PBS News, BBC Click, Pocket Worthy, TED Talks, Nobel Women’s Initiative, The Atlantic, and Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Video

PBS News: December 10 – 15.2019, Dec 6,2019 – Shields and Brooks on impeachment evidence, Pelosi’s powerful moment, and Why is a Nobel-winning human rights activist defending Myanmar on Rohingya atrocities?

BBC Click: A Vision of The World In 2040, Inside Taiwan’s Tech Industry,

Pocket Worthy:  Stronger Than Steel, Able to Stop a Speeding Bullet

 TED Talks: Suchitra Krishnan Sarin What you should know about vaping and e cigarettes?, Krishna Sudhir How do cigarettes affect the body, Nicole Avena how sugar affects the brain, and Jody Williams A realistic vision for world peace

Nobel Women’s Initiative: Time to break the silence – Nobel Laureates to Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel Women’s Initiative Statement on the persecution of Rohingya women, and Meet The Laureates

The Atlantic: Top 25 news photos 2019A wounded Syrian girl awaits rescue from under the rubble next to the body of her sister (hands visible at right), who did not survive a regime bombardment in Khan Sheikhun in the southern countryside of the rebel-held Idlib province, on February 26, 2019. Five months after this photo, the Syrian photographer who took it, Anas Al-Dyab, was killed in an air strike in Khan Sheikhun. Al-Dyab was also a member of the “White Helmets,” a group of volunteers carrying out search-and-rescue efforts in Syria.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Video: Golden Swallowtail Butterfly (8:15 minutes)

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode December 15, 2019

Dec 15, 2019  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Sunday, December 15, the House prepares for a historic impeachment vote, how the decline of local news is impacting civic engagement, a new documentary sheds light on Border Patrol expansion, and the Italian town of Riace went from being a haven for migrants to becoming a relative ghost town. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend live show December 14. 2019

Streamed live 2 hours ago  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, December 14, the House gets one step closer to impeaching President Trump, a peace deal in Afghanistan faces new challenges, and how illusionist Derren Brown is pushing the boundaries of mentalism. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewHour full episode Dec 13, 2019

Dec 13, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, the House Judiciary Committee passes two articles of impeachment against President Trump, along party lines. Plus: What’s in the first phase of a U.S.-China trade deal, Mark Shields and David Brooks on impeachment and other political news, the Sahara’s nomadic musicians and a new book about how racists and vandals are distorting the American conversation via social media. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode December 12, 2019

Dec 12, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, a contentious House Judiciary Committee hearing over the case for impeaching President Trump. Plus: A high-stakes election in the United Kingdom, how Congress is looking to lower prescription drug costs, an unusual effort to erase Americans’ medical debt, whether living near trees is better for our health and a Brief But Spectacular take on getting happier with age. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode December 11, 2019

Dec 11, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, the Justice Department’s inspector general answers questions from senators about his report on the origins of the Russia investigation. Plus: Reaction to the analysis of the Russia probe, what prompted a deadly New Jersey shootout, Myanmar on trial for possible genocide, the United Kingdom prepares for another election and the medical mystery around vaping illnesses. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS Senate Judiciary Committee grills Horowitz over Russia probe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ekZl… News Wrap: House to debate bill on prescription drug costs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ka5T… 2 perspectives on what the Horowitz report means for the FBI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZqKm… Jersey City mayor attributes mass shooting to anti-Semitism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9CLIe… Myanmar faces genocide charges over Rohingya persecution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qW3R3… British voters grapple with Brexit, division and distrust https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfT_P… What substances are behind rash of vaping-related illness? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XHvrJ… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode December 10, 2019

Dec 10, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Tuesday on the NewsHour, a historic day on Capitol Hill as the House delivers articles of impeachment against President Trump — and a long-anticipated trade deal. Plus: The details of the USMCA, how strategic mistakes derailed the war in Afghanistan, grim news about Arctic ice melt, why Maryland has harsher prison sentences than other states and the “sober curious” movement among millennials. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS House’s articles of impeachment accompany legislative flurry https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESLM9… What USMCA trade deal could mean for U.S. auto industry https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmRqc… News Wrap: Barr says Russia probe based on ‘bogus narrative’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urzVu… How U.S. war in Afghanistan fueled corruption there https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TxEW… Why the Arctic is ‘chronically ill’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x2f9M… Md. juvenile offenders languish in prison without parole https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0k7U… Why more millennials are choosing an alcohol-free lifestyle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FU2wP… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: https://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/newshour Snapchat: @pbsnews Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Category   News & Politics

Shields and Brooks on impeachment evidence, Pelosi’s powerful moment

Dec 6, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Syndicated columnist Mark Shields and New York Times columnist David Brooks join Judy Woodruff to discuss the week’s political news, including how the first House Judiciary Committee hearing on impeachment affected the case against President Trump, what Trump’s contentious visit to a NATO summit means for U.S. foreign policy and the fallout from Sen. Kamala Harris’ withdrawal from the 2020 race. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: https://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/newshour Snapchat: @pbsnews Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Category   News & Politics

A Vision Of The World In 2040 – BBC Click

Dec 6, 2019  BBC Click

A longer cut of Spencer Kelly’s interview with film-maker Damon Gameau, whose film 2040 is a more positive take on how our world might look in 20 years’ time. Subscribe HERE https://bit.ly/1uNQEWR Find us online at www.bbc.com/click Twitter: @bbcclick Facebook: www.facebook.com/BBCClick

Category   Science & Technology

Inside Taiwan’s Tech Industry – BBC Click

Nov 7, 2019  BBC Click

We head to Taiwan to find out what ‘Made in Taiwan’ really means in the 21st century; from healthcare artificial intelligence to solving the pollution crisis. Subscribe HERE https://bit.ly/1uNQEWR Find us online at www.bbc.com/click Twitter: @bbcclick Facebook: www.facebook.com/BBCClick

Category   Science & Technology

https://getpocket.com/explore/item/stronger-than-steel-able-to-stop-a-speeding-bullet-it-s-super-wood?utm_source=pocket-newtab

Pocket Worthy  Stories to fuel your mind.

Stronger Than Steel, Able to Stop a Speeding Bullet—It’s Super Wood!

Simple processes can make wood tough, impact-resistant—or even transparent.

Scientific American | Sid Perkins

Abstract background like slice of wood timber natural. Tree ring.

New techniques for “densifying” wood can turn the ubiquitous substance into a super-material suitable for constructing buildings and body armor. Photo by mack2happy / Getty Images

Some varieties of wood, such as oak and maple, are renowned for their strength. But scientists say a simple and inexpensive new process can transform any type of wood into a material stronger than steel, and even some high-tech titanium alloys. Besides taking a star turn in buildings and vehicles, the substance could even be used to make bullet-resistant armor plates.

Wood is abundant and relatively low-cost—it literally grows on trees. And although it has been used for millennia to build everything from furniture to homes and larger structures, untreated wood is rarely as strong as metals used in construction. Researchers have long tried to enhance its strength, especially by compressing and “densifying” it, says Liangbing Hu, a materials scientist at the University of Maryland, College Park. But densified wood tends to weaken and spring back toward its original size and shape, especially in humid conditions.

Now, Hu and his colleagues say they have come up with a better way to densify wood, which they report in Nature. Their simple, two-step process starts with boiling wood in a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3), a chemical treatment similar to the first step in creating the wood pulp used to make paper. This partially removes lignin and hemicellulose (natural polymers that help stiffen a plant’s cell walls)—but it largely leaves the wood’s cellulose (another natural polymer) intact, Hu says.

The second step is almost as simple as the first: Compressing the treated wood until its cell walls collapse, then maintaining that compression as it is gently heated. The pressure and heat encourage the formation of chemical bonds between large numbers of hydrogen atoms and neighboring atoms in adjacent nanofibers of cellulose, greatly strengthening the material.

The results are impressive. The team’s compressed wood is three times as dense as the untreated substance, Hu says, adding that its resistance to being ripped apart is increased more than 10-fold. It also can become about 50 times more resistant to compression and almost 20 times as stiff. The densified wood is also substantially harder, more scratch-resistant and more impact-resistant. It can be molded into almost any shape. Perhaps most importantly, the densified wood is also moisture-resistant: In lab tests, compressed samples exposed to extreme humidity for more than five days swelled less than 10 percent—and in subsequent tests, Hu says, a simple coat of paint eliminated that swelling entirely.

A five-layer, plywoodlike sandwich of densified wood stopped simulated bullets fired into the material—a result Hu and his colleagues suggest could lead to low-cost armor. The material does not protect quite as well as a Kevlar sheet of the same thickness—but it only costs about 5 percent as much, he notes.

The team’s results “appear to open the door to a new class of lightweight materials,” says Ping Liu, a materials chemist at the University of California, San Diego, unaffiliated with the Nature study. Vehicle manufacturers have often tried to save weight by switching from regular steel to high-strength steel, aluminum alloys or carbon-fiber composites—but those materials are costly, and consumers “rarely make that money back in fuel savings,” Liu says. And densified wood has another leg up on carbon-fiber composites: It does not require expensive adhesives that also can make components difficult, if not impossible, to recycle.

Densified wood provides new design possibilities and uses for which natural wood is too weak, says Peter Fratzl, a materials scientist at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Germany who did not take part in the study. “Instead of creating a design for the material at hand, researchers can create a material to suit the design they want,” he says, alluding to a familiar process among aerospace engineers who have a long history of developing ever-stronger alloys to meet their needs.

One possible obstacle to the widespread use of densified wood will be engineers’ ability to scale up and accelerate the process, Liu notes. Hu and his team spent several hours making each coffee-table book–size slab of densified wood used for testing. But there are no practical reasons the process could not be sped up or used to make larger components, Hu contends.

Although Hu and his team have sought to enhance wood’s strength, other researchers have pursued more unusual goals—such as making it transparent. One team, led by materials scientist Lars Berglund at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, has come up with a way to make windowpanes of wood. The first step in that process (as in Hu’s) is to remove lignin, a substance that not only stiffens wood but also creates its brownish color. The researchers infuse the lignin-free wood with a polymer called methyl methacrylate (MMA), a material better known by trade names such as Plexiglas and Lucite.

Because MMA’s index of refraction (a measure of how much it bends light) matches that of the lignin-free wood, rays of light pass right through the MMA-infused composite instead of getting bounced around inside empty cells. This renders the material remarkably clear. Berglund and his team described their feat two years ago in Biomacromolecules. Coincidentally, at the same time Hu and his colleagues were also developing a method for rendering wood transparent.

Research like Hu’s and Berglund’s can only add to the wild prospects for the future of materials science. Someday soon it might be possible to live in a home made almost completely from one of Earth’s most abundant and versatile building materials—from floors to rafters, walls to windows. In the garage there may be a car whose chassis and bumpers could be composed of densified wood rather than steel and plastic—knock on wood.

Sid Perkins, who writes most often about Earth and planetary sciences, materials science and paleontology, is based in Crossville, Tenn.

More from Scientific American

This article was originally published on February 7, 2018, by Scientific American, and is republished here with permission

For more information please visit the following link:

https://getpocket.com/explore/item/stronger-than-steel-able-to-stop-a-speeding-bullet-it-s-super-wood?utm_source=pocket-newtab

E-cigarettes and vapes have exploded in popularity in the last decade, especially among youth and young adults — from 2011 to 2015, e-cigarette use among high school students in the US increased by 900 percent. Biobehavioral scientist Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin explains what you’re actually inhaling when you vape (hint: it’s definitely not water vapor) and explores the disturbing marketing tactics being used to target kids. “Our health, the health of our children and our future generations is far too valuable to let it go up in smoke — or even in aerosol,” she says.

This video was produced by TEDMED. TED’s editors featured it among our daily selections on the home page.

About the speaker

Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin · Biobehavioral scientist

Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin is focused on developing a bio-behavioral understanding of substance use behaviors in adult and adolescent substance users.

TEDMED 2018 | November 2018

Cigarettes aren’t good for us. That’s hardly news — we’ve known about the dangers of smoking for decades. But how exactly do cigarettes harm us, and can our bodies recover if we stop? Krishna Sudhir details what happens when we smoke — and when we quit. [TED-Ed Animation by TED-Ed].

Meet the educator

Krishna Sudhir · Educator

About TED-Ed

TED-Ed Original lessons feature the words and ideas of educators brought to life by professional animators.

TED-Ed | September 2018

When you eat something loaded with sugar, your taste buds, your gut and your brain all take notice. This activation of your reward system is not unlike how bodies process addictive substances such as alcohol or nicotine — an overload of sugar spikes dopamine levels and leaves you craving more. Nicole Avena explains why sweets and treats should be enjoyed in moderation. [Directed by STK Films, narrated by Michelle Snow, music by Michael Dow].

Meet the educator

Nicole Avena · Educator

About TED-Ed

TED-Ed Original lessons feature the words and ideas of educators brought to life by professional animators.

TED-Ed | January 2014

Nobel Peace laureate Jody Williams brings tough love to the dream of world peace, with her razor-sharp take on what “peace” really means, and a set of profound stories that zero in on the creative struggle — and sacrifice — of those who work for it.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Jody Williams · Nobel peace laureate

Jody Williams won a Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to eradicate landmines. Now she’s teaming up with five other female peace laureates to empower women to fight violence, injustice and inequality.

TEDWomen 2010 | December 2010

Time to break the silence: Nobel Laureates to Aung San Suu Kyi

September 11, 2017

© 2016 Reuters- Taken from The Independent

OPEN LETTER TO AUNG SAN SUU KYI: STOP THE PERSECUTION OF ROHINGYAS

Dear State Counsellor and sister Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi,

In the years leading to your final release in 2010, your struggle for democracy was ours. Your defiant activism and unimaginable sacrifices profoundly inspired us, and like the rest of the world, we held you as a beacon of hope for Burma and for our human family. Along with other fellow laureates, we worked tirelessly and diligently for your personal freedom.

It is thus with deep shock, sadness and alarm that we witness your indifference to the cruelty inflicted upon the Rohingya minority today. Nearly 270,000 people have sought refuge into neighbouring Bangladesh these past two weeks, and a recent UN report has highlighted an all too familiar story: extrajudicial executions; enforced disappearance and arbitrary detention; rape, including gang rape, and other forms of sexual violence. Arson attacks are being launched on civilians and entire villages burnt, leading to what the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights calls “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing”. This is an assault on our humanity as a whole.

