Inspiration Grid: Expressive Street Art & Matador Network: The 3D Chalk Drawing

Inspiration Grid: Expressive Street Art & Matador Network: The 3D Chalk Drawing

InspirationGrid: Expressive Street Art by Medianeras

Published Jan 6, 2023
Medianeras is an Argentinian street art duo formed by two extraordinary female artists: Vanesa Galdeano and Anali Chanquia. Together, they have created some of the most eye-catching large-scale murals and artwork across Argentina and Spain, where they’re currently based.
Vanesa and Anali have been creating art in the public space for more than 12 years. Brought together by shared concerns for urban space and public art, they began producing work together 5 years ago. They created a unifying project called Medianeras to expand and combine their artistic output.
“Medianeras is the Spanish word for ‘side walls’. Unlike other walls, which are only responsible for separating spaces, side walls are those shared between neighbours. This concept interests us because we believe that public art, besides making cities more beautiful, claims the idea of a shared place – of all individuals. We want to change the way we usually perceive spaces, our intention is to alter the urban landscape.”

  POSTED BY IG Team

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://theinspirationgrid.com/expressive-street-art-by-medianeras/ai

Matador Network:  The World’s Most Mind-Bending 3D Chalk Drawing

Alex Scola

Mar 10, 2014

With a background in cognitive psychology, I can’t help but find illusions and other perceptual tricks utterly fascinating. As our modes of sensory input are streamlined for efficiency, this leaves a significant and somewhat shocking margin for error.

Combine that knowledge with the world of art, and you’ve got the increasingly popular trend of forced perspective “anamorphic” street drawings (wherein the image and three-dimensional illusion are only properly visible while viewing the piece from a particular location).

Here are 30 of the world’s most mind-bending 3D chalk drawings, from five key artists in the scene.

Julian Beever

Born in 1959, this British artist studied art at Leeds Met. University. He began “anamorphic pavement illustrations” in the early ‘90s as a busker.

Premodernist and Postmodernist

About to Meet Mr. Newt

Politicians Meeting Their End

Ballantine’s

Little and Large

Times Square in Times Square

Taking the Plunge

Batman and Robin

That Hemmed-in Feeling…

Beneath Every Carpark…

Christmas Eve in Santa’s Workshop

Yorkshire Water

Wheel of Fortune

Babyfood

Babyfood (wrong view)

Swimming Pool in the High Street

Swimming Pool in the High Street (wrong view)

Make Poverty History

Make Poverty History (wrong view)

The Great Green Grasshopper

The Great Green Grasshopper (wrong view)

Snail (Back off, Creep…)

Snail (Back off, Creep…) (wrong view)

Edgar Mueller

This German artist was born in 1968, and taught himself painting as a child (most often painting his rural hometown of Straelen). He started doing street art full-time at the age of 25.

The Ark

Energy

For more information please visit the following link:

https://matadornetwork.com/life/89-worlds-mind-bending-3d-chalk-drawings/?epik=dj0yJnU9S1pfMU1scHNqb0tNR1NXRm93YzBwdEdndkViNUtRbDEmcD0wJm49LU5CTVJ6dG9BUldwbVlaSlk5d2w0QSZ0PUFBQUFBR1BFbWFR

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Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – Human Rights and Nonviolence

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – Human Rights and Nonviolence

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have A Dream”  

Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Remember Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – Human Rights and Nonviolence

Friday January 15, 2016

I did this artwork in 2010.  I enjoyed doing the research, reading Dr. King’s biography and his speeches.  Dr. King was a great writer and orator.  He could captivate the audiences with his great writing and presentation.  I would like everyone who views my artwork on Dr. King to be able to read and have some understanding of his feelings.   With his wit and energy he devoted himself to human rights and nonviolence.  It is not only his family that lost and mourned his death for the world has lost a great man.   Humanity had lost Dr. King’s ability to help bring progress to the world by achieving more civilized interaction for the human race as a whole.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, January 15, 2016 

President Barack Obama & His First Inauguration Speech Portrait and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have A Dream” two of my artworks displayed at Lincoln School auditorium for the cerebration of Dr. King’s Birthday event in 2015.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, January 15, 2016 

For more information please visit please visit the following link:

Martin Luther King, Jr.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Martin Luther King” and “MLK” redirect here. For other uses, see Martin Luther King (disambiguation) and MLK (disambiguation).

Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Michael King, Jr.
January 15, 1929
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
Died April 4, 1968 (aged 39)
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Cause of death Assassination
Monuments Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial
Alma mater Morehouse College (B.A.) Crozer Theological Seminary (B.D.) Boston University (Ph.D.)
Occupation clergyman, activist
Organization Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Movement African-American Civil Rights Movement, Peace movement
Religion Christianity
Denomination Baptist (Progressive National Baptist Convention)
Spouse(s) Coretta Scott King (m. 1953–1968; his death)
Children Yolanda Denise King (1955–2007) Martin Luther King III (b. 1957) Dexter Scott King (b. 1961) Bernice Albertine King (b. 1963)
Parent(s) Martin Luther King, Sr. Alberta Williams King
Awards Nobel Peace Prize (1964) Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977, posthumous) Congressional Gold Medal (2004, posthumous)

Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.

King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia (the Albany Movement), and helped organize the 1963 nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.

On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches, and the following year he and SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include poverty and speak against the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled “Beyond Vietnam“.

In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People’s Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities.

King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also renamed for him. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 2011.

Early life and education

King’s high school alma mater was named after African-American scholar Booker T. Washington.

King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr., and Alberta Williams King.[1] King’s legal name at birth was Michael King,[2] and his father was also born Michael King, but the elder King changed his and his son’s names following a 1934 trip to Germany to attend the Fifth Baptist World Alliance Congress in Berlin. It was during this time he chose to be called Martin Luther King in honor of the German reformer Martin Luther.[3][4] King had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather.[5][6]

King was a middle child, between an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King.[7] King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind.[8] King liked singing and music. King’s mother, an accomplished organist and choir leader, took him to various churches to sing. He received attention for singing “I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus.” King later became a member of the junior choir in his church.[9]

King said his father regularly whipped him until he was fifteen and a neighbor reported hearing the elder King telling his son “he would make something of him even if he had to beat him to death.” King saw his father’s proud and unafraid protests in relation to segregation, such as Martin, Sr., refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as “boy” or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to move to the rear to be served.[10]

When King was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family’s home. When the boys were 6, they attended different schools, with King attending a segregated school for African-Americans. King then lost his friend because the child’s father no longer wanted them to play together.[11]

King suffered from depression throughout much of his life. In his adolescent years, he initially felt some resentment against whites due to the “racial humiliation” that he, his family, and his neighbors often had to endure in the segregated South.[12] At age 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King blamed himself and jumped out of a second story window, but survived.[13]

King was originally skeptical of many of Christianity’s claims.[14] At the age of thirteen, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, “doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly”.[15] However, he later concluded that the Bible has “many profound truths which one cannot escape” and decided to enter the seminary.[14]

Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. He became known for his public speaking ability and was part of the school’s debate team.[16] King became the youngest assistant manager of a newspaper delivery station for the Atlanta Journal in 1942 at age 13.[17] During his junior year, he won first prize in an oratorical contest sponsored by the Negro Elks Club in Dublin, Georgia. Returning home to Atlanta by bus, he and his teacher were ordered by the driver to stand so white passengers could sit down. King refused initially, but complied after his teacher informed him that he would be breaking the law if he did not go along with the order. He later characterized this incident as “the angriest I have ever been in my life”.[16] A precocious student, he skipped both the ninth and the twelfth grades of high school.[18] It was during King’s junior year that Morehouse College announced it would accept any high school juniors who could pass its entrance exam. At that time, most of the students had abandoned their studies to participate in World War II. Due to this, the school became desperate to fill in classrooms. At age 15, King passed the exam and entered Morehouse.[16] The summer before his last year at Morehouse, in 1947, an eighteen-year-old King made the choice to enter the ministry after he concluded the church offered the most assuring way to answer “an inner urge to serve humanity”. King’s “inner urge” had begun developing and he made peace with the Baptist Church, as he believed he would be a “rational” minister with sermons that were “a respectful force for ideas, even social protest.”[19]

In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a B.A. degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a B.Div. degree in 1951.[20][21] King’s father fully supported his decision to continue his education. King was joined in attending Crozer by Walter McCall, a former classmate at Morehouse.[22] At Crozer, King was elected president of the student body.[23] The African-American students of Crozer for the most part conducted their social activity on Edwards Street. King was endeared to the street due to a classmate having an aunt that prepared the two collard greens, which they both relished.[24] King once called out a student for keeping beer in his room because of their shared responsibility as African-Americans to bear “the burdens of the Negro race.” For a time, he was interested in Walter Rauschenbusch‘s “social gospel”.[23] In his third year there, he became romantically involved with the daughter of an immigrant German woman working as a cook in the cafeteria. The daughter had been involved with a professor prior to her relationship with King. King had plans of marrying her, but was advised not to by friends due to the reaction an interracial relationship would spark from both blacks and whites, as well as the chances of it destroying his chances of ever pastoring a church in the South. King tearfully told a friend that he could not endure his mother’s pain over the marriage and broke the relationship off around six months later. He would continue to have lingering feelings, with one friend being quoted as saying, “He never recovered.”[23]

King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents’ house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama.[25] They became the parents of four children: Yolanda King (b. 1955), Martin Luther King III (b. 1957), Dexter Scott King (b. 1961), and Bernice King (b. 1963).[26] During their marriage, King limited Coretta’s role in the Civil Rights Movement, expecting her to be a housewife and mother.[27]

King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, when he was twenty-five years old, in 1954.[28]

Doctoral studies

See also: Martin Luther King, Jr. authorship issues

King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Ph.D. degree on June 5, 1955, with a dissertation on “A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman“. An academic inquiry concluded in October 1991 that portions of his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly. However, “[d]espite its finding, the committee said that ‘no thought should be given to the revocation of Dr. King’s doctoral degree,’ an action that the panel said would serve no purpose.”[29][30][31] The committee also found that the dissertation still “makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship.” However, a letter is now attached to King’s dissertation in the university library, noting that numerous passages were included without the appropriate quotations and citations of sources.[32]

Ideas, influences, and political stances

Religion

As a Christian minister, King’s main influence was Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King’s faith was strongly based in Jesus’ commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself, loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them. His nonviolent thought was also based in the injunction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus’ teaching of putting the sword back into its place (Matthew 26:52).[33] In his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, King urged action consistent with what he describes as Jesus’ “extremist” love, and also quoted numerous other Christian pacifist authors, which was very usual for him. In another sermon, he stated:

Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry. I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry. I don’t plan to run for any political office. I don’t plan to do anything but remain a preacher. And what I’m doing in this struggle, along with many others, grows out of my feeling that the preacher must be concerned about the whole man.

—?King, 1967[34][35]

In his speech “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop“, he stated that he just wanted to do God’s will.

Nonviolence

King at a Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.

Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin was King’s first regular advisor on nonviolence.[36] King was also advised by the white activists Harris Wofford and Glenn Smiley.[37] Rustin and Smiley came from the Christian pacifist tradition, and Wofford and Rustin both studied Gandhi‘s teachings. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the 1940s,[38] and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early 1950s.[37] King had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term “nonviolence” during his early years of activism in the early 1950s. King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance, arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense. King then vowed to no longer personally use arms.[39][40]

In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote Stride Toward Freedom, which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting.[41]

Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi‘s success with nonviolent activism, King had “for a long time … wanted to take a trip to India”.[42] With assistance from Harris Wofford, the American Friends Service Committee, and other supporters, he was able to fund the journey in April 1959.[43] [44] The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of nonviolent resistance and his commitment to America’s struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, “Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity”.

Bayard Rustin’s open homosexuality, support of democratic socialism, and his former ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin,[45] which King agreed to do.[46] However, King agreed that Rustin should be one of the main organizers of the 1963 March on Washington.[47]

King’s admiration of Gandhi’s nonviolence did not diminish in later years. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, hailing the “successful precedent” of using nonviolence “in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire … He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage.”[48]

Gandhi seemed to have influenced him with certain moral principles,[49] though Gandhi himself had been influenced by The Kingdom of God Is Within You, a nonviolent classic written by Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy. In turn, both Gandhi and Martin Luther King had read Tolstoy, and King, Gandhi and Tolstoy had been strongly influenced by Jesus‘ Sermon on the Mount. King quoted Tolstoy’s War and Peace in 1959.[50]

Another influence for King’s nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau‘s essay On Civil Disobedience, which King read in his student days. He was influenced by the idea of refusing to cooperate with an evil system.[51] He also was greatly influenced by the works of Protestant theologians Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich,[52] as well as Walter Rauschenbusch’s Christianity and the Social Crisis. King also sometimes used the concept of “agape” (brotherly Christian love).[53] However, after 1960, he ceased employing it in his writings.[54]

Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary.[55] Throughout his career King was frequently protected by other civil rights activists who carried arms, such as Colonel Stone Johnson,[56] Robert Hayling, and the Deacons for Defense and Justice.[57][58]

Politics

As the leader of the SCLC, King maintained a policy of not publicly endorsing a U.S. political party or candidate: “I feel someone must remain in the position of non-alignment, so that he can look objectively at both parties and be the conscience of both—not the servant or master of either.”[59] In a 1958 interview, he expressed his view that neither party was perfect, saying, “I don’t think the Republican party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic party. They both have weaknesses … And I’m not inextricably bound to either party.”[60] King did praise Democratic Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois as being the “greatest of all senators” because of his fierce advocacy for civil rights causes over the years.[61]

King critiqued both parties’ performance on promoting racial equality:

Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.[62]

Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October 1956 he said that he was undecided as to whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson or Dwight Eisenhower, but that “In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket.”[63] In his autobiography, King says that in 1960 he privately voted for Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy: “I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one.” King adds that he likely would have made an exception to his non-endorsement policy for a second Kennedy term, saying “Had President Kennedy lived, I would probably have endorsed him in 1964.”[64] In 1964, King urged his supporters “and all people of goodwill” to vote against Republican Senator Barry Goldwater for president, saying that his election “would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world.”[65] King supported the ideals of democratic socialism, although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout America at the time, and the association of socialism with communism. King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the basic necessities of many American people, particularly the African American community.[66]

Compensation

King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups.[67]

He posited that “the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils”.[68] He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor, but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, “It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races”.[69]

The lack of attention given to family planning

On being awarded the Planned Parenthood Federation of America‘s Margaret Sanger Award on 5th May, 1966, King said:

Recently, the press has been filled with reports of sightings of flying saucers. While we need not give credence to these stories, they allow our imagination to speculate on how visitors from outer space would judge us. I am afraid they would be stupefied at our conduct. They would observe that for death planning we spend billions to create engines and strategies for war. They would also observe that we spend millions to prevent death by disease and other causes. Finally they would observe that we spend paltry sums for population planning, even though its spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet. Our visitors from outer space could be forgiven if they reported home that our planet is inhabited by a race of insane men whose future is bleak and uncertain.
There is no human circumstance more tragic than the persisting existence of a harmful condition for which a remedy is readily available. Family planning, to relate population to world resources, is possible, practical and necessary. Unlike plagues of the dark ages or contemporary diseases we do not yet understand, the modern plague of overpopulation is soluble by means we have discovered and with resources we possess.
What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and education of the billions who are its victims. …[70][71]

Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955

Main articles: Montgomery Bus Boycott and Jim Crow laws § Public arena

Rosa Parks with King, 1955

In March 1955, a fifteen-year-old school girl in Montgomery, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in compliance with Jim Crow laws, laws in the US South that enforced racial segregation. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; because Colvin was pregnant and unmarried, E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue.[72]

On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat.[73] The Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed.[74] The boycott lasted for 385 days,[75] and the situation became so tense that King’s house was bombed.[76] King was arrested during this campaign, which concluded with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses.[77][78] King’s role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement.[79]

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

In 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy, Fred Shuttlesworth, Joseph Lowery, and other civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct nonviolent protests in the service of civil rights reform. One of the group’s inspirations was the crusades of evangelist Billy Graham, who befriended King after he attended a Graham crusade in New York City in 1957.[80] King led the SCLC until his death.[81] The SCLC’s 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom was the first time King addressed a national audience.[82] Other civil rights leaders involved in the SCLC with King included: James Bevel, Allen Johnson, Curtis W. Harris, Walter E. Fauntroy, C. T. Vivian, Andrew Young, The Freedom Singers, Charles Evers, Cleveland Robinson, Randolph Blackwell, Annie Bell Robinson Devine, Charles Kenzie Steele, Alfred Daniel Williams King, Benjamin Hooks, Aaron Henry and Bayard Rustin.[83]

On September 20, 1958, while signing copies of his book Stride Toward Freedom in Blumstein’s department store in Harlem,[84] King narrowly escaped death when Izola Curry, a mentally ill black woman who believed he was conspiring against her with communists, stabbed him in the chest with a letter opener. After emergency surgery, King was hospitalized for several weeks, while Curry was found mentally incompetent to stand trial.[85][86] In 1959, he published a short book called The Measure of A Man, which contained his sermons “What is Man?” and “The Dimensions of a Complete Life”. The sermons argued for man’s need for God’s love and criticized the racial injustices of Western civilization.[87]

Harry Wachtel—who joined King’s legal advisor Clarence B. Jones in defending four ministers of the SCLC in a libel suit over a newspaper advertisement (New York Times Co. v. Sullivan)—founded a tax-exempt fund to cover the expenses of the suit and to assist the nonviolent civil rights movement through a more effective means of fundraising. This organization was named the “Gandhi Society for Human Rights”. King served as honorary president for the group. Displeased with the pace of President Kennedy’s addressing the issue of segregation, King and the Gandhi Society produced a document in 1962 calling on the President to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and use an Executive Order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation – Kennedy did not execute the order.[88]

Lyndon Johnson and Robert Kennedy with Civil Rights leaders, June 22, 1963

The FBI, under written directive from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, began tapping King’s telephone in the fall of 1963.[89] Concerned that allegations of communists in the SCLC, if made public, would derail the administration’s civil rights initiatives, Kennedy warned King to discontinue the suspect associations, and later felt compelled to issue the written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other SCLC leaders.[90] J. Edgar Hoover feared Communists were trying to infiltrate the Civil Rights movement, but when no such evidence emerged, the bureau used the incidental details caught on tape over the next five years in attempts to force King out of the preeminent leadership position.[91]

King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the Civil Rights Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s.[92][93]

King organized and led marches for blacks’ right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basic civil rights.[78] Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.[94][95]

King and the SCLC put into practice many of the principles of the Christian Left and applied the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent.[96]

Throughout his participation in the civil rights movement, King was criticized by many groups. This included opposition by more militant blacks such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X.[97] Stokely Carmichael was a separatist and disagreed with King’s plea for racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture.[98] Omali Yeshitela urged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force.[99]

Albany Movement

Main article: Albany Movement

The Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961. In December, King and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention. When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he “had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel.”[100] The following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. According to King, “that agreement was dishonored and violated by the city” after he left town.[100]

King returned in July 1962, and was sentenced to forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine. He chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Police Chief Laurie Pritchett discreetly arranged for King’s fine to be paid and ordered his release. “We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools … ejected from churches … and thrown into jail … But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail.”[101] It was later acknowledged by the King Center that Billy Graham was the one who bailed King out of jail during this time.[102]

After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a “Day of Penance” to promote nonviolence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts.[103] Though the Albany effort proved a key lesson in tactics for Dr. King and the national civil rights movement,[104] the national media was highly critical of King’s role in the defeat, and the SCLC’s lack of results contributed to a growing gulf between the organization and the more radical SNCC. After Albany, King sought to choose engagements for the SCLC in which he could control the circumstances, rather than entering into pre-existing situations.[105]

Birmingham campaign

Main article: Birmingham campaign

King following his arrest in Birmingham

In April 1963, the SCLC began a campaign against racial segregation and economic injustice in Birmingham, Alabama. The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker. Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and sit-ins, openly violating laws that they considered unjust.

