutchinson, a senior aide to former Trump chief of staff Mark Meadows, who, in the course of her work for the White House, had firsthand insight into communications between Meadows and former President Donald Trump, including those leading up to the insurrection and in the days afterward. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 6 – 6:37:25

PBS NewsHour 1,450,352 views Streamed live on Jun 28, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House Jan. 6 committee announced an previously unplanned hearing for June 28, promising new evidence and witness testimony. Committee members did not confirm a focus for Tuesday’s hearing, scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET. But it will likely lean heavily on the testimony of Cassidy Hutchinson, a senior aide to former Trump chief of staff Mark Meadows, the NewsHour and other media outlets confirmed. In the course of her work for the White House, Hutchinson had firsthand insight into communications between Meadows and former President Donald Trump, including those leading up to the insurrection and in the days afterward. In the year since its creation, the committee has conducted more than 1,000 interviews, seeking critical information and documents from people witness to, or involved in, the violence that day. Additional hearings are expected in July. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 5 – 4:32:00

Fundraiser

PBS NewsHour  1,082,683 views Streamed live on Jun 23, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its fifth public hearing June 23, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure the Justice Department to help undo the 2020 presidential election. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 3 p.m. ET on Thursday, June 23. The hearing comes after the committee on Tuesday, June 21 laid out evidence on how Trump and his allies pressured election officials in key states, including Georgia and Arizona, to overturn the 2020 presidential election results. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 4 – 4:31:20

PBS NewsHour  1,374,711 views Streamed live on Jun 21, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its fourth public hearing June 21, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure state legislators and local election officials to change the results of the 2020 presidential election. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET on Tuesday, June 21. The hearing comes after the committee on Thursday, June 16 laid out evidence on how Trump pressured his then- vice president, Mike Pence, to overturn the election, even as the Capitol insurrection was underway. The June 16 hearing played out testimony from several aides and close Trump allies that all testified to the pressure that the president was putting on Pence. The vice president is charged with overseeing the Electoral College vote count — already certified by individual states — in a joint session of Congress following a presidential election– that is what was taking place on Jan. 6, 2021. Pence said on that day that he did not have the constitutional authority to do what the president had asked. Members of the committee said last week they thought they had evidence to indict Trump for seeking to overturn the results of the 2020 election, which they will lay out as part of several public hearings this month. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 3 – 4:21:35

PBS NewsHour  1,424,934 views Streamed live on Jun 16, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its third public hearing June 16, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure former Vice President Mike Pence to reject Congress’ official count of Electoral College votes on the day of the attack. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET on Thursday, June 16. The vice president is charged with overseeing the Electoral College vote count — already certified by individual states — in a joint session of Congress following a presidential election. Trump called on Pence repeatedly to reject the results confirming President Joe Biden’s win, telling supporters in a rally hours before the attack that “it will be a sad day for the country” if his vice president did not come through. Pence said in a statement after the speech he did not have the constitutional authority to do what the president asked. Some rioters began chanting “hang Mike Pence.” Committee member Rep. Liz Cheney, R-Wyo., said at the start of the hearings that upon hearing this, Trump said “maybe our supporters have the right idea.” The committee postponed a hearing scheduled for June 15 that was meant to focus on Trump’s efforts to replace Attorney General Bill Barr, who did not support his claims of voter fraud after the election. Members of the committee said this week they thought they had evidence to indict Trump for seeking to overturn the results of the 2020 election, which they will lay out as part of several public hearings this month. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jblC2Ooog2U&t=917s

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 2 – 2:46:12

PBS NewsHour  3,537,833 views Streamed live on Jun 13, 2022

Warning: This hearing includes graphic language. The House panel investigating the Jan. 6 insurrection presents more of its findings to the public on Monday, June 13. The hearing, the second of several planned by the Jan. 6 committee in the coming weeks, will focus on former President Donald Trump’s level of involvement leading up to and on the day of the attack on the Capitol. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 1 – 3:06:24

PBS NewsHour  3,476,633 views Streamed live on Jun 9, 2022

Warning: This hearing includes footage of violence. The House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol will hold its first hearing June 9, offering a glimpse into what it has learned about what led to the insurrection that day and the role of the White House, law enforcement and other officials and agencies before, during and after the attack. The PBS NewsHour’s special coverage of the hearing will begin at 8 p.m. ET. Before the hearing begins, the PBS NewsHour’s Nicole Ellis will take a look at what we’ve learned about the attack since that day, including conversations with Julian Zelizer, a Princeton University professor of history, on the fallout for democracy, and the NewsHour’s Lisa Desjardins, who reported from inside the Capitol as it was attacked and will cover the committee’s hearing. Thursday’s hearing is the first of several the committee, led by Reps. Bennie Thomas, D-Miss., and Liz Cheney R-Wyo., plans to hold this month to lay out key findings. The nine-member panel has interviewed dozens of witnesses, including those within the Secret Service and the White House along with members of law enforcement, Congress and former President Donald Trump’s family. They’ve subpoenaed more than 100 people to testify in the months leading up to the hearings. A select few have also been indicted by the Department of Justice for being in contempt of Congress after refusing to participate. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Ing’s comment on Democracy of USA

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRE, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 At present, democracy in the United States of America, is balancing on a tight rope.  At any moment, it can falter and tumble if the extreme right-wing of the Republican party gains control of Congress.   If Republican leader, Keven McCarthy, controls the House of Representatives, and Republican leader Mitch McConnell, takes control of the Senate, the government will return to the extreme right-wing policies of the Trump administration even before the presidential election of 2024.

Former president Trump, worked hand in glove with Mitch McConnell, to stack the Supreme Court with three new replacements, of ultra conservative right-wing judges.  When added to the three conservative Judges already on the court, it has created a dangerous super majority that has already begun to overturn settled law, in favor of right-wing extremist ideology.  It is now impossible for the three remaining liberal judges to prevent these actions from taking place.   

The Conservative court has already used its power support major challenges to settled law brought before the court that involve issues such as civil rights, and abortion rights.  Roe V Wade, has been the law of the land for over fifty years, but has already been gutted.  The conservative Supreme Court majority has removed the rights of women to decide for themselves whether an abortion is an appropriate choice for their circumstance.  Even when a ten years old girl is raped and becomes pregnant, in many states she is obligated to have the child.  In some states, even when the pregnancy will cause harm to a woman, the law forces her to carry her pregnancy to the end of the term.  Where are the rights of women?  Are we retuning to a dark age when women had no rights at all? 

Mr. Trump with assistance from Mitch McConnell also appointed two hundred Conservative Federal Court Judge positions to the bench.  Because of this, states now have the ability to make laws that severely restrict abortion, making is essentially illegal.  In contrast, when Barack Obama was president, he attempted to fill vacancies to the Supreme Court and Federal Courts but could not.  President Obama’s nominees were blocked in every instance by the Republican controlled senate led by Mitch McConnell. 

Just as significate in 2010, during the Obama administration, the Supreme Court, in the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case, upheld the right of corporations to make unlimited political expenditures under the first Amendment.  This allowed corporations to donate as much money as they wish to help Republican politicians, win elections.  In return, these politicians then helped pass laws that favor these corporations.

The right wing of the Republican party, which has now become the majority of that party, continues to attempt passing laws and use any other legal maneuver to strip away the rights of the majority of American citizens.  The Midterm election of 2022 is perhaps the last chance for Democrats along with the few remaining centrist Republicans in Congress, to prevent the rightwing extremists taking full control of the government. 

If the Republicans take control of both houses of Congress in the 2022 election, they will be able to control the vote count in the 2024 election.  This is because they will have elected officials in many states who will be able to decertify the vote count in the presidential election of 2024.

This could mean the end of democracy in America because the vote count will be in the hands of those in power to continue in power.  If this happens, through voting manipulation, Donald Trump is very likely to become President in 2024 and we will live in an Autocrat System with a leader that controls our lives in the same way Putin does in Russia, and Kim Jong-un does in North Korea.  The democratic way of life for US citizens could end, and without democracy in the world’s most powerful nation, it will be under even greater threat throughout the world. 

In our retirement years my husband and I watch with great sadness at what may unfold.  We may suffer mentally and physically for the short time we have left, but future generations may suffer their whole lives under a repressive dictatorship.  Our daughter, our little grandsons, and many other families will have to live without the freedom that earlier generations have known.  I still have hope that sanity will prevail, and the United States of America will not lose our gift of freedom that has helped enlighten so many other nations of this world.

I am not a Democrat, Republican, or member of any political party, but I am for a democratic way of life.  Democracy brings freedom of thought, action, and human rights for every citizen, allowing an opportunity to live peacefully in a healthy world.

Together we can face what will be the inevitable problem of global warming, which affect the lives of all of us.  Many lives will be lost before all the complexities of the issue can be attended, but we must begin now or there will be nothing left on earth to care for.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, November 1, 2022

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Save Democracy in the United State & The World, Prevent Future Insurrections

Save Democracy in the United State & The World, Prevent Future Insurrections

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRES, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 Jan 6 Capitol Riot

11 ALIVE: These are the most striking images from the Jan. 6 Capitol riot

Rioters climbing walls, lawmakers taking cover and the QAnon Shaman. Here are some of the most striking images from the Jan. 6 insurrection.

INSURRECTION

An act or instance of rising in revolt, rebellion, or resistance against civil authority or an established government.

Author: Thais Ackerman

Published: 7:35 PM EST January 5, 2022                                               Updated: 8:35 PM EST January 5, 2022

WASHINGTON D.C., DC — It’s a day that will live on in infamy in American history. 

January, 6 2021 — when rioters stormed the U.S. Capitol, terrorizing lawmakers and vandalizing a meeting place of the nation’s legislature, and symbol of the American people.

It’s now been a year since the breach happened. Here are some of the most striking photos from that day. 

Tensions were high that Wednesday, as a joint session of Congress prepared to gather inside the Capitol to affirm now-President Joe Biden’s victory in the 2020 election. But before they gathered, supporters of former President Donald Trump rallied in Washington.  

“We will never give up. We will never concede,” Trump told the roaring crowd.

Credit: AP

FILE – In this Jan. 6, 2021, file photo, the face of President Donald Trump appears on large screens as supporters participate in a rally in Washington. The House committee investigating the violent Jan. 6 Capitol insurrection, with its latest round of subpoenas in September 2021, may uncover the degree to which former President Donald Trump, his campaign and White House were involved in planning the rally that preceded the riot, which had been billed as a grassroots demonstration. (AP Photo/John Minchillo, File)

Less than an hour after the rally ended, the chaos began. A wave of protestors started swarming the Capitol.  Thousands of people gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. Insurrectionists violently worked to break their way through a police barrier, and successfully did so.

 Credit: AP

FILE – Violent insurrections loyal to President Donald Trump try to break through a police barrier at the Capitol in Washington on Jan. 6, 2021. A revelation about text messages sent by three Fox News personalities to former President Donald Trump’s chief of staff on the day of the Capitol riots raise questions about whether they have lost sight of the ‘news’ aspect of their jobs. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez, File)

Credit: AP

Trump supporters try to break through a police barrier, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, at the Capitol in Washington. As Congress prepared to affirm President-elect Joe Biden’s victory, thousands of people gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)

Things quickly took a turn for the worse. After bulldozing their way through law enforcement, rioters even began climbing the west wall of the Capitol building, gearing up to force their way inside.

Credit: AP

FILE – In this Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021 file photo, supporters of President Donald Trump climb the west wall of the the U.S. Capitol in Washington. The House committee investigating the violent Jan. 6 Capitol insurrection, with its latest round of subpoenas in September 2021, may uncover the degree to which former President Donald Trump, his campaign and White House were involved in planning the rally that preceded the riot, which had been billed as a grassroots demonstration. (AP Photo/Jose Luis Magana, File)

The building now donning the shame of vandalism, with broken windows and doors throughout.

Credit: AP

Windows are cracked and broken by rioters at the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)

A mob sweeps though the hallways, with some individuals clad in armor and equipped with weapons. The images portraying an America at war with itself.

At this point, insurrectionists have taken over the Capitol Building. Jacob Anthony Chansley, notoriously known as the QAnon Shaman, is pictured here alongside other rioters. He later became among one of the 700 people arrested in connection to the Capitol breach.

Credit: AP

Jacob Anthony Chansley, center, with other insurrectionists who supported then-President Donald Trump, are confronted by U.S. Capitol Police in the hallway outside of the Senate chamber in the Capitol, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. Chansley, was among the first group of insurrectionists who entered the hallway outside the Senate chamber. (AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta)

People were forced to take shelter in the House gallery as rioters tried to break into the House Chamber. 

Credit: AP

People shelter in the House gallery as rioters try to break into the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

Credit: AP

Security forces draw their guns as rioters try to break into the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

The rioters continued for hours until police were finally able to secure the inside of the building and clear the scene. 

Credit: AP

U.S. Capitol Police hold rioters at gun-point near the House Chamber inside the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

Credit: AP

Members of the U.S. Secret Service Counter Assault Team walk through the Rotunda as they and other federal police forces responded as violent protesters loyal to President Donald Trump stormed the U.S. Capitol today, at the Capitol in Washington, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

Lawmakers were safely escorted out of the building that evening. Even into the next day, and beyond, security forces stood guard outside the building so they could continue their duties in certifying the election.

Credit: AP

Police stand guard after a day of riots at the U.S. Capitol in Washington on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

 For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.11alive.com/article/news/special-reports/capitol-insurrection/most-striking-images-jan-6-insurrection/85-6789a961-48d1-4bed-90aa-a71e2296e125

Department of Justice releases graphic video from Jan. 6 Capitol riot

11Alive Dec 25, 2021

The Department of Justice released a three-hour video from the Jan. 6 attack.

Related Articles

January 6 United States Capitol attack 

Wikipedia: On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump’s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

WATCH: Rep. Raskin says Trump saw ‘the bloody attack unfold,’ but did not act fast enough on Jan. 6

PBS NewsHour 885,458 views Oct 13, 2022

Rep. Jamie Raskin, D-Md., said former President Donald Trump’s behavior during the Jan. 6 attack was not enough to stop the violence, despite immediate and repeated appeals from those around him. Raskin illustrated Trump’s reported lack of urgency on Oct. 13 as the House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack presented its findings to the public. Raskin said the committee has evidence that Trump refused calls from close advisors and family to make a public announcement as the violence began. Members of Fox News and Republican Party leaders pleaded with Trump to tell the crowd to go home, Raskin said. New footage shows efforts by congressional leaders attempting to call for law enforcement to step in at the same time crowds broke windows and breached the Capitol on live television. “The president watched the bloody attack unfold on Fox News from his dining room,” Raskin said. “Members of Congress and other government officials stepped into the gigantic leadership void created by the president’s chilling and steady passivity that day.” In the week following Jan. 6, Rep. Kevin McCarthy, R-Calif., publicly stated that Trump “bears responsibility” for the attack and “should have immediately denounced the mob when he saw what was unfolding.” Raskin concluded his remarks by stating that “nothing in law or fact” could justify Trump’s failure to act and that the 14th Amendment “disqualifies from the federal and state office anyone who has sworn an oath to defend the Constitution but betrays it by engaging in insurrection or rebellion.” The committee returned to its public-facing work after nearly three months, having rescheduled the current hearing two weeks ago in light of Hurricane Ian. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

#WashingtonPost #CapitolRiot

Inside the U.S. Capitol at the height of the siege | Visual Forensics

Washington Post  4,304,015 views Jan 16, 2021

At 2:12 p.m. on Jan. 6, supporters of President Trump began climbing through a window they had smashed on the northwest side of the U.S. Capitol. “Go! Go! Go!” someone shouted as the rioters, some in military gear, streamed in. It was the start of the most serious attack on the Capitol since the War of 1812. The mob coursed through the building, enraged that Congress was preparing to make Trump’s electoral defeat official. “Drag them out! … Hang them out!” rioters yelled at one point, as they gathered near the House chamber. Officials in the House and Senate secured the doors of their respective chambers, but lawmakers were soon forced to retreat to undisclosed locations. Five people died on the grounds that day, including a Capitol police officer. In all, more than 50 officers were injured. To reconstruct the pandemonium inside the Capitol, The Washington Post examined text messages, photos and hundreds of videos, some of which were exclusively obtained. By synchronizing the footage and locating some of the camera angles within a digital 3-D model of the building, The Post was able to map the rioters’ movements and assess how close they came to lawmakers — in some cases feet apart or separated only by a handful of vastly outnumbered police officers. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: https://wapo.st/2QOdcqK Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonpost Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/washingtonp... Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpost #WashingtonPost #VisualForensics #CapitolRiot

How Police Tried — and Failed — To Stop Capitol Attackers | Visual Investigations 8:54 mins

The New York Times  2,352,097 views Mar 21, 2021

Get an email as soon as our next Visual Investigation is published: https://nyti.ms/3xhj7dE The Times obtained District of Columbia police radio communications and synchronized them with footage from the scene to show in real time how officers tried and failed to stop the attack on the U.S. Capitol. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/U8Ys7n More from The New York Times Video: http://nytimes.com/video ———- Whether it’s reporting on conflicts abroad and political divisions at home, or covering the latest style trends and scientific developments, New York Times video journalists provide a revealing and unforgettable view of the world. It’s all the news that’s fit to watch.

How the Proud Boys Breached the Capitol | Visual Investigations

The New York Times  125,025 views Jun 18, 2022

A Times investigation of court documents, text messages and hundreds of videos shows how the Proud Boys coordinated to instigate multiple breaches of the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/U8Ys7n More from The New York Times Video: http://nytimes.com/video ———- Whether it’s reporting on conflicts abroad and political divisions at home, or covering the latest style trends and scientific developments, New York Times video journalists provide a revealing and unforgettable view of the world. It’s all the news that’s fit to watch.

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January 6 United State Capital Attack

 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from 2021 storming of the United States Capitol)

 Crowd shortly after the breach (top); tear gas deployed against rioters (bottom left); gallows erected by rioters (bottom right).

Public predictions of violence

Signs reading “Stop the Steal” and “Off with their heads”, photographed on the day of the attack

January 6 Trump rally

 Protesters at Washington Union Station on the morning of January 6

Donald Trump’s speech

An image of Trump delivering his rally speech from behind a bulletproof shield was projected onto this screen at the rally

March to the Capitol

 Protestors approaching the Capitol Complex

Members of the Proud Boys in front of the U.S. Supreme Court Building

Bombs discovered near Capitol Complex

This section is an excerpt from Law enforcement response to the January 6 United States Capitol attack § Bombs discovered near Capitol Complex.[edit]

One of two pipe bombs discovered adjacent to the Capitol on January 6, 2021.

FBI Wanted Poster offering up to $100,000 for information leading to the conviction of the individual who placed two pipe bombs[242]

Capitol breach

Trump supporters crowding the steps of the Capitol

Officer Daniel Hodges crushed in doorway

Senate adjourned

C-SPAN broadcast of the Senate going into recess after protesters infiltrate the Capitol

Congressional staffers removed the Electoral College certificates from the Senate floor as it was evacuated.