As Nobel Laureates working under the banner of the Nobel Women’s Initiative, we have supported the groundbreaking work and courage of women activists inside and along the borders of Burma for a decade. Their tireless activism consistently highlights abuses committed by the Burmese military. Just last November the Women’s League of Burma denounced the ferocious militarism that plagues Burma: “[…] we are gravely concerned for the security of women in conflict areas. It is urgently needed for the government to end impunity for state-sponsored sexual violence, and bring the military under civilian control”.

As a fellow Nobel Laureate, a worldwide icon for the universal freedom and human rights, and now State Counsellor and de-facto Prime Minister of Burma, you have a personal and moral responsibility to uphold and defend the rights of your citizens.

How many Rohingya have to die; how many Rohingya women will be raped; how many communities will be razed before you raise your voice in defense of those who have no voice?  Your silence is not in line with the vision of “democracy” for your country that you outlined to us, and for which we all supported you over the years.

As women committed to peace, as your sisters and fellow Laureates, we urge you to take a firm stand on this unfolding crisis: recognize Rohingyas as citizens with full rights and take all expedited measures possible to end the persecution of innocent civilians by the Myanmar authorities.

In the words of fellow Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu: “If the political price of your ascension to the highest office in Myanmar is your silence, the price is surely too steep.” The time is now for you to stand for the rights of Rohingya people, with the same vigour and conviction so many around the world stood for yours.

Sincerely,

Mairead Maguire, Nobel Peace Laureate, (1976) – Northern Ireland

Jody Williams, Nobel Peace Laureate (1997) – United States

Shirin Ebadi, Nobel Peace Laureate (2003) – Iran

Leymah Gbowee, Nobel Peace Laureate (2011) – Liberia

Tawakkol Karman, Nobel Peace Laureate (2011) – Yemen

Nobel Women’s Initiative Statement on the persecution of Rohingya women

March 21, 2019

Photo by Fabeha Monir.

International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
March 21, 2019 – Parliament Hill, Ottawa

In March 2018, Nobel Women’s Initiative conducted a fact-finding delegation in partnership with Bangladeshi organizations, and met with over 100 Rohingya women in two refugee camps, in Kutapalong and Thyankhali. Sexual violence is one of the largest atrocities committed in Myanmar, and we were able to witness, firsthand, how women are systematically targeted by the Myanmar military.

The vast majority of women who testified to the delegation were rape survivors. They provided first-hand accounts of the high-levels of violence they endured. An alarming majority of these women identified their perpetrators as members of the Myanmar Army. They were raped openly, in broad daylight by men in military apparel, often in public or just outside their home.

One of our partners Razia Sultana, a lawyer and researcher with the Kaladan Press —a Rohingya press network— has documented over 300 cases of women and girls raped in August 2017 alone. This only represents a fraction of the total number raped at this time.

Women have been detained, tortured, mutilated and killed in military camps, with the clear authorization of camp commanders. Rape, as we know, is a common tool for genocide, and in Myanmar the mutilation of women’s bodies, breasts and genitals was deliberately aimed to destroy the very means of reproduction of the Rohingya.

In 2018, the UN Fact-Finding mission on Myanmar, interviewed over 800 rape survivors and concluded there was a ‘very clear chain of command’ within the Myanmar Army. It called for the country’s military leaders to be investigated and prosecuted for ‘genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.’

The Myanmar Army’s latest atrocities against the Rohingya are not new, and must not be seen in isolation. Nobel Women’s Initiative has worked with multiple ethnic women’s groups in Burma over the past ten years who have been documenting these patterns for decades.

These latest atrocities are a continuation of a decades-long policy to divide-and-rule, occupy and control the ethnic territories, and seize their rich natural resources and land. In fact, Myanmar has recently passed amendments to the VFV law, making it easier for villagers’ lands to be confiscated.

To this date, the Myanmar Army continues to harass and torture Rohingya villagers inside Rakhine State, and continues to launch attacks and commit war crimes– including sexual violence, in Northern and Eastern Myanmar, with impunity.

As the only country to have formally recognized the Rohingya genocide, Canada is in a unique position to lead the international community towards justice and meaningful support for Rohingya women.

We call on the Canadian Government to:

  1. Increase humanitarian assistance to women refugee survivors in Bangladesh through local women’s organizations who have been responding to their needs, and are best equipped to continue doing so;
  1. Stop ‘business as usual’ with Myanmar. Canada should suspend all investments and direct aid, and redirect support to local civil society and women’s groups who are the real agents of change;
  1. Use all avenues available under international law to bring both individual perpetrators of the Rohingya genocide, and the State of Myanmar, to justice.

Why is a Nobel-winning human rights activist defending Myanmar on Rohingya atrocities?

Dec 11, 2019  PBS NewsHour

In 2017, the Myanmar military unleashed a reign of terror on Rohingya Muslims. According to the U.N., soldiers tortured, raped and killed civilians, driving hundreds of thousands to flee to neighboring Bangladesh. Now the International Court of Justice is trying Myanmar for genocide — as a human rights advocate defends its actions. Nick Schifrin talks to John Dale of George Mason University. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: https://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/newshour Snapchat: @pbsnews Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Category   News & Politics

https://nobelwomensinitiative.org/laureate/

Meet The Laureates

Mairead Maguire

Northern Ireland, 1976

After three of her sister’s children were killed during the violence between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, Mairead Maguire organized massive demonstrations and other action calling for a nonviolent end to the conflict. Along with Betty Williams, she is the co-founder of Peace People, and together the two women won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976. She has spent her life since then to bearing witness to oppression and standing in solidarity with people living in conflict, including most in Syria.

Together, they co-founded the Peace People, a movement committed to building a just and peaceful society in Northern Ireland. They organized each week, for six months, peace rallies throughout Ireland and the UK. These were attended by many thousands of people – mostly women, and during this time there was a 70% decrease in the rate of violence. Mairead currently serves as Honorary President.

Since receiving the award, Mairead has dedicated her life to promoting peace, both in Northern Ireland and around the world. Working with community groups throughout Northern Ireland, political and church leaders, she has sought to promote dialogue, nonviolence and equality between deeply divided communities.

A graduate from Irish School of Ecumenics, Maguire works with inter-church and interfaith organizations and is a councilor with the International Peace Council. She is a Patron of the Methodist Theological College, and Northern Ireland Council for Integrated Education. She is also the author of  The Vision of Peace: Faith and Hope in Northern Ireland.

“If we want to reap the harvest of peace and justice in the future, we will have to sow the seeds of nonviolence, here and now, in the present.”

For more information please visit the following link:

Rigoberta Menchú Tum

Guatemala, 1992

Rigoberta Menchú Tum is a Mayan k’iche’ activist born in 1959 in Chimel, a small Mayan community in the highlands of Guatemala. As a young girl, Rigoberta traveled alongside her father, Vincente Menchú, from community to community teaching rural campesinos their rights and encouraging them to organize.

In 1960, ethnic and socioeconomic tensions engrained since colonization spurred a brutal civil war against the Mayan people. The military dictatorship, under the leadership of Efraín Ríos Montt, and rich landowners initiated the bloodshed. By the time a peace agreement was signed in 1996, 450 Mayan villages were destroyed, over 200,000 Guatemalans murdered and 1 million were displaced.

Rigoberta and her family mobilized Guatemalans during the war to denounce government-led mass atrocities. Their activism came at a great cost. At a peaceful protest held at the Spanish Embassy in Guatemala City in 1980, Rigoberta’s father and thirty-seven other campesino activists were murdered in a fire. Not long after, the Guatemalan army tortured and murdered Rigoberta’s brother and mother. At age 21, Rigoberta fled into exile.

Rigoberta spoke publicly about the plight of the Mayan people in Guatemala while in exile. In 1983 she published I, Rigoberta Menchú and catapulted the civil war into global headlines. She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples. After receiving the prize Rigoberta returned to Guatemala and established the Rigoberta Menchú Tum Foundation (FRMT) to support Mayan communities and survivors of the genocide as they seek justice. Rigoberta and the Foundation have been key in advocating for justice in several high profile cases in Guatemala, including the trial against former dictator Efrain Ríos Montt in May 2013, the Spanish Embassy massacre in January 2015, and the case of 14 survivors of sexual violence in Sepur Zarco in February 2016.

Rigoberta ran for President of Guatemala in 2007 and 2011 under the banner of WINAQ, the first indigenous-led political party founded by herself. In 2013 the Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM) appointed her as a Special Investigator within its Multicultural Nation Program. She continues to seek justice for all Mayan people impacted by the genocide.

“Only together can we move forward, so that there is light and hope for all women on the planet.”

For more information please visit the following link:

Jody Williams

USA, 1997

Jody Williams received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997 for her work to ban landmines through the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, which shared the Peace Prize with her that year. At that time, she became the 10th woman – and third American woman – in its almost 100-year history to receive the Prize.  Since her protests of the Vietnam War, she has been a life-long advocate of freedom, self-determination and human and civil rights.

Like others who have seen the ravages of war, she is an outspoken peace activist who struggles to reclaim the real meaning of peace – a concept which goes far beyond the absence of armed conflict and is defined by human security, not national security. Williams believes that working for peace is not for the faint of heart.  It requires dogged persistence and a commitment to sustainable peace, built on environmental justice and meeting the basic needs of the majority of people on our planet.

Since January of 2006, Jody Williams has worked toward those ends through the Nobel Women’s Initiative, which she chairs.  Along with sister Nobel Laureate Dr. Shirin Ebadi of Iran, she took the lead in establishing the Nobel Women’s Initiative.  They were joined at that time by sister Nobel Laureates Wangari Maathai (Kenya), Rigoberta Menchú Tum (Guatemala) and Betty Williams and Mairead Maguire (Northern Ireland). The Initiative uses the prestige of the Nobel Peace Prize and the influence and access of the women Nobel Laureates themselves to support and amplify the efforts of women around the world working for sustainable peace with justice and equality.

Since 1998, Williams has also served as a Campaign Ambassador for the International Campaign to Ban Landmines.  Beginning in early 1992 with two non-governmental organizations and a staff of one – Jody Williams, she oversaw the Campaign’s growth to over 1,300 organizations in 95 countries working to eliminate antipersonnel landmines. In an unprecedented cooperative effort with governments, UN bodies and the International Committee of the Red Cross, she served as a chief strategist and spokesperson for the ICBL as it dramatically achieved its goal of an international treaty banning antipersonnel landmines during a diplomatic conference held in Oslo in September 1997.

Williams continues to be recognized for her contributions to human rights and global security. She is the recipient of fifteen honorary degrees, among other recognitions. In 2004, Williams was named by Forbes Magazine as one of the 100 most powerful women in the world in the publication of its first such annual list.

She holds the Sam and Cele Keeper Endowed Professorship in Peace and Social Justice at the Graduate College of Social Work at the University of Houston where she has been teaching since 2003.  In academic year 2012-2013, she became the inaugural Jane Addams Distinguished Visiting Fellow in Social Justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Her memoir on life as a grassroots activist, My Name is Jody Williams:  A Vermont Girl’s Winding Path to the Nobel Peace Prize was released by the University of California Press in early 2013.

“We must teach ourselves to believe that peace is not a ‘utopian vision’, but a responsibility that must be worked for each and every day.”

For more information please visit the following link:

Shirin Ebadi

Iran, 2003

7

Shirin Ebadi, J.D., was awarded the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts to promote human rights, in particular, the rights of women, children, and political prisoners in Iran. She is the first Muslim woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, and only the fifth Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize in any field.

Dr. Ebadi was one of the first female judges in Iran. She served as president of the city court of Tehran from 1975 to 1979 and was the first Iranian woman to achieve Chief Justice status. She, along with other women judges, was dismissed from that position after the Islamic Revolution in February 1979. She was made a clerk in the court she had once presided over, until she petitioned for early retirement. After obtaining her lawyer’s license in 1992, Dr. Ebadi set up private practice. As a lawyer, Dr. Ebadi has taken on many controversial cases defending political dissidents and as a result has been arrested numerous times.

In addition to being an internationally-recognized advocate of human rights, she has also established many non-governmental organizations in Iran, including the Million Signatures Campaign, a campaign demanding an end to legal discrimination against women in Iranian law. Dr. Ebadi is also a university professor and often students from outside Iran take part in her human rights training courses. She has published over 70 articles and 13 books dedicated to various aspects of human rights, some of which have been published by UNICEF.  In 2004, she was named by Forbes Magazine as one of the 100 most powerful women in the world.

In January 2006, along with sister Laureate Jody Williams, Dr. Ebadi took the lead in establishing the Nobel Women’s Initiative.

“Human rights is a universal standard. It is a component of every religion and every civilization.”

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Leymah Gbowee

Liberia, 2011

Leymah Gbowee received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011 for her work in leading a women’s peace movement that brought an end to the Second Liberian Civil War in 2003. Gbowee shared the prize with fellow Liberian Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Yemen-native Tawakkol Karman. Gbowee and Sirleaf became the second and third African women to win the prize, preceded by the late Wangari Maathai of Kenya.

Leymah is the founder and president of Gbowee Peace Foundation Africa based in Liberia. Her foundation provides educational and leadership opportunities to girls, women and youth in West Africa.

Leymah was born in central Liberia in 1972. She was living with her parents and sisters in Liberia’s capital, Monrovia, when the First Liberian Civil War erupted. She recalls clearly the day the first Liberian civil war came to her doorstep. “All of a sudden one July morning I wake up at 17, going to the university to fulfill my dream of becoming a medical doctor, and fighting erupted.”

Witnessing the effects of war on Liberians, she decided to train as a trauma counsellor to treat former child soldiers.

A second civil war broke out in 1999 and brought systematic rape and brutality to an already war-weary Liberia. Responding to the conflict, Leymah mobilized an interreligious coalition of Christian and Muslim women and organized the Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace movement.  Through Leymah’s leadership, thousands of women staged pray-ins and nonviolent protests demanding reconciliation and the resuscitation of high-level peace talks. The pressure pushed President Charles Taylor into exile, and smoothed the path for the election of Africa’s first female head of state, fellow 2011 Nobel Laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. Documenting these efforts in the Tribeca Film Festival 2008 Best Documentary winner Pray the Devil Back to Hell, Leymah demonstrated the power of social cohesion and relationship-building in the face of political unrest and social turmoil.