King’s intent was to provoke mass arrests and “create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation”.[106] However, the campaign’s early volunteers did not succeed in shutting down the city, or in drawing media attention to the police’s actions. Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist James Bevel changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations.[107] Newsweek called this strategy a Children’s Crusade.[108][109]

During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene “Bull” Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs against protesters, including children. Footage of the police response was broadcast on national television news and dominated the nation’s attention, shocking many white Americans and consolidating black Americans behind the movement.[110] Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harm’s way. But the campaign was a success: Connor lost his job, the “Jim Crow” signs came down, and public places became more open to blacks. King’s reputation improved immensely.[108]

King was arrested and jailed early in the campaign—his 13th arrest[111] out of 29.[112] From his cell, he composed the now-famous Letter from Birmingham Jail which responds to calls on the movement to pursue legal channels for social change. King argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.”[113] He points out that the Boston Tea Party, a celebrated act of rebellion in the American colonies, was illegal civil disobedience, and that, conversely, “everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was ‘legal’”.[113] King also expresses his frustration with white moderates and clergymen too timid to oppose an unjust system:

I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro’s great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen’s Councilor or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to “order” than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: “I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action”; who paternalistic-ally believes he can set the timetable for another man’s freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a “more convenient season”.[113]

St. Augustine, Florida

Main article: St. Augustine movement

In March 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with Robert Hayling’s then-controversial movement in St. Augustine, Florida. Hayling’s group had been affiliated with the NAACP but was forced out of the organization for advocating armed self-defense alongside nonviolent tactics. Ironically, the pacifist SCLC accepted them.[114] King and the SCLC worked to bring white Northern activists to St. Augustine, including a delegation of rabbis and the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested.[115][116] During June, the movement marched nightly through the city, “often facing counter demonstrations by the Klan, and provoking violence that garnered national media attention.” Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. During the course of this movement, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.[117]

Selma, Alabama

Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches

In December 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, where the SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months.[118] A local judge issued an injunction that barred any gathering of 3 or more people affiliated with the SNCC, SCLC, DCVL, or any of 41 named civil rights leaders. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2, 1965.[119]

New York City

On February 6, 1964, King delivered the inaugural speech of a lecture series initiated at the New School called “The American Race Crisis”. No audio record of his speech has been found, but in August 2013, almost 50 years later, the school discovered an audiotape with 15 minutes of a question-and-answer session that followed King’s address. In these remarks, King referred to a conversation he had recently had with Jawaharlal Nehru in which he compared the sad condition of many African Americans to that of India’s untouchables.[120]

March on Washington, 1963

Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called “Big Six” civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were Roy Wilkins from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer, Jr., of the Congress of Racial Equality.[121]

The primary logistical and strategic organizer was King’s colleague Bayard Rustin.[122] For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march.[123][124] Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed.[125] With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than 100,000. Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and the UAW union to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause.[126]

King is most famous for his “I Have a Dream” speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.S. and an opportunity to place organizers’ concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation’s capital. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone.[127] As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the “Farce on Washington”, and the Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march.[127][128]

I Have a DreamMenu0:0030-second sample from “I Have a Dream” speech by Martin Luther King, Jr., at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963
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The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee.[129][130][131] Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success.[132] More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.C.’s history.[132]

King delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as “I Have a Dream“. In the speech’s most famous passage—in which he departed from his prepared text, possibly at the prompting of Mahalia Jackson, who shouted behind him, “Tell them about the dream!”[133][134]—King said:[135]

I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.

“I Have a Dream” came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory.[136] The March, and especially King’s speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[137][138]

The original, typewritten copy of the speech, including Dr. King’s handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa. In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it.[139]

Selma Voting Rights Movement and “Bloody Sunday”, 1965

Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches

Acting on James Bevel’s call for a march from Selma to Montgomery, King, Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize the march to the state’s capital. The first attempt to march on March 7, 1965, was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has become known as Bloody Sunday, and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the Civil Rights Movement. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King’s nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present.[140]

The civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama in 1965

King met with officials in the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration on March 5 in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators. He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, “If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line.”[141] Footage of police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage.[142]

King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement.[143] The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, 1965.[144][145] At the conclusion of the march on the steps of the state capitol, King delivered a speech that became known as “How Long, Not Long“. In it, King stated that equal rights for African Americans could not be far away, “because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice”.[a][146][147]

Chicago Open Housing Movement, 1966

Main article: Chicago Freedom Movement

President Lyndon Johnson with King in 1966

In 1966, after several successes in the South, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations tried to spread the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at 1550 S. Hamlin Ave., in the slums of North Lawndale[148] on Chicago’s West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor.[149]

The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby, and the combined organizations’ efforts were fostered under the aegis of the Chicago Freedom Movement.[150] During that spring, several white couple / black couple tests of real estate offices uncovered racial steering: discriminatory processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes.[151] Several larger marches were planned and executed: in Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park, Marquette Park, and others.[150][152][153]

Abernathy later wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South. Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, 1966, were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs. Rioting seemed very possible.[154][155] King’s beliefs militated against his staging a violent event, and he negotiated an agreement with Mayor Richard J. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result.[156] King was hit by a brick during one march but continued to lead marches in the face of personal danger.[157]

When King and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization.[158] Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks.[159]

Opposition to the Vietnam War

See also: Opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War

External audio
You may watch the speech, “Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam”, by Martin Luther King here.

King long opposed American involvement in the Vietnam War,[160] but at first avoided the topic in public speeches in order to avoid the interference with civil rights goals that criticism of President Johnson’s policies might have created.[160] However, at the urging of SCLC’s former Director of Direct Action and now the head of the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, James Bevel,[161] King eventually agreed to publicly oppose the war as opposition was growing among the American public.[160] In an April 4, 1967, appearance at the New York City Riverside Church—exactly one year before his death—King delivered a speech titled “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence“.[162] He spoke strongly against the U.S.’s role in the war, arguing that the U.S. was in Vietnam “to occupy it as an American colony”[163] and calling the U.S. government “the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today”.[164] He also connected the war with economic injustice, arguing that the country needed serious moral change:

A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: “This is not just.”[165]

King also opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home. The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, “A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death”.[165] He stated that North Vietnam “did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands”,[166] and accused the U.S. of having killed a million Vietnamese, “mostly children”.[167] King also criticized American opposition to North Vietnam’s land reforms.[168]

King’s opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham,[169] union leaders and powerful publishers.[170] “The press is being stacked against me”, King said,[171] complaining of what he described as a double standard that applauded his nonviolence at home, but deplored it when applied “toward little brown Vietnamese children”.[172] Life magazine called the speech “demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi“,[165] and The Washington Post declared that King had “diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people”.[172][173]

King speaking to an anti-Vietnam war rally at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul on April 27, 1967

The “Beyond Vietnam” speech reflected King’s evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center, with which he was affiliated.[174][175] King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation, and more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice.[176] He guarded his language in public to avoid being linked to communism by his enemies, but in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism.[177][178] In a 1952 letter to Coretta Scott, he said “I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic …”[179] In one speech, he stated that “something is wrong with capitalism” and claimed, “There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism.”[180] King had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected “traditional capitalism”, he also rejected communism because of its “materialistic interpretation of history” that denied religion, its “ethical relativism”, and its “political totalitarianism”.[181]

King also stated in “Beyond Vietnam” that “true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar … it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring”.[182] King quoted a United States official who said that, from Vietnam to Latin America, the country was “on the wrong side of a world revolution”.[182] King condemned America’s “alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America”, and said that the U.S. should support “the shirtless and barefoot people” in the Third World rather than suppressing their attempts at revolution.[182]

On April 15, 1967, King participated in and spoke at an anti-war march from New York’s Central Park to the United Nations organized by the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam and initiated by its chairman, James Bevel. At the U.N. King also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft.

I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.[183]

Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists,[161] Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort.[161] Despite his growing public opposition towards the Vietnam War, King was also not fond of the hippie culture which developed from the anti-war movement.[184] In his 1967 Massey Lecture, King stated:

The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from.[184]

On January 13, 1968, the day after President Johnson’s State of the Union Address, King called for a large march on Washington against “one of history’s most cruel and senseless wars”.[185][186]

We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.[185][186]

Poor People’s Campaign, 1968

Main article: Poor People’s Campaign

In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the “Poor People’s Campaign” to address issues of economic justice. King traveled the country to assemble “a multiracial army of the poor” that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an “economic bill of rights” for poor Americans.[187][188]

The campaign was preceded by King’s final book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community?, which laid out his view of how to address social issues and poverty. King quoted from Henry George and George’s book, Progress and Poverty, particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income.[189][190][191] The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C., demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States.

King and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding America’s cities. He felt that Congress had shown “hostility to the poor” by spending “military funds with alacrity and generosity”. He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided “poverty funds with miserliness”.[188] His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of “racism, poverty, militarism and materialism”, and argued that “reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced”.[192]

The Poor People’s Campaign was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black.[193]

After King’s death

The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D.C., was carried out soon after the April 4 assassination. Criticism of King’s plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out. The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered.[194]

Thousands of demonstrators arrived on the National Mall and established a camp they called “Resurrection City”. They stayed for six weeks.[195]

Assassination and aftermath

Main article: Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

The Lorraine Motel, where King was assassinated, is now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum.

I’ve Been to the Mountaintop

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Final 30 seconds of “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.


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On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.[196][197][198]

On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. King’s flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane.[199] In the close of the last speech of his career, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following:

And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?

Well, I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me now. Because I’ve been to the mountaintop. And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. So I’m happy, tonight. I’m not worried about anything. I’m not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.[200]

King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey, in Memphis. Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often it was known as the “King-Abernathy suite”.[201] According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, King’s last words on the balcony before his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: “Ben, make sure you play ‘Take My Hand, Precious Lord‘ in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty.”[202]

King was shot at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, as he stood on the motel’s second-floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder.[203][204] Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor.[205] Jackson stated after the shooting that he cradled King’s head as King lay on the balcony, but this account was disputed by other colleagues of King’s; Jackson later changed his statement to say that he had “reached out” for King.[206]

After emergency chest surgery, King died at St. Joseph’s Hospital at 7:05 p.m.[207] According to biographer Taylor Branch, King’s autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he “had the heart of a 60 year old”, which Branch attributed to the stress of 13 years in the Civil Rights Movement.[208]

Aftermath

Further information: King assassination riots

The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D.C.; Chicago; Baltimore; Louisville; Kansas City; and dozens of other cities.[209][210] Presidential candidate Robert F. “Bobby” Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King’s death. He gave a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King’s ideal of nonviolence.[211] James Farmer, Jr., and other civil rights leaders also called for nonviolent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael called for a more forceful response.[212] The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers.[213]

President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader.[214] Vice President Hubert Humphrey attended King’s funeral on behalf of the President, as there were fears that Johnson’s presence might incite protests and perhaps violence.[215] At his widow’s request, King’s last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral,[216] a recording of his “Drum Major” sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to “feed the hungry”, “clothe the naked”, “be right on the [Vietnam] war question”, and “love and serve humanity”.[217] His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, “Take My Hand, Precious Lord”, at the funeral.[218]

Two months after King’s death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia.[219] Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King’s murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later.[220] On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pled guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. He was sentenced to a 99-year prison term.[220][221] Ray later claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec, with the alias “Raoul” was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy.[222][223] He spent the remainder of his life attempting, unsuccessfully, to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had.[221]

Allegations of conspiracy

Ray’s lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists.[224] Supporters of this assertion say that Ray’s confession was given under pressure and that he had been threatened with the death penalty.[221][225] They admit Ray was a thief and burglar, but claim he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon.[223] However, prison records in different U.S. cities have shown that he was incarcerated on numerous occasions for charges of armed robbery.[226] In a 2008 interview with CNN, Jerry Ray, the younger brother of James Earl Ray, claimed that James was smart and was sometimes able to get away with armed robbery. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. “I never been with nobody as bold as he is,” Jerry said. “He just walked in and put that gun on somebody, it was just like it’s an everyday thing.”[226]

Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray’s Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon. Those tests did not implicate Ray’s specific rifle.[221][227] Witnesses near King at the moment of his death said that the shot came from another location. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window.[228] However, Ray’s fingerprints were found on various objects (a rifle, a pair of binoculars, articles of clothing, a newspaper) that were left in the bathroom where it was determined the gunfire came from.[226] An examination of the rifle containing Ray’s fingerprints also determined that at least one shot was fired from the firearm at the time of the assassination.[226]

Martin Luther King and Coretta Scott King’s sarcophagus, located on the grounds of the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta, Georgia

In 1997, King’s son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray’s efforts to obtain a new trial.[229]

Two years later, Coretta Scott King, King’s widow, along with the rest of King’s family, won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and “other unknown co-conspirators”. Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King’s assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination.[230][231] William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial.[232]

In 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice completed the investigation into Jowers’ claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented.[233] A sister of Jowers admitted that he had fabricated the story so he could make $300,000 from selling the story, and she in turn corroborated his story in order to get some money to pay her income tax.[234][235]

In 2002, The New York Times reported that a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson—not James Earl Ray—assassinated King. He stated, “It wasn’t a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way.” Wilson provided no evidence to back up his claims.[236]

King researchers David Garrow and Gerald Posner disagreed with William F. Pepper’s claims that the government killed King.[237] In 2003, William Pepper published a book about the long investigation and trial, as well as his representation of James Earl Ray in his bid for a trial, laying out the evidence and criticizing other accounts.[238] King’s friend and colleague, James Bevel, also disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, “There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man.”[239] In 2004, Jesse Jackson stated:

The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. … I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray.[240]

FBI and King’s personal life

FBI surveillance and wiretapping

FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader.[170][241] According to the Church Committee, a 1975 investigation by the U.S. Congress, “From December 1963 until his death in 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was the target of an intensive campaign by the Federal Bureau of Investigation to ‘neutralize’ him as an effective civil rights leader.”[242]

The Bureau received authorization to proceed with wiretapping from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the fall of 1963[243] and informed President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Stanley Levison, a New York lawyer who had been involved with Communist Party USA.[244][245] Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King’s phones “on a trial basis, for a month or so”,[246] Hoover extended the clearance so his men were “unshackled” to look for evidence in any areas of King’s life they deemed worthy.[247] The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levison’s and King’s home and office phones, and bugged King’s rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country.[244][248] In 1967, Hoover listed the SCLC as a black nationalist hate group, with the instructions: “No opportunity should be missed to exploit through counterintelligence techniques the organizational and personal conflicts of the leaderships of the groups … to insure the targeted group is disrupted, ridiculed, or discredited.”[241][249]

NSA monitoring of King’s communications

In a secret operation code-named “Minaret“, the National Security Agency (NSA) monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam.[250] A review by the NSA itself concluded that Minaret was “disreputable if not outright illegal.”[250]

Allegations of communism

For years, Hoover had been suspicious about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights.[251] Hoover directed the FBI to track King in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960).[91] The investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when the FBI learned that one of King’s most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison.[252]

The FBI feared Levison was working as an “agent of influence” over King, in spite of its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them.[253] Another King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts O’Dell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).[254] However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.[242]

For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview that “there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida”.[255] He argued that Hoover was “following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South” and that his concern for communist infiltration of the Civil Rights Movement was meant to “aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements”.[242] Hoover did not believe King’s pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King was “the most notorious liar in the country”.[256] After King gave his “I Have A Dream” speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King as “the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country”.[248] It alleged that he was “knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists”.[257]

The attempt to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by “communists” and “outside agitators”.[258] However, the 1950s and ’60s Civil Rights Movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. King said that “the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations.”[259]

Adultery

Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964

Having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the FBI shifted to attempting to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs.[248] Lyndon Johnson once said that King was a “hypocritical preacher”.[260]

Ralph Abernathy stated in his 1989 autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down that King had a “weakness for women”, although they “all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage. It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation”.[261] In a later interview, Abernathy said that he only wrote the term “womanizing”, that he did not specifically say King had extramarital sex and that the infidelities King had were emotional rather than sexual.[262] Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King’s affairs,[262] such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated.[262] In his original wording, Abernathy had claimed he saw King coming out of his room with a lady when he awoke the next morning and later claimed that “he may have been in there discussing and debating and trying to get her to go along with the movement, I don’t know.”[262]

In his 1986 book Bearing the Cross, David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, “that relationship … increasingly became the emotional centerpiece of King’s life, but it did not eliminate the incidental couplings … of King’s travels.” He alleged that King explained his extramarital affairs as “a form of anxiety reduction”. Garrow asserted that King’s supposed promiscuity caused him “painful and at times overwhelming guilt”.[263] King’s wife Coretta appeared to have accepted his affairs with equanimity, saying once that “all that other business just doesn’t have a place in the very high level relationship we enjoyed.”[264] Shortly after Bearing the Cross was released, civil rights author Howell Raines gave the book a positive review but opined that Garrow’s allegations about King’s sex life were “sensational” and stated that Garrow was “amassing facts rather than analyzing them”.[265]

The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King’s family.[266] The Bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he did not cease his civil rights work.[267] One such letter sent to King just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize read, in part:

The so-called “suicide letter”,[268] mailed anonymously by the FBI

The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [sic]). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation.[269]

A tape recording of several of King’s extramarital liaisons, excerpted from FBI wiretaps, accompanied the letter.[270] King interpreted this package as an attempt to drive him to suicide,[271] although William Sullivan, head of the Domestic Intelligence Division at the time, argued that it may have only been intended to “convince Dr. King to resign from the SCLC”.[242] King refused to give in to the FBI’s threats.[248]

Judge John Lewis Smith, Jr., in 1977 ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBI’s electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027.[272]

Police observation during the assassination

Across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the boarding house in which Ray was staying, was a fire station. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance.[273] Agents were watching King at the time he was shot.[274] Immediately following the shooting, officers rushed out of the station to the motel. Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first aid to King.[275] The antagonism between King and the FBI, the lack of an all points bulletin to find the killer, and the police presence nearby led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination.[276]

Legacy

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King.