House recessed

Rioters inside the Senate chamber

On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump‘s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. They sought to keep Trump in power by preventing a joint session of Congress from counting the electoral college votes to formalize the victory of President-elect Joe Biden. According to the House select committee investigating the incident, the attack was the culmination of a seven-part plan by Trump to overturn the election.[28][29] Five people died either shortly before, during, or following the event: one was shot by Capitol Police, another died of a drug overdose, and three died of natural causes.[22][30] Many people were injured, including 138 police officers. Four officers who responded to the attack died by suicide within seven months.[23] As of July 7, 2022, monetary damages caused by attackers exceed $2.7 million.[31]

Called to action by Trump,[32][33] thousands of his supporters gathered in Washington, D.C., on January 5 and 6 to support his false claim that the 2020 election had been “stolen by emboldened radical-left Democrats”[34][35][36][37] and to demand that Vice President Mike Pence and Congress reject Biden’s victory.[38] Starting at noon on January 6,[39] at a “Save America” rally on the Ellipse, Trump repeated false claims of election irregularities[40] and said, “If you don’t fight like hell, you’re not going to have a country anymore.”[41][42] In his hour-long speech Trump included 22 grammatical variations of the word “fight”.[41][42][43] During and after his speech,[39] thousands of attendees, including many that Trump knew to be armed, walked to the Capitol and hundreds breached police perimeters[44][45] as Congress was beginning the electoral vote count.

More than 2,000 rioters entered the building,[46][47][48] many of whom occupied, vandalized, and looted it,[49][50] assaulted Capitol Police officers and reporters, and attempted to locate lawmakers to capture and harm them.[51] A gallows was erected west of the Capitol, and some rioters chanted “Hang Mike Pence” after he rejected false claims by Trump and others that the vice president could overturn the election results.[52] Some vandalized and looted the offices of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D?CA) and other members of Congress.[53] With building security breached, Capitol Police evacuated and locked down both chambers of Congress and several buildings in the Capitol Complex.[54] Rioters occupied the empty Senate chamber while federal law enforcement officers defended the evacuated House floor.[55][56] Pipe bombs were found at each of the Democratic National Committee and Republican National Committee headquarters, and Molotov cocktails were discovered in a vehicle near the Capitol.[57][58]

Trump resisted sending the National Guard to quell the mob.[59] Later that afternoon, in a Twitter video, he reasserted that the election was “fraudulent” but told his supporters to “go home in peace”.[60][61] The Capitol was clear of rioters by mid-evening,[62] and the counting of the electoral votes resumed and was completed in the early morning hours of January 7. Pence declared President-elect Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris victorious. Pressured by his administration, the threat of removal, and many resignations, Trump later committed to an orderly transition of power in a televised statement.[63][64]

A week after the riot, the House of Representatives impeached Trump for incitement of insurrection, making him the only U.S. president to have been impeached twice.[65] In February, after Trump had left office, the Senate voted 57–43 in favor of conviction; because this fell short of a two-thirds majority, requiring 67 votes, he was acquitted for a second time.[66] The House passed a bill to create a bipartisan independent commission to investigate the attack, modeled after the 9/11 Commission,[67] but it was blocked by Republicans in the Senate,[51] so the House approved a select committee with seven Democrats and two Republicans to investigate instead.[68][69] By March 2022, Justice Department investigations of participants in the attack had expanded to include activities of others leading up to the attack.[70]

More than 30 members of anti-government groups, including the Oath KeepersProud Boys, and Three Percenters, were charged with conspiracy for allegedly planning their attacks on the Capitol; ten Oath Keepers and five Proud Boys were charged with seditious conspiracy,[71][72] and one Oath Keeper pled guilty.[73][74] As of January 2022, at least 57 people with roles in the day’s events were running for public office.[75] Although most people charged with crimes relating to the attack had no known affiliation with far-right or extremist groups,[27][76][77] a significant number were linked to extremist groups or conspiratorial movements.[78] By October 2022, 417 individuals charged had pleaded guilty.[79]

During summer 2022, the January 6th committee held eight televised public hearings on the January 6 attack. The ninth hearing was scheduled for September 28, 2022, but delayed due to Hurricane Ian.[80] The ninth hearing was moved to October 13,[81] and ended with a vote to subpoena Trump.[82]

Attempts to overturn the presidential election

Main article: Attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election

Democrat Joe Biden defeated incumbent Republican Donald Trump in the 2020 United States presidential election.[83] Trump and other Republicans attempted to overturn the election, falsely claiming widespread voter fraud.[84]

Trump’s tweet shortly after polls had closed

Within hours after the closing of the polls, while votes were still being tabulated, Trump declared victory, demanding that further counting be halted.[85] He began a campaign to subvert the election, through legal challenges and an extralegal effort. Trump’s lawyers had concluded within ten days after the election that legal challenges to the election results had no factual basis or legal merit.[37] Despite those analyses, he sought to overturn the results by initiating the filing of at least sixty lawsuits, including two brought to the Supreme Court. Those actions sought to nullify election certifications and to void votes that had been cast for Biden. Those challenges were all rejected by the courts for lack of evidence or the absence of legal standing.[84]

Trump then mounted a campaign to pressure Republican governors, secretaries of state, and state legislatures to nullify results by replacing slates of Biden electors with those declared to Trump, or by manufacturing evidence of fraud. He further demanded that lawmakers investigate ostensible election “irregularities” such as by conducting signature matches of mailed-in ballots, disregarding any prior analytic efforts. Trump also personally made inquiries proposing the invocation of martial law to “re-run” or reverse the election[84][86] and the appointment of a special counsel to find instances of fraud, despite conclusions by federal and state officials that such cases were few and isolated or non-existent. Trump ultimately undertook neither step.[84] Trump repeatedly urged Vice President Mike Pence to alter the results and to stop Biden from taking office. None of those actions would have been within Pence’s constitutional powers as vice president and president of the Senate. Trump repeated this call in his rally speech on the morning of January 6.[87]

Some have characterized these attempts to overturn the election as an attempted coup d’état,[88] and an implementation of the big lie.[10] On October 31, 2021, a comprehensive and detailed account of the events before, during, and after the attack was published by The Washington Post.[89]

Planning

Congress was scheduled to meet jointly on January 6 to certify the winner of the Electoral College vote, typically a ceremonial affair.[90][91] In December, Congressman Mo Brooks (R-AL) organized three White House meetings between Trump, Republican lawmakers, and others. Attendees included Trump, Vice President Pence, representatives Jody Hice (R-GA), Jim Jordan (R-OH), and Andy Biggs (R-AZ), representative-elect Marjorie Taylor Greene (R-GA), and members of the Trump legal team.[92] The purpose of the meetings was to strategize about how Congress could overturn the election results on January 6.[93]

On December 18, four days after the Electoral College voted, Trump called for supporters to attend a rally before the January 6 Congressional vote count to continue his challenge to the validity of several states’ election results. Trump tweeted, “Big protest in D.C. on January 6th. Be there, will be wild!”[12][94] The “March to Save America” and rally that preceded the riots at the Capitol were initially organized by Women for America First, a 501(c)(4) organization chaired by Amy Kremer, co-founder of Women for Trump.[95] On January 1, 2021, they obtained a permit with an estimated attendance of 5,000 for a first amendment rally “March for Trump”.[96] In late 2020 and early 2021, Kremer organized and spoke at a series of events across the country as part of a bus tour to encourage attendance at the January 6 rally and support Trump’s efforts to overturn the election result.[97] Women for America First invited its supporters to join a caravan of vehicles traveling to the event. Event management was carried out by Event Strategies, a company founded by Tim Unes, who worked for Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign.[95]

On January 2, Trump retweeted a post by Kremer promoting the January 6 rally, adding that he would be there. From that point, although Kremer still held the permit, planning essentially passed to the White House.[97] Trump discussed the speaking lineup and the music to be played at the event. Although the initial plan for the rally called for people to remain at the Ellipse until the counting of electoral slates was complete, the White House said they should march to the Capitol, as Trump repeatedly urged during his speech.[37]

For several weeks before the event, there were over one million mentions of storming the capitol on social media, including calls for violence against Congress, Pence, and police. This was done on “alt-tech” platforms[a] such as news aggregator website Patriots.win,[b] chat app Telegram and microblogging websites Gab and Parler,[c] as well as on mainstream social media platforms, such as TikTok.[105] Many of the posters planned for violence before the event; some discussed how to avoid police on the streets, which tools to bring to help pry open doors, and how to smuggle weapons into the city.[104] They discussed their perceived need to attack the police.[103][106][107] Following clashes with Washington, D.C. police during protests on December 12, 2020, the Proud Boys and other far-right groups turned against supporting law enforcement.[108] At least one group, Stop the Steal, posted on December 23, 2020, its plans to occupy the Capitol with promises to “escalate” if opposed by police.[105] Multiple sites graphically and explicitly discussed “war”, physically taking charge at the event, and killing politicians, even soliciting opinions about which politician should be hanged first, with a GIF of a noose.[103] Joan Donovan, research director at Harvard‘s Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, said that key figures in the Unite the Right rally and the Gamergate online harassment campaign worked to raise online fury ahead of the attack.[109] Facebook and Twitter have also been cited as playing a role in the fomenting of the Capitol attack.[110]

On the January 4, 2021, edition of Real America’s Voice’s The War Room (podcast), Steve Bannon, while discussing the planning for the upcoming events and speech by Trump on January 6 at The Ellipse, said: “Live from our nation’s capital, you’re in the field headquarters of one of the small divisions of the bloodless coup.”[111][112]

January 6 Trump rally

The “Save America” rally (or “March to Save America”, promoted as a “Save America March”)[199] took place on January 6 in the Ellipse within the National Mall just south of the White House. The permit granted to Women for America First showed their first amendment rally “March for Trump” with speeches running from 9:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., and an additional hour for the conclusion of the rally and dispersal of participants.[96]

Trump supporters gathered on the Ellipse to hear speeches from Trump, Rudy Giuliani, and others, such as Chapman University School of Law professor John C. Eastman, who spoke, at least in part, based on his memorandums, which have been described as an instruction manual for a coup d’état.[200][201] In a court filing in February, a member of the Oath Keepers claimed she had acted as “security” at the rally, and was provided with a “VIP pass to the rally where she met with Secret Service agents”. The U.S. Secret Service denied that any private citizens had coordinated with it to provide security on January 6.[202] On February 22, she changed her story and said she interacted with the Secret Service only as she passed through the security check before the rally.[203]

Mo Brooks (R-AL) was a featured speaker at the rally and spoke around 9 a.m., where he said, “Today is the day American patriots start taking down names and kicking ass”. And later, “Are you willing to do what it takes to fight for America? Louder! Will you fight for America?”[204][205]

Representative Madison Cawthorn (R–NC) said, “This crowd has some fight”.[206] Amy Kremer told attendees, “it is up to you and I to save this Republic” and called on them to “keep up the fight”.[97] Trump’s sons, Donald Jr. and Eric, along with Eric’s wife Lara Trump, also spoke, naming and verbally attacking Republican congressmen and senators who were not supporting the effort to challenge the Electoral College vote, and promising to campaign against them in future primary elections.[207] Donald Jr. said of Republican lawmakers, “If you’re gonna be the zero and not the hero, we’re coming for you”.[208][209]

Rudy Giuliani repeated conspiracy theories that voting machines used in the election were “crooked” and at 10:50 called for “trial by combat“.[210][211] Eastman asserted that balloting machines contained “secret folders” that altered voting results.[212][f] At 10:58, a Proud Boys contingent left the rally and marched toward the Capitol Building.[39]

 Criminal charges

Main article: Criminal proceedings in the January 6 United States Capitol attack

Interim United States Attorney Michael R. Sherwin holds a press conference on criminal charges related to the events at the Capitol

By February 1, 228 people from 39 states and DC had been charged with federal and/or DC offences.[469] By April 23, 439 people had been charged.[470] By early September, there were over 600 federal defendants, 10% of whom had pled guilty,[471] and hundreds more arrests expected to come.[472] By October 13, there were over 630 federal defendants and 100 guilty pleas, with BuzzFeed publishing a searchable table of the plea deals.[473] On January 6, 2022, exactly one year following the attack, over 725 people had been charged for their involvement; as of March 2022, 778 have already been charged in relation to the attack.[474]

Most defendants face “two class-B misdemeanor counts for demonstrating in the Capitol and disorderly conduct, and two class-A misdemeanor counts for being in a restricted building and disruptive activity,” according to BuzzFeed, and therefore most plea deals address those misdemeanors. Some defendants have been additionally charged with felonies.[475] The median prison sentence, for those convicted thus far, is 45 days, with those who committed violence facing longer incarceration periods. Other punishments include home detention, fines, probation, and community service.[474] On January 13, 2022, 10 members of the Oath Keepers, including founder Stewart Rhodes, were arrested and charged with seditious conspiracy.[71]

By March 2022, Justice Department investigations of participants in the attack had expanded to include activities of others leading up to the attack. A federal grand jury was empaneled that issued at least one subpoena seeking records about people who organized, spoke at, or provided security at Trump rallies, as well as information about members of the executive and legislative branches who may have taken part in planning or executing the rallies, or attempted to “obstruct, influence, impede or delay” the certification of the election.[476][70]

On June 17, 2022, after the January 6 Committee had held three hearings, Trump told a Faith and Freedom Coalition conference that he might run again for president and if elected he would “very very seriously” consider pardoning all those who stormed the Capitol. Reporting on Trump’s speech, NBC News reported that Trump expressed no regrets about January 6 and “doubled down” on his unfounded claims about the election.[477] On September 1, 2022, Trump similarly pledged to “very, very strongly” consider “full pardons with an apology” if reelected.[478]

International reactions

These paragraphs are an excerpt from International reactions to the January 6 United States Capitol attack.[edit]

More than seventy countries and international organizations expressed their concerns over the attack and condemned the violence, with some specifically condemning President Donald Trump‘s own role in inciting the attack.[506][507] Foreign leaders, diplomats, politicians, and institutions expressed shock, outrage, and condemnation of the events.[508][509] Multiple world leaders made a call for peace, describing the riots as “an attack on democracy”.[510] The leaders of some countries, including BrazilPoland and Hungary, declined to condemn the situation, and described it as an internal U.S. affair.[511]

As early as January 2021, a few European security officials described the events as an attempted coup.[512]

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_6_United_States_Capitol_attack

PBS is an American public broadcast service.

Wikipedia

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(UPDATE) United States of Conspiracy (full documentary) | FRONTLINE 58:18 mins

FRONTLINE PBS | Official 634,718 views Jan 20, 2021

How trafficking in conspiracy theories went from the fringes of U.S. politics into the White House. This is an update of the 2020 FRONTLINE documentary, “United States of Conspiracy.” An investigation of the alliance among conspiracy theorist Alex Jones, longtime Trump associate Roger Stone and the president — and their role in the battle over truth and lies. This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: http://www.pbs.org/donate As the coronavirus pandemic continues, America reckons with racism and the 2020 election looms, “United States of Conspiracy” investigates how Jones and InfoWars, Stone, and Trump helped to lay the foundation for conspiracy theories to take center stage in America’s national conversation, how the idea of truth itself became part of America’s divide, and what it means for the future of our democracy. #ConspiracyTheories #USPolitics #Documentaries Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available for you to watch any time: https://to.pbs.org/FLVideoApp Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/1BycsJW Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frontlinepbs Twitter: https://twitter.com/frontlinepbs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frontline Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Major funding for FRONTLINE is provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Ford Foundation. Additional funding is provided by the Abrams Foundation; Park Foundation; the Heising-Simons Foundation; the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation; and Koo and Patricia Yuen.

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Plot to Overturn the Election (full documentary) | FRONTLINE 53:17 mins

FRONTLINE PBS | Official 1,558,075 views Mar 29, 2022

How did false claims of election fraud make their way to the center of American politics? FRONTLINE and ProPublica investigate the plot to overturn the 2020 U.S. presidential election. This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: http://www.pbs.org/donate. FRONTLINE and ProPublica uncover how a small group of people helped to create some of the core narratives of fraud that President Donald Trump and many others would go on to champion after the election — and how the legacy of their effort is impacting democracy and shaping elections to come. “Plot to Overturn the Election” is a FRONTLINE production with Midnight Films, LLC in partnership with ProPublica. The correspondent is A.C. Thompson. The producer, writer and director is Samuel Black. The executive producer for FRONTLINE is Raney Aronson-Rath. #2020Election #USPolitics #Documentary Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App, where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available to watch any time: https://to.pbs.org/FLVideoApp Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/1BycsJW Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frontlinepbs Twitter: https://twitter.com/frontlinepbs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frontline FRONTLINE is produced at GBH in Boston and is broadcast nationwide on PBS. Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Additional support for FRONTLINE is provided by the Abrams Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Park Foundation; and the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation, and additional support from Koo and Patricia Yuen.