In 2007, Leymah earned a Master’s degree in Conflict Transformation from Eastern Mennonite University in the United States. Meanwhile, she continued to build women’s agency in fighting for sustainable peace.  She is a founding member and former coordinator for Women in Peacebuilding/West African Network for Peacebuilding (WIPNET/WANEP). She also co-founded the Women Peace and Security Network Africa (WIPSEN-Africa) to promote cross-national peace-building efforts and transform women’s participation as victims in the crucible of war to mobilized armies for peace.

Ever-focused on sustaining peace, Leymah continued working on behalf of grassroots efforts in her leadership positions. She served as a member of both the African Feminist Forum and the African Women’s Leadership Network on Sexual and Reproductive Rights, and as a commissioner-designate for the Liberia Truth and Reconciliation Commission.  Through these positions, Leymah addressed the particular vulnerability of women and children in war-torn societies.

In her current position as President of Gbowee Peace Foundation Africa, Leymah pushes for greater inclusion of women as leaders and agents of change in Africa.

Since winning the Nobel Peace Prize, Leymah travels internationally to speak about the pernicious and devastating effects of war and gender-based violence. She has been featured on a number of international television programmes including CNN, BBC and France24, and speaks internationally advocating for women’s high level inclusion in conflict-resolution. She has received several honorary degrees from universities, and is a Global Ambassador for Oxfam.

She serves on the Board of Directors of the Nobel Women’s Initiative, Gbowee Peace Foundation and the PeaceJam Foundation, and she is a member of the African Women Leaders Network for Reproductive Health and Family Planning. She has received honorary degrees from Rhodes University in South Africa, the University of Alberta in Canada, Polytechnic University in Mozambique, and University of Dundee in Scotland. After receiving the Barnard College Medal of Distinction in 2013, she was named a Distinguished Fellow in Social Justice. Leymah is the proud mother of six children.

When asked how she first found the courage to become a peace activist, Leymah explained: “When you’ve lived true fear for so long, you have nothing to be afraid of. I tell people I was 17 when the war started in Liberia. I was 31 when we started protesting.  I have taken enough dosage of fear that I have gotten immune to fear.”

“It is time to stand up, sisters, and do some of the most unthinkable things. We have the power to turn our upsidedown world right.”

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Tawakkol Karman

Yemen, 2011

Tawakkol Karman was known as “The Mother of the Revolution” and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011 in recognition of her work in nonviolent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peacebuilding work in Yemen. Upon being awarded the prize, Tawakkol became the first Yemeni, the first Arab woman, and the second Muslim woman to win a Nobel Peace Prize, as well as the youngest Nobel Peace Laureate at the time, at the age of 32.

Karman is a mother of three as well as a human rights activist, journalist, and politician.

Tawakkol was born in 1979 in Taiz, Yemen’s third largest city. She studied an undergraduate degree in Commerce from the University of Science and Technology in Sana’a before completing a graduate degree in Political Science from the University of Sana’a.

Growing up in a politically tumultuous country, Tawakkol witnessed the unification of North and South Yemen in 1990, followed by a civil war between the two factions in 1994 in which the North triumphed over the South. The civil war led to dissidence in the South as the repressive Northern government assumed control over the country.

A journalist by profession and human rights activist by nature, Tawakkol responded to the political instability and human rights abuses in Yemen by mobilizing others and reporting on injustices. In 2005, she founded the organization Women Journalists Without Chains, (WJWC) which advocates for rights and freedoms and provides media skills to journalists. In addition, the organization produces regular reports on human rights abuses in Yemen, documenting more than 50 cases of attacks and unfair sentences against newspapers and writers to date.

In 2007, Tawakkol began organizing weekly protests in Yemen’s capitol, Sana’a, targeting systemic government repression and calling for inquiries into corruption and other forms of social and legal injustice. Tawakkol’s weekly protests continued until 2011, when she redirected protesters to support the Arab Spring. Tawakkol even brought Yemen’s revolution to New York speaking directly with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon and organizing rallies at the UN headquarters.

Bold and outspoken, Tawakkol has been imprisoned on a number of occasions for her pro-democracy, pro-human rights protests. Amongst Yemen’s opposition movement, she is known as “mother of the revolution” and “the iron woman.”

Since receiving the award, Tawakkol has continued to support female journalists and rally Yemenis against government corruption and injustice. Fiercely committed to change, Tawakkol spends the majority of her time in a tent in Change Square, where she continues her peaceful protests for justice and freedom.

“You have to be strong; you have to trust yourself that you can build a new country. You have to know that you have the ability to achieve your dream.”

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Wangari Maathai

Founding Member – Kenya, 2004

Dr. Wangari Muta Maathai was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004 for her actions to promote sustainable development, democracy and peace and was the first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.  She passed away in September of 2011.

The first woman in East and Central Africa to earn a doctorate degree, Professor Maathai was an active member of the National Council of Women of Kenya from 1976 to 1987 and served as its chairman from 1981 to 1987. In 1976 she introduced the idea of community-based tree planting. She continued to develop this idea into a broad-based grassroots organization whose main focus is poverty reduction and environmental conservation through tree planting. The organization eventually became known as the Green Belt Movement (GBM), and to-date has assisted women in planting more than 40 million trees on community lands including farms, schools and church compounds.

In December 2002, Professor Maathai was elected to Kenya’s parliament with an overwhelming 98 percent of the vote. Until 2007, she represented the Tetu constituency, Nyeri district in central Kenya (her home region). From 2003 to 2007 Professor Maathai served as Assistant Minister for Environment and Natural Resourcesin Kenya’s ninth parliament.In September 1998, Professor Maathai launched and become co-chair of the Jubilee 2000 Africa Campaign, which advocates for canceling the debts of poor African countries. Her campaign against land grabbing (illegal appropriation of public lands by developers) and the rapacious re-allocation of forest land received much attention in Kenya and the region.

In June of 2008 the Congo Basin Forest Fund was launched. The fund protects the forests of the Congo Basin by supporting projects that make the forest worth more as a living resource, than it would be cut down.  Professor Maathai acted as co-chair and goodwill ambassador for the initiative.

Professor Maathai addressed the United Nations on several occasions and spoke on behalf of women at special sessions of the General Assembly for the five-year review of the 1992 Earth Summit. In March 2005, she was elected as the first president of the African Union’s Economic, Social and Cultural Council.

She authored four books; an autobiography, Unbowed, and an explanation of her organizational method, The Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the ExperienceThe Challenge for Africa and Replenishing the Earth were both released in 2010.

“It’s the little things citizens do. That’s what will make the difference. My little thing is planting trees.”

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Betty Williams

Founding Member – Ireland, 1976

“The Nobel Peace Prize is not awarded for what one has done, but hopefully what one will do.” These are the words of Betty Williams, who in 1976 along with Mairead Maguire, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her work to end the sectarian violence in her native Northern Ireland.

Williams was one of the six founding members of the Nobel Women’s Initiative in 2006. She currently heads the World Centers of Compassion for Children International, which was founded in 1997 in honour of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The organization is headquartered in the Republic of Ireland, and is building the first City of Compassion for children in the Basilicata Region of southern Italy. Williams left the Nobel Women’s Initiative in 2011 in order to devote more time to her work there.

“Compassion is more important than intellect in calling forth the love that the work of peace needs, and intuition can often be a far more powerful searchlight than cold reason.”

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https://nobelwomensinitiative.org/laureate/

TOPSHOT – EDITORS NOTE: Graphic content / A wounded Syrian girl awaits rescue from under the rubble next to the body of her sister (hands seen-R) who did not survive regime bombardment in Khan Sheikhun in the southern countryside of the rebel-held Idlib province, on February 26, 2019. – Regime bombardment near Khan Sheikhun, in Idlib province, killed two civilians on Tuesday, raising the civilian death toll to 42 since February 9, the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. (Photo by Anas AL-DYAB / AFP) (Photo by ANAS AL-DYAB/AFP via Getty Images)

A wounded Syrian girl awaits rescue from under the rubble next to the body of her sister (hands visible at right), who did not survive a regime bombardment in Khan Sheikhun in the southern countryside of the rebel-held Idlib province, on February 26, 2019. Five months after this photo, the Syrian photographer who took it, Anas Al-Dyab, was killed in an air strike in Khan Sheikhun. Al-Dyab was also a member of the “White Helmets,” a group of volunteers carrying out search-and-rescue efforts in Syria.

Anas Al-Dyab / AFP / Getty

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https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2019/12/top-25-news-photos-2019/602848/

GoldenSwallowtailButterfly (8:15 minutes)

Aug 24, 2013  naahblubiv (Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts)

To All Syrians from the Golden Swallowtail Butterfly

Beautiful Golden Swallowtail Butterfly

Summersaults in the sky

Drinking sweet nectar

For the beautiful wings to fly

The golden wings span out

Showing the black accented lines

A highlight for your beautiful wings

Two perfect tails you have

But a broken wing

Knowing how far you came from

Do you pass by Syria lately?

No! No one cultivates the gardens

They are busy fighting with each other

No trees, no plants

No flowers giving me the nectar to drink

They are running away

From their homes and their land

One million children are refugees now

What are you doing Syrian people?

Everybody stops fighting

Please come!

Plant your trees for butterflies and bees

Show your children how nice butterflies can be

They help to fertilize your plants

Producing fruits for your children to enjoy

Syrian people you have a long culture

Your arts and your country are beautiful

Do not ruin your ancestors’ good reputation

Preserve your culture for your children to grow

Show your children your fruitful gardens

And the beautiful Golden Butterfly will visit you

The butterfly says,

You will see no tears

No fear on your children faces

But the sound of your children’s laughter

The joy of seeing my beautiful wings

Everybody stops using weapons

Please come!

To enjoy your tasty food

Your dance, your music, your arts

And your ancient civilization

We want to visit you

Show us how civilized Syrian Society can be

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, August 23, 2013, 9:45 pm

The Golden Swallowtail Butterfly was captured by me on Saturday, August 17, 2013 at our backyard garden in downtown Newark, New Jersey. I would like to dedicate this video to all the children in Syria.

Please visit

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Category Education

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PBS News, TED Talks, The Atlantic, Thisiscolossal, and Ing Peace Project

PBS News: Hour full episode December 6 – 9, 2019, and How cuts to food stamp program could increase ‘poor outcomes’ for the food insecure

TED Talks: Eve Ensler- The profound power of an authentic apology? And Hawa Abdi Deqo Mohamed  Mother and daughter doctor heroes

The Atlantic: The Battle for the Constitution – Five Common Misconceptions About the Electoral College, and Top 25 News Photos of 2019

Thisiscolossal: Elaborate Chiaroscuro Tattoos by Makkala Rose Burst With Ripe Fruit and Blossoming Flowers

Ing Peace Project: Finished artwork of Malcolm X Shabazz High School’s Students’ comments, poster 2, on “What does Peace mean to you?”

PBS News: Hour full episode December 9, 2019

Dec 9, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Monday on the NewsHour, a long-awaited report on the origins of the FBI’s Russia probe finds errors but no evidence of a political conspiracy against President Trump. Plus: The latest on impeachment, an economic giant passes away, the truth about the war in Afghanistan, friction between Sen. Elizabeth Warren and Pete Buttigieg, Politics Monday and Broadway features the music of Alanis Morissette. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS: DOJ report finds Russia probe was appropriately opened https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_rW_… Counsels testify in fiery House Judiciary Committee hearing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQhFj… News Wrap: Putin and Zelenskiy have 1st one-on-one meeting https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vnkb0… Remembering former Fed chair and economic giant Paul Volcker https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fTxEC… Report shows how U.S. officials misled public on Afghan war https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jPbi… 2020 Democrats compete over transparency as 6th debate nears https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_MKk… Tamara Keith and Amy Walter on Warren vs. Buttigieg in Iowa https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sTd_J… ‘Jagged Little Pill’ becomes a musical — and a metaphor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m809y… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode December 8, 2019

Dec 8, 2019  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Sunday, December 8, the U.S. Navy releases names of the three sailors killed in the Pensacola rampage, House Democrats to present their case for impeaching President Trump, and Ukraine and Russia prepare for peace talks after nearly six years of conflict. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode December 7, 2019

Dec 7, 2019  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, December 7, a U.S. official says a Saudi officer watched mass shooting videos before his deadly rampage at Pensacola’s naval base, and Scotland eyes an opportunity for independence as Great Britain gets ready to head to the polls. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode December 6, 2019

Dec 6, 2019

PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, much of France is at a standstill amid mass protests of President Emmanuel Macron’s proposed pension reforms. Plus: The truth behind the conspiracy theory of Ukrainian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, analysis of political news with Mark Shields and David Brooks, a Van Gogh exhibition and the challenge of getting farmers the medical care they require. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS: News Wrap: Gunman kills 3 at Naval Air Station Pensacola https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0088C… How French pension protests could threaten Macron’s agenda https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4MOx… The facts behind Trump’s claims about Ukraine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MCN8t… Shields and Brooks on impeachment evidence, Pelosi’s power https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3XMD7… New show presents Van Gogh next to artists who inspired him https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKqij… How a community of care can improve farmworkers’ health https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geSw1… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: https://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/newshour Snapchat: @pbsnews Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Category News & Politics

How cuts to food stamp program could increase ‘poor outcomes’ for the food insecure

Dec 4, 2019  PBS NewsHour

The Trump administration is making some major changes to the food stamp program, known as SNAP. On Wednesday, the U.S. Department of Agriculture finalized a new rule expected to end access to the benefit for nearly 700,000 people by enforcing tougher work standards and limiting exemptions. The Urban Institute’s Elaine Waxman joins Amna Nawaz to discuss. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: https://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/newshour Snapchat: @pbsnews Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Category   News & Politics

Genuine apology goes beyond remorse, says legendary playwright Eve Ensler. In this frank, wrenching talk, she shares how she transformed her own experience of abuse into wisdom on what wrongdoers can do and say to truly repent — and offers a four-step roadmap to help begin the process. (This talk contains mature content.)