Martin Luther King, Jr., statue over the west entrance of Westminster Abbey, installed in 1998

Protesters at the 2012 Republican National Convention display Dr. King’s words and image on a banner

King’s main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the U.S. Just days after King’s assassination, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968.[277] Title VIII of the Act, commonly known as the Fair Housing Act, prohibited discrimination in housing and housing-related transactions on the basis of race, religion, or national origin (later expanded to include sex, familial status, and disability). This legislation was seen as a tribute to King’s struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U.S.[277]

Internationally, King’s legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and Civil Rights Movement in South Africa.[278][279] King’s work was cited by and served as an inspiration for South African leader Albert Lutuli, who fought for racial justice in his country and was later awarded the Nobel Prize.[280] The day following King’s assassination, school teacher Jane Elliott conducted her first “Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes” exercise with her class of elementary school students in Riceville, Iowa. Her purpose was to help them understand King’s death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community.[281] King has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism.[282]

King’s wife, Coretta Scott King, followed in her husband’s footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide.[283] Their son, Dexter King, serves as the center’s chairman.[284][285] Daughter Yolanda King, who died in 2007, was a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training.[286]

Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. King’s widow Coretta said publicly that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights.[287] However, his youngest child, Bernice King, has said publicly that he would have been opposed to gay marriage.[288]

On February 4, 1968, at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated:

I’d like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. I’d like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody.

I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity.

Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. I won’t have any money to leave behind. I won’t have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. But I just want to leave a committed life behind.[212][289]

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

Main article: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

Beginning in 1971, cities such as St. Louis, Missouri, and states established annual holidays to honor King.[290] At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Following President George H. W. Bush‘s 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King’s birthday.[291][292] On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states.[293] Arizona (1992), New Hampshire (1999) and Utah (2000) were the last three states to recognized the holiday. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day.[294]

Liturgical commemorations

King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with an annual feast day on the anniversary of his death, April 4.[295] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates King liturgically on the anniversary of his birth, January 15.[296]

UK legacy and The Martin Luther King Peace Committee

In the United Kingdom, The Northumbria and Newcastle Universities Martin Luther King Peace Committee[297] exists to honour King’s legacy, as represented by his final visit to the UK to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University in 1967.[298] The Peace Committee operates out of the chaplaincies of the city’s two universities, Northumbria and Newcastle, both of which remain centres for the study of Martin Luther King and the US Civil Rights Movement. Inspired by King’s vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to “build cultures of peace.”

Awards and recognition

Martin Luther King, Jr., showing his medallion received from Mayor Wagner

Statue of King in Birmingham’s Kelly Ingram Park

Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where King ministered, was renamed Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church in 1978.

King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities.[299] On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading nonviolent resistance to racial prejudice in the U.S.[300] In 1965, he was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his “exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty”.[299][301] In his acceptance remarks, King said, “Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free.”[302]

In 1957, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.[303] Two years later, he won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story.[304] In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for “his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity”.[305] Also in 1966, King was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[306] In November 1967 he made a 24 hour trip to the United Kingdom to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University, being the first African American to be so honoured by Newcastle.[307] In a moving impromptu acceptance speech,[308] he said

There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States of America but all over the world today. That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war.

In 1971 he was posthumously awarded a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam.[309]

In 1977, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was posthumously awarded to King by President Jimmy Carter. The citation read:

Martin Luther King, Jr., was the conscience of his generation. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet.[310]

King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.[311]

King was second in Gallup’s List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.[312] In 1963, he was named Time Person of the Year, and in 2000, he was voted sixth in an online “Person of the Century” poll by the same magazine.[313] King placed third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the Discovery Channel and AOL.[314]

Memorials and eponymous places and buildings

Martin Luther King Jr. Street at Liberty Bell Park in Jerusalem, Israel

Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial in Yerba Buena Gardens

There are numerous memorials to King in the United States, including:

Numerous other memorials honor him around the world, including:

For more information please visit Wikipedia, the link is:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr.

Ing’s Comment:

On this day of remembrance of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, birthday I wish that Dr. King would be alive today to see the progress of his movement.   Justice Ketanji Brown Jackson was nominated to the Supreme Court of the United States, and she took the oaths of office on June 30. 2022.  She is the first African American woman appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States.

The Current Court: Justice Ketanji Brown Jackson

Image Credit: Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States

Justice Jackson was born in Washington, D.C. on September 14, 1970 where both of her parents taught in public schools. The family moved to Miami, Florida where Justice Jackson attended public schools. In high school she excelled in debate and speech competition. She enrolled in Harvard University in 1988. In 1992, she graduated from Harvard-Radcliffe with a Bachelor’s Degree in Government. She earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) from Harvard Law School in 1996.

After law school, Justice Jackson’s career included private practice, and three federal clerkships, including a clerkship for Associate Justice Stephen G. Breyer at the Supreme Court of the United States. In addition to professional experience in private practice, she also worked in public service. She worked for two years for the United States Sentencing Commission, 2003-2005, and as a federal public defender from 2005-2007. She returned to the U.S. Sentencing Commission as a commissioner in 2010.

She served on the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia from 2013 until her nomination to the Supreme Court of the United States. After her confirmation, she took the oaths of office on June 30. 2022. The Justice is married to Dr. Patrick Jackson, and they are the parents of two daughters.

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://supremecourthistory.org/supreme-court-justices/associate-justice-ketanji-brown-jackson/

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Happy New Year 2023 Everyone, May Peace Be with All of Us Always

Happy New Year 2023 Everyone, May Peace Be with All of Us Always

Metro UK: What is the first country to celebrate the New Year?

Jack Slater Saturday 31 Dec 2022 7:00 am

 

Have you made any resolutions this year? (Picture: Getty)

Another year is over, and 2022 is set to go out with a bang tonight, as London’s famous fireworks display is back for the first time since 2019.

Whether you’re off on a night out, wrapping up warm to watch a firework display, or having a cosy night in, this year’s celebrations are likely to be bigger than ever, after 2020 and 2021 celebrations were affected by the Covid-19 pandemic.

But just who will get to see in 2023 first?

Let’s find out.

What is the first country in the world to celebrate New Year?

The first country – or countries – in the world to mark New Year will actually be the small Pacific Island nations of Tonga, Samoa and Kiribati/Christmas Island.

They’ll be ringing in the new year at 10am GMT, sparking off a day’s worth of celebrations around the globe.

Next in line will be New Zealand, who’ll say hello to 2023 at around 10.15am GMT.

There will be toned down fireworks across the world this year (Picture: Getty)

As it stands the UK will be one of the last countries to celebrate the New Year – and we’ll do so at the same time as Ireland, Iceland, Ghana and Portugal, and an hour later than most of Europe.

However, that won’t be the end of New Year celebrations, as North and South America will be the final part of the world to see 2023.

The last place which will welcome the New Year will be Baker Island and Howland Island, two unoccupied US Islands in the Pacific – but the last occupied territory to celebrate January 1 will be American Samoa at 11am GMT tomorrow morning.

What time is it in Australia?

Australia is known for kicking off the New Year in spectacular fashion with huge fireworks display over Sydney.

New Year’s Eve will be spent in households and bubbles this year (Picture: Getty)

They’ll also be among the first countries to see in 2023, although the time varies according to where you are in Australia.

Sydney and Melbourne are 11 hours ahead of the UK – meaning they’ll be celebrating New Year at 1pm GMT.

Adelaide, meanwhile, is 10 and a half hours ahead of UK time, while Brisbane is 10 hours ahead and Perth is only eight hours ahead.

Follow Metro across our social channels, on FacebookTwitter and Instagram.

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://metro.co.uk/2022/12/31/2023-what-is-the-first-country-to-celebrate-the-new-year-17995442/

Aljazeera: Celebrations kick off in Asia as world enters 2023

Asia celebrates a restriction-free New Year after two years of COVID disruptions, as the world enters 2023.

Fireworks explode over Sydney Harbour during the New Year’s Eve celebrations in Sydney on January 1 [Jaimi Joy/Reuters]

Published On 31 Dec 202231 Dec 2022

Australia celebrated its first restriction-free New Year’s Eve after two years of COVID disruptions, as the world began bidding farewell to a year marked for many by the war in Ukraine, economic stresses and the effects of global warming.

Revellers celebrated across Asia from China to the Philippines to Thailand.

Sydney, one of the world’s first major cities to welcome in the New Year, did so with a typically dazzling fireworks display, which for the first time featured a rainbow waterfall off the famous Harbour Bridge.

“This New Year’s Eve, we are saying Sydney is back as we kick off festivities around the world and bring in the New Year with a bang,” said Clover Moore, lord mayor of the city, ahead of the events.

Lockdowns at the end of 2020 and a surge in Omicron cases at the end of 2021 led to crowd restrictions and reduced festivities in Australia. However, curbs on celebrations were lifted this year after Australia, like many countries around the world, re-opened its borders and removed social distancing restrictions.

The display in Sydney featured thousands of fireworks launched from the four sails of the Sydney Opera House and from the Harbour Bridge.

In China, rigorous COVID restrictions were lifted only this month in the government’s reversal of its “zero-COVID” policy, a switch that has led to soaring infections and meant some people were in no mood to celebrate.

In the city of Wuhan, where the pandemic began three years ago, tens of thousands of people gathered to celebrate amid a heavy security presence.

Barricades were erected and hundreds of police officers and other security workers stood guard on the night of the first large-scale spontaneous gathering in the city since nationwide protests in late November – soon after which Chinese authorities all but abandoned the zero-COVID policy.

In Shanghai, many thronged the historic riverside walkway, the Bund.

Bottom of Form

“We’ve all travelled in from Chengdu to celebrate in Shanghai,” said Da Dai, a 28-year-old digital media executive who was travelling with two friends. “We’ve already had COVID, so now feel it’s safe to enjoy ourselves.”

Days after Hong Kong lifted limits on group gatherings, tens of thousands of people gathered near the city’s Victoria Harbour for a countdown. Lights beamed from some of the city’s biggest harbour-front buildings.

It was the city’s biggest New Year’s Eve celebration in several years. The event was cancelled in 2019 due to often violent social unrest and was scaled down in 2020 and 2021 due to the pandemic.

Malaysia’s government cancelled its New Year countdown and fireworks event at Dataran Merdeka in Kuala Lumpur after flooding across the nation displaced tens of thousands of people and a landslide killed 31 people this month.

Celebrations at the country’s famous Petronas Twin Towers were pared down with no performances or fireworks.

Earlier in the day, Russian President Vladimir Putin devoted his annual New Year’s address to rallying the Russian people behind his troops fighting in Ukraine.

Paris was set to stage its first New Year’s fireworks since 2019. A 10-minute firework show was set to kick off at midnight, with 500,000 people expected to gather on Champs-Elysees avenue to watch.

Heavy rain and strong winds on Saturday meant firework shows in the Netherlands’s main cities including Amsterdam and The Hague – and the nationally televised display in the port city of Rotterdam – were cancelled.

Fireworks explode over Wat Arun of the Temple of the Dawn during the New Year celebrations, in Bangkok, Thailand, on January 1, 2023. [Athit Perawongmetha/Reuters]

Fireworks are seen over Victoria Harbour at midnight on Sunday in Hong Kong. [Anthony Kwan/AP Photo]

People hold balloons as they gather to celebrate New Year’s Eve amid the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, on December 31, 2022. [Tingshu Wang/Reuters]

Buddhist faithful take pictures as they celebrate New Year’s eve at a temple in Seoul, South Korea, on January 1, 2023. [Kim Hong-Ji/Reuters]

Fireworks explode over the Selamat Datang Monument during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Jakarta, Indonesia, on January 1, 2023. [Ajeng Dinar Ulfiana/Reuters]

A screen displays the year 2023 as revellers celebrate New Year’s Eve in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on January 1, 2023. [Hasnoor Hussain/Reuters]

Fireworks explode over Sky Tower in central Auckland as New Year celebrations begin in New Zealand on Sunday. [Dean Purcell/NZ Herald via AP]

A police officer speaks on a megaphone to control a crowd of people as they wait in a queue before they pray at the main hall of the Sensoji Buddhist temple on New Year’s Day in Tokyo on Sunday. [Hiro Komae/AP Photo]

Police patrol the streets for crowd control during the New Year countdown at Marina Bay in Singapore on December 31, 2022. [Caroline Chia/Reuters]

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.aljazeera.com/gallery/2022/12/31/celebrations-kick-off-in-asia-as-world-enters-2023

Aljazeera: Photos – New Year 2023 celebrations around the world

From New Zealand to United States, revellers welcome 2023 with confetti, fireworks and dancing.

Confetti flies around the countdown clock during the first public New Year’s event since the coronavirus pandemic at Times Square in New York City in the United States. [Andrew Kelly/Reuters]

Published On 1 Jan 20231 Jan 2023

A festive atmosphere has swept across the world as countdowns and fireworks ushered in 2023.

The celebrations for the New Year began in the tiny atoll nation of Kiribati in the central Pacific, then moved across Russia and New Zealand before heading deeper, time zone by time zone, through Asia and Europe and into the Americas.

Go through our gallery below to see how people around the world welcomed the arrival of 2023.

Fireworks explode over Sky Tower in central Auckland as New Year celebrations begin in New Zealand. [Dean Purcel/NZ Herald via AP]

A Palestinian man rides his horse next to a 2023 drawing on the sand at a beach in Gaza City during the last sunset of 2022. [Ibraheem Abu Mustafa/Reuters]

Fireworks light the sky over the ancient Parthenon temple on the Acropolis hill during New Year celebrations in Athens, Greece. [Yorgos Karahalis/AP Photo]

Revellers watch a sound and light show projected on the Arc de Triomphe as they celebrate the New Year on the Champs-Elysees in Paris, France. [Aurelien Morissard/AP Photo]

Fireworks are seen over Victoria Harbour at midnight in Hong Kong. [Anthony Kwan/AP Photo]

Revellers gather in the rain as they wait for the countdown during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Times Square in New York City, the US. [Andres Kudacki/AP Photo]

People bring in the New Year as they watch fireworks explode over Copacabana Beach in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Bruna Prado/AP Photo]

Performers take part in the London New Year’s Day Parade in the United Kingdom’s capital. [Toby Melville/Reuters]

A reveller spins burning-steel wool to spread sparks of fire during the New Year’s Eve celebrations in Nairobi, Kenya. [Thomas Mukoya/Reuters]

A commercial aircraft approaches the runway as the sun sets for the last time in 2022 in New Delhi, India. [Altaf Qadri/AP Photo]

Fireworks explode over Sydney Harbour during the New Year’s Eve celebrations in Sydney on January 1 [Jaimi Joy/Reuters]

Published On 31 Dec 202231 Dec 2022

A woman in Japanese traditional kimono attire rings in the New Year by joining a Buddhist ritual called “Joya no Kane” at Sensoji Buddhist temple in Tokyo. In the ritual, temple bells are tolled 108 times, it is said, to get rid of people’s 108 vices and earthly desires in the previous year and to make a fresh start in the New Year. [Hiro Komae/AP Photo]

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.aljazeera.com/gallery/2023/1/1/photos-new-year-2023-celebrations-around-the-world

CNN: 1.3.2023Updated 12:49 AM EST, Sun January 1, 2023

So long, 2022. Hello, 2023.

Revelers are ringing in the new year with celebrations across the globe.

Last year, with the rapid spread of the Omicron coronavirus variant, many cities across the world scaled back their celebrations — some canceled their events altogether.

But this year, we could be seeing a return to something closer to the norm. New York’s Times Square, for example, is expected to return to full capacity.