American Reckoning – A PBS NewsHour Special Report

PBS NewsHour 1,474,657 views Jan 15, 2021

Following the aftermath of the Jan. 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol, “American Reckoning – A PBS NewsHour Special Report” looks at the economic and racial history that led to a political divide between Americans, the impact of President Donald Trump’s rhetoric throughout his presidency and the next steps for the nation to heal from the recent attack on American democracy. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kvmasW_glUQ&t=4s

The Jan. 6 insurrection, 1 year later | PBS NewsHour presents 2:51:34

PBS NewsHour  5,625,716 views Premiered Jan 8, 2022

Congress is still investigating the people and organizations linked to the Jan. 6 attack — the most violent assault on the U.S. Capitol since the British attack during the war of 1812. The PBS NewsHour looked back at what happened that day, the lasting impacts on those who survived, where the investigations stand, and the broader effects on American politics, culture and democracy itself. 0:00 How the attack unfolded on Jan. 6 8:24 Why some Texans stormed the Capitol 17:59 Officer Brian Sicknick’s partner speaks 26:07 Far-right extremist groups move mainstream 39:18 Capitol Police officers demand accountability 49:37 Fallout from Rep. Meijer’s vote to impeach Trump 57:59 Rep. Nehls on defending the Capitol 1:05:25 Rep. Jeffries on witnessing Jan. 6 from the House floor 1:15:42 Disinformation downplays the violence 1:29:44 Biden’s Jan. 6 anniversary address 1:37:41 Harris on democracy a year after Jan. 6 1:48:50 Jan. 6’s impact on politics, culture and democracy 2:01:00 Brooks and Capehart on Jan. 6 anniversary 2:13:43 NewsHour correspondents recall Jan. 6 experiences 2:26:16 3 lawmakers of color on surviving Jan. 6 Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

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Michael Flynn’s Holy War (full documentary) | FRONTLINE 53:18 mins

FRONTLINE PBS | Official  138,841 views Oct 18, 2022

How did Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn go from being an elite soldier overseas to waging a “spiritual war” in America? An investigation with the Associated Press. This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: http://www.pbs.org/donate. In “Michael Flynn’s Holy War,” FRONTLINE and the Associated Press examine how the retired three-star general and first national security adviser to former President Donald Trump has emerged as a leader in a far-right movement that seeks to put its brand of Christianity at the center of American civic life and institutions and is attracting election deniers, conspiracists and extremists from around the country. Drawing on interviews with 125 people, including Flynn’s family, friends, critics, current and former colleagues — and Flynn himself — the documentary illustrates how Flynn’s influence has grown since the January 6, 2021, insurrection at the U.S. Capitol — and how his pedigree and military career, combined with his connection to high-powered, well-financed political groups, have allowed him to travel the country and advance his movement since January 6. In the run-up to the 2022 midterm elections, “Michael Flynn’s Holy War” is a revealing look at the rise of one of the Republican party’s most active and polarizing political allies, and what his growing influence might mean for future U.S. elections. “Michael Flynn’s Holy War” is supported by Preserving Democracy, a public media reporting initiative from The WNET Group. The documentary is a FRONTLINE production with Midnight Films, LLC in partnership with The Associated Press. The director and writer is Richard Rowley. The producers are Paul Abowd and Jacqueline Soohen. The reporters are Michelle Smith, Paul Abowd and Richard Rowley. The correspondent is Michelle Smith. The international investigations editor for AP is Ron Nixon. The editor-in-chief and executive producer of FRONTLINE is Raney Aronson-Rath. #MichaelFlynn #Documentary #RepublicanParty Find FRONTLINE on the PBS Video App, where more than 300 of our documentaries available to watch any time: https://to.pbs.org/FLVideoApp Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/1BycsJW Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frontlinepbs Twitter: https://twitter.com/frontlinepbs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frontline FRONTLINE is produced at GBH in Boston and is broadcast nationwide on PBS. Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Additional support for FRONTLINE is provided by the Abrams Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Park Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund, with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation, and additional support from Koo and Patricia Yuen. Funding for Michael Flynn’s Holy War is provided by the Jonathan Logan Family Foundation and The WNET Group’s Preserving Democracy, a public media reporting initiative. CHAPTERS: Prologue – 00:00 Michael Flynn’s Family Upbringing – 05:33 How Michael Flynn’s Worldview Developed During his Military Career – 11:21 Michael Flynn’s Role in the Lead-Up to January 6 – 22:07 A Far-Right Movement Attracting Election Deniers, Conspiracists and Extremists – 32:24 “Christian Nationalism” and Michael Flynn’s Movement – 36:19 Sarasota County, Florida: An Example of Michael Flynn’s Focus on “Local Action” – 42:24 Credits – 51:59

An (Un)Civil War: The Evangelical Divide | CBS Reports  27:42 mins

CBS News  980,885 views Oct 21, 2021

A new episode of CBS Reports’ Reverb series reveals that as Christian nationalism attracts followers, traditional pastors fear for their faith and the country. Evangelical Christians are a powerful political force, but an extreme faction has divided the community. In the half-hour documentary, An (Un)Civil War: The Evangelical Divide, we hear from pastors on both sides and ask what this battle means for their faith and the future of American democracy. Watch more documentaries and CBS News Specials that take a deep dive into the key issues driving the national and global conversation here: https://www.cbsnews.com/cbs/reports/ CBS News Streaming Network is the premier 24/7 anchored streaming news service from CBS News and Stations. It’s your destination for breaking news, live events, original storytelling and programs from CBS News and Stations’ top anchors and correspondents working locally, nationally and around the globe. Subscribe to the CBS News YouTube channel:    / cbsnews?   Watch CBS News: http://cbsn.ws/1PlLpZ7c? Download the CBS News app: http://cbsn.ws/1Xb1WC8? Follow CBS News on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/cbsnews/? Like CBS News on Facebook: http://facebook.com/cbsnews? Follow CBS News on Twitter: http://twitter.com/cbsnews? Subscribe to our newsletters: http://cbsn.ws/1RqHw7T? Try Paramount+ free: https://bit.ly/2OiW1kZ For video licensing inquiries, contact: licensing@veritone.com

The Right’s Fight to Make America a Christian Nation | CBS Reports

CBS News   508,929 views Mar 4, 2021

Freedom of religion is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. But the role that religious beliefs should play in public life has never been more contentious. As part of the Speaking Frankly series, this CBS Reports documentary explores the fusion of faith and politics in a movement that envisions the U.S. as a Christian nation. Watch more documentaries and CBS News Specials that take a deep dive into the key issues driving the national and global conversation here: https://www.cbsnews.com/cbs/reports/ CBS News Streaming Network is the premier 24/7 anchored streaming news service from CBS News and Stations. It’s your destination for breaking news, live events, original storytelling and programs from CBS News and Stations’ top anchors and correspondents working locally, nationally and around the globe. Subscribe to the CBS News YouTube channel:    / cbsnews?   Watch CBS News: http://cbsn.ws/1PlLpZ7c? Download the CBS News app: http://cbsn.ws/1Xb1WC8? Follow CBS News on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/cbsnews/? Like CBS News on Facebook: http://facebook.com/cbsnews? Follow CBS News on Twitter: http://twitter.com/cbsnews? Subscribe to our newsletters: http://cbsn.ws/1RqHw7T? Try Paramount+ free: https://bit.ly/2OiW1kZ For video licensing inquiries, contact: licensing@veritone.com

Inside The Pro-QAnon, Pro-Trump, Christian Nationalist Roadshow To ‘Save America’ 19:10 mins

MSNBC 290,141 views Oct 25, 2022

Trump allies are leading a pro-QAnon Christian Nationalist roadshow where conspiracy theories and shady prophecies come together to fight the left and “save America.” HuffPost reporter Christopher Mathias and political historian Nicole Hemmer join Mehdi to discuss. » Subscribe to MSNBC: http://on.msnbc.com/SubscribeTomsnbc Follow the MSNBC Midterms Elections guide to the important races across the United States as Americans prepare to cast their votes. Countdown to the Midterms: https://on.msnbc.com/3KlULq8 Follow MSNBC Show Blogs MaddowBlog: https://www.msnbc.com/maddowblog ReidOut Blog: https://www.msnbc.com/reidoutblog MSNBC delivers breaking news, in-depth analysis of politics headlines, as well as commentary and informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, The Beat with Ari Melber, Deadline: White House, The ReidOut, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and Alex Wagner who brings her breadth of reporting experience to MSNBC primetime. Watch “Alex Wagner Tonight” Tuesday through Friday at 9pm Eastern. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit msnbc.com: http://on.msnbc.com/Readmsnbc Subscribe to the MSNBC Daily Newsletter: MSNBC.com/NewslettersYouTube Find MSNBC on Facebook: http://on.msnbc.com/Likemsnbc Follow MSNBC on Twitter: http://on.msnbc.com/Followmsnbc Follow MSNBC on Instagram: http://on.msnbc.com/Instamsnbc #msnbc #trump #christiannationalism

“Fear” inside the Trump White House 26:47 mins

Washington Week PBS 89,485 views Sep 14, 2018

Veteran journalist and author Bob Woodward’s latest book, “Fear: Trump in the White House,” depicts a White House in chaos, and an embattled president at odds with his own advisers. Moderator Robert Costa talks with Woodward about his search for truth, his hundreds of hours of recorded interviews with witnesses and participants in the Trump administration, and why he thinks America should wake up to the president’s behavior.

Inside Donald Trump’s 18 recorded interviews with Bob Woodward for his book “Rage” 13:27

60 Minutes  925,901 views Sep 17, 2020

In taped conversations with a Washington Post journalist, President Trump said he wanted to downplay the severity of the coronavirus. And the recordings reveal the President’s view on how close the United States came to nuclear war with North Korea. Scott Pelley reports. Subscribe to the 60 Minutes Channel HERE: http://bit.ly/1S7CLRu Watch Full Episodes of 60 Minutes HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1Qkjo1F Get more 60 Minutes from 60 Minutes: Overtime HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1KG3sdr Relive past episodes and interviews with 60 Minutes Rewind HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1PlZiGI Follow 60 Minutes on Instagram HERE: http://bit.ly/23Xv8Ry Like 60 Minutes on Facebook HERE: http://on.fb.me/1Xb1Dao Follow 60 Minutes on Twitter HERE: http://bit.ly/1KxUsqX Get the latest news and best in original reporting from CBS News delivered to your inbox. Subscribe to newsletters HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1RqHw7T Get your news on the go! Download CBS News mobile apps HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1Xb1WC8 Get new episodes of shows you love across devices the next day, stream local news live, and watch full seasons of CBS fan favorites anytime, anywhere with CBS All Access. Try it free! http://bit.ly/1OQA29B — 60 Minutes, the most successful American television broadcast in history, began its 52nd season in September. Offering hard-hitting investigative reports, interviews, feature segments and profiles of people in the news, the broadcast began in 1968 is still a hit in 2020. 60 Minutes makes Nielsen’s weekly Top 10 nearly every week and was the #1 weekly television broadcast three times last season. The program still averages more than 10 million viewers, more than double the audience of its nearest network news magazine competitor. The average audience for a 60 Minutes broadcast is 150% higher than those of the network morning news programs; the audience dwarfs the number of viewers drawn by the most popular cable news programs. About a million more people listen to the 60 Minutes radio simulcast in several major cities and on its companion podcast. Tens of thousands each week experience 60 Minutes online. The broadcast’s segments can be watched at 60Minutes.com and on the CBS All Access app. Its webcast, 60MinutesOvertime.com, offers content originally produced for the web, including behind-the-scenes video about the production of 60 Minutes stories and timely archival segments. 60 Minutes has won every major broadcast award. Its 25 Peabody and 150 Emmy awards are the most won by any single news program. It has also won 20 duPont-Columbia University journalism awards. Other distinguished journalism honors won multiple times include the George Polk, RTDNA Edward R. Murrow, Investigative Reporters and Editors, RFK Journalism, Sigma Delta Chi and Gerald Loeb awards. 60 Minutes premiered on CBS September 24, 1968. Bill Owens is the program’s executive producer. The correspondents and contributors of 60 Minutes are Sharyn Alfonsi, Anderson Cooper, John Dickerson, Norah O’Donnell, Scott Pelley, Lesley Stahl, Bill Whitaker and L. Jon Wertheim.

Peril with Robert Costa 1:00:12

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Commonwealth Club of California 249,790 views Oct 20, 2021

The transition from President Donald J. Trump to President Joseph R. Biden Jr. is one of the most tumultuous periods in recent American history. Robert Costa and his co-author Bob Woodward have taken on the task of documenting the transition in a never-before-seen way in their new book, Peril. With material ranging from secret orders to transcripts of phone conversations from the Trump and Biden White House, the 2020 campaign, and more, Peril is the story about changes, a first inside look into Biden’s presidency, and the unique challenges that face the new administration. Join Costa he as analyzes this intense period in history as well as the overall landscape of American politics in 2021. NOTES OCTOBER 7, 2021 SPEAKERS Robert Costa National Political Reporter, The Washington Post; Co-Author, Peril In Conversation with Scott Shafer Senior Editor, KQED’s Politics and Government Desk; Twitter @scottshafer ?SUBSCRIBE for more VIDEOS:    / commonwealthclub   ? UPCOMING EVENTS: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/events ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… ? DONATE NOW: https://support.commonwealthclub.org/… ??? Watch & Listen https://www.commonwealthclub.org/watc… CWC Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thecommonwea… CWC Instagram https://www.instagram.com/cwclub/ CWC Twitter https://twitter.com/cwclub The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 400 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Hillary Clinton in 2010. Along the way, Martin Luther King, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton have all given landmark speeches at the Club.

Woodward: Trump Does Not Understand The Responsibilities Of The President

MSNBC 580,926 views Oct 26, 2022

The Washington Post’s Bob Woodward joins Morning Joe to discuss interviews contained in his audio book ‘The Trump Tapes’. » Subscribe to MSNBC: http://on.msnbc.com/SubscribeTomsnbc Follow the MSNBC Midterms Elections guide to the important races across the United States as Americans prepare to cast their votes. Countdown to the Midterms: https://on.msnbc.com/3KlULq8 Follow MSNBC Show Blogs MaddowBlog: https://www.msnbc.com/maddowblog ReidOut Blog: https://www.msnbc.com/reidoutblog MSNBC delivers breaking news, in-depth analysis of politics headlines, as well as commentary and informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, The Beat with Ari Melber, Deadline: White House, The ReidOut, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and Alex Wagner who brings her breadth of reporting experience to MSNBC primetime. Watch “Alex Wagner Tonight” Tuesday through Friday at 9pm Eastern. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit msnbc.com: http://on.msnbc.com/Readmsnbc Subscribe to the MSNBC Daily Newsletter: MSNBC.com/NewslettersYouTube Find MSNBC on Facebook: http://on.msnbc.com/Likemsnbc Follow MSNBC on Twitter: http://on.msnbc.com/Followmsnbc Follow MSNBC on Instagram: http://on.msnbc.com/Instamsnbc Woodward: Trump Does Not Understand The Responsibilities Of The President

Bob Woodward on ‘The Trump Tapes’ we haven’t heard (Full Stream 10/31) 32:48 mins

Washington Post Live 11,822 views Streamed live 15 hours ago, 10.31,2022

Bob Woodward, associate editor at The Washington Post, is bucking tradition and releasing the audio recordings of one of his most famous interviewees. On Monday, Oct. 31 at 11:30 a.m. ET, The Post’s Leigh Ann Caldwell speaks with the legendary journalist about his new audiobook, “The Trump Tapes,” his warning about the former president and his assessment of the state of American democracy heading into the midterms. Washington Post Live is the newsroom’s live journalism platform, featuring interviews with top-level government officials, business leaders, cultural influencers and emerging voices on the most pressing issues driving the news cycle nationally and across the globe. From one-on-one, newsmaker interviews to in-depth multi-segment programs, Washington Post Live brings The Post’s newsroom to life on stage. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: https://wapo.st/2QOdcqK Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonpost Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/washingtonp… Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpost/

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Carol Leonnig and Philip Rucker: Inside Donald J. Trump’s Catastrophic Final Year 57:01 mins

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Commonwealth Club of California  209,585 views Streamed live on Jul 26, 2021

The year 2020 brought with it a nation riddled with grief as the United States descended into a raging pandemic, steep economic downfall, and unsettling political instability. As half a million perished and millions were left jobless from coronavirus, what was really going on inside the White House? And who was influencing Donald Trump as he refused to concede power after an election he had clearly lost? Washington Post reporters Carol Leonnig and Philip Rucker answer these questions for the American people in I Alone Can Fix It, a gripping exposé of an administration sabotaging its own country. Their sources were in the room as Trump and the key players around him—doctors, generals, senior advisors and family members—continued to prioritize the interests of the president over that of the country. These witnesses saw firsthand Trump’s desire to deploy military force against protests in the wake of George Floyd’s death. They saw his refusal to take coronavirus seriously, even to the point of allowing himself and those around him to be infected. They, along with the rest of the world, saw him spur on what would become the January 6 storming of the U.S. Capitol building. With unparalleled access, Rucker and Leonnig delve into exactly who they say enabled—and who foiled—the president as he desperately held onto his fleeting presidency in his final year in office. Join us as Leonnig and Rucker reveal the inner workings of the 2020 Trump White House. NOTES Leonnig photo by Marvin Joseph; Rucker photo by Melina Mara. SPEAKERS Carol Leonnig Investigative Reporter, The Washington Post; Co-author, I Alone Can Fix It: Donald J. Trump’s Catastrophic Final Year; Twitter @CarolLeonnig (Participating Virtually) Philip Rucker White House Bureau Chief, The Washington Post; Co-author, I Alone Can Fix It: Donald J. Trump’s Catastrophic Final Year; Twitter @PhilipRucker (Participating Virtually) In Conversation with Yamiche Alcindor Host, “Washington Week,” PBS; Twitter @Yamiche (Participating Virtually) ?SUBSCRIBE for more VIDEOS: https://www.youtube.com/user/commonwe… ? UPCOMING EVENTS: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/events ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… ? DONATE NOW: https://support.commonwealthclub.org/… ??? Watch & Listen https://www.commonwealthclub.org/watc… CWC Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thecommonwea… CWC Instagram https://www.instagram.com/cwclub/ CWC Twitter https://twitter.com/cwclub The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 400 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Hillary Clinton in 2010. Along the way, Martin Luther King, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton have all given landmark speeches at the Club.

Peter Baker and Susan Glasser: The Donald Trump White House Years 58:38 mins

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Commonwealth Club of California  103,199 views Sep 21, 2022

From its chaotic beginning to the violent finale, the Trump presidency was filled with moments ranging from the unthinkable to the deadly serious. That has continued until these past several weeks, and the man at the center of all of this could announce he is running for president again. That makes understanding his presidency even more important today. Veteran journalists Peter Baker and Susan Glasser chart the ambitious and lasting history of the Trump presidency, drawing on unprecedented access to key players from President Trump himself to cabinet officers, military generals, and more. Based on these exclusive interviews, Baker and Glasser reveal moments both tense and comical, from how close the United States got to nuclear war with North Korea to whether Trump asked Japan’s prime minister to nominate him for a Nobel Prize. They also explore the moral choices confronting those around Trump—how they justified working for him and where they drew their lines. Join us as Peter Baker and Susan Glasser return to the Club to discuss Donald Trump’s presidency and what a second term could mean for the country. Baker and Glasser photography by Doug Mills. September 20, 2020 Speakers Peter Baker Chief White House Correspondent, The New York Times; Co-author, The Divider: Trump in the White House, 2017-2021; Twitter @peterbakernyt Susan Glasser Staff Writer, The New Yorker; Co-author, The Divider: Trump in the White House, 2017-2021; Twitter @sbg1 In Conversation with Adam Lashinsky Journalist; Author; Twitter @adamlashinsky ?Join our Email List! https://www.commonwealthclub.org/email ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 500 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Anthony Fauci in 2020. In addition to the videos? shared here, the Club reaches millions of listeners through its podcast? and weekly national radio program?.

David Cay Johnston: The Big Cheat 1:05:08 mins

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Commonwealth Club of California

655,467 views Dec 16, 2021

The Trump family is one of the most talked about families in the United States. Donald Trump’s presidency elevated that and helped put them on an international stage that brought the family to the forefront of the world. Over the last half decade, journalist and Pulitzer Prize winner David Cay Johnston has provided the American people with fascinating insight into the financial world of one of America’s most influential families. Johnston talks about the financial life of the Trump Family in his new piece of work, The Big Cheat: How Donald Trump Fleeced America and Enriched Himself and His Family. This new book details the aspects of the Trump family’s finances during the four years Donald Trump spent in office, leaving no details out, to give you the complete picture. Join us as David Cay Johnston offers an inside look into the financial world of the Trump family. NOTES David Cay Johnston photo by Bonk Johnston. DECEMBER 9, 2021 SPEAKERS David Cay Johnston Co-Founder, DCReport.org; Author, The Big Cheat: How Donald Trump Fleeced America and Enriched Himself and His Family; Twitter @DavidCayJ In Conversation with Mitch Jeserich Host, “Letters and Politics,” KPFA Radio ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 500 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Anthony Fauci in 2020. In addition to the videos? shared here, the Club reaches millions of listeners through its podcast? and weekly national radio program?.

Jonathan Karl | Betrayal: The Final Act of the Trump Show 1:05:57

Author Events  360,185 views Nov 22, 2021

Recorded November 22, 2021 In conversation with Tamala Edwards, anchor, 6ABC Action News morning edition Jonathan Karl is the author of Front Row at the Trump Show, an instant New York Times bestseller that peered behind the scenes into President Trump and his allies’ unprecedented actions. The chief White House correspondent and chief Washington correspondent for ABC News, Karl has written extensively about Trump’s presidency., Karl has also covered some of D.C.’s most important beats, including four presidential administrations, Capitol Hill, the Pentagon, and the State Department. He was the president of the White House Correspondents’ Association from 2019 to 2020 and has earned the Walter Cronkite Award for National Individual Achievement, an Emmy Award, and the Everett McKinley Dirksen Award, the highest honor for Congressional reporting. In Betrayal, Karl recounts the chaotic events that followed the 2020 presidential election and the former president’s stunning downfall.