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Eve Ensler · Playwright, activist

Eve Ensler created the groundbreaking “Vagina Monologues,” whose success propelled her to found V-Day — a movement to end violence against women and girls everywhere.

They’ve been called the “saints of Somalia.” Doctor Hawa Abdi and her daughter Deqo Mohamed discuss their medical clinic in Somalia, where — in the face of civil war and open oppression of women — they’ve built a hospital, a school and a community of peace.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Dr. Hawa Abdi + Dr. Deqo Mohamed · Somali doctors who treat women refugees

Dr. Hawa Abdi and her daughters, Dr. Deqo Mohamed and Dr. Amina Mohamed, treat Somali refugee women and children, often for free.

https://getpocket.com/explore/item/the-world-will-finally-have-to-confront-its-massive-plastic-problem-now-that-china-won-t-handle-it?utm_source=pocket-newtab

Pocket Worthy  Stories to fuel your mind.

The World Will Finally Have to Confront Its Massive Plastic Problem Now That China Won’t Handle It

Now that China won’t take it, the world will have an extra 111 million metric tons of its plastic waste to deal with by 2030.

Quartz   Zoë Schlanger

Photo by Jenna Jambeck, University of Georgia.

Since the 1950s, when the world was first introduced to the flexible, durable wonder of plastic, 8.3 billion metric tons of it has been produced. Plastic doesn’t biodegrade, so technically, all of that tonnage is still sitting someplace on the planet. And a lot of it is in China.

That’s because when hundreds of countries around the world said they were “recycling” their plastic over the past few decades, half the time what they really meant was they were exporting it to another country. And most of the time, that meant they were exporting it to China. Since 1992, China (and Hong Kong, which acts as an entry port into mainland China) have imported 72 percent of all plastic waste.

But China has had enough. In 2017, China announced it was permanently banning the import of nonindustrial plastic waste. According to a paper published in June 2018 in the journal Science Advances, that will leave the world—mostly high-income countries—with an additional 111 million metric tons of plastic to deal with by 2030. And right now, those countries have no good way to handle it.

As of 2016, the top five countries exporting their plastic to China were the US, the UK, Mexico, Japan, and Germany.

For example, that year, the US exported 56 percent of its plastic waste to China, with another 32 percent going to Hong Kong (of which most is then exported to China). The US exported its remaining 12 percent to Mexico, Canada, and India. Germany, meanwhile, exports 69 percent of its plastic to China.

Screenshot_2019-11-26 A new Chinese rule means the biggest global plastic recycling strategy just backfired.png

But because flows of plastic are convoluted, it’s possible these numbers don’t tell the whole story. For example, the researchers note that the UK exports 51 percent of its plastic to Germany, but given how much plastic Germany exports to China, it’s seems plausible that much of the UK’s plastic ultimately ends up in China. The same goes for Mexico, which exports 55 percent of its plastic to the US. The US, in turn, exports most of its plastic to China. But the researchers write the United Nations trade data on which they based their research does not monitor flows of plastic between countries, so “we do not know whether that waste is then processed domestically or exported to Hong Kong or China,” they write.

China has in the past tried to limit plastic imports. In 2013, the country implemented a “Green Fence” policy of restricting the types of plastic waste it would accept, with the goal of reducing contamination. The policy lasted only a year, but it was enough to rattle the waste industry. “As a result, plastic recycling industries experienced a globally cascading effect since little infrastructure exists elsewhere to manage the rejected waste,” the researchers write.

That’s already happening again, and now the ban is permanent.

The rule went into effect on January 1, 2018, and plastic immediately began piling up in several European countries, the port of Hong Kong, and the US. “My inventory is out of control,” Steve Frank, who owns recycling plants in Oregon, which up until then had exported most of its materials to China, told the New York Times at the time. He hoped he’d be able to start exporting more waste to countries like Indonesia, India, Vietnam, Malaysia—“anywhere we can”—but “they can’t make up the difference,” he said.

At the end of the day, even the 111 million metric tons of plastic that the researchers found would be back in the laps of countries who used to export to China is still a fraction of all the plastic that gets produced.

Screenshot_2019-11-26 A new Chinese rule means the biggest global plastic recycling strategy just backfired(1).png

“We know from our previous studies that only 9 percent of all plastic ever produced has been recycled, and the majority of it ends up in landfills or the natural environment,” Jenna Jambeck, an associate professor at the University of Georgia’s college of engineering who co-authored the study, said in a statement.  ”Without bold new ideas and system-wide changes, even the relatively low current recycling rates will no longer be met, and our previously recycled materials could now end up in landfills.”

Screenshot_2019-11-26 A new Chinese rule means the biggest global plastic recycling strategy just backfired(2).png

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https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/11/five-common-misconceptions-about-electoral-college/602596/?utm_source=pocket-newtab

The Battle for the Constitution

Five Common Misconceptions About the Electoral College

Defenders of the Electoral College argue that it was created to combat majority tyranny and support federalism, and that it continues to serve those purposes. This stance depends on a profound misunderstanding of the history of the institution.

history of the institution.

November 29, 2019

G. Alan Tarr

Board of Governors Professor at Rutgers University-Camden

North Carolina Electoral College representatives sign the Certificates of Vote after they all cast their ballots for U.S. President-elect Donald Trump in the State Capitol building in Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S., December 19, 2016.
North Carolina Electoral College representatives sign the Certificates of Vote after they all cast their ballots for U.S. President-elect Donald Trump in the State Capitol building in Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S., December 19, 2016. REUTERS/Jonathan Drake – RC12F8CC65F0

North Carolina Electoral College representatives sign the Certificates of Vote after they all cast their ballots for U.S. President-elect Donald Trump in the State Capitol building in Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S., December 19, 2016.Jonathan Drake / Reuters

Two of the nation’s last three presidents won the presidency in the Electoral College, even though they lost the popular vote nationwide. In 2000, Al Gore outpolled George W. Bush by more than 540,000 votes but lost in the Electoral College, 271–266. Sixteen years later, Hillary Clinton tallied almost 3 million more votes than Donald Trump but lost decisively in the Electoral College, 306–232. And, as a recent New York Times poll suggested, the 2020 election could very well again deliver the presidency to the loser of the popular vote.

Despite this, defenders of the Electoral College argue that it was created to combat majority tyranny and support federalism, and that it continues to serve those purposes. For example, Representative Dan Crenshaw of Texas, responding to Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s recent criticism of the Electoral College, tweeted that “we live in a republic, which means 51% of the population doesn’t get to boss around the other 49%,” and that the Electoral College “promotes more equal regional representation and protects the interests of sparsely populated states.”

But arguments like these are flawed, misunderstanding the pertinent history. Below, I identify five common mistakes made in arguing for the preservation of the Electoral College.

More in this series

A special project on the constitutional debates in American life, in partnership with the National Constitution Center

How to Revive Madison’s Constitution

Michael Gerhardt Jeffrey Rosen

The Obscure—But Crucial—Rules the Trump Administration Has Sought to Corrupt

Peter M. Shane

I Know What It’s Like to Carry Out Executions

S. Frank Thompson

Mistake Number 1: Many supporters of the Electoral College assume that the debate about presidential selection at the Constitutional Convention, like the debate today, focused on whether the president should be chosen by the Electoral College or by a nationwide popular vote.

But as tempting as it is to read history in the light of contemporary concerns, the debate at the convention focused on a different issue: Should Congress choose the president? Both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan, the two primary alternatives at the Convention, proposed that Congress select the president. This was unsurprising because in most states at the time, the legislature chose the governor. On June 1, the convention voted 8–2 that Congress should elect the president, and the delegates would affirm that decision on three other occasions.

The frequency with which the delegates revisited the issue reveals not their confidence but their dissatisfaction. Most delegates wanted the executive to check legislative usurpations and block unjust or unwise laws, but they feared that dependence on the legislature for election—and possible reelection—would compromise the executive’s independence. Some delegates hoped to avoid this danger by limiting the president to a single term, but as Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania observed, this could deprive the nation of a highly qualified executive, eliminate the hope of continuation in office as a spur to good behavior, and encourage the executive to “make hay while the sun shines.” James Madison added that election by the legislature would “agitate and divide the legislature so much that the public interest would materially suffer” and might invite the intervention of foreign powers seeking to influence the choice.  

The difficulty lay in finding an alternative to legislative selection, and the delegates considered and rejected various possibilities, including popular election. Ultimately, perhaps in desperation, they referred the issue to the Committee on Unfinished Parts. On September 4, less than two weeks before the convention ended, the committee proposed the Electoral College. Its proposal mirrored the states’ distribution of power in Congress; each state had as many electoral votes as it had members of Congress. But because the electors dispersed after voting for the president, the Electoral College did not threaten the independence of the executive. With only minor adjustments—most notably, the House replaced the Senate as the body that would select the president if a majority of electors failed to agree on a candidate—the convention endorsed the proposal.

The point of all this is, the Electoral College did not emerge because of opposition to popular election of the president.

Wilfred Codrington III: The Electoral College’s racist origins

Mistake Number 2: Another common belief is that the convention rejected popular election of the president because the delegates feared majority tyranny. People make this claim as though to say that because the Framers were skittish of a national popular election, so should we be today.

But, once again, this interpretation of history is wrong. The convention did twice reject popular election of the president. But the delegates who rejected it did not object to popular elections per se—they had no problem with popular election of the House of Representatives or state legislatures. Rather, they were skeptical of a national popular election, primarily for reasons that are no longer relevant today.

First, they feared that people would lack the information to make an informed choice as to who might be an appropriate candidate for the presidency or who might be the best choice among candidates. Thus George Mason of Virginia claimed, “It would be as unnatural to refer the choice of a proper candidate for chief Magistrate to the people, as it would be to refer a trial of colours to a blind man.”

But his reason was that “the extent of the Country renders it impossible that the people can have the requisite capacity to judge of the respective pretensions of the Candidates.” In such circumstances, he thought, voters would naturally gravitate to candidates from their own state. Delegates who favored popular election replied that “the increasing intercourse among the people of the states would render important characters less and less unknown,” and that “continental characters will multiply as we more or more coalesce,” reducing state parochialism. Today, with mass communication and interminable campaigns, lack of information is no longer a problem.

Second, some southern delegates feared that popular election of the president would disadvantage their states. James Madison noted that, given less restrictive voting laws, “the right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern states,” which would give them an advantage in a popular election. Beyond that, a popular vote would not count the disenfranchised enslaved population, reducing southern influence.

The Electoral College solved both those problems, awarding electoral votes based on a state’s population, not its electorate, and importing the three-fifths compromise into presidential elections. The effects were immediate and dramatic—in 1800 John Adams would have defeated Thomas Jefferson had only free persons been counted in awarding electoral votes. Obviously, these concerns no longer apply, although popular election would encourage states to increase their influence by expanding their electorate, while the Electoral College offers no such incentive.

Read: The Electoral College was meant to stop men like Trump from being president

Third, some small-state delegates opposed popular election because they feared that larger states, with their greater voting power, would dominate. Yet these same delegates also objected to the Electoral College, insisting it too gave excessive power to the large states. Their concerns were addressed by stipulating that should no candidate receive a majority of the electoral vote, the selection would devolve on the House of Representatives, with each state casting a single vote.

What is striking about the convention’s debate on popular election of the president is that its opponents did not claim it would encourage majority tyranny. Doubtless the delegates were aware of the danger of such a tyranny—Madison first presented his famous discussion of “majority faction” at the convention—but no delegate objected to popular election on that basis, and Madison himself supported popular election of the president.

Mistake Number 3: Similarly, some defenders of the Electoral College have argued that the delegates who favored the Electoral College opposed popular election of the president.

Given the current debate on presidential selection, this might seem obvious, but the deliberations at the convention were much more fluid. James Wilson of Pennsylvania first proposed popular election of the president, but when his motion failed, he immediately raised the possibility of a mediated popular election: electors chosen by the people who would select the executive. All the other leading advocates of popular election—Morris, Madison, and Alexander Hamilton—also supported the Electoral College, primarily as an alternative to congressional selection. In defending the Electoral College, Madison and Hamilton emphasized its popular character. Madison in “Federalist No. 39” noted that “the President is indirectly derived from the choice of the people,” and Hamilton in “Federalist No. 68” concurred: “The sense of the people should operate in the choice of the person to whom so important a trust was to be confided,” and reelection should depend on “the people themselves.”

Mistake Number 4: Many people also believe that the Electoral College was designed to preserve federalism and states’ rights.

The Constitution was, in James Madison’s words, “in strictness neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both.” It empowered state legislatures to determine how the presidential electors were to be chosen, and if the Electoral College failed to select a president, the House of Representatives would, with each state casting a single vote. However, the debates during the Constitutional Convention make clear that the Electoral College was not intended to protect the states or enhance the influence of state governments and state perspectives.

The convention delegates sought to safeguard the independence of the national executive from state governments. They overwhelmingly rejected proposals that the executive be selected by state legislatures or by state governors. They also rejected a proposal that the president be removable upon request by a majority of state legislatures and did not even consider the New Jersey Plan’s provision that the president “be recalled by Congress when requested by the majority of executive of the states.” This was hardly surprising. Most delegates were sharply critical of state legislatures and wanted to ensure that the president had the independence necessary to oppose their schemes. Madison summarized the prevailing sentiment: “The President is to act for the people, not the States.”

Although the Electoral College allowed state legislatures to determine how electors would be chosen, it was expected that once selected, the electors would operate independently of their state governments. The constitutional ban on senators serving as electors and the choice of the House to resolve deadlocks in the Electoral College ensured that those selected by (and perhaps influenced by) state legislatures would not play a role in selecting the president. Beyond that, the delegates expected that the electors’ deliberations would remain secret, that they would be free to choose the candidates they believed most qualified, and that their votes would be tabulated and transmitted to the president of the Senate without any indication as to who voted for which candidate, so that no political retribution could be exacted. The Constitution’s requirement that electors vote for two candidates, at least one of whom was not from their state, served to reduce state parochialism and encourage a national perspective.