Fireworks light up the London skyline over Big Ben and the London Eye. Dan Kitwood/Getty Images

People watch a sound and light show projected on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Aurelien Morissard/AP

A reveler smiles in the rain during the New Year’s Eve celebrations in New York’s Times Square. Andres Kudacki/AP

People celebrate the new year at the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. Adam Berry/Getty Images

A child celebrates the new year in front of the Colosseum in Rome. Filippo Monteforte/AFP/Getty Images

Revelers photograph fireworks over the Arc de Triomphe as they celebrate the new year in Paris. Aurelien Morissard/AP

People take part in the annual Allendale Tar Barrel festival in Allendale, England. The New Year’s Eve tradition involves costumed men carrying burning whiskey barrels through the town, which are used to ignite a ceremonial bonfire at midnight. Lee Smith/Reuters

Fireworks are seen over Munich, Germany. Lennart Preiss/DPA/Picture-Alliance/AP

People celebrate in Madrid. Jesús Hellín/Europa Press/AP

People gather in Vilnius, Lithuania, to watch a light and laser show. Yauhen Yerchak/SOPA Imahes/Sipa USA/AP

People watch a fireworks show in Karachi, Pakistan. Rizwan Tabassum/AFP/Getty Images

Women celebrate New Year’s in front of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv, Ukraine. There was a curfew in place as Russia launched a series of deadly strikes that swept several regions of Ukraine. Valentyn Ogirenko/Reuters

Fireworks explode from the Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Satish Kumar/Reuters

A woman kisses her mother during a New Year’s Eve party in Quezon City, Philippines. Eloisa Lopez/Reuters

Fireworks explode over Mosul, Iraq. Khalid al-Mousily/Reuters

A Mass is held to welcome the new year in Nairobi, Kenya. Gerald Anderson/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

People take a selfie as fireworks explode over Cairo. Mohamed Abd El Ghany/Reuters

New Year’s revelers watch a fireworks and laser show in Hong Kong. Isaac Lawrence/AFP/Getty Images

People write messages and release lanterns in Huai’an, China. CFOTO/Future Publishing/Getty Images

Revelers release balloons to celebrate the new year in Wuhan, China. Getty Images

People watch the fireworks in Bangkok, Thailand. Lauren DeCicca/Getty Images

A man lights candles on a sand sculpture in Prayagraj, India. Sanjay Kanojia/AFP/Getty Images

Fireworks explode in Makati, Philippines. Ezra Acayan/Getty Images

Fireworks light up the sky over Sydney Harbor in Australia. Roni Bintang/Getty Images

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.cnn.com/2022/12/31/world/gallery/2023-new-year-celebrations/index.html

AXIOS: In photos: New Year’s Eve around the world

Sareen Habeshian    Dec 31, 2022 – World

Fireworks light up the sky over Sydney Harbour Bridge on Jan 1, 2023, in Australia. Photo: Roni Bintang/Getty Images

As Americans prepared to celebrate New Year’s Eve on Saturday, millions of people in countries where the clock had already struck midnight were ringing in 2023.

Zoom out: Here’s a look at celebrations across the globe.

Australia

Fireworks light up the sky over Sydney Harbour Bridge on Jan. 1, 2023, in Sydney, Australia. Photo: Roni Bintang/Getty Images

People watch fireworks at Sydney Botanic Garden during New Years Eve celebrations on Dec. 31, 2022, in Sydney, Australia. Photo: Roni Bintang/Getty Images

Indonesia

People gather to celebrate in Jakarta, Indonesia, on Jan. 1, 2023. Photo: Eko Siswono Toyudho/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

China

A couple hugs in front of the Hong Kong Convention Center on Dec. 31, 2022, in Hong Kong, China. Photo: Vernon Yuen/NurPhoto/Getty Images

India

People gather at the sea promenade in Mumbai on Dec. 31, 2022. Photo: Punit Paranjpe/AFP via Getty Images

A shopkeeper at a New Year’s Eve carnival in New Delhi, India, on Dec. 31, 2022. Photo: Pankaj Nangia/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Thailand

People take a selfie during fireworks display from the King Taksin Bridge on Jan. 1, 2023, in Bangkok, Thailand. Photo: Lauren DeCicca/Getty Images

Kids watch fireworks display from the King Taksin Bridge on Jan. 1, 2023, in Bangkok, Thailand. Photo: Lauren DeCicca/Getty Images

Kazakhstan

Fireworks light up the sky during the new year celebrations in Astana, Kazakhstan, on Jan. 1, 2023. Photo: Meiramgul Kussainova/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

Fireworks light up the sky during the new year celebrations in Astana, Kazakhstan, on Jan. 1, 2023. Photo:Meiramgul Kussainova/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

United Arab Emirates

New Year’s Eve fireworks light the landmark Burj Khalifa tower at midnight in Dubai on December 31, 2022. Photo: Ryan Lim/AFP/Getty Images)

New York

Revelers wait for New Year’s Eve celebrations in Times Square on Dec. 31, 2022, in New York City. Photo: Alexi Rosenfeld/Getty Images

Revelers gather in Times Square on Dec. 31, 2022 in New York City. Photo: Alexi Rosenfeld/Getty Images

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.axios.com/2022/12/31/photos-new-years-eve-world

 PBS News – PHOTOS: Cities around the world celebrate New Year’s Eve

World Dec 31, 2022 5:48 PM EST

Revellers release balloons as they take part in New Year celebrations in Tokyo, Japan, January 1, 2023. REUTERS/Issei Kato

By — Associated Press

Left: Revelers release balloons as they take part in New Year celebrations in Tokyo, Japan, Jan. 1, 2023. Photo by Issei Kato/REUTERS

PHOTOS: Cities around the world celebrate New Year’s Eve

World Dec 31, 2022 5:48 PM EST

MELBOURNE, Australia (AP) — Revelers in major city centers across Europe and the Middle East were ushering in 2023 with countdowns and fireworks, as many cities around the globe celebrated New Year’s Eve without restrictions for the first time since the start of the coronavirus pandemic.

Children crowded a metro station in Kharkiv, Ukraine, to meet with St. Nicholas and enjoy a special performance ahead of the new year. Meanwhile, some soldiers who said they usually celebrate the holiday with family decided to stay in the trenches as they sought to defend their country.

People gathered next to a Christmas tree to celebrate the New Year eve before a curfew, amid Russia’s attack on Ukraine, in front of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv, Ukraine December 31, 2022. REUTERS/Valentyn Ogirenko

People celebrate New Year’s Eve before a curfew, amid Russia’s attack on Ukraine, in front of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv, Ukraine, Dec. 31, 2022. Photo by Valentyn Ogirenko/REUTERS

Others in Ukraine returned to the capital, Kyiv, to spend New Year’s Eve with their loved ones. As Russian attacks continue to target power supplies, leaving millions without electricity, no big celebrations were planned. A curfew was to be in place as the clock struck midnight.

READ MORE: Russian strikes intensify as Ukrainians return to spend holidays with their families

French President Emmanuel Macron delivered “a message of unity and trust” in a televised address Saturday. Referencing the war in Ukraine several times, Macron also sent a message to France’s “Ukrainian friends,” saying “we respect and admire you.”

“During the coming year, we will be unfailingly at your side. We will help you until victory and we will be together to build a just and lasting peace. Count on France and count on Europe,” he said.

ISTANBUL, TURKIYE – JANUARY 1: Fireworks go off behind minarets of a mosque in Ortakoy Square as part of new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkiye on January 1, 2023. (Photo by Muhammed Enes Yildirim/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)

Fireworks go off behind minarets of a mosque in Ortakoy Square as part of new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkiye on Jan. 1, 2023. Photo by Muhammed Enes Yildirim/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images

Turkey’s most populous city, Istanbul, was bringing in 2023 with street festivities and fireworks. At St. Antuan Catholic Church on Istanbul’s popular pedestrian thoroughfare Istiklal Avenue, dozens of Christians prayed for the new year and marked former Pope Benedict XVI’s passing. The Vatican announced Benedict died Saturday at age 95.

The Pacific nation of Kiribati was the first country to greet the new year, with the clock ticking into 2023 one hour ahead of neighbors including New Zealand.

In Auckland, large crowds gathered below the Sky Tower, where a 10-second countdown to midnight preceded fireworks. The celebrations in New Zealand’s largest city were well-received after COVID-19 forced them to be canceled a year ago.

There was a scare in the North Island coastal city of Tauranga, about 225 kilometers (140 miles) from Auckland, when a bouncing castle was blown 100 meters (yards). Tauranga City Council reported one person was hospitalized and four people were treated on site.

Early fireworks explode over Sydney Opera House during the New Year’s Eve celebrations, in Sydney, Australia, December 31, 2022. REUTERS/Jaimi Joy

Early fireworks explode over Sydney Opera House during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Sydney, Australia, Dec. 31, 2022. Photo by Jaimi Joy/REUTERS

Over 1 million people crowded along Sydney’s waterfront for a multi-million dollar celebration based around the themes of diversity and inclusion. More than 7,000 fireworks were launched from the top of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and a further 2,000 from the nearby Opera House.

It was the “party Sydney deserves,” the city’s producer of major events and festivals Stephen Gilby told The Sydney Morning Herald.

“We have had a couple of fairly difficult years; we’re absolutely delighted this year to be able to welcome people back to the foreshores of Sydney Harbor for Sydney’s world-famous New Year’s Eve celebrations,” he said.

In Melbourne, Australia’s second largest city, a family-friendly fireworks display along the Yarra River as dusk fell preceded a second session at midnight.

Revellers gather to take part in New Year celebrations at a public park in Yangon on December 31, 2022. (Photo by Sai Aung MAIN / AFP) (Photo by SAI AUNG MAIN/AFP via Getty Images)

Revelers gather to take part in New Year’s Eve celebrations at a public park in Yangon, Myanmar on Dec. 31, 2022. Photo by Sai Aung Main/AFP via Getty Images

Authorities in military-ruled Myanmar announced a suspension of its normal four-hour curfew in the country’s three biggest cities so residents could celebrate New Year’s Eve. However, opponents of army rule urged people to avoid public gatherings, fearing that security forces might stage a bombing or other attack and blame it on them.

Concerns about the Ukraine war and the economic shocks it has spawned across the globe were felt in Tokyo, where Shigeki Kawamura has seen better times but said he needed a free, hot meal this New Year’s.

“I hope the war will be over in Ukraine so prices will stabilize,” he said. “Nothing good has happened for the people since we’ve had Mr. Kishida,” he said, referring to Prime Minister Fumio Kishida.

He was one of several hundred people huddled in the cold in a line circling a Tokyo park to receive free New Year’s meals of sukiyaki, or slices of beef cooked in sweet sauce, with rice.

An entertainer performs during a countdown event for the 2023 New Year celebrations in Tokyo, Japan, December 31, 2022. REUTERS/Issei Kato

An entertainer performs during a countdown event for the 2023 New Year celebrations in Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 31, 2022. Photo by Issei Kato/REUTERS

“I hope the new year will bring work and self-reliance,” said Takaharu Ishiwata, who lives in a group home and hasn’t found lucrative work in years.

Kenji Seino, who heads the meal program for the homeless Tenohasi, which means “bridge of hands,” said the number of people coming for meals was rising, with jobs becoming harder to find after the coronavirus pandemic hit, and prices going up.

Associated Press journalists Henry Hou in Beijing, Renata Brito in Kyiv, Yuri Kagayema in Tokyo, Grant Peck in Bangkok, Zeynep Bilginsoy in Istanbul and Thomas Adamson in Paris contributed to this report.

Left: Revelers release balloons as they take part in New Year celebrations in Tokyo, Japan, Jan. 1, 2023. Photo by Issei Kato/REUTERS

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.pbs.org/newshour/world/photos-cities-around-the-world-celebrate-new-years-eve

Metro UK: How to wish people a Happy New Year around the world in different languages

Jack Slater Saturday 31 Dec 2022 11:00 am

People will be celebrating around the world as we welcome in 2023 (Picture: Getty)

It’s almost time to link arms and break into a rousing rendition of Auld Lang Syne for New Year.

On New Year’s Eve we all sing the traditional Scottish folk song, so dipping in and out of other languages shouldn’t be anything new.

In that spirit, here’s how you can wish people a Happy New Year in a myriad of other languages, perfect whether you’re out celebrating in London with a group of friends from the world over or you’ve got friends and family in different time zones.

How to say Happy New Year in Spanish

In Spanish, the literal translation for Happy New Year is Feliz Año Nuevo

If you want to give it a bit more pep, you can say Feliz año nuevo, amigo (Happy New Year, friend) or Brindemos al Año Nuevo (Cheers to the New Year).

Fireworks and resolutions will see in the new year (Picture: Getty)

How to say Happy New Year in German

Happy New Year can be wished in German by saying either ‘Frohes Neues Jahr’ or ‘Gutes Neues Jahr’.

A colloquial greeting amongst some Germans is ‘Guten Rutsch’, which translates to ‘good slide.’

Why? No one really knows. Although most sites agree it comes from an old Yiddish phrase, a git Rosch, which wishes ‘a good beginning.’

How to say Happy New Year in French

Emily in Paris on the brain after the new season? Say bonjour to 2023 by wishing friends and family a ‘Bonne année.’

A year round greeting that works if you think you’ve missed the window to properly say Happy New Year is ‘Meilleurs Voeux’, which is an evergreen way of saying ‘best wishes.’

Hello 2023 – in many languages! (Picture: Getty)

Happy New Year in Maori, the indigenous language of New Zealand

The Maori people were the indigenous population of New Zealand and te reo – the language – is still commonly spoken by a portion of the population.

Since they’re one of the first places in the world to see in the New Year, you might want to know how to wish a Happy New Year in the dialect – Kia hari te tau hou.

How to say Happy New Year in Italian

Still not over White Lotus? Feel la dolce vita and see in 2023 with a hearty ‘Buon Anno’ or ‘Felice anno nuovo!’

Happy New Year in 10 other languages, from Afrikaans to Mandarin

  • Afrikaans – Gelukkige Nuwejaar (pronounced: gha-likkikga-neeva-yaarr)
  • Gaelic – Bliadhna mhath ur (pronounced: Bleenah vahth oohr)
  • Mandarin ???? (pronounced: x?n nián kuài lè)
  • Portuguese – Feliz Ano Novo
  • Dutch – Fijne oudejaarsavond, Fine New Year’s Eve (pronounced: fei-nee ow-de-yaarr-sa-vont) or Gelukkig Nieuwjaar, Happy New Year (pronounced: ghu-lukkikgh-neew-yaarr)
  • Greek – ???? ?????? (pronounced: kali chronya)
  • Polish – Szcz??liwego Nowego Roku (pronounced: shch-eng-shlee-vego novego roku)
  • Welsh – blwyddyn newydd dda  (pronounced: BLOOdhin NEHwidh dha)
  • Japanese ??????????????? (pronounced: akemashite omedeto gozaimasu)
  • Farsi ??? ?? ????? (pronounced: sale nou mobarak).

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For more information, please visit the following link:

https://metro.co.uk/2022/12/31/how-to-say-happy-new-year-in-spanish-german-and-13-other-languages-18018274/?ico=more_text_links

Countdown to 2023 from all over the world 5:27 mins

ABC News  56,736 views • Jan 1, 2023

Highlights from New Year’s Eve celebrations around the globe.

New Year’s Celebrations Around The World  2:26 mins

NBC News 328,361 views Dec 31, 2022 #Fireworks #2023 #NewYear

From setting fireworks in Australia to ringing temple bells in Japan, all around the world, New Year’s celebrations are underway. In New York’s Times Square, rain did little to deter revelers anxiously awaiting their first celebration without Covid restrictions since the pandemic began. While on the West Coast, the weather is more of a threat: 31 million people in California and Nevada are under flood alerts. » Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC » Watch more NBC video: http://bit.ly/MoreNBCNews NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. Connect with NBC News Online! NBC News App: https://smart.link/5d0cd9df61b80 Breaking News Alerts: https://link.nbcnews.com/join/5cj/bre… Visit NBCNews.Com: http://nbcnews.to/ReadNBC Find NBC News on Facebook: http://nbcnews.to/LikeNBC Follow NBC News on Twitter: http://nbcnews.to/FollowNBC #NewYear #2023 #Fireworks

2023 New Year’s Eve celebrations around the world 2:34 mins

INQUIRER.net 171,575 views Jan 1, 2023

Watch how the world welcomes 2023 with various New Year celebrations from majestic fireworks wrapping the Burj Khalifa in Dubai to loud cheers taking over Time Square, New York. READ: https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1711191… Visit us at https://www.inquirer.net Facebook: https://facebook.com/inquirerdotnet Twitter: https://twitter.com/inquirerdotnet

LIVE: New Year’s Eve fireworks display over Sydney Harbour 30:25 mins

Reuters 179,412 views Streamed live on Dec 31, 2022 #Reuters #news #live

179,412 views • Streamed live on Dec 31, 2022 • #Reuters #news #live

Australia celebrates the arrival of 2023 with a fireworks display over Sydney Harbour. #Reuters #live #news # SydneyHarbour #NewYear #2022 #2023

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jW8cCMM_2F

2023 Rose Parade presented by Honda – Full KTLA Broadcast 2:11:00

KTLA 5 539,139 views Jan 2, 2023

KTLA 5 in Los Angeles is proud to be a broadcast partner of The 134th Rose Parade presented by Honda. Since 1890, the Tournament of Roses has produced America’s New Year Celebration, bringing the traditions of the Rose Parade and Rose Bowl Game to Pasadena and the world. Program Details: https://ktla.com/news/local-news/watc…

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Colossal: Ancient Ruins Reconstructed with Architectural GIFs and Restore Damaged Cultural Sites Around the World

Colossal: Ancient Ruins Reconstructed with Architectural GIFs and Restore Damaged Cultural Sites Around the World

 

HAVE A HAPPY HOLIDAY EVERYONE

MAY PEACE BE WITH ALL OF US ALWAYS

From Ing, John and family, Friday, December 23, 2022

Colossal: Ancient Ruins Reconstructed with Architectural GIFs

MARCH 23, 2018 LAURA STAUGAITIS

Parthenon, Greece

Today, views of the world’s ancient architectural wonders are firmly based in their current state of ruin, leaving to visitors’ imaginations the original glory of structures like the Parthenon, Pyramid of the Sun, and Temple of Luxor. NeoMam, in a project for Expedia, has resurrected several ancient buildings through a series of gifs. In a matter of seconds, centuries of natural and intentional damage and decay are reversed to reveal a rare glimpse at what the original structures would have looked like. The creative contractors behind the labor-intensive renderings are Maja Wro?ska (previously) and her husband Przemek Sobiecki, who works as This Is Render.  (via designboom)

 Pyramid of the Sun, Mexico

 Temple of Largo Argentina, Rome

 Nohoch Mul Pyramid (Coba), Mexico

 Temple of Luxor, Egypt

  Temple of Jupiter, Italy

 Hadrian’s Wall, England

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.thisiscolossal.com/2018/03/ancient-ruins-reconstructed-with-architectural-gifs/

Colossal: Architectural Gifs Restore Damaged Cultural Sites Around the World

JULY 28, 2020 GRACE EBERT 

 Hatra, Al-Jaz?rah, Iraq

Evoking a bit of time-travel, NeoMam (previously) recently animated a series of gifs that restore impressive, human-made structures around the globe to pristine condition. Although the six landmarks are now in some form of decay and have made UNESCO’s list of endangered world heritage, the short clips digitally reconstruct the sites to show what they’d look like had they not faced the ravages of time

Included in this round of restoration are a remnant of Hatra, a large fortified city that was capital of the first Arab Kingdom, and the hundreds of islets that make up Nan Modol in Micronesia. UNESCO designated these landmarks in danger because of natural and human-generated threats like earthquakes, military conflict, and urbanization. Dig into the history behind the six restorations, which were completed in partnership with BudgetDirect and architect Jelena Popovic, in addition to other at-risk locations on UNESCO’s site.