Tony Schwartz: The Truth About Trump | Oxford Union Q&A

OxfordUnion 4,125,276 views Nov 4, 2016

SUBSCRIBE for more speakers ? http://is.gd/OxfordUnion Oxford Union on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/theoxfordunion Oxford Union on Twitter: @OxfordUnion Website: http://www.oxford-union.org/ Announcing his candidacy for the Republican nomination back in June 2015, Donald Trump stated “We need a leader that wrote ‘The Art of the Deal’ “. Tony Schwartz was the ghostwriter of the book Trump calls ‘his proudest achievement’. Schwartz has been vocal about his regrets in working on the piece, but, having worked intimately with Trump, provides a fascinating perspective into the personality and idiosyncrasies of the Republican nominee ABOUT THE OXFORD UNION SOCIETY: The Oxford Union is the world’s most prestigious debating society, with an unparalleled reputation for bringing international guests and speakers to Oxford. Since 1823, the Union has been promoting debate and discussion not just in Oxford University, but across the globe.

Ing’s comment on Democracy of USA

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRE, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS  AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 At present, democracy in the United States of America, is balancing on a tight rope.  At any moment, it can falter and tumble if the extreme right-wing of the Republican party gains control of Congress.   If Republican leader, Keven McCarthy, controls the House of Representatives, and Republican leader Mitch McConnell, takes control of the Senate, the government will return to the extreme right-wing policies of the Trump administration even before the presidential election of 2024.

Former president Trump, worked hand in glove with Mitch McConnell, to stack the Supreme Court with three new replacements, of ultra conservative right-wing judges.  When added to the three conservative Judges already on the court, it has created a dangerous super majority that has already begun to overturn settled law, in favor of right-wing extremist ideology.  It is now impossible for the three remaining liberal judges to prevent these actions from taking place.   

The Conservative court has already used its power support major challenges to settled law brought before the court that involve issues such as civil rights, and abortion rights.  Roe V Wade, has been the law of the land for over fifty years, but has already been gutted.  The conservative Supreme Court majority has removed the rights of women to decide for themselves whether an abortion is an appropriate choice for their circumstance.  Even when a ten years old girl is raped and becomes pregnant, in many states she is obligated to have the child.  In some states, even when the pregnancy will cause harm to a woman, the law forces her to carry her pregnancy to the end of the term.  Where are the rights of women?  Are we retuning to a dark age when women had no rights at all? 

Mr. Trump with assistance from Mitch McConnell also appointed two hundred Conservative Federal Court Judge positions to the bench.  Because of this, states now have the ability to make laws that severely restrict abortion, making is essentially illegal.  In contrast, when Barack Obama was president, he attempted to fill vacancies to the Supreme Court and Federal Courts but could not.  President Obama’s nominees were blocked in every instance by the Republican controlled senate led by Mitch McConnell. 

Just as significate in 2010, during the Obama administration, the Supreme Court, in the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case, upheld the right of corporations to make unlimited political expenditures under the first Amendment.  This allowed corporations to donate as much money as they wish to help Republican politicians, win elections.  In return, these politicians then helped pass laws that favor these corporations.

The right wing of the Republican party, which has now become the majority of that party, continues to attempt passing laws and use any other legal maneuver to strip away the rights of the majority of American citizens.  The Midterm election of 2022 is perhaps the last chance for Democrats along with the few remaining centrist Republicans in Congress, to prevent the rightwing extremists taking full control of the government. 

If the Republicans take control of both houses of Congress in the 2022 election, they will be able to control the vote count in the 2024 election.  This is because they will have elected officials in many states who will be able to decertify the vote count in the presidential election of 2024.

This could mean the end of democracy in America because the vote count will be in the hands of those in power to continue in power.  If this happens, through voting manipulation, Donald Trump is very likely to become President in 2024 and we will live in an Autocrat System with a leader that controls our lives in the same way Putin does in Russia, and Kim Jong-un does in North Korea.  The democratic way of life for US citizens could end, and without democracy in the world’s most powerful nation, it will be under even greater threat throughout the world. 

In our retirement years my husband and I watch with great sadness at what may unfold.  We may suffer mentally and physically for the short time we have left, but future generations may suffer their whole lives under a repressive dictatorship.  Our daughter, our little grandsons, and many other families will have to live without the freedom that earlier generations have known.  I still have hope that sanity will prevail, and the United States of America will not lose our gift of freedom that has helped enlighten so many other nations of this world.

I am not a Democrat, Republican, or member of any political party, but I am for a democratic way of life.  Democracy brings freedom of thought, action, and human rights for every citizen, allowing an opportunity to live peacefully in a healthy world.

Together we can face what will be the inevitable problem of global warming, which affect the lives of all of us.  Many lives will be lost before all the complexities of the issue can be attended, but we must begin now or there will be nothing left on earth to care for.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, November 1, 2022

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Expedition 68 – NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 Flight Day 1&2 Highlights and Crew-4 Mission Returns Home

Expedition 68 – NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 Flight Day 1&2 Highlights and Crew-4 Mission Returns Home

Expedition 68 – NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 Flight Day 1 Highlights – Oct. 5, 2022

 A Russian cosmonaut joined two NASA crewmates and a Japanese space veteran on a SpaceX Crew Dragon capsule on Wednesday to the International Space Station

NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 astronauts lifted off at 12 p.m. EDT Wednesday, Oct. 5, from Launch Complex 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, bound for the International Space Station for the fifth commercial crew rotation mission aboard the microgravity laboratory. The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket propelled the Crew Dragon spacecraft with NASA astronauts Nicole Mann and Josh Cassada, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, and Roscosmos cosmonaut Anna Kikina, into orbit to begin a long-duration science mission on the space station.

Expedition 68 – NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 Flight Day 2 Highlights – Oct. 6, 2022

NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 astronauts docked autonomously to the forward port of the International Space Station’s Harmony module at 4:57 p.m. EDT Thursday, Oct. 6. NASA astronauts Nicole Mann and Josh Cassada, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, and Roscosmos cosmonaut Anna Kikina, arrived after a one-day journey to begin a long-duration science mission on the space station. Following docking, Mann, Cassada, Wakata, and Kikina joined the Expedition 68 crew of NASA astronauts Bob Hines, Kjell Lindgren, Frank Rubio, and Jessica Watkins, and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut and station commander Samantha Cristoforetti, as well as Roscosmos cosmonauts Sergey Prokopyev and Dmitri Petelin.

Expedition 68 – NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 Flight Day 1 Highlights – Oct. 5, 2022 45:00 mins

Oct 5, 2022  NASA Video

NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 astronauts lifted off at 12 p.m. EDT Wednesday, Oct. 5, from Launch Complex 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, bound for the International Space Station for the fifth commercial crew rotation mission aboard the microgravity laboratory. The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket propelled the Crew Dragon spacecraft with NASA astronauts Nicole Mann and Josh Cassada, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, and Roscosmos cosmonaut Anna Kikina, into orbit to begin a long-duration science mission on the space station. The Crew Dragon spacecraft, named Endurance, will dock autonomously to the forward port of the station’s Harmony module at 4:57 p.m. EDT Thursday, Oct. 6. Join NASA as we go forward to the Moon and on to Mars – discover the latest on Earth, the Solar System and beyond with a weekly update in your inbox. Subscribe at: www.nasa.gov/subscribe

Expedition 68 – NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 Flight Day 2 Highlights – Oct. 6, 2022 – 24:27 Mins

Oct 6, 2022 NASA Video

NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 astronauts docked autonomously to the forward port of the International Space Station’s Harmony module at 4:57 p.m. EDT Thursday, Oct. 6. NASA astronauts Nicole Mann and Josh Cassada, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, and Roscosmos cosmonaut Anna Kikina, arrived after a one-day journey to begin a long-duration science mission on the space station. Following docking, Mann, Cassada, Wakata, and Kikina joined the Expedition 68 crew of NASA astronauts Bob Hines, Kjell Lindgren, Frank Rubio, and Jessica Watkins, and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut and station commander Samantha Cristoforetti, as well as Roscosmos cosmonauts Sergey Prokopyev and Dmitri Petelin. Join NASA as we go forward to the Moon and on to Mars – discover the latest on Earth, the Solar System and beyond with a weekly update in yo– inbox. Subscribe at: www.nasa.gov/subscribe

NASA’s SpaceX Crew-4 Mission Returns Home

Streamed live on Oct 14, 2022  NASA

The astronauts of Crew-4 have undocked from the International Space Station and are on their way home to Earth. Watch live with NASA as the Dragon spacecraft Freedom reenters the atmosphere and splashes down off the coast of Florida. Splashdown is targeted for 4:55 p.m. EDT (2055 UTC), Friday, Oct. 14. NASA astronauts Kjell Lindgren, Jessica Watkins, Bob Hines, and ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti spent five and a half months living and working aboard the orbiting laboratory. During their stay, they contributed to a number of experiments to expand our understanding of space while benefitting life on Earth: https://go.nasa.gov/3yCDeW0 Credit: NASA

Ing’s Comments

Expedition 68 – NASA’s SpaceX Crew-5 Flight was a successful trip of bringing 4 astronauts to the space station.  This trip Roscosmos cosmonaut Anna Kikina, from Russia joined with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata and USA, NASA astronauts Nicole Mann and Josh Cassada.  This event makes me realize that countries can come together with knowledge, manpower and resources, to discover new things.  This advances human kind bringing constructive inventions to the world as a whole.  It takes time and hundreds or thousands of knowledgeable people to produce the work that space expiration achieves, including a large amount of financial support.  But then I think of Mr. Putin of Russia invading Ukraine, a much smaller country, bombing Ukraine to utter devastation.  This is called a destructive, rather than a constructive operation.  If we try to do something constructive and suddenly someone come and destroys everything that we work so hard to achieve, how would we feel?  Why are we working so hard with space expiration and other science experiments, if some dictators like Mr. Putin come along and destroys everything.  At this time in the US, Mr. Trump, did not like the outcome of the presidential election, so he mobilized his followers to attack the capital.  They also attempted to find Vice president Mike Pence, and Nancy Pelosi, Leader of the House of Representatives, in order to hang them.  Mr. Trump may still destroy the democratic system of this country by his influence and lies among his followers, including extreme right-wing politicians.

The destruction caused by Mr. Trump and Mr. Putin will be the subject of my next posts.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, October 16, 2022

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NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Month in Review

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Month in Review

MARS

NASA’s InSight ‘Hears’ Its First Meteoroid Impacts on Mars

Sept. 19, 2022

These craters were formed by a Sept. 5, 2021, meteoroid impact on Mars, the first to be detected by NASA’s InSight. Taken by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, this enhanced-color image highlights the dust and soil disturbed by the impact in blue in order to make details more visible to the human eye.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

The Mars lander’s seismometer has picked up vibrations from four separate impacts in the past two years.

NASA’s InSight lander has detected seismic waves from four space rocks that crashed on Mars in 2020 and 2021. Not only do these represent the first impacts detected by the spacecraft’s seismometer since InSight touched down on the Red Planet in 2018, it also marks the first time seismic and acoustic waves from an impact have been detected on Mars.

A new paper published Monday in Nature Geoscience details the impacts, which ranged between 53 and 180 miles (85 and 290 kilometers) from InSight’s location, a region of Mars called Elysium Planitia.

The first of the four confirmed meteoroids – the term used for space rocks before they hit the ground – made the most dramatic entrance: It entered Mars’ atmosphere on Sept. 5, 2021, exploding into at least three shards that each left a crater behind.

Learn more about the first meteoroid impact NASA’s InSight lander detected on Mars in this video.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Then, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter flew over the estimated impact site to confirm the location. The orbiter used its black-and-white Context Camera to reveal three darkened spots on the surface. After locating these spots, the orbiter’s team used the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera, or HiRISE, to get a color close-up of the craters (the meteoroid could have left additional craters in the surface, but they would be too small to see in HiRISE’s images).

“After three years of InSight waiting to detect an impact, those craters looked beautiful,” said Ingrid Daubar of Brown University, a co-author of the paper and a specialist in Mars impacts.

After combing through earlier data, scientists confirmed three other impacts had occurred on May 27, 2020; Feb. 18, 2021; and Aug. 31, 2021.

Researchers have puzzled over why they haven’t detected more meteoroid impacts on Mars. The Red Planet is next to the solar system’s main asteroid belt, which provides an ample supply of space rocks to scar the planet’s surface. Because Mars’ atmosphere is just 1% as thick as Earth’s, more meteoroids pass through it without disintegrating.

InSight’s seismometer has detected over 1,300 marsquakes. Provided by France’s space agency, the Centre National d’Études Spatiales, the instrument is so sensitive that it can detect seismic waves from thousands of miles away. But the Sept. 5, 2021, event marks the first time an impact was confirmed as the cause of such waves.

InSight’s team suspects that other impacts may have been obscured by noise from wind or by seasonal changes in the atmosphere. But now that the distinctive seismic signature of an impact on Mars has been discovered, scientists expect to find more hiding within InSight’s nearly four years of data.

Listen to a Meteoroid Hitting the Red Planet

The sound of a meteoroid striking Mars – created from data recorded by NASA’s InSight lander – is like a “bloop” due to a peculiar atmospheric effect. In this audio clip, the sound can be heard three times: when the meteoroid enters the Martian atmosphere, explodes into pieces, and impacts the surface.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/CNES/IPGP

Science Behind the Strikes

Seismic data offer various clues that will help researchers better understand the Red Planet. Most marsquakes are caused by subsurface rocks cracking from heat and pressure. Studying how the resulting seismic waves change as they move through different material provides scientists a way to study Mars’ crust, mantle, and core.

The four meteoroid impacts confirmed so far produced small quakes with a magnitude of no more than 2.0. Those smaller quakes provide scientists with only a glimpse into the Martian crust, while seismic signals from larger quakes, like the magnitude 5 event that occurred in May 2022, can also reveal details about the planet’s mantle and core.

Read postcards people have sent to InSight

But the impacts will be critical to refining Mars’ timeline. “Impacts are the clocks of the solar system,” said the paper’s lead author, Raphael Garcia of Institut Supérieur de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace in Toulouse, France. “We need to know the impact rate today to estimate the age of different surfaces.”

Scientists can approximate the age of a planet’s surface by counting its impact craters: The more they see, the older the surface. By calibrating their statistical models based on how often they see impacts occurring now, scientists can then estimate how many more impacts happened earlier in the solar system’s history.

InSight’s data, in combination with orbital images, can be used to rebuild a meteoroid’s trajectory and the size of its shock wave. Every meteoroid creates a shock wave as it hits the atmosphere and an explosion as it hits the ground. These events send sound waves through the atmosphere. The bigger the explosion, the more this sound wave tilts the ground when it reaches InSight. The lander’s seismometer is sensitive enough to measure how much the ground tilts from such an event and in what direction.

“We’re learning more about the impact process itself,” Garcia said. “We can match different sizes of craters to specific seismic and acoustic waves now.”

The lander still has time to study Mars. Dust buildup on the lander’s solar panels is reducing its power and will eventually lead to the spacecraft shutting down. Predicting precisely when is difficult, but based on the latest power readings, engineers now believe the lander could shut down between October of this year and January 2023.

More About the Mission

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages InSight for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. InSight is part of NASA’s Discovery Program, managed by the agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built the InSight spacecraft, including its cruise stage and lander, and supports spacecraft operations for the mission.

A number of European partners, including France’s Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), are supporting the InSight mission. CNES provided the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument to NASA, with the principal investigator at IPGP (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris). Significant contributions for SEIS came from IPGP; the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Germany; the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) in Switzerland; Imperial College London and Oxford University in the United Kingdom; and JPL. DLR provided the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) instrument, with significant contributions from the Space Research Center (CBK) of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Astronika in Poland. Spain’s Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) supplied the temperature and wind sensors.

Hear Meteoroid Striking Mars, Captured by NASA’s InSight Lander

Sep 19, 2022 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA’s InSight lander detected seismic waves from a meteoroid and was able to capture the sound of the space rock striking the surface of Mars for the first time. The meteoroid – the term used for incoming space rocks before they hit the ground – entered Mars’ atmosphere on Sept. 5, 2021, exploding into at least three shards that each left craters behind. Mars’ atmosphere is just 1% as dense as Earth’s, allowing far more meteoroids to pass through and impact the Red Planet’s surface. This event marks the first time seismic and acoustic waves from an impact were detected on the Red Planet. Why does this meteoroid impact sound like a “bloop” in the video? It has to do with a peculiar atmospheric effect that’s also observed in deserts on Earth. After sunset, the atmosphere retains some heat accumulated during the day. Sound waves travel through this heated atmosphere at different speeds, depending on their frequency. As a result, lower-pitched sounds arrive before high-pitched sounds. An observer close to the impact would hear a “bang,” while someone many miles away would hear the bass sounds first, creating a “bloop.” NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter flew over the estimated impact site to confirm the location. The orbiter used its black-and-white Context Camera to reveal three darkened spots on the surface. After locating these spots, the orbiter’s team used the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera, or HiRISE, to get a color close-up of the craters. Because HiRISE sees wavelengths the human eye can’t detect, scientists change the camera’s filters to enhance the color of the image. The areas that appear blue around the craters are where dust has been removed or disturbed by the blast of the impact. Martian dust is bright and red, so removing it makes the surface appear relatively dark and blue. For more information on InSight, visit https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Maryland/University of Arizona/CNES/IPGP/Manchu/Bureau 21/ETH Zurich/Kirschner/van Driel

News Media Contact

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

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Karen Fox / Alana Johnson

NASA Headquarters, Washington

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EARTH

NASA, USGS Map Minerals to Understand Earth Makeup, Climate Change

Sept. 30, 2022

A photo of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft with the AVIRIS and HyTES instruments installed.

Credit: NASA

These new observations can be used to identify the presence of a wide variety of minerals as well as mineral weathering or alteration.

NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) will map portions of the southwest United States for critical minerals using advanced airborne imaging.

Hyperspectral data from hundreds of wavelengths of reflected light can provide new information about Earth’s surface and atmosphere to help scientists understand Earth’s geology and biology, as well as the effects of climate change.

The research project, called the Geological Earth Mapping Experiment (GEMx), will use NASA’s Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) instruments flown on NASA’s ER-2 and Gulfstream V aircraft to collect the measurements over the country’s arid and semi-arid regions, including parts of California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico.

“This exciting new project is just one example of the Biden-Harris Administration’s commitment to a clean energy future,” said NASA Administrator Bill Nelson. “NASA has a long history of Earth observation that shows us how the planet is responding to climate change. This project builds on our 60-year legacy, and can show us where to look for the resources that support our transition to a clean energy economy. With our partners at USGS, NASA has led the way in developing these Earth observation systems to gather information to measure and monitor the environment and climate change.”