In sum, the Electoral College was not designed to promote federalism—Martin Diamond, one of the most thoughtful proponents of the Electoral College, accurately described the design as “an anti-states-rights device, a way of keeping the election from state politicians and giving it to the people.” The core protections of federalism, today as in the past, are the vitality of state governments, the division of powers between nation and state, and representation in Congress along state lines. The replacement of the Electoral College by a nationwide popular vote would threaten none of these. Voting procedures would remain the same, the only difference being that votes would be tabulated nationwide rather than state by state.

Read: The Electoral College wasn’t meant to overturn elections

Mistake Number 5: And finally, perhaps the most widely believed and, at the same time, most incorrect of the arguments for the Electoral College is that it has vindicated the hopes and expectations of its creators.

To begin with, to some extent those expectations were unclear. For example, after the Electoral College was proposed, some delegates claimed that in most elections—George Mason predicted “nineteen times in twenty”—no candidate would get a majority of the electoral votes, and so the House of Representatives would elect the president. This of course would compromise the independence of the executive, and both Madison and Hamilton unsuccessfully proposed that the House’s role be eliminated, with the candidate winning a plurality of the electoral vote becoming president. Other delegates expected that a majority of the electors would coalesce around a single candidate. In “Federalist No. 39,” Madison presumed that “the eventual election” would be made by the House, but this was mere speculation and quickly disproved.

Even when the delegates’ hopes and expectations were clear, constitutional amendments have altered the operation of the Electoral College. The Twelfth Amendment, adopted after the contested election of 1800, requires electors to specify for whom they are voting for president and vice president. The Twentieth Amendment, by shifting the date congressional terms begin to January 3, ensures that the newly elected House of Representatives, rather than the previous House, would elect the president if no candidate received an electoral-vote majority. And the Twenty-Third Amendment extends the right to vote in presidential elections to U.S. citizens residing in the District of Columbia, awarding the District three electoral votes, though the Electoral College continues to deny American citizens living in Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories any role in choosing the president.

Even more important have been changes in political practice. In “Federalist No. 64,” John Jay maintained that the Electoral College “will in general be composed of the most enlightened and respectable citizens,” and in “Federalist No. 68,” Alexander Hamilton described the electors as “most likely to possess the information and discernment” necessary to choose the chief executive. But by 1800 political parties had developed, and elector discretion was replaced by elector commitment to the parties’ candidates. Today many states do not even bother to list the electors’ names on the ballot. Interestingly, Hamilton and Madison as party leaders played a crucial role in this transformation.

Read: The Electoral College conundrum

The Constitution authorized state legislatures to determine how electors were to be selected, but by 1828 every state but South Carolina chose its electors by popular vote, and today all states do. Moreover, despite the initial expectation that electors would be chosen in districts, by 1836 party competition had promoted a winner-take-all allocation of electors in all the states. (Maine and Nebraska have since bucked that trend.) This in turn has affected presidential campaigns, as more and more candidates target their speeches, campaign appearances, and ads at “swing states” and largely ignore states they confidently expect to carry or to lose.

Meanwhile, the proliferation of primary elections, the nationalization of the choice of presidential candidates, the move toward candidate-based campaigns, and the reduced importance of state party organizations have fundamentally transformed presidential selection, without changing how votes are awarded under the Electoral College.

In “Federalist No. 68,” Alexander Hamilton contended that the Electoral College would frustrate “the desire in foreign powers to gain an improper ascendant in our councils.” It would also “afford a moral certainty that the office of President [would] seldom fall to the lot of any man who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requisite qualifications.” In addition, it would keep from the office candidates with “talents for low intrigue, and the little arts of popularity.” In evaluating the Electoral College today, one must judge whether Hamilton’s hopes have been vindicated.

This story is part of the project “The Battle for the Constitution,” in partnership with the National Constitution Center.

We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to letters@theatlantic.com.

G. Alan Tarr is professor emeritus at Rutgers University-Camden. He is the author of Without Fear or Favor and Understanding State Constitutions.

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https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/11/five-common-misconceptions-about-electoral-college/602596/?utm_source=pocket-newtab

https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2019/12/top-25-news-photos-2019/602848/

Top 25 News Photos of 2019

Alan Taylor  December 2, 2019

25 Photos   In Focus

As we approach the end of a year of unrest, here is a look back at some of the major news events and moments of 2019. Massive protests were staged against existing governments in Hong Kong, Chile, Iraq, Iran, Venezuela, Haiti, Algeria, Sudan, and Bolivia, while climate-change demonstrations and strikes took place worldwide. An impeachment inquiry into President Donald Trump was started, conflict in Syria continued, the United States won the Women’s World Cup, Hurricane Dorian lashed the Bahamas, and so much more. Here, we present the Top 25 news photos of 2019. Be sure to also see these more comprehensive stories—2019: The Year in Photos, Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3.

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Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern hugs a mosque-goer at the Kilbirnie mosque in Wellington, New Zealand, on March 17, 2019. 50 people are confirmed dead and 36 are injured still in hospital following shooting attacks on two mosques in Christchurch on Friday, 15 March. The attack is the worst mass shooting in New Zealand’s history. (Hagen Hopkins / Getty)

Jacinda Ardern, prime minister of New Zealand, hugs a mosque-goer at the Kilbirnie mosque in Wellington, on March 17, 2019. Earlier that day, 51 people were killed and another 49 were injured in shooting attacks on two mosques in Christchurch—the worst mass shooting and terror attack in New Zealand’s history. #

Hagen Hopkins / Getty

The steeple of Notre-Dame Cathedral collapses as the cathedral is engulfed in flames in central Paris on April 15, 2019. (Geoffroy Van Der Hasselt / AFP / Getty)

The spire of Notre-Dame collapses as the cathedral is engulfed in flames in central Paris on April 15, 2019. Much of the roof collapsed in the fire, which ignited during renovations. President Emmanuel Macron immediately indicated that the cathedral would be rebuilt, but the method and form of the reconstruction became a political battle, with one side favoring modern redesigns, and the other advocating for an exact replica of the previous structure. #

Geoffroy Van Der Hasselt / AFP / Getty

Spike Lee, winner of the Best Adapted Screenplay award for BlacKkKlansman, attends the 91st annual Academy Awards Governors Ball at the Hollywood & Highland Center in Hollywood, California, on February 24, 2019. (Robyn Beck / AFP / Getty)

Spike Lee, winner of the Best Adapted Screenplay award for BlacKkKlansman, attends the 91st annual Academy Awards Governors Ball at the Hollywood & Highland Center in Hollywood, California, on February 24, 2019. Although Lee had been awarded an honorary Oscar in 2015, this was his first competitive Academy Award. #

Robyn Beck / AFP / Getty

TOPSHOT – People raise their hands during a mass opposition rally against President Nicolas Maduro in which Venezuela’s National Assembly head Juan Guaido (out of frame) declared himself the country’s “acting president”, on the anniversary of a 1958 uprising that overthrew a military dictatorship, in Caracas on January 23, 2019. – “I swear to formally assume the national executive powers as acting president of Venezuela to end the usurpation, (install) a transitional government and hold free elections,” said Guaido as thousands of supporters cheered. Moments earlier, the loyalist-dominated Supreme Court ordered a criminal investigation of the opposition-controlled legislature. (Photo by Federico PARRA / AFP) (Photo credit should read FEDERICO PARRA/AFP via Getty Images)

People raise their hands during a mass opposition rally against President Nicolás Maduro, in which Venezuela’s National Assembly head, Juan Guaidó, declared himself the country’s “acting president” on the anniversary of a 1958 uprising that overthrew a military dictatorship, in Caracas, Venezuela, on January 23, 2019. The movement, sparked by disputed election results, led to a presidential crisis in Venezuela that continued throughout the year. #

Federico Parra / AFP / Getty

President Donald Trump turns to House Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California as he delivers his State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., as Vice President Mike Pence watches on February 5, 2019. (Doug Mills / The New York Times via AP)

President Donald Trump turns to House Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California as he delivers his State of the Union address to a Joint Session of Congress on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., as Vice President Mike Pence watches, on February 5, 2019. #

Doug Mills / The New York Times via AP

People are evacuated by a member of security forces at the scene of a terror attack at the Dusit Hotel compound in Nairobi, Kenya, on January 15, 2019. (Baz Ratner / Reuters)

People are evacuated by a member of security forces at the scene of a terror attack at the Dusit Hotel compound in Nairobi, Kenya, on January 15, 2019. The attack, carried out by members of the jihadist militant group Al-Shabaab, left 21 civilians dead. #

Baz Ratner / Reuters

TOPSHOT – EDITORS NOTE: Graphic content / A wounded Syrian girl awaits rescue from under the rubble next to the body of her sister (hands seen-R) who did not survive regime bombardment in Khan Sheikhun in the southern countryside of the rebel-held Idlib province, on February 26, 2019. – Regime bombardment near Khan Sheikhun, in Idlib province, killed two civilians on Tuesday, raising the civilian death toll to 42 since February 9, the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said. (Photo by Anas AL-DYAB / AFP) (Photo by ANAS AL-DYAB/AFP via Getty Images)

A wounded Syrian girl awaits rescue from under the rubble next to the body of her sister (hands visible at right), who did not survive a regime bombardment in Khan Sheikhun in the southern countryside of the rebel-held Idlib province, on February 26, 2019. Five months after this photo, the Syrian photographer who took it, Anas Al-Dyab, was killed in an air strike in Khan Sheikhun. Al-Dyab was also a member of the “White Helmets,” a group of volunteers carrying out search-and-rescue efforts in Syria. #

Anas Al-Dyab / AFP / Getty

Dogs pull a sled on water-covered sea ice near Qaanaaq, Greenland, on June 13, 2019. An abundance of water from a rapid summer melt had pooled on top of a wide swath of solid sea ice. (Steffen Olsen / Danish Meteorological Institute via Reuters)

Dogs pull a sled on water-covered sea ice near Qaanaaq, Greenland, on June 13, 2019. The dogs were forced to wade after an abundance of water from a rapid summer melt had pooled on top of a wide swath of solid sea ice. #

Steffen Olsen / Danish Meteorological Institute via Reuters

TOPSHOT – A boy walks out of the sea while removing oil spilled on Itapuama beach located in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco state, Brazil, on October 21, 2019. – Large blobs of oil staining more than 130 beaches in northeastern Brazil began appearing in early September and have now turned up along a 2,000km stretch of the Atlantic coastline. The source of the patches remain a mystery despite President Jair Bolsonaro’s assertions they came from outside the country and were possibly the work of criminals. (Photo by LEO MALAFAIA / AFP) (Photo by LEO MALAFAIA/AFP via Getty Images)

A boy walks out of the sea while removing oil spilled on Itapuama beach, located in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho in Pernambuco state, Brazil, on October 21, 2019. Large blobs of oil staining more than 130 beaches in northeastern Brazil began appearing in early September and have now turned up along a 2,000-kilometer stretch of the Atlantic coastline. The source of the patches remains a mystery despite President Jair Bolsonaro’s assertions they came from outside the country and were possibly the work of criminals. #

Leo Malafaia / AFP / Getty

HONG KONG – AUGUST 18: Thousands of anti-government protesters march on a street after leaving a rally in Victoria Park on August 18, 2019 in Hong Kong, China. Pro-democracy protesters have continued rallies on the streets of Hong Kong against a controversial extradition bill since 9 June as the city plunged into crisis after waves of demonstrations and several violent clashes. Hong Kong’s Chief Executive Carrie Lam apologized for introducing the bill and declared it “dead”, however protesters have continued to draw large crowds with demands for Lam’s resignation and completely withdraw the bill. (Photo by Chris McGrath/Getty Images)

Thousands of pro-democracy protesters march on a street after leaving a rally in Victoria Park on August 18, 2019, in Hong Kong. Demonstrations have taken place on the streets of Hong Kong since June 9, beginning as a reaction to a controversial extradition bill, and evolving into broader demands for democracy and investigations into police brutality, challenging Beijing’s authority. #

Chris McGrath / Getty

Police detain pro-democracy demonstrators during a demonstration in Hong Kong on September 29, 2019. (Kin Cheung / AP)

Police detain pro-democracy demonstrators during a demonstration in Hong Kong on September 29, 2019. #

Kin Cheung / AP

U.S. President Donald Trump shakes hands with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un as they meet at the demilitarized zone separating the two Koreas, in Panmunjom, South Korea, June 30, 2019. KCNA via REUTERS ATTENTION EDITORS – THIS IMAGE WAS PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. REUTERS IS UNABLE TO INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THIS IMAGE. NO THIRD PARTY SALES. SOUTH KOREA OUT. NO COMMERCIAL OR EDITORIAL SALES IN SOUTH KOREA. – RC1849E5AB80

U.S. President Donald Trump shakes hands with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un as they meet at the demilitarized zone separating the two Koreas, in Panmunjom, South Korea, on June 30, 2019, in this image provided by North Korea’s Korean Central News Agency (KCNA). During the meeting, Trump became the first sitting U.S. president to cross the border and enter North Korea. #

KCNA via Reuters

Students take part in a march for the environment and the climate in Brussels, Belgium, on February 21, 2019. (Emmanuel Dunand / AFP / Getty)

Students take part in a march for the environment and the climate in Brussels, Belgium, on February 21, 2019. Environmental protests and strikes, most led by students, took place around the world multiple times throughout the year. #

Emmanuel Dunand / AFP / Getty

Guatemalan migrant Lety Perez embraces her son Anthony while praying to ask a member of the Mexican National Guard to let them cross into the United States, as seen from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, July 22, 2019. Lety Perez fell to her haunches, a clenched hand covering her face as she wept, an arm clutching her small 6-year old son, who glared defiantly at the Mexican National Guard soldier blocking them from crossing into the United States. The plight of this mother and son who had traveled some 1,500 miles (2,410 km) from their home country of Guatemala to the border city of Ciudad Juarez, only to be stopped mere feet from the United States, was captured by Reuters photographer Jose Luis Gonzalez as twilight approached on Monday. “The woman begged and pleaded with the National Guard to let them cross … she wanted to cross to give a better future” to her young son Anthony Diaz, Gonzalez said. The soldier, dressed in desert fatigues, an assault rifle slung over his shoulder, said he was only following orders, according to Gonzalez. The soldier did not disclose his name. (Jose Luis Gonzalez / Reuters)