Nan Madol, Temwen Island, Federated States of Micronesia

  Leptis Magna, District of Khoms, Libya

 Jerusalem, Israel

Palmyra, Tadmur, Homs Governorate, Syria

 Fort San Lorenzo, Province of Colon, District of Cristobal, Panama

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.thisiscolossal.com/2020/07/neomam-unesco-gifs/

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In 2022, AP photographers captured pain of a changing planet, NBC News, and TEDMED

In 2022, AP photographers captured pain of a changing planet, NBC News, and TEDMED

In 2022, AP photographers captured pain of a changing planet

Associated Press Photographs 1-50 0f 153

In 2022, Associated Press photographers captured signs of a planet in distress as climate change reshaped many lives.

That distress was seen in the scarred landscapes in places where the rains failed to come. It was felt in walloping storms, land-engulfing floods, suffocating heat and wildfires no longer confined to a single season. It could be tasted in altered crops or felt as hunger pangs when crops stopped growing. And taken together, millions of people were compelled to pick up and move as many habitats became uninhabitable.

2022 will be a year remembered for destruction brought on by a warming planet and, according to scientists, was a harbinger for even more extreme weather.

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Israeli police clash with mourners as they carry the coffin of slain Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh during her funeral in east Jerusalem, on May 13, 2022. Abu Akleh, a Palestinian-American reporter who covered the Mideast conflict for more than 25 years, was shot dead two days earlier during an Israeli military raid in the West Bank town of Jenin. (AP Photo/Maya Levin)

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Wind whips embers from a burning tree during a wildfire near Hemet, Calif., on Sept. 6, 2022. (AP Photo/Ringo H.W. Chiu)

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Arsha Begum receives the Covishield vaccine for COVID-19 from Fozia, a healthcare worker, during a COVID-19 vaccination drive in Budgam, southwest of Srinagar, Indian controlled Kashmir, on Jan. 11, 2022. (AP Photo/Dar Yasin)

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Matej Svancer of Austria trains ahead of the men’s freestyle skiing big air qualification round of the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing on Feb. 7, 2022. (AP Photo/Matt Slocum)

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A Taliban fighter stands guard at the site of an explosion in front of a school in Kabul, Afghanistan, on April 19, 2022. It was one of several deadly explosions that have targeted educational institutions in Afghanistan’s capital. (AP Photo/Ebrahim Noroozi)

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Children play in the Catia neighborhood of Caracas, Venezuela, on Jan. 2, 2022. (AP Photo/Matias Delacroix)

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A man recovers items from a burning shop following a Russian attack in Kharkiv, Ukraine, on March 25, 2022. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

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People throng President Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s official residence in Colombo, Sri Lanka, on July 11, 2022, the day after it was stormed by protesters demanding his resignation amid the country’s worst economic crisis in recent memory. (AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool)

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A boy cools off in a public fountain in Vilnius, Lithuania, during a heat wave on June 26, 2022. (AP Photo/Mindaugas Kulbis)

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Jennica Secuya swims in her mermaid suit during a mermaiding class in Mabini, Batangas province, Philippines, on May 22, 2022. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)

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Revelers dressed as “Mascaritas” take part in a traditional carnival celebration in the small village of Luzon, Spain, on Feb. 26, 2022. Preserved records from the fourteenth century document Luzon’s carnival, but the real origin of the tradition could be much older. (AP Photo/Manu Fernandez)

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Motria Oleksiienko, 99 years old and traumatized by the Russian occupation, is comforted by her daughter-in-law, Tetiana Oleksiienko, in a room without heating in the village of Andriivka, Ukraine, as heavy fighting continues between Russian and Ukrainian forces, on April 6, 2022. (AP Photo/Vadim Ghirda)

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President Joe Biden walks to his motorcade after speaking to reporters at Andrews Air Force Base, Md., on Jan. 28, 2022. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

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Vehicles rest on a bridge in Pittsburgh following its collapse on Jan. 28, 2022. Rescuers had to rappel nearly 150 feet (45 meters), while others formed a human chain to help rescue people from a dangling bus. (AP Photo/Gene J. Puskar)

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Ukrainian emergency workers and volunteers carry an injured pregnant woman from a maternity hospital damaged by an airstrike in Mariupol, Ukraine, on March 9, 2022. The woman was taken to another hospital, but did not survive. (AP Photo/Evgeniy Maloletka)

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A paper cut-out of a horse peeks out from a stand of prickly pear cactus at a park in Tel Aviv on Feb. 5, 2022. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty)

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A young boy runs towards a United Nations helicopter carrying Under-Secretary-General for Peace Operations Jean Pierre Lacroix before it lands in Bunia, eastern Congo, on Feb. 22, 2022. (AP Photo/Moses Sawasawa)

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Communist party supporters hold portraits of Josef Stalin and Vladimir Lenin as they gather during the national celebration of the “Defender of the Fatherland Day” near the Kremlin in Moscow’s Revolution Square on Feb. 23, 2022. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko)

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People from the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, the territory in eastern Ukraine controlled by pro-Russia separatist governments, watch Russian President Vladimir Putin’s address at their temporary place in Russia’s Rostov-on-Don region on Feb. 21, 2022. (AP Photo/Denis Kaminev)

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A girl uses a kerosine oil lamp to attend online lessons during a power cut brought on by a fuel shortage in Colombo, Sri Lanka, on March 4, 2022. (AP Photo/Eranga Jayawardena)

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Firefighters wait for water as a fire rage in the low-income neighborhood of Laguna Verde, in Iquique, Chile, on Jan. 10, 2022. (AP Photo/Ignacio Munoz)

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Bodies are lowered into a mass grave on the outskirts of Mariupol, Ukraine, on March 9, 2022, as people cannot bury their dead because of the heavy shelling by Russian forces. (AP Photo/Evgeniy Maloletka)

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A jet ski steers away from a crashing wave during a big wave surfing session at Praia do Norte, or North Beach, in Nazare, Portugal, on Feb. 25, 2022. (AP Photo/Armando Franca)

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Workers clean oil from Cavero beach in Ventanilla, Callao, Peru, on Jan. 18, 2022. The Peruvian Civil Defense Institute said the eruption of an undersea volcano in Tonga created high waves that moved a ship loading oil into La Pampilla refinery, causing the oil to spill. (AP Photo/Martin Mejia)

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Goats graze in east Jerusalem with Israel’s separation barrier in the background, surrounding Shuafat refugee camp, on March 8, 2022. (AP Photo/Oded Balilty)

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A woman shouting anti-government slogans holds an umbrella surrounded by clouds of smoke during a demonstration in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to protest the government’s agreement with the International Monetary Fund to refinance some $45 billion in debt on March 10, 2022. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd)

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Tom Cruise, center, gestures upon arriving at the premiere of the film “Top Gun: Maverick” at the 75th international film festival in Cannes, France, on May 18, 2022. (AP Photo/Petros Giannakouris)

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A woman adjusts her hat before the 148th running of the Kentucky Derby horse race at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Ky, on May 7, 2022, (AP Photo/ Charlie Riedel)

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A civilian wear a Vladimir Putin mask as a spoof, while a Ukrainian soldier stands atop a destroyed Russian tank in Bucha, Ukraine, outside of Kyiv, on April 7, 2022. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd)

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Mahtab, an 8-year-old Hazara Shiite student, poses for a photo in her classroom at the Abdul Rahim Shaheed School in Kabul, Afghanistan, on April 23, 2022, days after a bombing attack at the school. (AP Photo/Ebrahim Noroozi)

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A girl has her make up done before the “Las llamadas” carnival parade in Montevideo, Uruguay, on Feb. 10, 2022. (AP Photo/Matilde Campodonico)

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Ukrainians huddle under a destroyed bridge as they try to flee by crossing the Irpin River on the outskirts of Kyiv, Ukraine, on March 5, 2022. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)

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The body of an unidentified man lies on a road barrier near a village retaken by Ukrainian forces on the outskirts of Kharkiv, Ukraine, on April 30, 2022. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)

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An injured protester cries in pain after police fired tear gas to disperse an anti-government protest in Colombo, Sri Lanka, on May 19, 2022. The protesters were demanding the resignation of President Gotabaya Rajapaksa, holding him responsible for the country’s worst economic crisis in recent memory. (AP Photo/Eranga Jayawardena)

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Women, one wearing a traditional Basutu hat, take a selfie during a visit to the Afriski ski resort near Butha-Buthe, Lesotho, on July 30, 2022. Afriski in the Maluti Mountains is Africa’s only operating ski resort south of the equator. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)

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Supporters of former President Donald Trump line up behind Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, to pose for photos during a book signing at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Dallas, on Aug. 5, 2022. (AP Photo/LM Otero)

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Villagers gather during a visit by Martin Griffiths, the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, in the village of Lomoputh in northern Kenya on May 12, 2022. Griffiths visited the area to see the effects of the drought which the U.N. says is a severe climate-induced humanitarian emergency in the Horn of Africa. (AP Photo/Brian Inganga)

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JoAnn Daniels, left, accompanied by Kayla Jones, second from right, Donell Jones, right, and other family members, takes a moment to gather her thoughts during an interview with The Associated Press about her sister Celestine Chaney, who was killed in Saturday’s shooting at a supermarket in Buffalo, N.Y., Monday, May 16, 2022. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)

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The body of a dead addict lies covered by a shawl in an area inhabited by drug users under a bridge in Kabul, Afghanistan, on June 15, 2022. Drug addiction has long been a problem in Afghanistan, the world’s biggest producer of opium and heroin. (AP Photo/Ebrahim Noroozi)

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The body of Palestinian Muhammad Hassouna, who was killed in an Israeli airstrike, is prepared for his funeral at a hospital in Rafah, in the southern Gaza Strip, on Aug. 7, 2022. (AP Photo/Fatima Shbair)

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Workers put a dead crane into a bag at the Hula Lake conservation area in northern Israel on Jan. 2, 2022. A bird flu outbreak killed thousands of migratory cranes in what authorities say was the deadliest wildlife disaster in the nation’s history. (AP Photo/Ariel Schalit)

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Pope Francis is aided as he leaves the parish community of Sacred Heart in Edmonton, Alberta, after a meeting with Indigenous peoples on July 25, 2022. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)

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Lexie Stroiney, 6, curls up in the plethysmography chamber during a break in her pulmonary function test at Children’s National Hospital in Washington on Jan. 26, 2022. Lexie had COVID-19 and is part of a NIH-funded multi-year study to look at impacts of COVID-19 on children’s physical health and quality of life. (AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster)

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Scotland’s Micky Yule reacts after a successful lift during the men’s heavyweight para powerlifting final at the Commonwealth Games in Birmingham, England, on Aug. 4, 2022. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi)

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Rescue workers observe as a Russian Orthodox believer dips into icy water during a traditional Epiphany celebration in St. Petersburg, Russia, on Jan. 18, 2022. (AP Photo/Dmitri Lovetsky)

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A woman looks at the ruins of a Palestinian house demolished by the Jerusalem municipality in the east Jerusalem neighborhood of Sheikh Jarrah on Jan. 19, 2022. Israeli police evicted Palestinian residents from the disputed property and demolished the building, days after a tense standoff. (AP Photo/Mahmoud Illean)

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A young cowboy wearing a mask as a precaution against the spread of COVID-19 looks at other competitors during the Boyeros Cattlemen’s fair rodeo at the International Agricultural Fair Fiagrop 2022 in Havana, Cuba, Friday, April 8, 2022. (AP Photo/Ramon Espinosa)

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Anti-abortion advocates celebrate outside the Supreme Court in Washington on June 24, 2022, following the court’s decision to end constitutional protections for abortion that had been in place nearly 50 years. (AP Photo/Steve Helber)

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Spectators watch from a classic Citroen 2CV car as the pack passes during the second stage of the Tour de France cycling race over 202.5 kilometers (125.8 miles) with start in Roskilde and finish in Nyborg, Denmark, Saturday, July 2, 2022. (AP Photo/Daniel Cole)

By The Associated Press

December 6, 2022

Taken together, they can convey the feeling of a world convulsing — 150 Associated Press images from across 2022, showing the fragments that make up our lives and freezing in time the moments that somehow, these days, seem to pass faster than ever.

Here: a man recovering items from a burning shop in Ukraine after a Russia attack. Here: people thronging the residence of the Sri Lankan president after protesters stormed it demanding his resignation. Here: medical workers trying to identify victims of a bridge collapse in India. And here: flames engulfing a chair inside a burning home as wildfires sweep across Mariposa County, Calif.

As history in 2022 unfolded and the world lurched forward — or, it seemed sometimes, in other directions — Associated Press photographers were there to bring back unforgettable images. Through their lenses, across the moments and months, the presence of chaos can seem more encircling than ever.

A year’s worth of news images can also be clarifying. To see these photographs is to channel — at least a bit — the jumbled nature of the events that come at us, whether we are participating in them or, more likely, observing them from afar. Thus do 150 individual front-row seats to history and life translate into a message: While the world may surge with disorder, the thrum of daily life in all its beauty continues to unfold in the planet’s every corner.

There is grief: Three heart-shaped balloons fly at a memorial site outside the elementary school in Uvalde, Texas, where 19 children and two teachers were killed by a gunman.

There is determination: Migrants in a wooden boat float across the Mediterranean Sea south of an Italian island, trying to reach their destination.

There is fear: A man looks skyward over his shoulder, an expression of trepidation on his face, as he walks past homes damaged by a rocket attack in Ukraine.

There are glimpses into calamity: Villagers gather in northern Kenya, in an area stricken by climate-induced drought.

There is perseverance: A girl uses a kerosene oil lamp to attend online lessons during a power cut in the Sri Lankan capital.

Don’t be blinded by all of the violence and disarray, though, which can drown out other things but perhaps should not. Because here, too, are photos of joy and exuberance and, simply, daily human life.

A skier soaring through the air in Austria, conquering gravity for a fleeting moment. Chris Martin of the band Coldplay, singing toward the sky in Rio de Janeiro. A lone guard marching outside Buckingham Palace days after the death of Queen Elizabeth II. An 8-year-old Afghan girl, her eyes locked with the camera, posing for a photo in her classroom in Kabul, days after a bombing attack at her school. Women taking a selfie at a ski resort in Lesotho.

Finally, allow a moment to consider one of those pauses in humanity’s march: a boy drenching himself in a public fountain in a heat wave-stricken Vilnius, Lithuania, reveling in the water and the sun and the simple act of just being. Even in the middle of a year of chaos on an uneasy planet, moments of tranquility manage to peek through.

— By Ted Anthony, AP National Writer

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://apnews.com/article/2022-photos-of-the-year-928cfe1089c6969527941c1310ad932a

Context

Climate change 

United Nations

Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns, mainly caused by human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels.

Scorched: East Africa’s Climate Crisis

NBC News 1,312 views Dec 20, 2022 #NBCNews #EastAfrica #ClimateChange

East Africa is ground zero for climate change. In Kenya where community leaders tell NBC News Chief International Correspondent Keir Simmons of fertile lands just a decade ago that now looked to me a lot like dessert. These are not the people who caused climate change, yet they are suffering from global warming that has nothing to do with them. But it’s not just climate – conflict around the world is also driving food insecurity. “Scorched: East Africa’s Climate Crisis” looks at the global forces at play and asks how we can address these issues.

» Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC » Watch more NBC video: http://bit.ly/MoreNBCNews NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. Connect with NBC News Online! NBC News App: https://smart.link/5d0cd9df61b80 Breaking News Alerts: https://link.nbcnews.com/join/5cj/bre… Visit NBCNews.Com: http://nbcnews.to/ReadNBC Find NBC News on Facebook: http://nbcnews.to/LikeNBC Follow NBC News on Twitter: http://nbcnews.to/FollowNBC #NBCNews #EastAfrica #ClimateChange

1,325,116 views | Rahwa Ghirmatzion and Zelalem Adefris • Countdown

Community-powered solutions to the climate crisis

Climate change is the epic challenge of our lives, and community leaders like Rahwa Ghirmatzion and Zelalem Adefris are already working on sustainable, resilient solutions. Through their organizations in Buffalo and Miami, they’re focused on durable, affordable housing for under-resourced communities, the most vulnerable to the instability of climate change. Watch for a lesson on how we can work alongside our neighbors to address climate catastrophe and social inequality. (Narrated by Don Cheadle)

307,156 views | Cheryl Holder • TEDMED 2020

The link between climate change, health and poverty

For the poor and vulnerable, the health impacts of climate change are already here, says physician Cheryl Holder. Unseasonably hot temperatures, disease-carrying mosquitoes and climate gentrification threaten those with existing health conditions, while wealthier people move to higher ground. In an impassioned talk, Holder proposes impactful ways clinicians can protect their patients from climate-related health challenges — and calls on doctors, politicians and others to build a care system that incorporates economic and social justice.