These new observations record the spectroscopic fingerprints of surface minerals across hundreds of wavelength bands. In other words, these are measurements not only of visible light our eyes can see but also of wavelengths of light beyond the visible into the infrared. The data can be used to identify the presence of a wide variety of minerals including primary rock-forming minerals as well as mineral weathering or alteration.

This project will complement data from NASA’s newest instrument on the International Space Station, the Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT). EMIT is focused on mapping the mineral dust source composition of Earth’s arid regions to better understand how mineral dust affects heating and cooling of the planet. The instrument also makes spectroscopic measurements of the hundreds of wavelengths of light reflected from materials on Earth. The mission provided its first view of Earth on July 27 and is expected to become fully operational next month.

The $16 million GEMx research project will last five years and is funded by the USGS Earth Mapping Resources Initiative, through investments from the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law. The initiative will capitalize on both the technology developed by NASA for spectroscopic imaging as well as the expertise in analyzing the datasets and extracting critical mineral information from them. Beyond providing additional detail over the mineral maps made by EMIT, GEMx will provide NASA with critical high-resolution data at regional scales to support development of the Surface Biology and Geology mission, part of NASA’s new Earth System Observatory. The Surface Biology and Geology mission will answer questions about the fluxes of carbon, water, nutrients, and energy within and between ecosystems and the atmosphere, the ocean, and Earth.

“This exciting scientific effort is made possible through the President Biden’s Bipartisan Infrastructure Law investments and will enable NASA and the USGS to leverage our unique capabilities toward a common goal,” said USGS Director David Applegate. “The data we’re collecting will be foundational for not only critical minerals research but also for a wide range of other scientific applications, from natural hazards mitigation to ecosystem restoration.”

In 1979, NASA started developing spectral imaging systems at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The first system, the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, led to the development of AVIRIS. NASA and USGS have a long history of collaborating on collecting and analyzing spectroscopic data, including the 17-year Earth Observing-1 mission, which carried the first Earth orbiting instrument spanning the AVIRIS spectral range, Hyperion. This type of spectroscopic imaging has a long history of use in mineral research. These data are also useful for understanding a variety of other Earth science, ecological, and biological issues including geological acid mine drainage, debris flows, agriculture, wildfires, and biodiversity.

For more information about NASA’s Earth science programs, visit:

https://www.nasa.gov/earth

News Media Contact

Tylar Greene

NASA Headquarters, Washington

202-358-0030

tylar.j.greene@nasa.gov

2022-141

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SOLAR SYSTEM

NASA’s Juno Shares First Image From Flyby of Jupiter’s Moon Europa

Sept. 29, 2022

Observations from the spacecraft’s pass of the moon provided the first close-up in over two decades of this ocean world, resulting in remarkable imagery and unique science.

The complex, ice-covered surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa was captured by NASA’s Juno spacecraft during a flyby on Sept. 29, 2022. At closest approach, the spacecraft came within a distance of about 219 miles (352 kilometers).

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SWRI/MSSS

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The first picture NASA’s Juno spacecraft took as it flew by Jupiter’s ice-encrusted moon Europa has arrived on Earth. Revealing surface features in a region near the moon’s equator called Annwn Regio, the image was captured during the solar-powered spacecraft’s closest approach, on Thursday, Sept. 29, at 2:36 a.m. PDT (5:36 a.m. EDT), at a distance of about 219 miles (352 kilometers).

This is only the third close pass in history below 310 miles (500 kilometers) altitude and the closest look any spacecraft has provided at Europa since Jan. 3, 2000, when NASA’s Galileo came within 218 miles (351 kilometers) of the surface.

Europa is the sixth-largest moon in the solar system, slightly smaller than Earth’s moon. Scientists think a salty ocean lies below a miles-thick ice shell, sparking questions about potential conditions capable of supporting life underneath Europa’s surface.

This segment of the first image of Europa taken during this flyby by the spacecraft’s JunoCam (a public-engagement camera) zooms in on a swath of Europa’s surface north of the equator. Due to the enhanced contrast between light and shadow seen along the terminator (the nightside boundary), rugged terrain features are easily seen, including tall shadow-casting blocks, while bright and dark ridges and troughs curve across the surface. The oblong pit near the terminator might be a degraded impact crater.

Find out where Juno is right now with NASA’s interactive Eyes on the Solar System. With its blades stretching out some 66 feet (20 meters), the spacecraft is a dynamic engineering marvel, spinning to keep itself stable as it orbits Jupiter and flies by some of the planet’s moons. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

With this additional data about Europa’s geology, Juno’s observations will benefit future missions to the Jovian moon, including the agency’s Europa Clipper. Set to launch in 2024, Europa Clipper will study the moon’s atmosphere, surface, and interior, with its main science goal being to determine whether there are places below Europa’s surface that could support life.

As exciting as Juno’s data will be, the spacecraft had only a two-hour window to collect it, racing past the moon with a relative velocity of about 14.7 miles per second (23.6 kilometers per second).

“It’s very early in the process, but by all indications Juno’s flyby of Europa was a great success,” said Scott Bolton, Juno principal investigator from Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “This first picture is just a glimpse of the remarkable new science to come from Juno’s entire suite of instruments and sensors that acquired data as we skimmed over the moon’s icy crust.”

During the flyby, the mission collected what will be some of the highest-resolution images of the moon (0.6 miles, or 1 kilometer, per pixel) and obtained valuable data on Europa’s ice shell structure, interior, surface composition, and ionosphere, in addition to the moon’s interaction with Jupiter’s magnetosphere.

See more images from JunoCam

Images of Ganymede from Juno’s 2021 flyby

“The science team will be comparing the full set of images obtained by Juno with images from previous missions, looking to see if Europa’s surface features have changed over the past two decades,” said Candy Hansen, a Juno co-investigator who leads planning for the camera at the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona. “The JunoCam images will fill in the current geologic map, replacing existing low-resolution coverage of the area.”

Juno’s close-up views and data from its Microwave Radiometer (MWR) instrument will provide new details on how the structure of Europa’s ice varies beneath its crust. Scientists can use all this information to generate new insights into the moon, including data in the search for regions where liquid water may exist in shallow subsurface pockets.

Building on Juno’s observations and previous missions such as Voyager 2 and Galileo, NASA’s Europa Clipper mission, slated to arrive at Europa in 2030, will study the moon’s atmosphere, surface, and interior – with a goal to investigate habitability and better understand its global subsurface ocean, the thickness of its ice crust, and search for possible plumes that may be venting subsurface water into space.

The close flyby modified Juno’s trajectory, reducing the time it takes to orbit Jupiter from 43 to 38 days. The flyby also marks the second encounter with a Galilean moon during Juno’s extended mission. The mission explored Ganymede in June 2021 and is scheduled to make close flybys of Io, the most volcanic body in the solar system, in 2023 and 2024.

More About the Mission

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott J. Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA’s New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built and operates the spacecraft.

More information about Juno is available at:

https://www.nasa.gov/juno

and

https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu

News Media Contact

DC Agle

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

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agle@jpl.nasa.gov

Karen Fox / Alana Johnson

NASA Headquarters, Washington

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Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

210-522-2254

dschmid@swri.org

2022-140

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     WEATHER

NASA-Built Weather Sensors Capture Vital Data on Hurricane Ian

Sept. 28, 2022

From aboard the International Space Station, NASA-built instruments Compact Ocean Wind Vector Radiometer (COWVR) and Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems (TEMPEST) captured wind and water vapor data from Hurricane Ian as the storm neared Cuba.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

A pair of microwave radiometers collected data on the storm as they passed over the Caribbean Sea aboard the International Space Station.

Two recently launched instruments that were designed and built at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California to provide forecasters data on weather over the open ocean captured images of Hurricane Ian on Tuesday, Sept. 27, 2022, as the storm approached Cuba on its way north toward the U.S. mainland.

COWVR (short for Compact Ocean Wind Vector Radiometer) and TEMPEST (Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems) observe the planet’s atmosphere and surface from aboard the International Space Station, which passed in low-Earth orbit over the Caribbean Sea at about 12:30 a.m. EDT.

Ian made landfall in Cuba’s Pinar del Rio province at 4:30 a.m. EDT, according to the National Hurricane Center. At that time, it was a Category 3 hurricane, with estimated wind speeds of 125 mph (205 kph).

The image above combines microwave emissions measurements from both COWVR and TEMPEST. White sections indicate the presence of clouds. Green portions indicate rain. Yellow, red, and black indicate where air and water vapor were moving most swiftly. Ian’s center is seen just off of Cuba’s southern coast, and the storm is shown covering the island with rain and wind.

COWVR and TEMPEST sent the data for this image back to Earth in a direct stream via NASA’s tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) constellation. The data were processed at JPL and made available to forecasters less than two hours after collection.

About the size of a minifridge, COWVR measures natural microwave emissions over the ocean. The magnitude of the emissions increases with the amount of rain in the atmosphere, and the strongest rain produces the strongest microwave emissions. TEMPEST – comparable in size to a cereal box – tracks microwaves at a much shorter wavelength, allowing it to see ice particles within the hurricane’s cloudy regions that are thrust into the upper atmosphere by the storm.

Both microwave radiometers were conceived to demonstrate that smaller, more energy-efficient, more simply designed sensors can perform most of the same measurements as current space-based weather instruments that are heavier, consume more power, and cost much more to construct.

COWVR’s development was funded by the U.S. Space Force, and TEMPEST was developed with NASA funding. The U.S. Space Test Program-Houston 8 (STP-H8) is responsible for hosting the instruments on the space station under Space Force funding in partnership with NASA. Data from the instruments is being used by government and university weather forecasters and scientists. The mission will inform development of future space-based weather sensors, and scientists are working on mission concepts that would take advantage of the low-cost microwave sensor technologies to study long-standing questions, such as how heat from the ocean fuels global weather patterns.

News Media Contact

Andrew Wang / Jane J. Lee

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

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ASTEROIDS AND COMETS

NASA’s Asteroid-Striking DART Mission Team Has JPL Members

Sept. 22, 2022

This illustration depicts NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft prior to impact at the Didymos binary asteroid system.

Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins APL/Steve Gribben

It’s a bold and complex undertaking to try impacting an asteroid. JPL is there to assist with navigators, communications, and more.

On Monday, Sept. 26, NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission has the challenging goal of crashing its spacecraft into Dimorphos, a small moonlet orbiting a larger asteroid by the name of Didymos. While the asteroid poses no threat to Earth, this mission will test technology that could be used to defend our planet against potential asteroid or comet hazards that may be detected in the future.

Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland, designed and leads the ambitious mission for NASA. But as with many missions, the endeavor calls on expertise from various NASA centers. In the case of the agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, that expertise is for navigation, precise location of the target, asteroid science, and Earth-to-spacecraft communications.

“Strategic partnerships like ours with APL are the lifeblood of cutting-edge space mission development,” said Laurie Leshin, director of JPL. “Our history of working with APL goes all the way back to Voyager and extends well into the future, with missions like Europa Clipper. The work we do together makes us all – and our missions – better. We’re proud to support the DART mission and team.”

Teachable Moment

THE SCIENCE BEHIND DART

Launched in November 2021, the approximately 1,320-pound (about 600-kilogram) DART spacecraft will be at a point 6.8 million miles (11 million kilometers) from Earth when it impacts Dimorphos, which is just 525 feet (160 meters) across. Making matters more challenging still, the spacecraft will be closing in on the space rock at about 4 miles (6.1 kilometers) per second. Dimorphos orbits Didymos, which is roughly half a mile (780 meters) in diameter, every 11.9 hours.

Getting to Dimorphos

JPL’s navigation section is experienced at getting spacecraft to faraway locations accurately (think: Cassini to Saturn, Juno to Jupiter, Perseverance to Mars). Each mission brings its own set of challenges, and DART has many.

“It’s a difficult job,” said JPL’s Julie Bellerose, who leads the DART spacecraft navigation team. “A big part of what the navigation team is working on is getting DART to a 9-mile-wide (15-kilometer-wide) box in space 24 hours before impact.” At that point, Bellerose said, the mission’s final trajectory correction maneuver (the firing of thrusters to modify the direction of flight) will be executed by mission controllers back on Earth. From then on, it’s up to DART.

During the final hours of its one-way journey, DART will utilize an autonomous onboard navigator created by APL to stay on course. SMART Nav, or Small-body Maneuvering Autonomous Real Time Navigation, collects and processes images of Didymos and Dimorphos from DART’s DRACO (Didymos Reconnaissance and Asteroid Camera for Optical navigation) high-resolution camera, and then uses a set of computational algorithms to determine what maneuvering needs to be done in the final four hours before impact.

Along with the DART team, another set of JPL navigators is calculating and planning the trajectory of DART’s spacecraft companion: The Italian Space Agency’s (ASI) Light Italian CubeSat for Imaging Asteroids, or LICIACube, which has the important task of imaging DART’s impact effects on Dimorphos. The toaster-size spacecraft disconnected from DART on Sept. 11 to navigate interplanetary space on its own – with an assist from the team at JPL.

“We are working with ASI to get LICIACube to within 25 to 50 miles (40 to 80 kilometers) of Dimorphos just two to three minutes after DART’s impact – close enough to get good images of the impact and ejecta plume, but not so close LICIACube could be hit by ejecta,” said JPL’s LICIACube navigation lead Dan Lubey.

While not necessary for the DART mission to succeed, the pre- and post-impact images this small satellite’s two optical cameras LEIA (LICIACube Explorer Imaging for Asteroid) and LUKE (LICIACube Unit Key Explorer) will provide could benefit the scientific community for studies of near-Earth objects and aid in the interpretation of the DART results.

Time and Space

JPL’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS), an element of NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO), was tasked with determining not only the location of Didymos in space to within 16 miles (25 kilometers), but also when Dimorphos would be visible – and accessible – from DART’s direction of approach.

Along with investigators at other institutions, members of CNEOS will study the plume of rock and regolith (broken rock and dust) ejected by the impact, as well as the newly formed impact crater and the movement of Dimorphos in its orbit around its parent asteroid. Led by JPL’s Steve Chesley, they will not only examine data and imagery from DART and LICIACube, but also data from space and ground-based telescopes.

Scientists think the impact should shorten the moonlet’s orbital period around the larger asteroid by several minutes. That duration should be long enough for the effects to be observed and measured by telescopes on Earth. It should also be enough for this test to demonstrate whether kinetic impact technology – impacting an asteroid to adjust its speed and therefore its path – could in fact protect Earth from an asteroid strike.

Important contributors among those Earth-based telescopes include NASA’s Deep Space Network, the array of giant radio telescope dishes that JPL manages. With radar observations led by JPL scientist Shantanu Naidu, the massive 70-meter (230-foot) dish of Deep Space Station 14 at the network’s Goldstone complex near Barstow, California, will begin observing the aftermath of the celestial collision about 11 hours after impact, when Earth’s rotation brings Didymos and Dimorphos into view of Goldstone. Data from the echoes bounced off the two space rocks should help determine what changes occurred in the moonlet’s orbit and may even provide some coarse-resolution radar images.

Of course, radio science is only part of the Deep Space Network’s role. The navigation teams depend on it as well because the network is the means by which NASA has been communicating with spacecraft at the Moon and beyond since 1963.

More About the Mission

Johns Hopkins APL manages the DART mission for PDCO as a project of the agency’s Planetary Missions Program Office. DART is the world’s first planetary defense test mission, intentionally executing a kinetic impact into Dimorphos to slightly change its motion in space. While the asteroid does not pose any threat to Earth, the DART mission will demonstrate that a spacecraft can autonomously navigate to a kinetic impact on a relatively small asteroid and prove this is a viable technique to deflect an asteroid on a collision course with Earth if one is ever discovered. DART will reach its target on Sept. 26, 2022.

ASI’s LICIACube mission is operated by Argotec with independent navigation provided by JPL, the University of Bologna, and Politecnico di Milano. LICIACube rode along with DART throughout launch and cruise and then was released 15 days before DART’s impact. LICIACube’s mission focuses on imaging the results of the DART’s impact (the crater and ejecta plume) as well as the unimpacted side of Dimorphos.

News Media Contact

DC Agle / Ian J. O’Neill

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

818-393-9011 / 818-354-2649

agle@jpl.nasa.gov / ian.j.oneill@jpl.nasa.gov

Josh Handal

NASA Headquarters, Washington

202-358-2307

joshua.a.handal@nasa.gov

Justyna Surowiec / Michael Buckley

Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory

240-302-9268 / 240-228-7536

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2022-137

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SOLAR SYSTEM

NASA’s Juno Will Perform Close Flyby of Jupiter’s Icy Moon Europa

Sept. 22, 2022

This image of Jupiter’s moon Europa was taken by the JunoCam imager aboard NASA’s Juno spacecraft on Oct. 16, 2021, from a distance of about 51,000 miles (82,000 kilometers).

Credit: Image data: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS. Image processing: Andrea Luck CC BY

Full Image Details

As the spacecraft makes a close approach of the moon, it is expected to provide valuable science – and remarkable imagery – for NASA’s upcoming Europa Clipper mission.

On Thursday, Sept. 29, at 2:36 a.m. PDT (5:36 a.m. EDT), NASA’s Juno spacecraft will come within 222 miles (358 kilometers) of the surface of Jupiter’s ice-covered moon, Europa. The solar-powered spacecraft is expected to obtain some of the highest-resolution images ever taken of portions of Europa’s surface, as well as collect valuable data on the moon’s interior, surface composition, and ionosphere, along with its interaction with Jupiter’s magnetosphere.

Such information could benefit future missions, including the agency’s Europa Clipper, which is set to launch in 2024 to study the icy moon. “Europa is such an intriguing Jovian moon, it is the focus of its own future NASA mission,” said Juno Principal Investigator Scott Bolton of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. “We’re happy to provide data that may help the Europa Clipper team with mission planning, as well as provide new scientific insights into this icy world.”

Juno’s extended mission includes flybys of the moons Ganymede, Europa, and Io. This graphic depicts the spacecraft’s orbits of Jupiter – labeled “PJ” for perijove, or point of closest approach to the planet – from its prime mission in gray to the 42 orbits of its extended mission in shades of blue and purple.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI

Full Image Details

With an equatorial diameter of 1,940 miles (3,100 kilometers), Europa is about 90% the size of Earth’s Moon. Scientists think a salty ocean lies below a miles-thick ice shell, sparking questions about potential conditions capable of supporting life underneath Europa’s surface.

The close flyby will modify Juno’s trajectory, reducing the time it takes to orbit Jupiter from 43 to 38 days. It will be the closest a NASA spacecraft has approached Europa since Galileo came within 218 miles (351 kilometers) on Jan. 3, 2000. In addition, this flyby marks the second encounter with a Galilean moon during Juno’s extended mission. The mission explored Ganymede in June 2021 and plans to make close approaches of Io in 2023 and 2024.

Data collection will begin an hour prior to closest approach, when the spacecraft is 51,820 miles (83,397 kilometers) from Europa.

“The relative velocity between spacecraft and moon will be 14.7 miles per second (23.6 kilometers per second), so we are screaming by pretty fast,” said John Bordi, Juno deputy mission manager at JPL. “All steps have to go like clockwork to successfully acquire our planned data, because soon after the flyby is complete, the spacecraft needs to be reoriented for our upcoming close approach of Jupiter, which happens only 7 ½ hours later.”