Lety Perez, a Guatemalan migrant, embraces her son Anthony while praying to ask a member of the Mexican National Guard to let them cross into the United States, as seen from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, on July 22, 2019. Perez and her 6-year-old son had traveled some 1,500 miles from their home country, only to be stopped mere feet from the United States. #

Jose Luis Gonzalez / Reuters

A long-exposure photograph shows a tree burning during the Kincade fire off Highway 128, east of Healdsburg, California, on October 29, 2019. (Philip Pacheco / AFP / Getty)

A long-exposure photograph shows a tree burning during the Kincade fire off Highway 128, east of Healdsburg, California, on October 29, 2019. This year’s fire season in California, which lasts through December, has seen more than 6,400 reported fires, including the largest, the Kincade fire, which burned more than 77,000 acres alone. #

Philip Pacheco / AFP / Getty

United States’ forward Megan Rapinoe celebrates scoring her team’s first goal during the France 2019 Women’s World Cup quarter-final football match between France and United States, on June 28, 2019, at the Parc des Princes stadium in Paris. (Photo by FRANCK FIFE / AFP) (Photo by FRANCK FIFE/AFP via Getty Images)

The United States forward Megan Rapinoe celebrates scoring her team’s first goal during the Women’s World Cup France 2019 quarter-final soccer match between France and the United States, on June 28, 2019, at the Parc des Princes stadium in Paris. The U.S. advanced to the final and won the championship on July 7 in a match against the Netherlands. #

Franck Fife / AFP / Getty

An aerial view of damage caused by Hurricane Dorian is seen in Marsh Harbour on Great Abaco Island on September 4, 2019, in Great Abaco, Bahamas. (Scott Olson / Getty)

An aerial view of damage caused by Hurricane Dorian is seen in Marsh Harbour on Great Abaco Island on September 4, 2019, in Great Abaco, Bahamas. Dorian struck the islands as a Category 5 storm, and was responsible for at least 60 deaths and more than $3 billion in damages—the worst natural disaster to ever hit the Bahamas. #

Scott Olson / Getty

A young Rohingya is seen during a rainstorm at the Nayapara refugee camp on August 21, 2019, in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Rohingya refugees said on August 21 that they did not want to return to Myanmar without their rights and citizenship, with repatriation set to start on August 22. August 25 marked the second anniversary of the Rohingya crisis in Bangladesh after Myanmar’s military crackdown on the ethnic Muslim minority forced over 700,000 to flee to Bangladesh from violence and torture. The United Nations has stated that it was a textbook example of ethnic cleansing. (Allison Joyce / Getty)

A young Rohingya refugee is seen during a rainstorm at the Nayapara refugee camp in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, on August 21, 2019. Rohingya refugees said on August 21 that they did not want to return to Myanmar (also called Burma) without their rights and citizenship, with repatriation set to start on August 22. August 25 marked the second anniversary of the Rohingya crisis in Bangladesh after Myanmar’s military crackdown on the ethnic Muslim minority forced more than 700,000 to flee to Bangladesh from violence and torture. The United Nations has stated that it was a textbook example of ethnic cleansing. #

Allison Joyce / Getty

A huge plume of ash rises from Raikoke Volcano on the Kuril Islands, as viewed from the International Space Station on June 22, 2019. The small, oval-shaped island most recently exploded in 1924, and before that in 1778. Astronauts shot this photograph of the eruption as the column of ash spread out in a part of the plume known as the umbrella region—the area where the density of the plume and the surrounding air equalize and the plume stops rising. The ring of clouds at the base of the column appears to be water vapor. (NASA Earth Observatory)

A huge plume of ash rises from Raikoke volcano in the Kuril Islands, as viewed from the International Space Station on June 22, 2019. The small, oval-shaped island most recently exploded in 1924, and before that in 1778. Astronauts shot this photograph of the eruption as the column of ash spread out in a part of the plume known as the umbrella region—the area where the density of the plume and the surrounding air equalize and the plume stops rising. The ring of clouds at the base of the column appears to be water vapor. #

NASA Earth Observatory

TOPSHOT – A demonstrator wearing Guy Fawkes mask gestures during a protest against the government, in Santiago on November 18, 2019. – President Sebastian Pinera condemned on Sunday for the first time what he called abuses committed by police in dealing with four weeks of violent unrest that have rocked Chile and which has left 22 people dead and more than 2,000 injured. Chileans have been protesting social and economic inequality, and against an entrenched political elite that comes from a small number of the wealthiest families in the country, among other issues. (Photo by CLAUDIO REYES / AFP) (Photo by CLAUDIO REYES/AFP via Getty Images)

A demonstrator wearing a Guy Fawkes mask gestures in front of others shining green lasers, during a protest against the government in Santiago, Chile, on November 18, 2019. Weeks of violent unrest have rocked Chile, leaving at least 22 people dead and more than 2,000 injured. Chileans are protesting social and economic inequality, and against an entrenched political elite. #

Claudio Reyes / AFP / Getty

ATTENTION EDITORS – SENSITIVE MATERIAL. THIS IMAGE MAY OFFEND OR DISTURB A riot police officer on fire reacts during a protest against Chile’s government in Santiago, Chile November 4, 2019. REUTERS/Jorge Silva TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY – RC13D207B4A0

A riot-police officer reacts after a Molotov cocktail landed nearby, splashing fire onto several officers during a protest against Chile’s government in Santiago, Chile, on November 4, 2019. #

Jorge Silva / Reuters

22-year-old Alaa Salah stands on a car leading chants during a protest demanding that Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir step down in Khartoum, Sudan, on April 8, 2019, in this still image taken from a social-media video obtained on April 9. (Lana H. Haroun via Reuters)

Alaa Salah, 22, stands on a car leading chants during a protest demanding that Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir step down, in Khartoum, Sudan, on April 8, 2019, in this still image taken from a social-media video obtained on April 9. Months of demonstrations and civil disobedience led up to the Sudanese Armed Forces staging a coup on April 11, removing the dictator Bashir from power after 30 years. #

Lana H. Haroun / Social Media

TOPSHOT – A Syrian boy on his bicycle looks at a convoy of US armoured vehicles patrolling fields near the northeastern town of Qahtaniyah at the border with Turkey, on October 31, 2019. – US forces accompanied by Kurdish fighters of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) patrolled part of Syria’s border with Turkey, in the first such move since Washington withdrew troops from the area earlier this month, an AFP correspondent reported. (Photo by Delil SOULEIMAN / AFP) (Photo by DELIL SOULEIMAN/AFP via Getty Images)

A Syrian boy on his bicycle looks at a convoy of U.S. armored vehicles patrolling fields near the northeastern town of Qahtaniyah at the border with Turkey, on October 31, 2019. U.S. forces accompanied by Kurdish fighters of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) patrolled part of Syria’s border with Turkey, in the first such move since Washington withdrew troops from the area earlier in October, an AFP correspondent reported. #

Delil Souleiman / AFP / Getty

Democratic Chairman of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Adam Schiff awaits charge d’Affaires at the U.S. embassy in Ukraine Bill Taylor and Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Europe and Eurasia George Kent to testify before the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence hearing on the impeachment inquiry into President Donald J. Trump, on Capitol Hill, on November 13, 2019. (Jim Lo Scalzo / Pool via Reuters)

Democratic Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee Adam Schiff awaits Bill Taylor, charge d’affaires at the U.S. embassy in Ukraine, and George Kent, the deputy assistant secretary of state for Europe and Eurasia, to testify during a hearing on the impeachment inquiry into President Donald Trump, on Capitol Hill, November 13, 2019. #

Jim Lo Scalzo / Pool via Reuters

An Iraqi demonstrator takes part in ongoing anti-government protests in Baghdad on November 1, 2019. (Ahmed Jadallah / Reuters)

An Iraqi demonstrator takes part in ongoing anti-government protests in Baghdad on November 1, 2019. Beginning in October, frustrated Iraqis took to the streets to voice their anger at years of government corruption, high rates of unemployment, poor services, and economic stagnation. The response from Iraqi authorities was particularly violent, resulting in more than 400 deaths. The demonstrations continue, despite the announced resignation of Prime Minister Adil Abdul-Mahdi. #

Ahmed Jadallah / Reuters

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Elaborate Chiaroscuro Tattoos by Makkala Rose Burst With Ripe Fruit and Blossoming Flowers

November 15, 2019  Laura Staugaitis

Tattoo artist Makkala Rose creates dramatic botanical designs on her clients’ skin, incorporating richly toned flower blossoms, unctuous fruits, and life-like animal portraits. One recent commission involved completely covering a client’s back with a chiaroscuro “painting” featuring three burning candles, reflective glass and crystals, piles of ripe fruit, and a hanging bat on an inky black background.

Rose’s first love was painting, the artist tells Colossal. “One of my first memories was smearing bright purple paint from the pot onto a fresh sheet of paper stuck to an easel, and my love and fascination with art and creating has never ended.” Now that Rose spends most of her time tattooing, her background as a painter has come into dialogue with her ink work. “The feel and the mood brought through by my color palette and my style of tattooing is influenced by the way I like to paint and now vice versa as I spend a lot more time tattooing, they lend interestingly to each other,” says Rose.

The artist also has a strong personal connection to flowers and gardens (Rose tells Colossal that floristry would be her backup career), and she seeks to imbue her tattoo work with the joy that blossoms bring her. She spends time perusing different bouquet designs, photographing flowers in public gardens, and researching new plants and flowers to expand her repertoire, though peonies and blackberries are perennial favorites.

To create her most recent backpiece, shown above, Rose explains that she personally collected all the materials for the composition, from individual flowers to pitchers and crystals. She then arranged everything in a composition (minus the bat) and worked with a friend to take documentation photos in preparation for the tattoo design.

Rose hails from New Zealand, and travels frequently for her tattoo work, most often across the U.S., U.K., and New Zealand. See more of her designs on Instagram. Rose is usually booked several months out, but you can find out where she’ll be next on her website. If you enjoy Rose’s designs, also check out Esther Garcia’s inkwork.

 Finished “Peace” artwork 15

 Finished artwork of Malcolm X Shabazz High School’s Students’ comments, poster 2, on “What does Peace mean to you?”

Organize by Linda Leonard-Nevels (School Library Media Specialist), Malcolm X Shabazz High School, and Ms. Bongiovanni (English IV, 2014-2015) Newark, New Jersey, December 2014

 Finished artwork, after the written comments by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts on Friday, January 30, 2015

Link to Finished artwork of Malcolm X Shabazz High School’s Students’ comments, poster 2, on “What does Peace mean to you?” page:

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PBS News: December 2 – 5, 2019, A look back at presidential impeachment in U.S. history, The Plastic Problem – A PBS NewsHour Documentary,

TED Talks: Alejandro Duran How I use art to tackle plastic pollution in our oceans?, and Emma Bryce What really happens to the plastic you throw away

60 Minutes Australia: Exposing Jeffrey Epstein’s international sex trafficking ring | 60 Minutes Australia

DW Documentary: How poor people survive in the USA | DW Documentary

The Atlantic: 2019 in Photos: Wrapping Up the Year

PBS NewsHour full episode December 5, 2019

Dec 5, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi formally requests the House Judiciary Committee to move forward with articles of impeachment against President Trump. Plus: Lawmaker reaction to the latest impeachment developments, Pete Townshend on rocking his seventies, what a wrongful imprisonment says about American criminal justice and comedian Nick Kroll’s journey through adolescence. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS: The anticipated timeline for Trump impeachment articles https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYWuE… News Wrap: U.S. says Iran may have killed 1,000 in crackdown https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFHik… On Trump impeachment, ‘facts are in dispute,’ says Collins https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-nhLH… Constituents ‘gravely concerned’ by Trump actions, says Dean https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bf4jw… Why is The Who’s Pete Townshend still touring at age 74? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iW7JK… Ricky Kidd’s 23-year-long nightmare of wrongful imprisonment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6P4_j… Nick Kroll’s Brief But Spectacular journey through puberty https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUfim… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode December 4, 2019

Dec 4, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, the House Judiciary Committee holds its first hearing in the impeachment inquiry into President Trump. Plus: Legal experts weigh in on testimony from the hearing witnesses, divisions on display at the NATO summit in London, the fallout from cutting eligibility for food stamps and mushroom foragers confront a changing climate. Editor’s Note: An earlier version of the news summary included an image in a graphic about protests in Iran that mistakenly shows an anti-Iranian protest in Germany. It has been corrected with an image of the Iranian flag. NewsHour regrets the error. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS: Judiciary hearing’s witnesses put Trump’s conduct in context https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NEfqC… Legal debate on impeachment accompanied by partisan attacks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5JGe… 2 impeachment experts on the case against Trump https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOQWY… News Wrap: More doubts about potential U.S.-China trade deal https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6ZJN… Trump leaves NATO summit after drama-filled visit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ujQGy… How Trump’s food stamp rules could increase ‘poor outcomes’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpCV6… These forest fungi are a bounty for Arizona mushroom hunters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leg&f… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: https://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/newshour Snapchat: @pbsnews Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Category  News & Politics

PBS NewsHour full episode December 3, 2019

Dec 3, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Tuesday on the NewsHour, House Democrats laid out their case for impeaching President Trump, arguing he abused his power and obstructed justice. Plus: Trump’s visit to a NATO summit in London, Sen. Kamala Harris drops out of the 2020 presidential race, new information about the Sackler family and the opioid crisis, a new book about Brett Kavanagh and a Brief But Spectacular take on photography. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS: House Intelligence Committee lays out case against Trump https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4oVL… News Wrap: Trump says he might delay China trade deal https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_brJd… NATO member countries squabble amid 75th anniversary summit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXshc… Why Kamala Harris’ campaign failed to gain traction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ByXfj… What the Sackler family knew about OxyContin’s abuse risks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qdk3F… Inside the campaign to put Kavanaugh on the Supreme Court https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qvoeb… Photographer Uldus Bakhtiozina on documenting dreams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFICA… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode December 2, 2019

Dec 2, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Monday on the NewsHour, the House Judiciary Committee moves closer to impeachment as President Trump travels abroad. Plus: The Supreme Court hears oral arguments in its first gun control case in a decade, 2020 Democrats on the campaign trail, Politics Monday, why millennials are moving away from urban centers and Now Read This with Richard Powers, author of December book pick “The Overstory.” WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS: What’s ahead for the impeachment inquiry? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RsHB3… News Wrap: China bars U.S. military from Hong Kong https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=675_u… Supreme Court hears arguments about now-repealed NYC gun law https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XacDL… 2 months away from Iowa, Democratic race is still in flux https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obudO… Amy Walter and Domenico Montenaro on 2020 Democrats in flux https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tokuD… Why millennials are moving away from large urban centers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjZu5… ‘The Overstory’ author Richard Powers answers your questions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BIfWv… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

A look back at presidential impeachment in U.S. history

Nov 28, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Impeachment is a rare event in American politics. Amid the past few weeks of public hearings, we have wondered how this episode compares to previous instances of impeachment. Amna Nawaz spoke with three historians, each focused on a former president who had to grapple with that threat: Peter Baker on Bill Clinton, John Naftali on Richard Nixon and Brenda Wineapple on Andrew Johnson. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

The Plastic Problem – A PBS NewsHour Documentary

Premiered Nov 27, 2019  PBS NewsHour

By 2050 there will be more plastic than fish in the oceans. It’s an environmental crisis that’s been in the making for nearly 70 years. Plastic pollution is now considered one of the largest environmental threats facing humans and animals globally. In “The Plastic Problem: PBS NewsHour Presents”, Amna Nawaz and her PBS NewsHour colleagues look at this now ubiquitous material and how it’s impacting the world, why it’s become so prevalent, what’s being done to mitigate its use, and what potential alternatives or solutions are out there. This hour-long program travels from Boston to Seattle, Costa Rica to Easter Island to bring the global scale of the problem to light. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Alejandro Durán uses art to spotlight the ongoing destruction of our oceans’ ecosystems. In this breathtaking talk, he shows how he meticulously organizes and reuses plastic waste from around the world that washes up on shores — everything from water bottles to prosthetic legs — to create vivid, environmental artworks that may leave you mesmerized and shocked.