Climate Change

Global Issues

Social Change

Health

Health Care

Community

Activism

Poverty

Humanity

TEDMED

Human Rights

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

Learn more about the social determinants of health.

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About the speaker

Cheryl Holder

Physician

See speaker profile

Cheryl Holder advocates for comprehensive medical prevention and care strategies for poor communities impacted by climate change.

2,196,281 views | Rishi Manchanda • TEDSalon NY2014

What makes us get sick? Look upstream

Rishi Manchanda has worked as a doctor in South Central Los Angeles for a decade, where he’s come to realize: His job isn’t just about treating a patient’s symptoms, but about getting to the root cause of what is making them ill—the “upstream” factors like a poor diet, a stressful job, a lack of fresh air. It’s a powerful call for doctors to pay attention to a patient’s life outside the exam room.

Health Care

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

Learn how to get better care from your doctor.

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About the speaker

Rishi Manchanda

Physician

See speaker profile

Rishi Manchanda is an “upstreamist.” A physician and public health innovator, he aims to reinvigorate primary care by teaching doctors to think about—and treat—the social and environmental conditions that often underly sickness.

Learn more

The Upstream Doctors

Rishi Manchanda | TED Books (2013)

An uphill battle for an upstream approach

Legendary physician and anthropologist Paul Farmer answers some commonly asked questions about Rishi Manchanda’s work, including: Why should we care?

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NASA’s Artemis I: Image of the Day, Orion Comes Home to Earth and Axios Space

NASA’s Artemis I: Image of the Day, Orion Comes Home to Earth and Axios Space

At 12:40 p.m. EST, Dec. 11, 2022, NASA’s Orion spacecraft for the Artemis I mission splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after a 25.5 day mission to the Moon. Orion will be recovered by NASA’s Landing and Recovery team, U.S. Navy and Department of Defense partners aboard the USS Portland.

Orion Comes Home to Earth

At 12:40 p.m. EST, Dec. 11, 2022, the Orion spacecraft for the Artemis I mission splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after a 25.5-day mission to the Moon.

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At 12:40 p.m. EST, Dec. 11, 2022, the Orion spacecraft for the Artemis I mission splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after a 25.5-day mission to the Moon. Flight controllers in mission control at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston spent about two hours performing tests in open water to gather additional data about the spacecraft. Orion was then recovered by NASA’s Landing and Recovery team, U.S. Navy and Department of Defense partners aboard the USS Portland. Recovery personnel also spent time collecting detailed imagery of the spacecraft before beginning to pull the capsule into the USS Portland’s well deck. The ship will soon begin its trip back to U.S. Naval Base San Diego, where engineers will remove Orion from the ship in preparation for transport back to Kennedy Space Center in Florida for post-flight analysis. Orion is expected to arrive to shore Dec. 13.

Follow Orion’s travels on Earth by visiting the Artemis I blog.

Image Credit: NASA/James M. Blair

Last Updated: Dec 12, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IImage of the DayMoon to MarsOrion Spacecraft

NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft aboard is seen illuminated by spotlights after sunset atop the mobile launcher at Launch Pad 39B as preparations for launch continue, Sunday, Nov. 6, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA’s Artemis I flight test is the first integrated test of the agency’s deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, SLS rocket, and supporting ground systems. Launch of the uncrewed flight test is targeted for Nov. 14 at 12:07 a.m. EST. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

Artemis I Glows After Sunset

NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft aboard was seen lit by spotlights atop the mobile launcher at Launch Pad 39B as preparations for launch continued Sunday, Nov. 6, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

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NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft aboard is illuminated by spotlights atop the mobile launcher at Launch Pad 39B as preparations for launch continued Sunday, Nov. 6, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. SLS and Orion arrived at the launch pad on Friday, Nov. 4, after a nearly nine-hour journey from the Vehicle Assembly Building.

Artemis I is the first integrated test of our deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, SLS rocket, and supporting ground systems. Launch of the uncrewed flight test is targeted for Nov. 14 at 12:07 a.m. EST. See the full launch coverage schedule.

Image Credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Last Updated: Nov 7, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  ArtemisArtemis IImage of the DayKennedy Space CenterMoon to MarsOrion SpacecraftSpace Launch System

The Moon is seen rising above NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft aboard at Launch Pad 39B as preparations for launch continue, Monday, Nov. 14, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA’s Artemis I flight test is the first integrated test of the agency’s deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, SLS rocket, and supporting ground systems. Launch of the uncrewed flight test is targeted for no earlier than Nov. 16 at 1:04 a.m. EST. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

Moonlit Launch Preparations at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center

The Moon is seen rising above NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft aboard at Launch Pad 39B as preparations for launch continue, Monday, Nov. 14, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

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The Moon is seen rising above NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket with the Orion spacecraft at Launch Pad 39B as preparations for launch continue, Monday, Nov. 14, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Launch of the uncrewed flight test is targeted for no earlier than Nov. 16 at 1:04 a.m. EST. Coverage begins with cryogenic fueling of the SLS at 3:30 p.m. EST on Nov. 15; launch coverage begins at 10:30 p.m. EST on Nov. 15.

NASA’s Artemis I flight test is the first integrated test of the agency’s deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, SLS rocket, and supporting ground systems.

Image Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

Last Updated: Nov 15, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IImage of the DayKennedy Space CenterMoon to MarsOrion SpacecraftSpace Launch System

NASA’s Space Launch System rocket carrying the Orion spacecraft launches on the Artemis I flight test, Wednesday, Nov. 16, 2022, from Launch Complex 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA’s Artemis 1:47 a.m. EST mission is the first integrated flight test of the agency’s deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, and ground systems. SLS and Orion launched at 1:47 a.m. EST, from Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

We Are Going: Artemis I Launches

Our Space Launch System (SLS), the most powerful rocket in the world, carrying the Orion spacecraft launches on the Artemis I flight test, Wednesday, Nov. 16, 2022, from Launch Complex 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 1:47 a.m. EST.

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Our Space Launch System (SLS), the most powerful rocket in the world, carrying the Orion spacecraft launches on the Artemis I flight test, Wednesday, Nov. 16, 2022, from Launch Complex 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 1:47 a.m. EST.

Artemis I is the first integrated flight test of the agency’s deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, SLS rocket, and ground systems. The mission is a critical part of our Moon to Mars exploration approach—an important test before flying astronauts on the Artemis II mission.

View more photos of Artemis I.

Image Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

Last Updated: Nov 16, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis I, Image of the Day, Moon to Mars, Orion Spacecraft, Space Launch System

Orion’s Optical Navigation Camera Captures Earth

NASA’s uncrewed Orion spacecraft snapped this black and white photo of Earth on Nov. 17, 2022, the second day of the 25.5-day Artemis I mission.

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NASA’s uncrewed Orion spacecraft snapped this black and white photo of Earth on Nov. 17, 2022, the second day of the 25.5-day Artemis I mission. The optical navigation camera is used to capture imagery of the Earth and the Moon at different phases and distances, which help establish its effectiveness as a way of determining its position in space for future missions under differing lighting conditions.

Follow Orion’s journey by visiting the Artemis I blog.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Nov 22, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IEarthImage of the DayMoon to MarsOrion Spacecraft

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Orion Approaches Moon

On Nov. 20, the fifth day of the 25.5-day Artemis I mission, a camera mounted on the tip of one of Orion’s solar array wings captured this footage of the spacecraft and the Moon as it continued to grow nearer to our lunar neighbor.

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On Nov. 20, the fifth day of the 25.5-day Artemis I mission, a camera mounted on the tip of one of Orion’s solar array wings captured this footage of the spacecraft and the Moon as it continued to grow nearer to our lunar neighbor.

The spacecraft entered the lunar sphere of influence at 2:09 p.m. EST, making the Moon, instead of Earth, the main gravitational force acting on the spacecraft. Orion completed its first flyby on the morning of Nov. 21, 2022.

Follow Orion’s journey by visiting the Artemis I blog.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Nov 22, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IEarth’s MoonImage of the DayMoon to MarsOrion Spacecraft

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Snoopy Hitches Ride to Space Aboard Artemis I

Snoopy, the zero-gravity indicator for NASA’s Artemis I flight test, floating in space Nov. 20, 2022, while attached to his tether in the Orion spacecraft.

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Snoopy, the zero-gravity indicator for NASA’s Artemis I flight test, floats in space on Nov. 20, 2022, while attached to his tether in the Orion spacecraft. In this enhanced image, Snoopy stands out in a custom orange spacesuit, while Orion’s interior has been shaded black and white for contrast. The character’s spacesuit is modeled after the suit astronauts will wear during launch and reentry in Orion on future missions to the Moon. NASA has shared an association with Charles M. Schulz and Snoopy since the Apollo missions and the relationship continues under Artemis. Snoopy was selected as the zero-gravity indicator for the flight because of the inspiration and excitement the character has provided for human spaceflight for more than 50 years.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Nov 23, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IImage of the DayMoon to MarsOrion Spacecraft

Orion’s Moon Crater Close-up

On the sixth day of the Artemis I mission, Nov. 21, 2022, the Orion spacecraft’s optical navigation camera captured black-and-white images of craters on the Moon below.

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On the sixth day of the Artemis I mission, Nov. 21, 2022, the Orion spacecraft’s optical navigation camera captured black-and-white images of craters on the Moon below. This photo and others captured are the closest photos of the Moon from a human-rated vessel since Apollo. The optical navigation camera takes black-and-white imagery of the Earth and the Moon at different phases and distances; this technology demonstration will help prove its effectiveness for future missions with crew.

Follow Orion’s journey by visiting the Artemis I blog.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Dec 1, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IEarth’s MoonImage of the DayOrion Spacecraft

 Orion Approaches Moon for Outbound Powered Flyby

A portion of the far side of the Moon looms large just beyond the Orion spacecraft in this image taken Nov. 21, the sixth day of the Artemis I mission, by a camera on the tip of one of Orion’s solar arrays.

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A portion of the far side of the Moon looms large just beyond the Orion spacecraft in this image taken Monday, Nov. 21, the sixth day of the Artemis I mission, by a camera on the tip of one of Orion’s solar arrays. The darkest spot visible near the middle of the image is Mare Orientale.

Image Credit: NASA

See more images from Orion’s flight in our Flickr gallery.

Get daily mission updates from our Artemis I blog.

Last Updated: Nov 28, 2022

Editor: Michael Bock

Tags:  Artemis IImage of the Day 

The Astronaut Snoopy balloon is seen floating along in the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade on, Thursday, Nov. 24, 2022, in New York City. The Astronaut Snoopy balloon is flying in New York City at the same time that Snoopy also flies around the Moon in the Orion spacecraft as a zero gravity indicator for the Artemis I mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

Astronaut Snoopy ‘Lands’ in New York

The annual Thanksgiving event was held Nov. 24, 2022.

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The Astronaut Snoopy balloon is seen floating along in the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade on Thursday, Nov. 24, 2022, in New York City. The Astronaut Snoopy balloon is flying in New York City at the same time that Snoopy also flies around the Moon in the Orion spacecraft as a zero gravity indicator for the Artemis I mission.

Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

Last Updated: Nov 25, 2022

Editor: Brian Dunbar

Tags:  Image of the Day   

Orion, Earth, and the Moon

In this image, Orion captures a unique view of Earth and the Moon, seen from a camera mounted on one of the spacecraft’s solar arrays.

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On Monday, Nov. 28, 2022, NASA’s Orion spacecraft reached its maximum distance from Earth during the Artemis I mission—268,563 miles away from our home planet, farther than any spacecraft designed to send humans to space and back has gone before. In this image, Orion captures a unique view of Earth and the Moon, seen from a camera mounted on one of the spacecraft’s solar arrays.

Image credit: NASA

Watch a  live video stream from the Orion spacecraft.

Track NASA’s Artemis I mission in real time.

Last Updated: Nov 29, 2022

Editor: Michael Bock

Tags:  Artemis IImage of the Day   

 

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Home to Earth

Orion Approaches Moon Before Return Flyby

On the 19th day of the Artemis I mission, Dec. 4, 2022, a camera mounted on the Orion spacecraft captured the Moon just in frame as Orion prepared for its return powered flyby on Dec. 5, when it passed approximately 79 miles above the lunar surface.

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On the 19th day of the Artemis I mission, Dec. 4, 2022, a camera mounted on the Orion spacecraft captured the Moon just in frame as Orion prepared for its return powered flyby on Dec. 5, when it passed approximately 79 miles above the lunar surface.

Orion performed the return powered flyby burn at 11:43 a.m. EST, changing the velocity of the spacecraft by approximately 655 mph (961 feet per second). The return powered flyby is the last large maneuver of the mission, with only smaller trajectory corrections to target Earth remaining.

Follow Orion’s journey by visiting the Artemis I blog.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Dec 5, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IImage of the DayMoon to MarsOrion Spacecraft  

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Orion Gazes at Moon Before Return to Earth

On flight day 20 of the Artemis I mission, Dec. 5, 2022, Orion captured the Moon on the day of return powered flyby, the final major engine maneuver of the flight test.

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On flight day 20 of the Artemis I mission, Dec. 5, 2022, Orion captured the Moon on the day of return powered flyby, the final major engine maneuver of the flight test. The burn, which used the spacecraft’s main engine on the European-built service module, lasted 3 minutes, 27 seconds, and changed the velocity of the spacecraft by about 655 mph (961 feet per second). It also committed the spacecraft to a Dec. 11 splashdown, which will air live on NASA Television, our website, and the NASA app.

Follow Orion’s journey by visiting the Artemis I blog.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Dec 9, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Artemis IEarth’s MoonImage of the DayMoon to MarsOrion Spacecraft 

Liftoff! Successful Launch for JPSS-2, LOFTID

The Moon makes a stunning backdrop for the successful launch of the third in a series of polar-orbiting weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and our Low-Earth Orbit Flight Test of an Inflatable Decelerator (LOFTID) on Nov. 10 at 1:49 a.m. PST from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California.

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The Moon makes a stunning backdrop for the successful launch of the third in a series of polar-orbiting weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and our Low-Earth Orbit Flight Test of an Inflatable Decelerator (LOFTID) on Nov. 10 at 4:49 a.m. EST from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California. A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket carried the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-2 and LOFTID.

JPSS-2 will circle the globe 14 times a day 512 miles above Earth, providing forecasters the benefit of three polar-orbiting satellites operating simultaneously, joining its predecessors Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and NOAA-20.

Following JPSS-2’s deployment, the LOFTID heat shield autonomously inflated and re-entered Earth’s atmosphere, splashing down about 500 miles off the coast of Hawaii just over two hours and ten minutes after launch.

Image Credit: United Launch Alliance

Last Updated: Nov 14, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  ClimateImage of the DaySpace Tech 

Pioneer 10 Flies by Jupiter

In this illustration by Rick Giudice from August 1973, the Pioneer 10 spacecraft passes by the gas giant planet Jupiter.

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In this illustration by Rick Giudice from August 1973, the Pioneer 10 spacecraft passes by the gas giant planet Jupiter. The spacecraft’s primary goal was to explore Jupiter, its satellites, its magnetic field, and trapped radiation belts. Pioneer 10 was the first satellite to pass through an asteroid belt and the first spacecraft to obtain detailed images of Jupiter and its moons. Between 1972 and 1974, the Deep Space Network ground stations tracked the Pioneer 10 for over 21,000 hours. Pioneer 10 fell silent on its 30-year anniversary in 2002.

Learn more about the Pioneer missions.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Dec 8, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Image of the DayJupiterPioneer   

Apollo 17 Astronauts Capture Iconic Blue Marble 50 Years Ago

This classic photograph of the Earth was taken on Dec. 7, 1972, by the crew of the final Apollo mission, Apollo 17, as they traveled toward the moon on their lunar landing mission.

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This classic photograph of the Earth was taken on Dec. 7, 1972, by the crew of the final Apollo mission, Apollo 17, as they traveled toward the moon on their lunar landing mission. For the first time, the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the south polar ice cap, shown here along with heavy cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere.

The Apollo 17 crew consisted of astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander; Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot; and Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot. While astronauts Cernan and Schmitt descended in the lunar module to explore the moon, astronaut Evans remained with the command and service modules in lunar orbit.

Read about the Apollo 17 launch.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Dec 7, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Apollo 17EarthImage of the Day       

Endeavour Crew Make Repairs to Hubble

In this Dec. 1993, onboard view from Space Shuttle mission STS-61 shows astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeffrey Hoffman’s Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.

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In this Dec. 1993, onboard view from Space Shuttle mission STS-61 shows astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeffrey Hoffman’s Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) to repair the Hubble Space Telescope. STS-61 was the first service mission to the Hubble Space Telescope.

On flight day four, Dec. 4 at 10:46 p.m. EST, Musgrave and Hoffman began the first spacewalk. For five days, they or another pair would exit the airlock at around the same time each evening and spend between six and eight hours in the payload bay.

Learn more about Space Shuttle Endeavour.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Dec 6, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Humans in SpaceImage of the DayNASA HistorySpace ShuttleSTS-61         

Hubble Spies Emission Nebula-Star Cluster Duo

This whole collection is NGC 1858, an open star cluster in the northwest region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way that boasts an abundance of star-forming regions. NGC 1858 is estimated to be around 10 million years old.

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Against a backdrop littered with tiny pinpricks of light glint a few, brighter stars. This whole collection is NGC 1858, an open star cluster in the northwest region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way that boasts an abundance of star-forming regions. NGC 1858 is estimated to be around 10 million years old.

Open clusters are a type of star cluster with loose gravitational attraction between the stars, which causes the cluster to be irregularly shaped and its stars to be spread out. NGC 1858 is also an emission nebula, which is a cloud of interstellar gas that has been ionized by ultraviolet wavelengths radiating off of nearby stars. The gas of the nebula emits its own light at visible wavelengths, seen here as a faint cloud that populates the middle and bottom right of the image.