Find out where Juno is right now with NASA’s interactive Eyes on the Solar System. With its three giant blades stretching out some 66 feet (20 meters), the spacecraft is a dynamic engineering marvel, spinning to keep itself stable as it makes oval-shaped orbits around Jupiter. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The spacecraft’s full suite of instruments and sensors will be activated for the Europa encounter. Juno’s Jupiter Energetic-Particle Detector Instrument (JEDI) and its medium-gain (X-band) radio antenna will collect data on Europa’s ionosphere. Its Waves, Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE), and Magnetometer (MAG) experiments will measure plasma in the moon’s wake as Juno explores Europa’s interaction with Jupiter’s magnetosphere.

MAG and Waves will also search for possible water plumes above Europa’s surface. “We have the right equipment to do the job, but to capture a plume will require a lot of luck,” said Bolton. “We have to be at the right place at just the right time, but if we are so fortunate, it’s a home run for sure.”

See raw images from the spacecraft’s JunoCam imager

Inside and Out

Juno’s Microwave Radiometer (MWR) will peer into Europa’s water-ice crust, obtaining data on its composition and temperature. This is the first time such data will have been collected to study the moon’s icy shell.

In addition, the mission expects to take four visible-light images of the moon with JunoCam (a public-engagement camera) during the flyby. The Juno science team will compare them to images from previous missions, looking for changes in Europa’s surface features that might have occurred over the past two decades. These visible-light images will have an expected resolution better than 0.6 miles (1 kilometer) per pixel.

Although Juno will be in Europa’s shadow when closest to the moon, Jupiter’s atmosphere will reflect enough sunlight for Juno’s visible-light imagers to collect data. Designed to take images of star fields and search for bright stars with known positions to help Juno get its bearings, the mission’s star camera (called the Stellar Reference Unit) will take a high-resolution black-and-white image of Europa’s surface. Meanwhile, the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) will attempt to collect infrared images of its surface.

Juno’s closeup views and data from its MWR instrument will inform the Europa Clipper mission, which will perform nearly 50 flybys after it arrives at Europa in 2030. Europa Clipper will gather data on the moon’s atmosphere, surface, and interior – information that scientists will use to better understand Europa’s global subsurface ocean, the thickness of its ice crust, and possible plumes that may be venting subsurface water into space.

More About the Mission

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Juno mission for the principal investigator, Scott J. Bolton, of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. Juno is part of NASA’s New Frontiers Program, which is managed at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built and operates the spacecraft.

More information about Juno is available at:

https://www.nasa.gov/juno

and

https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu

News Media Contact

DC Agle

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

818-393-9011

agle@jpl.nasa.gov

Karen Fox / Alana Johnson

NASA Headquarters, Washington

301-286-6284 / 202-358-1501

karen.c.fox@nasa.gov / alana.r.johnson@nasa.gov

Deb Schmid

Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

210-522-2254

dschmid@swri.org

2022-138

For more information, please visit the following link:

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VIDEO

What’s Up: October 2022

The Orionid meteor shower peaks in late October, and Mars appears to halt its usual eastward motion, wandering toward the west for a bit.

Read More

What are some skywatching highlights in October 2022? Enjoy giant planets Jupiter and Saturn all night throughout the month. Then watch as Mars begins its retrograde motion, moving westward each night instead of eastward, for the next few months. Finally, check out the Orionid meteors overnight on Oct. 20.

Transcript:

What’s Up for October? Evenings with giants, Mars changes course, and meteors from Orion.

Giant planets Jupiter and Saturn are visible throughout the night in October. Early in the evening, you’ll find them to the southeast, moving slowly westward with the stars over the course of the night. They form a triangle with bright star Fomalhaut.

When observing this trio, note how the planets shine with a steady light, while the star twinkles. This can be an easy way to know if what you’re looking at is a planet or a star.

Mars has been steadily working its way toward the east all year like it usually does, relative to the background stars. But at the end of October, Mars halts this apparent motion, and then appears to reverse course. Over the next three months, from November to late January, Mars moves toward the west each night. Then near the end of January, it reverses direction again, and continues its eastward journey.

This is what’s called the retrograde motion of Mars. It happens about every two years, and it really threw early observers for a loop. That Mars appears to change its direction is an illusion caused by the motions of our planet in its orbit passing by the Red Planet in its orbit.

See, Earth and Mars are on these roughly circular paths around the Sun, like cars on a racetrack, and Earth is on the inner, faster track. About every 26 months, we overtake Mars, which is moving slower in its orbit. During that period when we’re passing Mars, and before we round the bend in our orbit to pull away from it, we see Mars in retrograde, appearing to change direction, even though it’s still moving forward in its orbit.

So take note of Mars over the next few months, as it appears to reverse course. Note how its position changes with respect to Betelgeuse, Aldebaran and the Pleiades over the weeks, and you’ll be witnessing what was once a source of intense curiosity for astronomers, but which we now know is just a sign of two planets passing in the night.

The Orionid meteor shower is active throughout October and November, and peaks on the night of October 20. It’s a moderate shower, usually producing 10-20 meteors per hour at its peak, under clear, dark skies. This year, the Moon will be about 20 percent full on the peak nights. So it will interfere a bit when it rises a couple of hours before dawn, but shouldn’t totally spoil the viewing.

The shower’s name comes from the fact that you can trace the paths of its meteors back to an area on the sky near Orion. These meteors are fragments of dust left behind by Comet Halley in a trail that extends along its orbit. They tend to be bright and fast moving, and they often leave persistent trails that can glow in the sky for a few seconds after they streak by.

No special equipment is needed to observe meteor showers. Just make sure you’re warm enough, and viewing from a safe, dark spot away from bright lights. Then all you have to do is look up and enjoy the show.

Here are the phases of the Moon for October. Stay up to date with all of NASA’s missions to explore the solar system and beyond at nasa.gov. I’m Preston Dyches from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and that’s What’s Up for this month.

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/videos/whats-up-october-2022?utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=nasajpl&utm_content=monthly20220930-11

What’s Up: October 2022 Skywatching Tips from NASA

Sep 30, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

What are some skywatching highlights in October 2022? Enjoy giant planets Jupiter and Saturn all night throughout the month. Then watch as Mars begins its retrograde motion, moving westward each night instead of eastward, for the next few months. Finally, check out the Orionid meteors overnight on Oct. 20. 0:00 Intro 0:11 Evenings with Jupiter & Saturn 0:37 Mars’ retrograde motion 2:07 Orionid meteor shower 3:04 October Moon phases Additional information about topics covered in this episode of What’s Up, along with still images from the video, and the video transcript, are available at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/skywatch…. — Additional Resources — Skywatching resources from NASA: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/skywatch… NASA “Watch the Skies” blog: https://blogs.nasa.gov/Watch_the_Skies/ NASA’s Night Sky Network: https://nightsky.jpl.nasa.gov/

Chapters

Intro 0:00Evenings with Jupiter & Saturn 0:11

Mars’ retrograde motion 0:37

Orionid meteor shower 2:07

October Moon phases 3:04

Mars

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Investigates Geologically Rich Mars Terrain

Sept. 15, 2022

NASA’s Perseverance rover puts its robotic arm to work around a rocky outcrop called “Skinner Ridge” in Mars’ Jezero Crater. Composed of multiple images, this mosaic shows layered sedimentary rocks in the face of a cliff in the delta, as well as one of the locations where the rover abraded a circular patch to analyze a rock’s composition.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

The latest findings provide greater detail on a region of the Red Planet that has a watery past and is yielding promising samples for the NASA-ESA Mars Sample Return campaign.

NASA’s Perseverance rover is well into its second science campaign, collecting rock-core samples from features within an area long considered by scientists to be a top prospect for finding signs of ancient microbial life on Mars. The rover has collected four samples from an ancient river delta in the Red Planet’s Jezero Crater since July 7, bringing the total count of scientifically compelling rock samples to 12.

“We picked the Jezero Crater for Perseverance to explore because we thought it had the best chance of providing scientifically excellent samples – and now we know we sent the rover to the right location,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA’s associate administrator for science in Washington. “These first two science campaigns have yielded an amazing diversity of samples to bring back to Earth by the Mars Sample Return campaign.”

Twenty-eight miles (45 kilometers) wide, Jezero Crater hosts a delta – an ancient fan-shaped feature that formed about 3.5 billion years ago at the convergence of a Martian river and a lake. Perseverance is currently investigating the delta’s sedimentary rocks, formed when particles of various sizes settled in the once-watery environment. During its first science campaign, the rover explored the crater’s floor, finding igneous rock, which forms deep underground from magma or during volcanic activity at the surface.

“The delta, with its diverse sedimentary rocks, contrasts beautifully with the igneous rocks – formed from crystallization of magma – discovered on the crater floor,” said Perseverance project scientist Ken Farley of Caltech in Pasadena, California. “This juxtaposition provides us with a rich understanding of the geologic history after the crater formed and a diverse sample suite. For example, we found a sandstone that carries grains and rock fragments created far from Jezero Crater – and a mudstone that includes intriguing organic compounds.”

Composed of multiple images from NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover, this mosaic shows a rocky outcrop called “Wildcat Ridge,” where the rover extracted two rock cores and abraded a circular patch to investigate the rock’s composition.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

“Wildcat Ridge” is the name given to a rock about 3 feet (1 meter) wide that likely formed billions of years ago as mud and fine sand settled in an evaporating saltwater lake. On July 20, the rover abraded some of the surface of Wildcat Ridge so it could analyze the area with the instrument called Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals, or SHERLOC.

SHERLOC’s analysis indicates the samples feature a class of organic molecules that are spatially correlated with those of sulfate minerals. Sulfate minerals found in layers of sedimentary rock can yield significant information about the aqueous environments in which they formed.

The most detailed panorama ever returned from Mars – combining 1,118 images taken by the Mastcam-Z instrument on NASA’s Perseverance rover in June 2022 – reveals the intriguing landscape of Jezero Crater’s delta. In this video, rover science operations team member Rachel Kronyak gives a tour of the panorama.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

What Is Organic Matter?

Organic molecules consist of a wide variety of compounds made primarily of carbon and usually include hydrogen and oxygen atoms. They can also contain other elements, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. While there are chemical processes that produce these molecules that don’t require life, some of these compounds are the chemical building blocks of life. The presence of these specific molecules is considered to be a potential biosignature – a substance or structure that could be evidence of past life but may also have been produced without the presence of life.

In 2013, NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover found evidence of organic matter in rock-powder samples, and Perseverance has detected organics in Jezero Crater before. But unlike that previous discovery, this latest detection was made in an area where, in the distant past, sediment and salts were deposited into a lake under conditions in which life could potentially have existed. In its analysis of Wildcat Ridge, the SHERLOC instrument registered the most abundant organic detections on the mission to date.

See more images from the Perseverance mission

Where Is Perseverance Right Now?

Explore with Perseverance in 3D

Perseverance Video File

“In the distant past, the sand, mud, and salts that now make up the Wildcat Ridge sample were deposited under conditions where life could potentially have thrived,” said Farley. “The fact the organic matter was found in such a sedimentary rock – known for preserving fossils of ancient life here on Earth – is important. However, as capable as our instruments aboard Perseverance are, further conclusions regarding what is contained in the Wildcat Ridge sample will have to wait until it’s returned to Earth for in-depth study as part of the agency’s Mars Sample Return campaign.”

The first step in the NASA-ESA (European Space Agency) Mars Sample Return campaign began when Perseverance cored its first rock sample in September 2021. Along with its rock-core samples, the rover has collected one atmospheric sample and two witness tubes, all of which are stored in the rover’s belly.

The geologic diversity of the samples already carried in the rover is so good that the rover team is looking into depositing select tubes near the base of the delta in about two months. After depositing the cache, the rover will continue its delta explorations.

“I’ve studied Martian habitability and geology for much of my career and know first-hand the incredible scientific value of returning a carefully collected set of Mars rocks to Earth,” said Laurie Leshin, director of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. “That we are weeks from deploying Perseverance’s fascinating samples and mere years from bringing them to Earth so scientists can study them in exquisite detail is truly phenomenal. We will learn so much.”

More About the Mission

A key objective for Perseverance’s mission on Mars is astrobiology, including caching samples that may contain signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet’s geology and past climate, pave the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith.

Subsequent NASA missions, in cooperation with ESA, would send spacecraft to Mars to collect these sealed samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA’s Moon to Mars exploration approach, which includes Artemis missions to the Moon that will help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPL, which is managed for NASA by Caltech, built and manages operations of the Perseverance rover.

Perseverance Explores the Jezero Crater Delta

Sep 14, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA’s Perseverance Mars Rover has arrived at an ancient delta in Jezero Crater, one of the best places on the Red Planet to search for potential signs of ancient life. The delta is an area where scientists surmise that a river once flowed billions of years ago into a lake and deposited sediments in a fan shape. Rachel Kronyak, a member of the Perseverance science operations team, guides the viewer through this Martian panorama and its intriguing sedimentary rocks. It’s the most detailed view ever returned from the Martian surface, consisting of 2.5 billion pixels and generated from 1,118 individual Mastcam-Z images. Those images were acquired on June 12, 13, 16, 17, and 20, 2022 (the 466th, 467th, 470th, 471st, and 474th Martian day, or sol, of Perseverance’s mission). In this panorama, an area called Hogwallow Flats is visible, as is Skinner Ridge, where two rock core samples were taken. The color enhancement in this image improves the visual contrast and accentuates color differences. This makes it easier for the science team to use their everyday experience to interpret the landscape. For more information on the Perseverance rover, visit https://mars.nasa.gov/perseverance. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

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For more about Perseverance:

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

News Media Contact

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NASA Headquarters, Washington

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

818-393-9011

agle@jpl.nasa.gov

2022-135

For more information, please visit the following link:

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WEATHER

NASA’s AIRS Instrument Records Typhoon Hinnamnor Before Landfall

Sept. 8, 2022

NASA’s AIRS instrument imaged Typhoon Hinnamnor on the afternoon of Sept. 5, shortly before the storm made landfall in South Korea on Sept. 6. This image captured Hinnamnor – the first super typhoon of the Western Pacific season – as it spiraled northward through the East China Sea.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder aboard the Aqua satellite captured the outer bands of the powerful tropical cyclone as the storm approached the Korean Peninsula.

NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard the Aqua satellite captured imagery of Typhoon Hinnamnor in the West Pacific Ocean just before 2 p.m. local time on Sept. 5. Typhoon Hinnamnor was one of the strongest in South Korea’s recorded history, dropping some 40 inches (102 centimeters) of rain and unleashing record winds.

In an infrared image from AIRS, the typhoon can be seen moving northward over the Korean Peninsula, with the coast of China to the west and the southernmost Japanese islands to the east. The large purple area of the image indicates very cold clouds at about minus 90 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 67 degrees Celsius), carried high into the atmosphere by deep thunderstorms. These storm clouds are associated with heavy rainfall. The image’s extensive areas of red beyond the storm indicate temperatures of around 80 F (26 C), typical of Earth’s daytime surface during late summer. These areas are mostly cloud-free, with the clear air caused by air motion outward from the cold clouds in the storm center then downward in the surrounding areas.

U.S. Hurricane Hunter planes don’t monitor the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean, so AIRS and other satellite instruments are essential for tracking typhoons as they grow. AIRS, launched in 2002, was the first instrument to reveal the 3D distribution of rain within tropical storms like Hinnamnor. These 3D images have made a major contribution to knowledge of how hurricanes and typhoons develop, improving forecasts and saving lives.

One of six instruments aboard Aqua, AIRS provides data that is improving weather forecasts and advancing our understanding of Earth’s climate. AIRS, along with its partner microwave instrument the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, was a generational advancement in atmospheric sounding systems at its launch and has provided two decades of high-quality atmospheric observations. These instruments are part of NASA’s larger Earth observing fleet, which works to measure components of the global water and energy cycles, climate variation and trends, and the response of the climate system to increased greenhouse gases.

AIRS, in conjunction with AMSU-A, senses infrared and microwave radiation emitted from Earth to provide a 3D look at the planet’s weather and climate, making observations down to Earth’s surface. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity, cloud amounts and heights, greenhouse gas concentrations, and many other atmospheric phenomena. AIRS is managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, a division of Caltech.

More information about AIRS can be found at:

https://airs.jpl.nasa.gov

News Media Contact

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Written by Sally Younger

2022-133

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STARS AND GALAXIES

A Cosmic Tarantula, Caught by NASA’s Webb

Sept. 6, 2022

In this mosaic image stretching 340 light-years across, Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) displays the Tarantula Nebula star-forming region in a new light, including tens of thousands of never-before-seen young stars that were previously shrouded in cosmic dust.

Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI, Webb ERO Production Team

The cycle of star formation is on display in this nearby nebula. Webb’s MIRI instrument captures protostars nestled deep in clouds of gas and dust, still gathering mass.

Once upon a space-time, a cosmic creation story unfolded: thousands of never-before-seen young stars spotted in a stellar nursery called 30 Doradus, captured by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. Nicknamed the Tarantula Nebula for the appearance of its dusty filaments in previous telescope images, the nebula has long been a favorite for astronomers studying star formation. In addition to young stars, Webb reveals distant background galaxies, as well as the detailed structure and composition of the nebula’s gas and dust.

At only 161,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy, the Tarantula Nebula is the largest and brightest star-forming region in the Local Group, the galaxies nearest our Milky Way. It is home to the hottest, most massive stars known. Astronomers focused three of Webb’s high-resolution infrared instruments on the Tarantula. Viewed with Webb’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), the region resembles a burrowing tarantula’s home, lined with its silk. The nebula’s cavity centered in the NIRCam image has been hollowed out by blistering radiation from a cluster of massive young stars, which sparkle pale blue in the image. Only the densest surrounding areas of the nebula resist erosion by these stars’ powerful stellar winds, forming pillars that appear to point back toward the cluster. These pillars contain forming protostars, which will eventually emerge from their dusty cocoons and take their turn shaping the nebula.

At the longer wavelengths of light captured by its Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI), Webb focuses on the area surrounding the central star cluster and unveils a very different view of the Tarantula Nebula. Full Image Details

Credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI, Webb ERO Production Team

Webb’s Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) caught one very young star doing just that. Astronomers previously thought this star might be a bit older and already in the process of clearing out a bubble around itself. However, NIRSpec showed that the star was only just beginning to emerge from its pillar and still maintained an insulating cloud of dust around itself. Without Webb’s high-resolution spectra at infrared wavelengths, this episode of star formation in action could not have been revealed.

The region takes on a different appearance when viewed in the longer infrared wavelengths detected by Webb’s Mid-infrared Instrument (MIRI). The hot stars fade, and the cooler gas and dust glow. Within the stellar nursery clouds, points of light indicate embedded protostars, still gaining mass. While shorter wavelengths of light are absorbed or scattered by dust grains in the nebula, and therefore never reach Webb to be detected, longer mid-infrared wavelengths penetrate that dust, ultimately revealing a previously unseen cosmic environment.