This talk was presented at “We the Future,” a special event in partnership with the Skoll Foundation and the United Nations Foundation.

About the speaker

Alejandro Durán · Multimedia artist

Alejandro Durán collects the international trash washing up on the Caribbean coast of Mexico, transforming it into aesthetic yet disquieting artworks that wake us up to the threat of plastic pollution.

About TED Salon

TED Salons welcome an intimate audience for an afternoon or evening of highly-curated TED Talks revolving around a globally relevant theme. A condensed version of a TED flagship conference, they are distinct in their brevity, opportunities for conversation, and heightened interaction between the speaker and audience.

47,289 views

We the Future | September 2019

We’ve all been told that we should recycle plastic bottles and containers. But what actually happens to the plastic if we just throw it away? Emma Bryce traces the life cycles of three different plastic bottles, shedding light on the dangers these disposables present to our world. [Directed by Sharon Colman, narrated by Addison Anderson, music by Peter Gosling].

Meet the educator

Emma Bryce · Educator

About TED-Ed

TED-Ed Original lessons feature the words and ideas of educators brought to life by professional animators.

Exposing Jeffrey Epstein’s international sex trafficking ring | 60 Minutes Australia

Nov 10, 2019  60 Minutes Australia

The Jeffrey Epstein scandal – Tara Brown reports how a New York billionaire masterminded an international sex trafficking ring of young women, and why wealthy and powerful men, including HRH Prince Andrew, are now implicated in the saga. Subscribe here: https://9Soci.al/chmP50wA97J Full Episodes here https://9Soci.al/sImy50wNiXL WATCH more of 60 Minutes Australia: https://www.60minutes.com.au LIKE 60 Minutes Australia on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/60Minutes9 FOLLOW 60 Minutes Australia on Twitter: https://twitter.com/60Mins FOLLOW 60 Minutes Australia on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/60minutes9 For forty years, 60 Minutes have been telling Australians the world’s greatest stories. Tales that changed history, our nation and our lives. Reporters Liz Hayes, Allison Langdon, Tara Brown, Charles Wooley, Liam Bartlett and Sarah Abo look past the headlines because there is always a bigger picture. Sundays are for 60 Minutes. #60MinutesAustralia

Category  Entertainment

How poor people survive in the USA | DW Documentary

Nov 27, 2019  DW Documentary

Homelessness, hunger and shame: poverty is rampant in the richest country in the world. Over 40 million people in the United States live below the poverty line, twice as many as it was fifty years ago. It can happen very quickly. Many people in the United States fall through the social safety net. In the structurally weak mining region of the Appalachians, it has become almost normal for people to go shopping with food stamps. And those who lose their home often have no choice but to live in a car. There are so many homeless people in Los Angeles that relief organizations have started to build small wooden huts to provide them with a roof over their heads. The number of homeless children has also risen dramatically, reaching 1.5 million, three times more than during the Great Depression the 1930s. A documentary about the fate of the poor in the United States today. We closed the commentary section because of too many inapproriate comments. ——————————————————————– DW Documentary gives you knowledge beyond the headlines. Watch high-class documentaries from German broadcasters and international production companies. Meet intriguing people, travel to distant lands, get a look behind the complexities of daily life and build a deeper understanding of current affairs and global events. Subscribe and explore the world around you with DW Documentary. Subscribe to DW Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW39… Our other YouTube channels: DW Documental (Spanish): https://www.youtube.com/dwdocumental DW Documentary ??????? ?? ?????: (Arabic): https://www.youtube.com/dwdocarabia For more documentaries visit also: https://www.facebook.com/dw.stories DW netiquette policy: https://p.dw.com/p/MF1G

Category   Education

https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2019/12/2019-photos-wrapping-up-the-year/602857/

2019 in Photos: Wrapping Up the Year

Alan Taylor  1:35 PM ET

40 Photos  In Focus

As the year comes to a close, it’s time to take a look at some of the most memorable events and images of 2019. Events covered in this essay (the last of a three-part photo summary of the year) include pro-democracy demonstrations in Hong Kong, anti-government protests in Chile and Iraq, a toxic sky over New Delhi, an all-female team of spacewalkers, a planned “storming” of Area 51, the aftermath of Hurricane Dorian, and much more. See also “Top 25 News Photos of 2019” and “2019 in Photos: Part 1” and “2019 in Photos: Part 2.” The series comprises 120 images in all.

Hints: View this page full screen. Skip to the next and previous photo by typing j/k or ?/?.

Police in riot gear move through a cloud of tear gas as they detain a protester at Hong Kong Polytechnic University, in Hong Kong, on November 18, 2019. (Ng Han Guan / AP)

Police in riot gear move through a cloud of tear gas as they detain a protester at Hong Kong Polytechnic University, in Hong Kong, on November 18, 2019. #

Ng Han Guan / AP

This photo provided by NASA shows the eye of Hurricane Dorian, as seen from the International Space Station on September 2, 2019. (Nick Hague / NASA via AP)

This photo provided by NASA shows the eye of Hurricane Dorian, as seen from the International Space Station on September 2, 2019. #

Nick Hague / NASA via AP

Damage in the aftermath of Hurricane Dorian on the Great Abaco island town of Marsh Harbour, Bahamas, September 2, 2019. Picture taken September 2, 2019. REUTERS/Dante Carrer TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY – RC1F32CE7750

Men survey damage in the aftermath of Hurricane Dorian on the Great Abaco island town of Marsh Harbour, Bahamas, on September 2, 2019. #

Dante Carrer / Reuters

GOLD COAST, AUSTRALIA – SEPTEMBER 05: BMX rider Logan Martin rides at Elanora Skatepark on September 05, 2019 in Gold Coast, Australia. (Photo by Chris Hyde/Getty Images)

BMX rider Logan Martin rides at Elanora Skatepark on September 5, 2019, in Gold Coast, Australia. #

Chris Hyde / Getty

WOODSTOCK, ENGLAND – SEPTEMBER 12: (EDITORS NOTE: Retransmission of 1174135592 with alternate crop) “Novecento”, a taxidermy horse suspended from the ceiling, created by artist Maurizio Cattelan, is seen at Blenheim Palace on September 12, 2019 in Woodstock, England. The Italian artist is known as the prankster of the art world. His most notable piece being “America” a solid gold usable toilet which had art lovers queuing to use when it was shown at the Guggenheim Museum in New York. (Photo by Leon Neal/Getty Images)

“Novecento,” a taxidermied horse suspended from the ceiling, created by artist Maurizio Cattelan, is seen at Blenheim Palace on September 12, 2019, in Woodstock, England. #

Leon Neal / Getty

CHICHESTER, ENGLAND – SEPTEMBER 15: 18 month-old Georgia Ricketts sits in a 1934 ERA R3A once driven by the famous racing driver Raymond Mays, which her father maintains and looks after on day three of the Goodwood Revival Festival at Goodwood on September 15, 2019 in Chichester, England. Thousands of classic car enthusiasts and fans of all things vintage have attended this year’s festival, celebrating the styles and cars of decades gone, with visitors wearing period dress from the 1940’s to 1960’s. (Photo by Kiran Ridley/Getty Images)

18-month-old Georgia Ricketts sits in her father’s 1934 ERA R3A—once driven by the famous racing driver Raymond Mays—on day three of the Goodwood Revival Festival in Chichester, England, on September 15, 2019. #

Kiran Ridley / Getty

A man poses as if he is going to “Naruto run” at an entrance to Area 51 as an influx of tourists responding to a call to ‘storm’ Area 51, a secretive U.S. military base believed by UFO enthusiasts to hold government secrets about extra-terrestrials, is expected in Rachel, Nevada, U.S. September 20, 2019. REUTERS/Jim Urquhart – RC14E0DF0BA0

A man poses as if he is going to “Naruto run” at an entrance to Area 51 as an influx of tourists responded to a call to “storm” Area 51, a secretive U.S. military base believed by UFO enthusiasts to hold government secrets about extra-terrestrials, in Rachel, Nevada, on September 20, 2019. While millions showed interest in the event posted on social media, fewer than 200 people showed up, and, according to reports, none made their way on to the base. #

Jim Urquhart / Reuters

People run as Haiti’s Senator Jean Marie Ralph Fethiere (PHTK) fires a gun in the air, injuring Chery Dieu-Nalio, a photographer for Associated Press, while facing opposition supporters in the parking lot of the Haitian Parliament and Senate, as the government attempted to confirm the appointment of nominated Prime Minister Fritz William Michel, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti September 23, 2019. REUTERS/Andres Martinez Casares TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY – RC1B2F462E20

People run as Haiti’s Senator Jean Marie Ralph Féthière fires a gun in the air, injuring Chery Dieu-Nalio, a photographer for the Associated Press, while facing opposition supporters in the parking lot of the Haitian Parliament and Senate, as the government attempted to confirm the appointment of nominated Prime Minister Fritz William Michel, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on September 23, 2019. #

Andres Martinez Casares / Reuters

LONDON, ENGLAND – SEPTEMBER 25: Dame Helen Mirren attends the Premiere Screening of new Sky Atlantic drama “Catherine The Great” at The Curzon Mayfair on September 25, 2019 in London, England. (Photo by David M. Benett/Dave Benett/Getty Images for Sky)

Dame Helen Mirren is carried as she attends the premiere screening of the new drama Catherine the Great at The Curzon Mayfair in London, England, on September 25, 2019. #

David M. Benett / Getty for Sky

A frog is pictured on a lotus leaf in a pond after rain in Lalitpur, Nepal September 26, 2019. REUTERS/Navesh Chitrakar TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY – RC1CD5467020

A frog is pictured on a lotus leaf in a pond after rain in Lalitpur, Nepal, on September 26, 2019. #

Navesh Chitrakar / Reuters

As seen from the International Space Station (ISS), the second stage of the Soyuz MS-15 spacecraft deploys shortly after the rocket launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on September 25, 2019. The Russian rocket was carrying the U.S. astronaut Jessica Meir, the Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, and the United Arab Emirates astronaut Hazzaa Ali Almansoori to the ISS. (NASA)

As seen from the International Space Station (ISS), the second stage of the Soyuz MS-15 spacecraft deploys shortly after the rocket launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on September 25, 2019. The Russian rocket was carrying the U.S. astronaut Jessica Meir, the Russian cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, and the United Arab Emirates astronaut Hazzaa Ali Almansoori to the ISS. #

NASA

A Ukrainian serviceman fires a heavy machine gun during combat with Russian-backed separatists on the front line near Gorlivka, Donetsk region, on September 28, 2019. (Anatolii Stepanov / AFP / Getty)

A Ukrainian serviceman fires a heavy machine gun during combat with Russian-backed separatists on the front line near Gorlivka, Donetsk region, on September 28, 2019. #

Anatolii Stepanov / AFP / Getty

Militia members march in formation past Tiananmen Square during the military parade marking the 70th founding anniversary of People’s Republic of China, on its National Day in Beijing, China October 1, 2019. REUTERS/Thomas Peter – RC131C36CE50

Militia members march in formation past Tiananmen Square during the military parade marking the 70th founding anniversary of the People’s Republic of China, on its National Day in Beijing, China, on October 1, 2019. #

Thomas Peter / Reuters

Botham Jean’s younger brother Brandt Jean hugs former Dallas police officer Amber Guyger after delivering his impact statement to her following her 10-year prison sentence for murder at the Frank Crowley Courts Building in Dallas, Texas, U.S. October 2, 2019. Tom Fox/Pool via REUTERS MANDATORY CREDIT TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY – RC12CC20A990

Botham Jean’s younger brother, Brandt Jean, hugs former Dallas police officer Amber Guyger after delivering his impact statement to her following her 10-year prison sentence for the murder of Botham Jean, at the Frank Crowley Courts Building in Dallas, Texas, on October 2, 2019. #

Tom Fox / Pool via Reuters

Mounted police advance on demonstrators protesting the president near the government palace in Quito, Ecuador, on October 3, 2019. (Dolores Ochoa / AP)

Mounted police advance on demonstrators protesting against President Lenín Moreno, near the government palace in Quito, Ecuador, on October 3, 2019. #