The stars within this young cluster are at different phases of their evolution, making it a complex collection. Within NGC 1858, researchers have detected a protostar, a very young, emerging star, indicating that star formation within the cluster may still be active or has stopped very recently. The presence of an emission nebula also suggests that star formation recently occurred here, since the radiation required to ionize the gas of the nebula comes from stars that only live a short time.

NGC 1858 is located about 160,000 light-years away in the constellation Dorado and contains multiple massive stars, which can be seen shining brightly throughout the center of the image. The cluster is located in a crowded area of the sky, and the large number of stars around the cluster makes it difficult to study alone. To survey these distant stars, scientists relied on the Hubble Space Telescope’s unique resolution and sensitivity at visible and infrared wavelengths.

Image Credit: NASA, ESA and G. Gilmore (University of Cambridge); Processing: Gladys Kober (NASA/Catholic University of America)

Media Contact:

Claire Andreoli
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbelt, MD
301-286-1940

Last Updated: Dec 2, 2022

Editor: Andrea Gianopoulos

Tags:  Goddard Space Flight CenterHubble Space TelescopeImage of the DayStarsUniverse 

Kamala Harris and French President Macron Meet at NASA Headquarters

Vice President Kamala Harris delivers remarks prior to meeting with French President Emmanuel Macron and NASA Administrator Bill Nelson for an Earth Science briefing, Wednesday, Nov. 30, 2022, at the Mary W. Jackson NASA Headquarters building in Washington.

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French President Emmanuel Macron (far left) delivers remarks prior to meeting with Vice President Kamala Harris (second from left) and NASA Administrator Bill Nelson (far right) for an Earth Science briefing, Wednesday, Nov. 30, 2022, at the Mary W. Jackson NASA Headquarters building in Washington. Also shown is Phil Gordon, national security advisor to the vice president.

Administrator Nelson and Vice President Harris met with Macron to highlight space cooperation between the United States and France.

Photo Credit: NASA/Keegan Barber

Last Updated: Nov 30, 2022

Editor: Michael Bock

Tags:  Image of the Day     

A small, dense cloud of gas and dust called CB 130-3 blots out the centre of this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. CB 130-3 is an object known as a dense core, a compact agglomeration of gas and dust. This particular dense core is in the constellation Serpens, and seems to billow across a field of background stars. Dense cores like CB 130-3 are the birthplaces of stars, and as such are of particular interest to astronomers. During the collapse of these cores enough mass can accumulate in one place to reach the temperatures and densities required to ignite hydrogen fusion, marking the birth of a new star. While it may not be obvious from this image, a compact object teetering on the brink of becoming a fully fledged star is embedded deep within CB 130-3. Astronomers used Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 to better understand the environment surrounding this fledgling star. As this image shows, the density of CB 130-3 isn’t constant; the outer edges of the cloud consist of only tenuous wisps, whereas at its core CB 130-3 blots out background light entirely. The gas and dust making up CB 130-3 affect not only the brightness but also the colour of background stars, with stars towards the centre the cloud appearing redder than their counterparts at the outskirts of this image. Astronomers used Hubble to measure this reddening effect and chart out the density of CB 130-3, providing insights into the inner structure of this stellar nursery. [Image description: The image shows an irregularly-shaped bright orange object composed of dense gas and dust, which appears darker and more compact at the centre. This dense cloud, called CB 130-3, is outlined by thinner gas and dust in light shades of blue. The background shows a multitude of bright stars against a black background.] Links Video of Clouded Vision

Hubble Views a Billowing Cosmic Cloud

A small, dense cloud of gas and dust called CB 130-3 blots out the center of this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

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A small, dense cloud of gas and dust called CB 130-3 blots out the center of this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. CB 130-3 is an object known as a dense core, a compact agglomeration of gas and dust. This particular dense core is in the constellation Serpens and seems to billow across a field of background stars.

Dense cores like CB 130-3 are the birthplaces of stars and are of particular interest to astronomers. During the collapse of these cores enough mass can accumulate in one place to reach the temperatures and densities required to ignite hydrogen fusion, marking the birth of a new star. While it may not be obvious from this image, a compact object teetering on the brink of becoming a star is embedded deep within CB 130-3.

Astronomers used Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 to better understand the environment surrounding this fledgling star. As this image shows, the density of CB 130-3 isn’t constant; the outer edges of the cloud consist of only tenuous wisps, whereas at its core CB 130-3 blots out background light entirely. The gas and dust making up CB 130-3 affect not only the brightness but also the apparent color of background stars, with stars toward the cloud’s center appearing redder than their counterparts at the outskirts of this image. Astronomers used Hubble to measure this reddening effect and chart out the density of CB 130-3, providing insights into the inner structure of this stellar nursery.

Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA)
Image credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA & STScI, C. Britt, T. Huard, A. Pagan

Media Contact:

Claire Andreoli
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbelt, MD
301-286-1940

Last Updated: Nov 18, 2022

Editor: Andrea Gianopoulos

Tags:  Goddard Space Flight CenterHubble Space TelescopeImage of the DayNebulaeStarsUniverse     

First Nations Launch Teams Build Rockets

Stephanie Yazzie, Northern Arizona University student and NAU Space Jacks team member, poses with her team’s rocket in this photo from the 2019 NASA First Nations Launch (FNL) competition.

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Stephanie Yazzie, Northern Arizona University student and NAU Space Jacks team member, poses with her team’s rocket in this photo from the 2019 NASA First Nations Launch (FNL) competition.

In this competition, students from Tribal Colleges and Universities, Native American Serving Nontribal Institutions, and schools with American Indian Science and Engineering Society chapters demonstrated their engineering and design skills.

FNL 2022, an Artemis Student Challenge, called for faculty advisor-led teams of undergraduate students to conceive, design, fabricate, and fly dual deploy high-power rockets within three challenges with various technical requirements. Winners were chosen by a pool of Native American NASA and industry judges for the competition also included four FNL alumni who completed their STEM degrees and became engineers in the aerospace field.

Explore more Minority University Research and Education Project opportunities and resources here.

We’re celebrating Native American Heritage Month, highlighting the achievements of Native Americans at NASA, and bolstering the next generation of talent.

Image credit: Carthage College/Christine Bolz

Last Updated: Nov 17, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  ArtemisImage of the DayMoon to Mars    

Celebrating Native American Heritage Month with Jerry C. Elliott

Jerry Elliott, a former NASA physicist and one of the first Native Americans hired at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, speaks during Native American Heritage Month event in 2017 at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

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Jerry C. Elliott, a former NASA physicist and one of the first Native Americans hired at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, speaks during Native American Heritage Month event in 2017 at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.

He joined NASA in April 1966, as a Flight Mission Operations Engineer at NASA’s Mission Control Center and held technical and managerial positions with highly successful accomplishments in many fields including spacecraft systems, mission operations, astronaut crew equipment, scientific experiments and technical management.

Elliott received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest U.S. civilian honor, for duties as Retrofire Officer at NASA Mission Control Center during the aborted Apollo 13 space mission with the safe return of the flight crew.

View the Native American Heritage Month Gallery.

Image Credit: Emmett Given

Last Updated: Nov 10, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Apollo 13Image of the Day  24

Astronauts Jessica Watkins and Bob Hines Study Farming in Space

In this image from June 24, 2022, NASA astronauts Jessica Watkins and Bob Hines work on the XROOTS space botany investigation, which used the International Space Station’s (ISS) Veggie facility to test soilless hydroponic and aeroponic methods to grow plants.

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In this image from June 24, 2022, NASA astronauts Jessica Watkins and Bob Hines, part of NASA’s SpaceX Crew-4, work on the XROOTS space botany investigation, which used the International Space Station’s (ISS) Veggie facility to test soilless methods to grow plants. The space agricultural study could enable production of crops on a larger scale to sustain crews on future space explorations farther away from Earth and could enhance cultivation of plants in terrestrial settings such as greenhouses, contributing to better food security for people on Earth.

Learn about the latest scientific research on the ISS.

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Nov 9, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Benefits to YouImage of the DayInternational Space Station (ISS)Space Station Research and Technology

This composite made from ten images shows the progression of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse above the Vehicle Assembly Building, Nov. 8, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Visible trailing the Moon in this composite is Mars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

Blood Moon Total Eclipse at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center

This composite made from ten images shows the progression of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse above the Vehicle Assembly Building, Nov. 8, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

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This composite made from ten images shows the progression of the Moon during a total lunar eclipse above the Vehicle Assembly Building, Nov. 8, 2022, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Visible trailing the Moon in this composite is Mars.

For North America, the partial eclipse began at 4:09 a.m. EST, with totality beginning at 5:16 a.m. One feature of a total lunar eclipse is the Moon’s red hue during totality. The red color occurs because of the refraction, filtering, and scattering of light by Earth’s atmosphere.

Image Credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

Last Updated: Nov 8, 2022

Editor: Monika Luabeya

Tags:  Earth’s MoonImage of the DayKennedy Space Center

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/iotd.html

Artemis I Mission Highlights – Screenshots

At 12:40 p.m. EST, Dec. 11, 2022, NASA’s Orion spacecraft for the Artemis I mission splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after a 25.5 day mission to the Moon. Orion will be recovered by NASA’s Landing and Recovery team, U.S. Navy and Department of Defense partners aboard the USS Portland.

Orion Comes Home to Earth

At 12:40 p.m. EST, Dec. 11, 2022, the Orion spacecraft for the Artemis I mission splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after a 25.5-day mission to the Moon.

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Artemis I Mission Highlights 24:10 mins

NASA Johnson 6,632 views Dec 11, 2022

From launch to splashdown, NASA’s Orion spacecraft completed its first deep-space mission with a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean, west of Baja California, at 9:40 a.m. PST (12:40 p.m. EST) Sunday. The record-breaking Artemis mission traveled more than 1.4 million miles on a path around the Moon and returned safely to Earth. Splashdown was the final milestone of the Artemis I mission, which began with a successful liftoff of NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket Nov. 16, from Launch Pad 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Over the course of 25.5 days, NASA tested Orion in the harsh environment of deep space before flying astronauts on Artemis II. During the mission, Orion performed two lunar flybys, coming within 80 miles of the lunar surface. At its farthest distance during the mission, Orion traveled nearly 270,000 miles from our home planet, more than 1,000 times farther than where the International Space Station orbits Earth, to intentionally stress systems before flying crew. Prior to entering the Earth’s atmosphere, the crew module separated from its service module, which is the spacecraft’s propulsive powerhouse provided by ESA (European Space Agency). During re-entry, Orion endured temperatures of about 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit, half as hot as the surface of the Sun. Within about 20 minutes, Orion slowed from nearly 25,000 mph to about 20 mph for its parachute-assisted splashdown. During the flight test, Orion stayed in space longer than any spacecraft designed for astronauts without docking to a space station. While in a distant lunar orbit, Orion surpassed the record for distance traveled by a spacecraft designed to carry humans, previously set during Apollo 13. Select music courtesy of Gothic Storm Publishing

Parachutes: Bringing Orion Home 3:02 mins

NASA Johnson

3,358 views Dec 9, 2022

After Orion enters the Earth’s atmosphere at the conclusion of its 25.5-day mission, the spacecraft will rely on its rigorously tested parachute system to slow its speed and allow for a gentle splashdown. Koki Machin, chief engineer of Orion’s parachute assembly system, describes the process and the path to certification of the system. Follow the mission: Twitter: https://twitter.com/NASAArtemis Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/nasaartemis Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NASAArtemis Get the latest from NASA weekly: www.nasa.gov/subscribe

Artemis All Access – Updates on Orion’s Journey in Space – 12/9/22 – 5:26 mins

NASA Johnson 17,631 views Dec 9, 2022

Artemis All Access – Episode 6 Artemis All Access is your look at the latest in Artemis I, the people and technology behind the mission, and what is coming up next. This uncrewed flight test around the Moon will pave the way for a crewed flight test and future human lunar exploration as part of Artemis. Learn more about the mission and track the Orion spacecraft’s current position at www.nasa.gov/trackartemis/ and on Twitter at @NASA_Orion. Live coverage of major events will air on NASA Television, the NASA app, and the agency’s website at www.nasa.gov/live Download imagery in high-resolution here: https://go.nasa.gov/3K1voda Select music courtesy of Gothic Storm Publishing Follow the mission: Blog: https://blogs.nasa.gov/artemis/ Live footage from the Orion spacecraft: https://go.nasa.gov/ArtemisLive Twitter: https://twitter.com/NASAArtemis Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/nasaartemis Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NASAArtemis Get the latest from NASA weekly: www.nasa.gov/subscribe

Flight Directors of Artemis I – 3:24 mins

NASA Johnson  1,998 views Dec 5, 2022

Artemis I, the first flight of a human-rated spacecraft to orbit the Moon in almost 50 years, is being controlled at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston by specialists who have trained for years to execute this vital test flight in the Artemis program to return American astronauts to the Moon. They’re doing that work under the leadership and guidance of flight directors who built the mission plan and now have the responsibility to execute that plan safely and successfully. Join Rick LaBrode and Judd Frieling for a quick explanation of the roles and the mission goals they’re executing right now. Follow the mission: Twitter: https://twitter.com/NASAArtemis Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/nasaartemis Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NASAArtemis Get the latest from NASA weekly: www.nasa.gov/subscribe

NASA’s Artemis I Mission Splashes Down in Pacific Ocean 3:56:20 

NASA 1,679,683 views Streamed live 12 hours ago

On Dec. 11, the Artemis I mission will conclude with the entry, descent, and splashdown of the Orion spacecraft. After 25.5 days in space, and a 1.3-million-mile (2.1-million-km) journey around the Moon, Orion is expected to splash down in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California at 12:39 p.m. EST (17:39 UTC) on Sunday, Dec. 11. The exploration ground systems recovery team from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, working with the U.S. Navy, will recover the spacecraft. Live coverage for this event begins at 11 a.m. EST (16:00 UTC). Orion launched aboard the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket at 1:47 am EST (06:47 UTC) on Nov. 16 from historic Launch Complex 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. The Artemis I mission is the first integrated test of NASA’s deep space exploration systems: the Orion spacecraft, the SLS rocket, and Kennedy Space Center’s Exploration Ground Systems. More: https://www.nasa.gov/specials/artemis-i Credit: NASA

AXIOS: Space Launch Artemis1

Miriam Kramer, author of Axios Space

  1. Liftoff! NASA’s mightiest rocket 11.15.2022

Artemis launches early today from Cape Canaveral, Fla. Photo: Red Huber/Getty Images

NASA’s Space Launch System rocket took flight for the first time early this morning, ushering in a new era of exploration for the space agency, Axios Space author Miriam Kramer writes.

  • Why it matters:This uncrewed launch — called Artemis I — is expected to pave the way for NASA to one day send astronauts to the Moon for the first time since the end of the Apollo program in the 1970s.

The SLS — which took flight at 1:47 a.m. ET from Cape Canaveral — launched an Orion capsule that will journey around the Moon before coming back to Earth for a splashdown expected in December.

Photo: Chris O’Meara/AP

This is effectively a technology test before putting people on board.

  • NASA aimsto land the first woman and first person of color on the Moon using the SLS and Orion in 2025.

1 big thing: Tonight’s beacon of hope

11.15.2022 PM AXIOS

Source: NASA; Note: Not to scale and simplified for clarity; Graphic: Kavya Beheraj and Sarah Grillo/Axios

After multiple delays, NASA is set to launch its Artemis I mission in tonight’s wee hours on a trip to circle the Moon, Axios Space author Miriam Kramer reports.

Why it matters: It will be the first launch of the huge Space Launch System rocket, which is a key component of the space agency’s plans to one day return people to the surface of the Moon by 2025.

How to watch: The SLS is expected to take flight from Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 1:04 a.m. ET.

·  You can watch the launch live starting at 10:30 p.m. ET via NASA TV.

Updated Nov 16, 2022 – Science

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Persepolis: Khan Academy, Persepolis Historical Facts and Pictures, Persian Architecture in Photos, and More

Persepolis: Khan Academy, Persepolis Historical Facts and Pictures, Persian Architecture in Photos, and More

Khan Academy

Persepolis: The Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes

by Dr. Jeffrey Becker. Created by Smarthistory.

Growth of the Achaemenid Empire under different kings (underlying map © Google)

By the early fifth century B.C.E. the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire ruled an estimated 44% of the human population of planet Earth. Through regional administrators the Persian kings controlled a vast territory which they constantly sought to expand. Famous for monumental architecture, Persian kings established numerous monumental centers, among those is Persepolis (today, in Iran). The great audience hall of the Persian kings Darius and Xerxes presents a visual microcosm of the Achaemenid empire—making clear, through sculptural decoration, that the Persian king ruled over all of the subjugated ambassadors and vassals (who are shown bringing tribute in an endless eternal procession).

Kylix depicting a Greek hoplite slaying a Persian inside, by the Triptolemos painter, 5th century B.C.E. (National Museums of Scotland)

Persepolis would remain an important site until it was sacked, looted, and burned under Alexander the Great of Macedon in 330 B.C.E.

Plan of Persepolis (underlying image: Oriental Institute Museum via Google Arts and Culture)

Bull Capital from Persepolis, Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars, Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E. (National Museum of Iran) (photo: s1ingshot)

The Ap?dana palace is a large ceremonial building, likely an audience hall with an associated portico. The audience hall itself is hypostyle in its plan, meaning that the roof of the structure is supported by columns. Ap?dana is the Persian term equivalent to the Greek hypostyle (Ancient Greek: ????????? hypóst?los). The footprint of the Ap?dana is c. 1,000 square meters; originally 72 columns, each standing to a height of 24 meters, supported the roof (only 14 columns remain standing today). The column capitals assumed the form of either twin-headed bulls (above), eagles or lions, all animals represented royal authority and kingship.

Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars, Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E. (photo: Alan Cordova, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

19th century reconstruction of the Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars, Iran) by Charles Chipiez (photo: Pentocelo~commonswiki, public domain)

East stairway, Ap?dana, Persepolis (Fars. Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E.