One of the reasons the Tarantula Nebula is interesting to astronomers is that the nebula has a similar type of chemical composition as the gigantic star-forming regions observed at the universe’s “cosmic noon,” when the cosmos was only a few billion years old and star formation was at its peak. Star-forming regions in our Milky Way galaxy are not producing stars at the same furious rate as the Tarantula Nebula and have a different chemical composition. This makes the Tarantula the closest (i.e., easiest to see in detail) example of what was happening in the universe as it reached its brilliant high noon. Webb will provide astronomers the opportunity to compare and contrast observations of star formation in the Tarantula Nebula with the telescope’s deep observations of distant galaxies from the actual era of cosmic noon.

Despite humanity’s thousands of years of stargazing, the star-formation process still holds many mysteries – many of them due to our previous inability to get crisp images of what was happening behind the thick clouds of stellar nurseries. Webb has already begun revealing a universe never seen before, and is only getting started on rewriting the stellar creation story.

The James Webb Space Telescope is the world’s premier space science observatory. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

News Media Contact

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

626-808-2469

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2022-132

For more information, please visit the following link:

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EXOPLANETS

NASA’s Webb Takes Its First-Ever Direct Image of Distant World

Sept. 2, 2022

This image shows the exoplanet HIP 65426 b in different bands of infrared light, as seen from the James Webb Space Telescope. The images at bottom look different because of the ways the different Webb instruments capture light. A coronagraph blocks the host star’s light so the planet can be seen.

Credit: NASA/ESA/CSA, A Carter (UCSC), the ERS 1386 team, and A. Pagan (STScI)

One of the telescope’s instruments used to observe the planet is managed by the agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

For the first time, astronomers have used NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to take a direct image of a planet outside our solar system. The exoplanet is a gas giant, meaning it has no rocky surface and is not habitable. The finding is detailed in NASA’s latest JWST blog entry.

Two of Webb’s instruments observed the planet: the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), and the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI). NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California managed MIRI during its design, construction, and commissioning. Both instruments are equipped with coronagraphs, which are sets of tiny masks that block out starlight, enabling Webb to take direct images of certain exoplanets like this one, called HIP 65426 b. NASA’s Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope, slated to launch later this decade, will use the even more advanced Coronagraph Instrument, which is also managed by JPL.

News Media Contact

Calla Cofield

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

626-808-2469

calla.e.cofield@jpl.nasa.gov

2022-131

For more information, please visit the following link:

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SOLAR SYSTEM

Explore the Solar System With NASA’s New-and-Improved 3D ‘Eyes’

Sept. 2, 2022

NASA’s Eyes on the Solar System includes renderings of 126 NASA spacecraft, including Juno, seen here flying by Jupiter.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The agency’s newly upgraded “Eyes on the Solar System” visualization tool includes Artemis I’s trajectory along with a host of other new features.

NASA has revamped its “Eyes on the Solar System” 3D visualization tool, making interplanetary travel easier and more interactive than ever. More than two years in the making, the update delivers better controls, improved navigation, and a host of new opportunities to learn about our incredible corner of the cosmos – no spacesuit required. All you need is a device with an internet connection.

Anyone with an internet-enabled device browser can explore the past, present, and future of the solar system in 3D with NASA’s interactive Eyes on the Solar System. Click anywhere on the image to get a closer look at a 3D rendering of NASA’s Cassini spacecraft flying by Saturn’s moon Enceladus in 2015.

Learn the basics about dwarf planets or the finer points of gas giants, and ride alongside no fewer than 126 space missions past and present – including Perseverance during its harrowing entry, descent, and landing on the Red Planet. In fact, you can follow the paths of spacecraft and celestial bodies as far back as 1949 and as far into the future as 2049.

While you’re at it, you can rotate objects, compare them side by side, and even modulate the perspective as well as the lighting. The visuals are striking. This latest version of “Eyes” also lets you scroll through rich interactive journeys, including Voyager’s Grand Tour of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

Watch a video tutorial to get started with ‘Eyes’

“The beauty of the new browser-based ‘Eyes on the Solar System’ is that it really invites exploration. You just need an internet connection, a device that has a web browser, and some curiosity,” said Jason Craig, the producer of the “Eyes” software at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

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2022-130

For more information, please visit the following link:

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VON KARMAN LECTURE

Ocean Worlds Life Surveyor

The Ocean Worlds Life Surveyor (OWLS) is the first life detection suite to explore a wide range of size scales, from single molecules to microscopic organisms, in a water sample.

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Thousands of People and Thousands of Artworks In New York City Part 3

Thousands of People and Thousands of Artworks In New York City Part 3

On Tuesday, August 30, 2022

Because of the COVID-19 epidemic, it was more than two years since we came to New York City.  NYC was an epic place for the deadly virus and took many lives.  Now we came to enjoy the place and people once again.  The COVID-19 virus is scaled down a great deal, and many more people have been vaccinated to prevent the virus.  However, some people who took the vaccine still get sick from the virus, but the sickness is not severe or deadly.  Some people were still wearing masks but many more did not.

We still see the mixture of people that makes us feel comfortable to be in NYC.  It is a melting pot, and in many ways a center for the diverse population of the world. 

We walked toward to the Chinatown area where are the rows of Chinese restaurants on every street.  Our stomachs were growling in anticipation of the taste of fried dumplings and sour soup. 

 Our destination was not a big restaurant.  We headed to the small lane, called Mosco Street.   In the middle of the lane is a very small takeout restaurant that specializes in fried dumplings and soup.  We bought fried dumpling and soup to go.

🙂THE DUMPLING LADY OF CHINATOWN 🙂

At the bottom of the lane, just a few minutes’ walk from the dumpling restaurant, is a small park, called Columbus Park Playground.  There is a basketball court next to the children’s playground.  There are some benches for parents or anyone to sit and rest, enjoying watching the little children play on the swings and slide.  We found a bench to sit, watching little ones having a good time playing while we consumed our delicious fried dumplings and soup.

We went to buy a pack of Melon cakes for John.  I chose a pack black bean cakes and we also bought some other items to take home. 

We walked back down to Mosco Street heading home, taking Path train to Newark, New Jersey.  As we looked up, we saw the New World Trade Center standing tall in the sky. 

We wanted to celebrate our trip to NYC, but we could not stop thinking about September 11, for the anniversary for twentieth year was coming soon.  We still remember the event that caused heart ache for so many people.  But following that dreadful day, an important thing happened in USA and around the world.  It became a unifying factor for solidarity among most of humanity.  Today however, it seems the opposite is taking place.  Especially in US politics, such as January 6 event in 2021 with the mobs ordered by Mr. Trump to attack the US Capital.

Please make every effort to encourage unity, compassion and understanding between people the world over.  With this we can find peace and happiness together as one human family.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, September 19, 2022

For my page on Remembering 9/11, please visit the following link: http://ingpeaceproject.com/remembering-911/

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Thousands of People and Thousands of Artworks In New York City Part 2

Thousands of People and Thousands of Artworks In New York City Part 2

On Tuesday, August 30, 2022

John and I had not visited New York City for a couple years because of COVID-19.   We were eager to see once again the places we enjoyed walking about, seeing all kinds of people, mural artwork on the walls of buildings, and sculpture in parks and other places.  On Tuesday, August 30 this year (2022), we had to go to midtown in New York City to conduct some business.  We left our house about 8:00 AM, and walked to Newark Penn station to take the Path train to the World Trade Center.  We took subway north to midtown and finished our business about noon.  It was time for us to have our favorite lunch in China Town.  For this we took a downtown subway to Canal and Lafayette Street.  Here we were very glad to see murals on the sidewalks, tall buildings, and colorful graffiti on the walls of a parking lot.  One interesting artwork was a large sun flower crochet on the fence of a parking lot.  On Canal Street, we enjoyed viewing all kinds of merchandises being sold on sidewalks and in the shops.  From there we turned into a small lane heading to our favorite source for food and a place to rest.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, September 17, 2022

Go to the top

Thousands of People and Thousands of Artworks In New York City Part 1

Thousands of People and Thousands of Artworks In New York City Part 1

On Tuesday, August 30, 2022

China Town, Canal Street and Lafayette Street

John and I had not visited New York City for a couple years because of COVID-19.   We were eager to see once again the places we enjoyed walking about, seeing all kinds of people, mural artwork on the walls of buildings, and sculpture in parks and other places.  On Tuesday, August 30 this year (2022), we had to go to midtown in New York City to conduct some business.  We left our house about 8:00 AM, and walked to Newark Penn station to take the Path train to the World Trade Center.  We took subway north to midtown and finished our business about noon.  It was time for us to have our favorite lunch in China Town.  For this we took a downtown subway to Canal and Lafayette Street.  Here we were very glad to see murals on the sidewalks, tall buildings, and colorful graffiti on the walls of a parking lot.  One interesting artwork was a large sun flower crochet on the fence of a parking lot.  On Canal Street, we enjoyed viewing all kinds of merchandises being sold on sidewalks and in the shops.  From there we turned into a small lane heading to our favorite source for food and a place to rest.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, September 13, 2022

Go to the top

JPL News-Month in Review Sept 2022, and NASA-Image of the Day

JPL News-Month in Review Sept 2022, and NASA-Image of the Day                       NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory jplnewsroom@jpl.nasa.gov

CLIMATE CHANGE
NASA Studies Find Previously Unknown Loss of Antarctic Ice
New research on Antarctica, including the first map of iceberg calving, doubles the previous estimates of loss from ice shelves and details how the continent is changing. Read More

 

STARS AND GALAXIES
Engineers Solve Data Glitch on NASA’s Voyager 1
Webb ushers in a new era of exoplanet science with the first unequivocal detection of carbon dioxide in a planetary atmosphere outside our solar system. Read More

     JPL LIFE
NASA Helps Minority-Serving Institutions Refine Tech Proposals

Three teams selected for the agency’s first MSI Space Accelerator visited the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to work with mentors in an inspiring conclusion to the 10-week program. Read More

MARS
NASA’s Perseverance Makes New Discoveries in Mars’ Jezero Crater
The rover found that Jezero Crater’s floor is made up of volcanic rocks that have interacted with water. Read More

STARS AND GALAXIES

 

NASA’s Webb Detects Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanet Atmosphere
Webb ushers in a new era of exoplanet science with the first unequivocal detection of carbon dioxide in

a planetary atmosphere outside our solar system. Read More

VIDE

What’s Up – Sept 2022

What’s Up for September? Mars on the move, prime viewing time for Jupiter, and a clever way to

find your bearings on the equinox.

Watch Now

What’s Up: September 2022 Skywatching Tips from NASA

Sep 1, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

What are some skywatching highlights in September 2022? Mars is on the move this month,

forming a “red triangle” with bright red stars Aldebaran and Betelgeuse. Saturn and Jupiter

fly with the Moon on the 9th, and then the Moon slides over closer Jupiter in the morning

sky on the 11th. At the end of the month, September 23rd brings the equinox,

meaning day and night are of nearly equal length, and a change of seasons is

afoot. 0:00 Intro 0:12 Mars on the move in September 0:43 Jupiter at opposition

1:39 Evening planets: Jupiter and Saturn 2:07 September equinox 2:55 September

Moon phases Additional information about topics covered in this episode of What’s Up,

along with still images from the video, and the video transcript, are available

at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/skywatch….

STARS AND GALAXIES

NASA Scientists Help Probe Dark Energy by Testing Gravity
Could one of the biggest puzzles in astrophysics be solved by reworking Albert Einstein’s

theory of gravity? A new study

co-authored by NASA scientists says not yet. Read More

SOLAR SYSTEM

45 Years Ago: Voyager 2 Begins Its Epic Journey to the Outer Planets and Beyond

The ambitious mission took advantage of a rare alignment of the outer planets before

continuing its journey into interstellar space. Read More

Voyager at 45: NASA’s Longest and Farthest Explorers (Live Q&A)

Streamed live on Aug 30, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Launched in 1977, the twin Voyager probes are NASA’s longest-operating mission and the only

spacecraft ever to explore interstellar space. For two decades after launch, the spacecraft were

planetary explorers, giving us up-close views of the gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and

Neptune. Now, as they reach distances far beyond the hopes of their original designers,

the aging spacecraft challenge their team in new ways, requiring creative solutions to keep

them operating and sending back science data from the space between the stars.

As we celebrate the 45th anniversary of these epic explorers, join Voyager deputy

project scientist Linda Spilker and propulsion engineer Todd Barber for a live Q&A.

SOLAR SYSTEM
Voyager, NASA’s Longest-Lived Mission, Logs 45 Years in Space
Launched in 1977, the twin Voyager probes are NASA’s longest-operating mission

and the only spacecraft ever to explore interstellar space. Read More

STARS AND GALAXIES

Test Chamber for NASA’s New Cosmic Mapmaker Makes Dramatic Entrance
The SPHEREx mission will create a 3D map of the entire sky. Its cutting-edge

instruments require a custom-built chamber to make sure they’ll be ready to

operate in space. Read More

GALLERY

Robots in Development at JPL

Check out this curated gallery of some prototypes of some future explorers.

View Now

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/image-gallery-robotics?utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=nasajpl&utm_content=monthly20220902-18

ROBOTICS.

Image Gallery: Robotics

Explorers in Development at JPL

JPL is the lead NASA center for robotic exploration, which means we send robots, not humans, into space. Here is a gallery of some prototypes of future explorers that have recently been in development. Some can help us on Earth, while others may lead the way for exploration of our solar system.

Nebula-Spot

Aug. 25, 2022

CREDIT

NASA/JPL-Caltech

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/nebula-spot

The DuAxel Rover During a Field Test in California’s Mojave Desert

Oct. 13, 2020The DuAxel rover participates in a field test in the Mojave Desert in California.

The four-wheeled rover is composed of two separate two-wheeled Axel robots, which

are attached to one another via a tether. When the robot needs to travel to over long

distances, it operates as one conventional rover with four wheels. Once it reaches its

destination, it can separate and transform into two robots: One part anchors itself in

place while the other uses a tether to explore otherwise inaccessible terrain.

This flexibility was built with crater walls, pits, scarps, vents, and other extreme terrain

in mind. That’s because on Earth, some of the best locations to study geology can be

found in rocky outcrops and cliff faces, where many layers of the past are neatly exposed.

They’re hard enough to reach here, let alone on the Moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies.

The DuAxel project is a technology demonstration being developed by roboticists at

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California to see how this unconventional

rover might fill a niche in planetary exploration.

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/pia24108-the-duaxel-rover-during-a-field-test-in-californias-mojave-desert

DuAxel Undocks a Tethered Axel to Explore a Steep Slope

Oct. 13, 2020

During a field test in the Mojave Desert, the DuAxel robot separates into two single-axled

robots so that one can rappel down a slope too steep for conventional rovers.

The tether connecting both Axels not only allows the one robot to descend

the slope while the other remains anchored in place, it also provides power and

a means of communication with the anchoring robot above.

The DuAxel project is a technology demonstration being developed by roboticists at

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California to see how this unconventional

rover might fill a niche in the exploration the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

More information about Axel can be found here:

https://www-robotics.jpl.nasa.gov/systems/system.cfm?System=16

 CREDIT

NASA/JPL-Caltech/J.D. Gammell

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/pia24109-duaxel-undocks-a-tethered-axel-to-explore-a-steep-slope

 ROBOTICS AT JPL.

A-PUFFER

Inspired by origami, the foldable Autonomous Pop-Up Flat Folding Explorer Robot

(A-PUFFER) was developed as a prototype concept to scout regions on the Moon

and gain information about locations that may be difficult for astronauts to investigate

on foot. Learn more 

A foldable robot that can access tight spaces

Robot Statistics

ABILITY

Driving, Folding

ENVIRONMENT

Ground, Surface

STATUS

Completed (since 2020)

POTENTIAL DESTINATIONS

Earth, Moon, Mars, Icy Moons

ANIMAL ANALOG: PUFFER FISH

About A-PUFFER

Inspired by origami, the foldable Autonomous Pop-Up Flat Folding Explorer

Robot (A-PUFFER) was developed to scout regions on the Moon and gain

information about locations that may be difficult for astronauts to investigate

on foot, such as hard-to-reach craters and narrow caves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SENSORS

Off-the-shelf

The latest in the PUFFER series of robots features an upgraded onboard

computer with a wireless radio for communication and a stereo camera for

sensing the environment in front of it. The use of commercial off-the-shelf

electronics and manufacturing capabilities enables low-cost production of multip

 

 

 

 

 

AGILITY

Collaboration

Because each A-PUFFER is small enough to fit in a shoebox, multiple

robots can be deployed to work together cooperatively to support Earth

science as well as future Mars and icy moon science mission concepts

in ways that are not possible with a single rover.

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/robotics-at-jpl/a-puffer

RoboSimian Competes

July 16, 2014

RoboSimian, a limbed robot developed by engineers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion

Laboratory in Pasadena, California, competed in the DARPA Robotics

Challenge (DRC) Trials in Florida in December 2013. The robot weighs

238 pounds (108 kilograms), including its battery, and stands at 5.4 feet

(164 cm) in its bipedal pose. The DRC Finals will take place in Pomona,

California, from June 5-6, 2015.

The RoboSimian team is led by JPL. Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.,

collaborated on the development of the robot’s unique hands.

The California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages JPL

for NASA. For more information about robotics at JPL, including

involvement with the DARPA Robotics Challenge,

see http://www-robotics.jpl.nasa.gov/index.cfm.

TARGET

INSTRUMENT

  • RoboSimian

CREDIT

JPL-Caltech

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/pia18565-robosimian-competes

Image Gallery: Robotics

 BRUIE

BRUIE, or the Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration, is being developed at

JPL for underwater exploration in ice-covered regions on Earth, and in the icy

waters of ocean worlds elsewhere in our solar system. The long-term goal is

to be able to deploy BRUIE for autonomous operations in an alien ocean,

where it would search for signs of life at the boundary between the ice shell and ocean.

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/image-gallery-robotics?utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=nasajpl&utm_content=monthly20220902-18

Lemur-3

Aug. 25, 2022

FreeClimber: LEMUR 3 belongs to a new generation of robots being built at JPL that can

crawl, walk and even climb rock walls. This robot was designed to operate in extreme

terrains, demonstrating the applicability of its systems for possible missions to Mars,

the Moon, and small bodies. It was developed under sponsorship of NASA Science

Mission Directorate.

CREDIT

NASA/JPL-Caltech

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/robotics-at-jpl/freeclimber-lemur-3

 ROMAN

A powerful robot designed to work in real-world environments

Robot Statistics

MASS

113.398 KILOGRAMS

LENGTH

1.26 METERS

SPEED

4.5 M/S

ABILITY

Driving, Manipulating

STATUS

Completed (since 2020)

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANIMAL ANALOG: HUMAN

About RoMan

Roman was built to advance the ability of autonomous

robots to interact with the wide variety of objects that

they might encounter in human-scale environments,

be they small and hard to grasp or large, heavy, and

difficult to move. It uses its tracked base and array of

sensors to navigate any relatively flat terrain, such as

inside buildings, around urban streets, and through

grassy outdoor areas. Its potential applications include

search-and-rescue missions in disaster zones, where

it could help clear rubble or lift and move obstacles.

The RoMan platform was developed in collaboration

with the CCDC Army Research Laboratory.