Dolores Ochoa / AP

Police motorcycles lead a procession ahead of the casket carrying New York City Police Department officer Brian Mulkeen from his funeral service at the Sacred Heart Church in Monroe, New York, on October 4, 2019. Mulkeen was killed while making an arrest, when another police officer inadvertently shot him. (Mike Segar / Reuters)

Police motorcycles lead a procession ahead of the casket carrying New York City Police Department officer Brian Mulkeen from his funeral service at the Sacred Heart Church in Monroe, New York, on October 4, 2019. Mulkeen was killed while making an arrest, when another police officer inadvertently shot him. #

Mike Segar / Reuters

Jerry Rowe uses a garden hose to save his home amid swirling embers on Beaufait Avenue from the Saddleridge fire in Granada Hills, California, on October 11, 2019. (Michael Owen Baker / AP)

Jerry Rowe uses a garden hose to save his home, amid swirling embers on Beaufait Avenue, from the Saddleridge fire in Granada Hills, California, on October 11, 2019. #

Michael Owen Baker / AP

A masked Kashmiri man with his head covered with barbed wire attends a protest after Friday prayers during restrictions following the scrapping of the special constitutional status for Kashmir by the Indian government, in Srinagar, October 11, 2019. REUTERS/Danish Ismail – RC1B5A586660

A masked Kashmiri man with his head covered with barbed wire attends a protest after Friday prayers during restrictions following the scrapping of the special constitutional status for Kashmir by the Indian government, in Srinagar, on October 11, 2019. #

Danish Ismail / Reuters

WESTERVILLE, OHIO – OCTOBER 15: Democratic presidential candidates (L-R) Rep. Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI), billionaire Tom Steyer, Sen. Cory Booker (D-NJ), Sen. Kamala Harris (D-CA), Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT), former Vice President Joe Biden, Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), South Bend, Indiana Mayor Pete Buttigieg, former tech executive Andrew Yang, former Texas congressman Beto O’Rourke, Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), and former housing secretary Julian Castro at the start of the Democratic Presidential Debate at Otterbein University on October 15, 2019 in Westerville, Ohio. A record 12 presidential hopefuls are participating in the debate hosted by CNN and The New York Times. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

Democratic presidential candidates, from left: Representative Tulsi Gabbard, billionaire Tom Steyer, Senator Cory Booker, Senator Kamala Harris, Senator Bernie Sanders, former Vice President Joe Biden, Senator Elizabeth Warren, South Bend, Indiana, Mayor Pete Buttigieg, former tech executive Andrew Yang, former Representative Beto O’Rourke, Senator Amy Klobuchar, and former Housing Secretary Julian Castro, at the start of the Democratic Presidential Debate at Otterbein University in Westerville, Ohio, on October 15, 2019. #

Chip Somodevilla / Getty

A hiker walks in the Zillertal Alps during an autumn day near the village of Ginzling, Austria, October 15, 2019. REUTERS/Lisi Niesner – RC128ACBAEE0

A hiker walks in the Zillertal Alps during an autumn day near the village of Ginzling, Austria, on October 15, 2019. #

Lisi Niesner / Reuters

Trains in a Shinkansen bullet-train rail yard in Nagano, Japan, sit in floodwater due to heavy rains caused by Hagibis on October 13, 2019. (Kyodo / Reuters)

Trains sit in floodwater in a Shinkansen bullet-train rail yard in Nagano, Japan, due to heavy rains caused by Typhoon Hagibis on October 13, 2019. #

Kyodo / Reuters

President Donald J. Trump meets with House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Congressional leadership Wednesday, Oct. 16, 2019, in the Cabinet Room of the White House. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

President Donald J. Trump meets with House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and congressional leadership on October 16, 2019, in the Cabinet Room of the White House. #

Shealah Craighead / The White House

In this photo released by NASA on Thursday, Oct. 17, 2019, U.S. astronauts Jessica Meir, left, and Christina Koch pose for a photo in the International Space Station. On Friday, Oct. 18, 2019, the two are scheduled to perform a spacewalk to replace a broken battery charger. (NASA via AP)

U.S. astronauts Jessica Meir, left, and Christina Koch pose for a photo in the International Space Station on October 17, 2019. The two performed a spacewalk the following day to replace a broken battery charger—the first all-female spacewalk in history. #

NASA via AP

A woman covers her face as she stands along the side of a road on the outskirts of the town of Tal Tamr, near the Syrian Kurdish town of Ras al-Ain, along the border with Turkey in the northeastern Hassakeh province, on October 16, 2019, with smoke from tire fires billowing in the background. The fires were set to decrease visibility for Turkish warplanes that are part of operation “Peace Spring.” (Delil Souleiman / AFP via Getty)

A woman covers her face as she stands along the side of a road on the outskirts of the town of Tal Tamr, near the Syrian Kurdish town of Ras al-Ain, along the border with Turkey, on October 16, 2019, with smoke from tire fires billowing in the background. The fires were set to decrease visibility for Turkish warplanes that were part of the cross-border operation “Peace Spring,” aimed at removing Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces, after the United States withdrew troops from the region. #

Delil Souleiman / AFP / Getty

The surfers Leina Decker (left), Rory Chalupnik (center), and Reid Decker await waves while dressed as mariachi musicians during the 16th Annual Blackies Halloween Surf event in Newport Beach, California, on October 26, 2019. (Frederic J. Brown / AFP / Getty)

Surfers Leina Decker (left), Rory Chalupnik (center), and Reid Decker await waves while dressed as mariachi musicians during the 16th Annual Blackies Halloween Surf event in Newport Beach, California, on October 26, 2019. #

Frederic J. Brown / AFP / Getty

The flag-draped casket of late U.S. Representative Elijah Cummings is carried through National Statuary Hall during a memorial service at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., on October 24, 2019. (Al Drago / Reuters)

The flag-draped casket of late U.S. Representative Elijah Cummings is carried through National Statuary Hall during a memorial service at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., on October 24, 2019. #

Al Drago / Pool via Reuters

TOPSHOT – In this photo taken on October 29, 2019, a wild elephant stops a car on a road at Khao Yai National Park in Thailand’s Nakhon Ratchasima province. – The driver escaped unhurt with his car slightly damaged. (Photo by Pratya CHUTIPASKUL / AFP) (Photo by PRATYA CHUTIPASKUL/AFP via Getty Images)

A wild elephant stops a car on a road at Khao Yai National Park in Thailand’s Nakhon Ratchasima province on October 29, 2019. The driver escaped unhurt with his car slightly damaged. #

Pratya Chutipaskul / AFP / Getty

TOPSHOT – Men, suspected of being affiliated with the Islamic State (IS) group, gather in a prison cell in the northeastern Syrian city of Hasakeh on October 26, 2019. – Kurdish sources say around 12,000 IS fighters including Syrians, Iraqis as well as foreigners from 54 countries are being held in Kurdish-run prisons in northern Syria. (Photo by FADEL SENNA / AFP) (Photo by FADEL SENNA/AFP via Getty Images)

Men, suspected of being affiliated with the Islamic State group, gather in a prison cell in the northeastern Syrian city of Hasakeh on October 26, 2019. Kurdish sources said around 12,000 IS fighters including Syrians, Iraqis as well as foreigners from 54 countries are being held in Kurdish-run prisons in northern Syria. #

Fadel Senna / AFP / Getty

TOPSHOT – Iraqi students pose for selfies with a member of the security forces during ongoing anti-government protests in the central city of Diwaniyah on October 31, 2019. – Iraq’s leaders scrambled to produce a solution to mounting protests demanding the ouster of Prime Minister Adel Abdel Mahdi that have so far left more than 250 dead. Demonstrations first erupted on October 1 over corruption and unemployment and have since ballooned, with protesters now insisting on a government overhaul. (Photo by Haidar HAMDANI / AFP) (Photo by HAIDAR HAMDANI/AFP via Getty Images)

Iraqi students pose for selfies with a member of the security forces during ongoing anti-government protests in the central city of Diwaniyah on October 31, 2019. Demonstrations first erupted on October 1 over corruption and unemployment and ballooned, with protesters insisting on a government overhaul. #

Haidar Hamdani / AFP / Getty

A demonstrator carries an Iraqi flag during ongoing anti-government protests in Baghdad, Iraq, on November 4, 2019. (Thaier Al-Sudani / Reuters)

A demonstrator carries an Iraqi flag during ongoing anti-government protests in Baghdad, Iraq, on November 4, 2019. #

Thaier Al-Sudani / Reuters

Hindu women worship the sun god in the polluted waters of the river Yamuna during the Hindu religious festival of Chhath Puja in New Delhi, India, November 3, 2019. REUTERS/Adnan Abidi TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY – RC13AD185C00

Women worship the sun god in the polluted waters of the Yamuna river during the Hindu festival of Chhath Puja in New Delhi on November 3, 2019. #

Adnan Abidi / Reuters

TOPSHOT – Members of the Lebaron family mourn while they watch the burned car where part of the nine murdered members of the family were killed and burned during an gunmen ambush on Bavispe, Sonora mountains, Mexico, on November 5, 2019. – US President Donald Trump offered Tuesday to help Mexico “wage war” on its cartels after three women and six children from an American Mormon community were murdered in an area notorious for drug traffickers. (Photo by Herika MARTINEZ / AFP) / The erroneous mention[s] appearing in the metadata of this photo by Herika MARTINEZ has been modified in AFP systems in the following manner: [AFP PHOTO / Herika MARTINEZ ] instead of [AFP PHOTO / STR ]. Please immediately remove the erroneous mention[s] from all your online services and delete it (them) from your servers. If you have been authorized by AFP to distribute it (them) to third parties, please ensure that the same actions are carried out by them. Failure to promptly comply with these instructions will entail liability on your part for any continued or post notification usage. Therefore we thank you very much for all your attention and prompt action. We are sorry for the inconvenience this notification may cause and remain at your disposal for any further information you may require. (Photo by HERIKA MARTINEZ/AFP via Getty Images)

Members of the LeBaron family mourn while they look at the burned car where part of the nine murdered members of the family were killed and burned during an ambush by gunmen in Bavispe, Sonora mountains, Mexico, on November 5, 2019. U.S. President Donald Trump offered to help Mexico “wage war” on its cartels after three women and six children from an American Mormon community were murdered in an area notorious for drug traffickers. #

Herika Martinez / AFP / Getty

A demonstrator holds a Chilean flag near a riot police officer and vehicle amid laser beams during a protest against Chile’s government in Santiago, Chile, on November 12, 2019. (Ivan Alvarado / Reuters0

A demonstrator holds a Chilean flag near a riot police officer and vehicle amid laser beams during a protest against Chile’s government in Santiago, Chile, on November 12, 2019. #

Ivan Alvarado / Reuters

A policemen (left) screams after he was shot and wounded during an opposition demonstration commemorating the Battle of Vertieres Day, the last major battle of the Second War of Haitian Independence, and demanding the resignation of President Jovenel Moise, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on November 18, 2019. (Valerie Baeriswyl / AFP / Getty)

A policemen (left) screams after he was shot and wounded during an opposition demonstration commemorating the Battle of Vertieres Day, the last major battle of the Second War of Haitian Independence, and demanding the resignation of President Jovenel Moise, in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on November 18, 2019. #

Valerie Baeriswyl / AFP / Getty

Riot police detain two men in the Central district of Hong Kong on November 11, 2019. – A Hong Kong policeman shot a masked protester in the torso on November 11 morning, igniting clashes across the city and renewed fury towards the force as crowds took to the streets to block roads and hurl insults at officers. (Dale De La Rey / AFP / Getty)

Riot police detain two men in the Central district of Hong Kong on November 11, 2019. A Hong Kong policeman shot a masked protester in the torso on November 11, igniting clashes across the city and renewed fury towards the force as crowds took to the streets to block roads and hurl insults at officers. #

Dale De La Rey / AFP / Getty

A protester prepares to fire an arrow during a confrontation with police at Hong Kong Polytechnic University on November 17, 2019. (Kin Cheung / AP)

A protester prepares to fire an arrow during a confrontation with police at Hong Kong Polytechnic University on November 17, 2019. #

Kin Cheung / AP

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TOPSHOT – Riot police are reached by a petrol bomb during clashes with demonstrators protesting against the government in Santiago on November 22, 2019. – Chilean President Sebastian Pinera said on Thursday that police may have broken protocols in responding to a month of protests, and prosecutors will investigate whether they violated human rights. (Photo by JAVIER TORRES / AFP) (Photo by JAVIER TORRES/AFP via Getty Images)

Riot police are struck by a petrol bomb during clashes with demonstrators protesting against the government in Santiago on November 22, 2019. #

Javier Torres / AFP / Getty

A man dressed as the Pope is seen as well-wishers attend the arrival of Pope Francis in Bangkok, Thailand, on November 20, 2019. (Ann Wang / Reuters)

A man dressed as the Pope is seen as well-wishers attend the arrival of Pope Francis in Bangkok, Thailand, on November 20, 2019. #

Ann Wang / Reuters

Gordon Sondland, the U.S ambassador to the European Union, arrives for testimony before the House Intelligence Committee in the Longworth House Office Building on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., on November 20, 2019. The committee heard testimony during the fourth day of open hearings in the impeachment inquiry against U.S. President Donald Trump, whom House Democrats say held back U.S. military aid for Ukraine while demanding it investigate his political rivals. (Win McNamee / Getty)

Gordon Sondland, the U.S ambassador to the European Union, arrives for testimony before the House Intelligence Committee in the Longworth House Office Building on Capitol Hill in Washington, District of Columbia, on November 20, 2019. The committee heard testimony during the fourth day of open hearings in the impeachment inquiry against U.S. President Donald Trump, whom House Democrats say held back U.S. military aid for Ukraine while demanding it investigate his political rivals. #

Win McNamee / Getty

President Trump holds what appears to be a prepared statement and handwritten notes after watching testimony by Ambassador Gordon Sondland as he speaks to reporters on the South Lawn of the White House on November 20, 2019. (Erin Scott / Reuters)

President Trump holds what appears to be a prepared statement and handwritten notes after watching testimony by Ambassador Gordon Sondland as he speaks to reporters on the South Lawn of the White House on November 20, 2019. #

Erin Scott / Reuters

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