DEXTERITY

Multi-handed

Multi-handed Each of Roman’s two strong arms (based on RoboSimian’s limbs)

are equipped with either a three-finger gripper to delicately grasp lighter,

more complex objects or a JPL-designed “CamHand” that can drag debris

as large as a tree limb out of the robot’s way.

 

 

 

 

 

 

STRENGTH

Ripped Robot

RoMan’s arms are strong enough that it can do one-handed pushups,

as its operators discovered when they forget to turn on collision

avoidance and it drove its palm into the ground

JPL Robotics Technologist Joseph Bowkett poses with RoMan.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/robotics-at-jpl/subterranean-rollocopter

ROLLOCOPTER

An innovative robot that can either roll or fly

Robot Statistics

ABILITY

Driving, Flying

ENVIRONMENT

Aerial, Ground, Surface

MOVEMENT

Wheeled, Moving, Flight

STATUS

Completed (since 2020)

About Rollocopter

Is it a rover or a flyer? It’s both. Rollocopter, a hybrid aerial

and terrestrial platform, uses a quadrotor system to fly

or roll along on two passive wheels. This design gives

the robot greater range than aerial-only quadrotors

and eliminates obstacle-avoidance issues associated

with ground-only robots. When Rollocopter encounters

an obstacle, it can simply fly over it. To fly this robot

requires a celestial body with an atmosphere and

could be used to explore subterranean caves other worlds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGILITY

All-in-One

Rollocopter uses the same motors and control system for

both flying and rolling, which keeps it simple and light.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOBILITY

Long Hauler

It can travel distances up to 10 times greater than an aerial drone.

Image gallery

Gallery description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/robotics-at-jpl/subterranean-rollocopter

Find Out More

DARPA Subterranean Challenge at JPL Robotics

NASA Robots Compete Underground in DARPA Challenge

JPL and the Space Age: The Footsteps of Voyager

Premiered Aug 25, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

While the legendary Voyager 2 was in the midst of its triumphant

Grand Tour through the outer planets, the space shuttle era was

underway on Earth. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory would be

among the first to demonstrate how NASA’s new shuttle could be

used to conduct science experiments about our own planet from

the vantage of space. But for launching missions to targets beyond

Earth orbit, the shuttle posed engineering challenges. One mission

that launched from the shuttle was Galileo, JPL’s flagship mission

to Jupiter, and its route to the launch pad would be full of unexpected

twists and turns. Drawing on rare film footage as well as the memories

of the engineers and scientists who were there, “The Footsteps of

Voyager” recounts the dramatic experiences of these first-ever

encounters at Uranus and Neptune and the efforts to deploy Galileo,

a mission that would become the first to orbit an outer planet.

Documentary length: 56 minutes 

JPL and the Space Age: The Pathfinders

Premiered Jun 30, 2022 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

It started with JPL agreeing to land something on Mars – cheaply –

and do it in a radically different way. This is how the era NASA called

“Faster, Better, Cheaper” began. The documentary film

“The Pathfinders” tells the story of a small group of engineers

at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory who did not heed warnings

that the audacious challenge of landing on Mars with airbags

would likely not be a career-enhancing move. From relying

on a parachute that could not be tested in a way to match

the Martian atmosphere to receiving the late addition of

an unwanted rover that wouldn’t have looked out of place

in a toy store, the Mars Pathfinder mission was a doubter’s

dream, taken on by a mostly young group of engineers and

scientists guided by a grizzled manager known for his

maverick ways. “The Pathfinders” retraces the journey

of this daring mission to Mars that captured the imagination

of people around the world with its dramatic landing and

its tiny rover – the first wheels ever to roll on Mars.

Documentary length: 60 minutes 

JPL and the Space Age: The Stuff of Dreams

Premiered Aug 24, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

In 1977, the greatest adventure in space exploration began

with the launch of the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft,

two robotic explorers designed to explore the deep reaches

of our solar system. The Voyagers were the creations of

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where a brash young

scientist had just been put in charge. His ambition was to

take the next steps in exploring the solar system. Instead,

he found himself struggling for JPL’s very survival in the

midst of financial cutbacks at the very same time of the

Voyagers’ triumphs of discoveries at Jupiter and Saturn.

“The Stuff of Dreams” tells the story of the Voyagers’

astounding successes and unexpected discoveries – but

most of all, it’s a tale of perseverance by people and machines

struggling against forces put in their way. Documentary

length: 1 hour 27 minutes

NASA – Image of the Day

Sep 2, 2022

The Crater Farm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three impact craters are displayed in this three-dimensional perspective view

of the surface of Venus taken by NASA’s Magellan, the first deep space probe

launched by a space shuttle. The center of the image is located at approximately

27 degrees south latitude, 339 degrees east longitude in the northwestern portion

of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus.

Read More: The Crater Farm

Image credit: NASA/JPL

Last Updated: Sep 2, 2022

Editor: Michael Bock

Tags:  Image of the Day, Venus

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-crater-farm

Aug 31, 2022

Lacerta’s Star Outshines a Galaxy

In space, being outshone is an occupational hazard. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image captures a galaxy named NGC 7250. Despite being remarkable in its own right — it has bright bursts of star formation and recorded supernova explosions — it blends into the background somewhat thanks to the gloriously bright star hogging the limelight next to it. This bright object is a single and little-studied star named TYC 3203-450-1, located in the constellation of Lacerta (The Lizard), much closer than the much more distant galaxy. Only this way a normal star can outshine an entire galaxy, consisting of billions of stars. Astronomers studying distant objects call these stars “foreground stars” and they are often not very happy about them, as their bright light is contaminating the faint light from the more distant and interesting objects they actually want to study. In this case TYC 3203-450-1 million times closer than NGC 7250 which lies over 45 million light-years away from us. Would the star be the same distance as NGC 7250, it would hardly be visible in this image.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A little-studied star, TYC 3203-450-1, upstages a galaxy in this Hubble Telescope

image from December 2017. Both the star and the galaxy are within the Lizard

constellation, Lacerta. However, the star is much closer than the much more

distant galaxy.

Astronomers studying distant objects call these stars “foreground stars”

and they are often not very happy about them, as their bright light is

contaminating the faint light from the more distant and interesting

objects they actually want to study.

See more images from Hubble.

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA
Text credit: European Space Agency

Last Updated: Aug 31, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  GalaxiesHubble Space TelescopeImage of the DayStars

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/lacerta-s-star-outshines-a-galaxy

 Aug 30, 2022

A Peek Into Jupiter’s Inner Life

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Auroras and hazes glow in this composite image of Jupiter taken by

the James Webb Space Telescope’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam).

NIRCam has three specialized infrared filters that showcase details of the planet.

Since infrared light is invisible to the human eye, the light has been

mapped onto the visible spectrum: the auroras are mapped to

redder colors, hazes to yellows and greens, and light reflected

from a deeper main cloud to blues.

Image credit: NASA, ESA, CSA, Jupiter ERS Team;

image processing by Judy Schmidt.

Last Updated: Aug 30, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Image of the Day, James Webb Space Telescope, Jupiter

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/a-peek-into-jupiter-s-inner-life

Aug 29, 2022

Early Morning Artemis I

NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft aboard is seen atop the mobile launcher at Launch Pad 39B, Monday, Aug. 29, 2022, as the Artemis I launch teams load more than 700,000 gallons of cryogenic propellants including liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen as the launch countdown progresses at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA’s Artemis I flight test is the first integrated test of the agency’s deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, SLS rocket, and supporting ground systems. Launch of the uncrewed flight test is targeted for no earlier than 8:33 a.m. ET. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft

aboard is seen atop the mobile launcher at Launch Pad 39B, Monday,

Aug. 29, 2022, as the Artemis I launch teams loaded more than 700,000

gallons of cryogenic propellants including liquid hydrogen and liquid

oxygen. The Artemis I flight test is the first integrated test of our deep

space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, SLS rocket, and

supporting ground systems.

NASA waved off the Aug. 29 launch attempt after a test to get

the RS-25 engines on the bottom of the core stage to the

proper temperature range for liftoff was not successful.

Image credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Last Updated: Aug 29, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IImage of the DayKennedy Space CenterMoon to Mars,

Orion SpacecraftSpace Launch System

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/early-morning-artemis-i

Aug 26, 2022

Apollo 15 Catches Earth on the Horizon 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This view of the crescent Earth over the Moon’s horizon was taken during

the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission. Apollo 15 launched from the Kennedy

Space Center on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was

a crew of three astronauts: David R. Scott, mission commander; James B.

Irwin, lunar module pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot.

Designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges,

and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than

before, Apollo 15 included the introduction of a $40 million lunar

roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph)

across the Moon’s surface.

The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first

in a series of three advanced missions planned for the

Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were

to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material

and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine

region, setup and activate surface experiments, and

conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks

from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff

and recorded a walk in deep space by Worden. Both

the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at

the Marshall Space Flight Center.

Image credit: NASA

Last Updated: Aug 26, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  ApolloApollo 15Image of the Day

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/apollo-15-catches-earth-on-the-horizon

Aug 25, 2022

NASA T-38s Soar Over Artemis I

 

PHOTO DATE: August 23, 2022. LOCATION: Kennedy Space Center. SUBJECT: NASA T-38s fly in formation above the Space Launch System rocket on Launch Pad 39B. NASA 901: Chris Condon / Zena Cardman. 902: Nicole Ayers / Christina Koch. 903: Jeremy Hansen / Drew Morgan. 904: Reid Wiseman / Joe Acaba. 905 (Photo Chase): Jack Hathaway / Josh Valcarcel (NASA Photographer)
PHOTOGRAPHER: Josh Valcarcel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

T-38 planes are a fixture of astronaut training, assisting pilots and

mission specialists to think quickly in changing situations. Here,

our T-38s fly in formation above the Space Launch System

(SLS) rocket on Launch Pad 39B. The SLS and Orion

spacecraft for the Artemis I mission will launch no

earlier than Aug. 29, 2022.

Astronaut Andrew Morgan posted this and two other

photos on Twitter on Aug. 25, 2022, saying “This week

we flew over @NASAArtemis, thanking the @nasa

centers across the country that put this Moon rocket

on @NASAKennedy’s pad and celebrating the upcoming test flight!”

Image credit: NASA/Josh Valcarcel

Last Updated: Aug 25, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  AeronauticsArtemis IImage of the DayKennedy Space Center

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/nasa-t-38s-soar-over-artemis-i

Aug 24, 2022

Milky Way Time Lapse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This time lapse of the Milky Way Galaxy taken from the International

Space Station (ISS) also captured a lightning strike on Earth so bright

that it lit up the space station’s solar panels.

Astronaut Kjell Lindgren posted this on Twitter and Instagram on

Sept. 2, 2015, saying, “Large lightning strike on Earth lights up or

solar panels.”

See more photos from the ISS.

Image credit: NASA/Kjell Lindgren

Last Updated: Aug 24, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Galaxies, Image of the Day, International Space Station (ISS), Universe

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/milky-way-time-lapse

Aug 23, 2022

The Historic X-1E Looks Forward

This is a forward-looking view of the X-1E that stands on static display in front of the main office building at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. Captured in the background of the image is the Waning Gibbous Moon on November 22, 2021. Visible off the nose of the X-1E is the air data probe with alpha and beta vanes which measured vertical and horizontal motion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The supersonic X-1E research aircraft was the last of NASA’s

experimental X-1 series of aircraft. From 1955-1958, it made

26 flights and one captive flight (attached to a carrier aircraft).

Research flights took place over what is now NASA’s

Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California.

In this photo from November 2021, the X-1E looks

toward the full Moon.

Image credit: NASA/Joshua Fisher

Last Updated: Aug 24, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Aeronautics, Armstrong Flight Research Center, Image of the Day, NACA, Supersonic Flight

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/the-historic-x-1e-looks-forward

Aug 22, 2022

NASA’s Europa Clipper in High Bay 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The core of NASA’s Europa Clipper spacecraft has taken center stage

in the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at the agency’s Jet Propulsion

Laboratory in Southern California. Standing 10 feet (3 meters) high

and 5 feet (1.5 meters) wide, the craft’s main body will for the next

two years be the focus of attention in the facility’s ultra-hygienic

High Bay 1 as engineers and technicians assemble the spacecraft

for its launch to Jupiter’s moon Europa in October 2024.

See more images of the spacecraft coming together.

Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Last Updated: Aug 24, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Europa (Moon), Europa Clipper, Image of the Day, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/nasas-europa-clipper-in-high-bay-1

Aug 19, 2022

Moon Over New Orleans

A paddlewheeler makes its way up the Mississippi River as the moon rises over New Orleans on Sunday evening, August 22, 2021. The August Sturgeon Moon, which was also a rare Blue Moon, was full at 7:02 A.M. local time Sunday but the moon still put on a show when it rose over New Orleans later that evening. New Orleans is home to the NASA Michoud Assembly Facility where the core stage of the Space Launch System that will return people to the moon is being built.
Image credit: NASA/Michael DeMocker

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A paddlewheeler makes its way up the Mississippi River as the Moon

rises over New Orleans on Sunday evening, Aug. 22, 2021.

The August Sturgeon Moon, which was also a rare Blue Moon,

was full at 7:02 a.m. local time Sunday but the nearly full

Moon still put on a show when it rose over New Orleans

later that evening. New Orleans is home to the NASA

Michoud Assembly Facility, where the core stage of the

Space Launch System that will return people to

the Moon was built.

Credit: NASA/Michael DeMocker

Last Updated: Aug 19, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Earth’s Moon, Image of the Day

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/moon-over-new-orleans

Aug 18, 2022

Voyager 1 Sees the Great Red Spot

Voyager 1 at Jupiter – Red spot
Image taken on March 5, 1979
This image was re-processed on November 6, 1998 and re-recorded to film on the MDA film recorder, MRPS ID# 93779, from which this file was scanned.
Original vidicon image size is 800 lines with 800 pixels per line.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Launched in 1977, the twin Voyager probes are NASA’s longest-operating

mission and the only spacecraft ever to explore interstellar space. 45 years

on, Voyager 1 and 2 continue to provide us with observations of the farthest

reaches of space.

Our Voyager 1 spacecraft zoomed toward Jupiter in January and

February 1979, capturing hundreds of images of Jupiter during its

approach, including this close-up of swirling clouds around

Jupiter’s Great Red Spot.

Learn more about Voyager: Voyager, NASA’s Longest-Lived Mission,

Logs 45 Years in Space

Image Credit: NASA/JPL

Last Updated: Aug 18, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Image of the Day, Jupiter, NASA History, Voyager

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/voyager-1-sees-the-great-red-spot

Aug 16, 2022

Perennial Perseids

In this 30 second exposure, a meteor streaks across the sky during the annual Perseid meteor shower, Tuesday, Aug. 10, 2021, in Spruce Knob, West Virginia. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Perseid meteors are an annual event many skywatchers look forward to,

as they often produce lots of shooting stars to enjoy. The Perseids are

debris remnants of Comet Swift-Tuttle, which takes 133 years to orbit the

Sun once. The meteors often leave long “wakes” of light and color behind

them as they streak through Earth’s atmosphere. They’re also known for

their fireballs, which are larger explosions of light and color that can

persist longer than an average meteor streak.

This photo was taken Wednesday, Aug. 11, 2021, in Spruce Knob, West Virginia.

Image credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

Last Updated: Aug 24, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Image of the Day, Meteors & Meteorites

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/perennial-perseids

Aug 15, 2022

Aquanaut Gets to Work Underwater

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A team of roboticists from NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston have

applied their expertise in making robots for deep space to designing a fully

electric shape-changing submersible robot that will cut costs for maritime

industries. Aquanaut, seen here during testing in the giant pool at Johnson’s

Neutral Buoyancy Lab, opens its shell and turns its arms, claw hands, and

various sensors to the job.

NASA has a long history of transferring technology to the private sector.

The agency’s Spinoff publication profiles NASA technologies that have

transformed into commercial products and services, demonstrating

the broader benefits of America’s investment in its space program.

Spinoff is a publication of the Technology Transfer program in

NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD).

Learn more: NASA Space Robotics Dive into Deep-Sea Work

Image credit: Nauticus Robotics Inc.

Last Updated: Aug 24, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Benefits to You, Image of the Day, Robotics, Space Tech

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/aquanaut-gets-to-work-underwater

Aug 12, 2022

Hubble Peers at Celestial Cloudscape

This celestial cloudscape from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures the colourful region surrounding the Herbig-Haro object HH 505. Herbig-Haro objects are luminous regions surrounding newborn stars, and are formed when ionised jets of gas spewing from these newborn stars collide with nearby gas and dust at high speeds. In the case of HH 505, these jets originate from the star IX Ori, which lies on the outskirts of the Orion Nebula around 1000 light-years from Earth. The jets themselves are visible as gracefully curving structures at the top and bottom of this image, and are distorted into sinuous curves by their interaction with the large-scale flow of gas and dust from the core of the Orion Nebula. This observation was captured with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) by astronomers studying the properties of outflows and protoplanetary discs. The Orion Nebula is awash in intense ultraviolet radiation from bright young stars. Stellar jets are irradiated while they collide with the surrounding gas and dust, lighting them up for Hubble to see. This allows astronomers to directly observe jets and outflows and learn more about their structures. The Orion Nebula is a dynamic region of dust and gas where thousands of stars are forming, and is the closest region of massive star formation to Earth. As a result, it is one of the most scrutinised areas of the night sky and has often been a target for Hubble. This observation was also part of a spellbinding Hubble mosaic of the Orion Nebula, which combined 520 ACS images in five different colours to create the sharpest view ever taken of the region.

This celestial cloudscape from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures the colorful region in the Orion Nebula surrounding the Herbig-Haro object HH 505. Herbig-Haro objects are luminous regions surrounding newborn stars that form when stellar winds or jets of gas spew from these infant stars creating shockwaves that collide with nearby gas and dust at high speeds. In the case of HH 505, these outflows originate from the star IX Ori, which lies on the outskirts of the Orion Nebula around 1,000 light-years from Earth. The outflows themselves are visible as gracefully curving structures at the top and bottom of this image. Their interaction with the large-scale flow of gas and dust from the core of the nebula distorts them into sinuous curves.

Captured with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) by astronomers studying the properties of outflows and protoplanetary disks, the image reveals bright shockwaves formed by the outflows as well as slower moving currents of stellar material. The Orion Nebula is awash in intense ultraviolet radiation from bright young stars. Hubble’s sensitivity to ultraviolet light allows astronomers to directly observe these high-energy outflows and learn more about their structures.

The Orion Nebula is a dynamic region of dust and gas where thousands of stars are forming. It is the closest region of massive star formation to Earth, making it one of the most scrutinized areas of the night sky and often a target for Hubble. This observation was also part of a spellbinding Hubble mosaic of the Orion Nebula, which combined 520 ACS images in five different colors to create the sharpest view ever taken of the region.

Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA)
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, J. Bally; Acknowledgment: M. H. Özsaraç

Media Contact:

Claire Andreoli
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbelt, MD
301-286-1940

Last Updated: Aug 12, 2022

Editor: Andrea Gianopoulos

Tags:  Goddard Space Flight Center, Hubble Space Telescope, Image of the Day, Nebulae, Stars, Universe

https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/goddard/2022/hubble-peers-at-celestial-cloudscape

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