The Ap?dana stairs and sculptural program

The monumental stairways that approach the Ap?dana from the north and the east were adorned with registers of relief sculpture that depicted representatives of the twenty-three subject nations of the Persian empire bringing valuable gifts as tribute to the king. The sculptures form a processional scene, leading some scholars to conclude that the reliefs capture the scene of actual, annual tribute processions—perhaps on the occasion of the Persian New Year–that took place at Persepolis. The relief program of the northern stairway was perhaps completed c. 500–490 B.C.E. The two sets of stairway reliefs mirror and complement each other. Each program has a central scene of the enthroned king flanked by his attendants and guards.

even reflecting events that took place within the Ap?dana itself.

An Armenian tribute bearer carrying a metal vessel with Homa (griffin) handles, relief from the eastern stairs of the Ap?dana in Persepolis: (Fars. Iran), c. 520–465 B.C.E.   (photo: Aryamahasattva, CC BY-SA 3.0)

The relief program of the Ap?dana serves to reinforce and underscore the power of the Persian king and the breadth of his dominion. The motif of subjugated peoples contributing their wealth to the empire’s central authority serves to visually cement this political dominance. These processional scenes may have exerted influence beyond the Persian sphere, as some scholars have discussed the possibility that Persian relief sculpture from Persepolis may have influenced Athenian sculptors of the fifth century B.C.E. who were tasked with creating the Ionic frieze of the Parthenon in Athens. In any case, the Ap?dana, both as a building and as an ideological tableau, make clear and strong statements about the authority of the Persian king and present a visually unified idea of the immense Achaemenid empire.

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/ancient-mediterranean-ap/ancient-near-east-a/a/persepolis

Persepolis Historical Facts and Pictures

Situated 70 kilometers northeast from Shiraz city in Iran, the Persepolis was once the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. Now among one of the World Heritage Centers, Persepolis literally means “city of Persians”.

Persepolis Map

Persepolis Map

Persepolis Photos

Persepolis

Architecture

Now in a ruined condition, this historical structure exhibits Achaemenid architectural style.  This 40 ft. high and 100 ft. wide complex is occupied with multiple halls, a wide terrace, corridors and a symmetrical stairway leading to the top.  The stairway delineates various literal and metaphorical relief scenes. The terrace displays inscriptions that prove Darius the great was the initiator of building this historical complex.

Persepolis Images

Persepolis Pictures

Ruins

The wide terrace comprises a number of gigantic ruined buildings, composed of grey dark marble. These ruins, now known as Takht e Jamshid, were known as Chehel Minar (the 40 pillars) in the thirteenth century. Three catacombs of rock are located behind the Takht-e-Jamshid.

Perspolis Chehel Minar

Takht e Jamshid

Interiors of Persepolis

The complex contains various halls and chambers inside its structure that include the Hall of Apadana, Tachar, Hadish, Talar-i-Takht, Darwazeh-i-Mellal, the Khazaneh, and Naksh-e-Rustam. The most spectacular hall of the complex, the Apadana Hall, comprising 36 columns is also the largest hall within the structure. The structure was built with square based fluted columns and mud brick walls. Tachar was the private chamber of Darius the great. The later addition Hardish was the private chamber of emperor Xerexes the Great. Tala-i-Takht, comprising 100 columns, served as the hall of throne.  The royal treasury or Khazaneh is preserved in a palace complex that was later developed by Artaxerexes III. The Naksh-e-Rustam is occupied with the tombs of the kings.

Persepolis Darwazeh-i-Mellal

Persepolis Hall of Apadana

Persepolis Naksh-e-Rustam

Persepolis Tachar

The site of Persepolis is an embodiment of past grandeur. Although in a ruined state today this majestic structure still has no equivalence and represents a distinct quality of an ancient civilization.

Quick Info

Founded: 6th century BCE
Periods: Achaemenid Empire
Cultures: Persian
Location and Address: Fars Province, Iran
Type: Settlement
Condition: In ruins
Attributes: UNESCO World Heritage Site
Website: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/114

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.thehistoryhub.com/persepolis-facts-pictures.htm

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://golshanhouse.com/index.php/tours/

University of Chicago

Oblique aerial view of the terrace of Persepolis from the northwest, taken during an aerial survey expedition in Iran.

View of the eastern stairway and columns of the Apadana (Audience Hall) at Persepolis, Iran, 5th century B.C.

Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius, Persepolis, Iran, 5th century B.C

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://news.uchicago.edu/story/exhibit-features-archival-images-persepolis-royal-complex-ancient-persia

Persian Architecture in Photos: Reliefs of Persepolis

By IFP Editorial Staff

January 2, 2020

The reliefs that adorn the ancient palaces of Persepolis are considered to be among the most prominent remaining antiquities in the world.

Extensive study is required to discover the secrets of considerable quantity and quality of the ancient complex’ reliefs.

Up to this date, however, no valid stylistic analysis on them has been published.

What follows are Fars News Agency’s photos of Persepolis reliefs:

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://ifpnews.com/persian-architecture-in-photos-reliefs-of-persepolis/

More Photos from my site in Pinterest

Ing’s comments

“Persepolis would remain an important site until it was sacked, looted, and burned under Alexander the Great of Macedon in 330 B.C.E.” Khan Academy  

I was very impressed with the construction of Persepolis, especially the artwork created.  I can imagine how busy the workers, artists, architectures and others who were involved in building this monument must have been.  Undoubtedly there was a big ceremony for the opening of the beautiful and unique complex.  Music in the air, and entertainment performed, with laughter and happy conversations making Persepolis come alive for the festive occasion.    

As I studied Persepolis History and discovered that it was burned and destroyed by Alexander the Great of Macedon.  It is sad that humans learn to fight and destroy others in order to gain power and wealth from looting.  This is the same as the Burmese (Myanmar) king burning and looting Ayutthaya, the second capital of Siam (Thailand) in 1767. 

There are wars in every part of the world, especially now, between Russia and Ukraine.  Putin still behaves in a similar way to aggressive leaders of past civilizations.  His greediness makes him forget humanity.  Ukraine is being destroyed by Putin’s bombs. Ukrainian civilians and soldiers have been killed by the thousands.  Putin is sending his Russian soldiers to be killed in even greater numbers.  I do not see the sense of Putin’s behave.  He is the only one causing all this destruction and no one on earth can do anything about it.  I can hardly believe that such a human still exists in this 21st century.  Where is the UN organization and the individual countries that call themselves developed and civilized.  Putin has been able to cultivate, gather power, and wealth, for himself for more than 20 years.  No one in Russia can oppose Putin if they think differently to him.  Those who oppose him will be jailed or killed. 

In the United States, Trump who considered himself a good friend of Putin and Kim Jong-un, the dictator of North Korea, has similar hunger for absolute power and wealth.  This also may apply to some Republican law makers in Congress obey and follow Trump.  Even if Trump does not regain the presidency, these Republican lawmakers can still take the presidency, and gain sufficient control of the government to destroy American democracy forever.  

Do we vote for the price of food in super markets or for freedom to keep democracy for the country and for future generations?

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, December 5, 2022

A Brief History of the Ancient Ruins of Ayutthaya in Thailand

https://theculturetrip.com/asia/thailand/articles/a-brief-history-of-the-ancient-ruins-of-ayutthaya-in-thailand/

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Afar: 11 Lost Cities, and Atlas Obscura: 14 Lesser-Known Ancient Sites

Afar: 11 Lost Cities, and Atlas Obscura: 14 Lesser-Known Ancient Sites

11 Lost Cities You Can Actually Visit

Rediscover these abandoned cities by traveling to see their ruins, where you can readily imagine their lost-to-time structures and civilizations.

Afar

Jen Rose Smith

More from Afar

The carvings and palace of Persepolis were rediscovered in the 20th century. Photo by Matyas Rehak/Shutterstock.

When the lost city of Kweneng, South Africa, was discovered, it wasn’t because someone found a fossil there or excavated it with a shovel. Instead, archaeologist Karim Sadr relied on LiDAR technology, which uses lasers to measure distance, to create detailed images of the surrounding Suikerbosrand hills, where Tswana-speaking people first built stone settlements in the 15th century.

It was a slow process that spanned more than two years, sort of a digital version of clearing vines from a hidden temple. Sadr pored over the data looking for patterns beneath the area’s thick brush. Rounded shapes emerged on the black-and-white LiDAR images, helping to reconstruct the lives of families who lived in the stone homesteads, herded cattle, and created ash heaps (typically the remainders of feasts) to flaunt their wealth. While scientists had long believed that the hills held a series of small, lost-to-time communities, Sadr’s finds extended far beyond the aboveground ruins already visible on the site. “There was no real ‘eureka’ moment,” said Sadr, “but it seems that one day I was looking at a collection of villages and the next day I saw a city.”

Cities such as Kweneng are forgotten for a variety of reasons, and their remains have always exerted a powerful draw on inquisitive travelers. While Kweneng’s visitor infrastructure isn’t quite as developed yet, there are plenty of other rediscovered cities to visit. Whether you’re among the dusty palaces at Xanadu or walking along ancient Troy’s battlements, you can channel your inner explorer while visiting these ruins, whose cultural breadth and evocativeness show how enduring lost cities can be.

Persepolis, Iran

Achaemenid Empire kings fortified a natural stone terrace into an imposing platform when they founded Persepolis in the 6th century B.C.E., leveraging the landscape to awe-inspiring effect and military advantage. After centuries in the sand, the delicate carvings, inscriptions, and palaces of Persepolis were excavated in the 20th century. Apadana Palace dominates the oldest part of the site, where travelers will see 13 of the original 72 towering stone columns—the only survivors of a 331 B.C.E. attack by Alexander the Great. If you travel to Iran, we recommend booking through a tour operator like Intrepid, which can help facilitate visas.

The architectural wonder of Petra is one of Jordan’s main attractions. Photo by Yongyut/Shutterstock.

Petra, Jordan

The entrance to Petra is designed for maximum impact, leading visitors from a shadowy gorge to views of soaring, tangerine-colored rock. Inhabited since prehistoric times, Petra was carved by Nabateans (who likely established it as the capital city in the 4th century B.C.E.) and is Jordan’s star attraction. It’s still easy enough to find solitude in the now-uninhabited desert site. Ditch the tour groups by climbing a steep pathway to the High Place of Sacrifice; its pair of monumental obelisks are believed to represent Nabatean gods.

Ciudad Perdida, a forest city in Colombia, takes five days to reach. Photo by Scott Biales/Shutterstock.

Ciudad Perdida, Colombia

Founded in the 9th century, this forest city developed a unique architectural plan of stone pathways, plazas, and houses over centuries, but dense jungle swallowed them shortly after the arrival of Europeans. The five-day trek to Ciudad Perdida (the only way to get there) is an adventure in and of itself. Brave the steep, muddy trail to reach ceremonial terraces and to meet Colombia’s indigenous Kogi and Wiwa people, who are some of the site’s modern-day guardians and live in the region.

Pompeii’s Temple of Apollo. Photo by Bahdanovich Alena/Shutterstock.

Pompeii and Herculaneum, Italy

Billowing ash from Mount Vesuvius dimmed the sky above Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 C.E., then buried the cities for nearly 17 centuries. While history this ancient often requires leaps of imagination, the tragic past remains eerily vivid here. Take a transporting walk through the cities, which are about a 20-minute drive apart, to see brilliant frescoes, visit the site of an ancient brothel, see the petrified bodies, and pay your respects in the Temple of Apollo.

The Palace of the Minoans in Knossos. Photo by Constantinos Iliopoulos/Shutterstock.

Knossos, Greece

The Minoan palace at Knossos was already ancient when Homer wrote his Odyssey, and it has myth and history layered into its Bronze Age foundations. Archaeologist Arthur Evans began excavations of the site on Crete in 1900; he linked his findings of the remains of the palace to the mythological labyrinth where the minotaur—a half-man, half-bull born to a Cretan queen—lurked in darkness. While that story remains unproven, travelers can judge the creature’s legendary origins for themselves when visiting the palace’s east wing, which is adorned with a fresco that depicts three figures and a giant vaulting bull.

The Caana complex is the tallest structure in Belize. Photo by PRLLL/Shutterstock.

Caracol, Belize

Trees curl around Caracol’s stone pyramids, which the Belize jungle overtook after residents abandoned the site in the 11th century. Its architectural achievements are impressive even by modern standards: Caana, the temple complex at the heart of Caracol, remains the tallest structure in the country at 141 feet, and archaeologists believe the Maya metropolis would have dwarfed the area of today’s Belize City. Rediscovered in 1938, Caracol draws far fewer visitors than nearby Tikal—plan an early-morning visit and you might have it to yourself.

The remnant fortifications of Machu Picchu were found in 1911. Photo by Cezary Wojikowski/Shutterstock.

Machu Picchu, Peru

Carved high in the Andes, Machu Picchu was a fitting sanctuary for the Inca, who honored the turbulent gods of the mountains. Emptied by the fall of the Inca Empire in the 16th century, the gorgeous synthesis of peaks and fortifications have drawn adventurers to Peru since the citadel was rediscovered in 1911. Journey to Machu Picchu by footpath, bus, or luxury train, then trek to the neighboring peak of Huayna Picchu for classic views across the main site.

An archaeologist used Homer’s “Iliad” to find Troy in 1870. Photo by Lillac/Shutterstock.

Troy, Turkey

A dramatic setting for the ancient world’s most consequential love triangle, Troy has a 4,000-year history that merges with myth near Turkey’s Aegean coast. Discovering Troy was a driving passion for Heinrich Schliemann, an archaeologist who used Homer’s Iliad like a treasure map and found the site in 1870. After you walk through the ancient fortifications and palaces here, see the troves they once held in the Troy Museum, which opened in October with interactive exhibits highlighting gleaming jewelry, marble statues, and other treasures.

Ubar was untouched in the middle of the Arabian peninsula for nearly 1,000 years. Photo by Damian Ryszawy/Shutterstock.

Ubar, Oman

As camels laden with frankincense crossed the Empty Quarter of the Arabian peninsula, travelers gathered for dates and gossip at trading posts deep in the desert. Lost to the blowing sand for nearly 1,000 years, Ubar is one such site; it was found in 1992 using images taken from space. Located on the southernmost edge of Oman, Ubar is two hours inland from the Arabian Sea city of Salalah. Make the trip to see stone walls and fortifications that are rising from the dusty ground as excavations proceed.

Xanadu is surrounded by grasslands in every direction. Photo by beibaoke/Shutterstock.

Xanadu, China

Kublai Khan ruled his empire from the city of Xanadu, surrounded by a grassland steppe that stretched to the horizon in every direction. Located about five hours northwest of Beijing, this is where Mongolian and Han cultures mingled, and travelers debated philosophy in gracious palaces and gardens. Find the remains of that cosmopolitan capital in Xanadu’s excavated temples, stone walls, and tombs, which were abandoned to the windy plains in the 15th century.

The La Danta pyramid towers above the Guatemalan forests. Photo by Dennis Jarvis.

El Mirador, Guatemala

Only an adventurous few will reach the ancient Maya city of El Mirador, which dates back to 1,000 B.C.E. and is shrouded by the largest tropical forest north of the Amazon. There are only two ways to get here: Charter a helicopter or trek two days from the road’s end at the village of Carmelita. Make the journey to El Mirador to climb La Danta, a towering pyramid whose crest swells above the surrounding canopy.

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14 Lesser-Known Ancient Sites Worth Building a Trip Around

Check out Atlas Obscura readers’ favorite archaeological wonders.

Atlas Obscura

  • Eric Grundhauser

Read when you’ve got time to spare.

More from Atlas Obscura

The Valley of the Temples in Agrigento (including the more contemporary “fallen” Icarus statue by the Polish artist Igor Mitoraj) is just one of the world’s incredible ruin sites. Photo credit: Andrea Schaffer / CC BY 2.0.

The ruins of an ancient city, temple, or necropolis are often the centerpieces of an adventurous trip: Stonehenge, Chichen Itza, the Great Pyramids. And there are other, perhaps lesser-known (depending on who you ask, of course) sites that are every bit as spectacular and worth planning an itinerary around. These places can let you walk in the footsteps of ancient people—sometimes without the crowds—to get a sense of the depth and richness of human history that you can’t get from any book or film. Atlas Obscura asked readers in their community forums to share their favorite ruins and archaeological sites. Any one of these places could be the focus of your next adventure.

Check out some of the submissions below, and if you have a favorite ruin or archaeological site that more people should know about, head over to the forums and keep the conversation going!

Photo credit: Teomancimit/CC BY-SA 3.0.

Göbekli Tepe

?anl?urfa, Turkey

“I’ve seen quite a few ruins around the world. I’m always in awe of rock-cut structures such as Petra in Jordan, the churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia, and Geghard Monastery in Armenia. But in my mind, nothing in the world can compare with the carved stone structures at Göbekli Tepe in Turkey. We’re so used to using the pyramids or Stonehenge as our standard for ancient, but these ruins rewrite history. Göbekli Tepe has been dated to 10,000 B.C., and it would be almost 7,500 more years before the pyramids were built! We are closer now to the construction of the pyramids (4,500 years) than between the pyramids and Göbekli Tepe. The large carved stones would be buried and lost near 7,000 B.C. The age, the scale, the state of civilization at that time (pre-farming) … it’s all absolutely mind-boggling and truly without peer anywhere else on the planet (so far!).” MITFlunkie

Photo credit: McKay Savage/CC BY 2.0.

Moray Ruins

Maras, Peru

“I was awestruck visiting Moray in Peru, a sunken terrace extending down over 30 meters. Much less crowded than Machu Picchu and just as impressive!” vb9923

Photo credit: Jos Dielis/CC BY 2.0.

Valley of the Temples

Agrigento, Italy

“Feels like being in Greece!” elokyrmse

Photo credit: katiebordner/CC BY 2.0.

La Ciudad Perdida

Magdalena, Colombia

“Reached only after a grueling five-day trek through the Colombian jungle, it’s almost 1,000 years older than Machu Piccu and was built by the indigenous people who lived in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. It was abandoned after the Spanish conquest and only rediscovered in the 1970s.” vb9923

Photo credit: MM/Public Domain.

Acrocorinth
Corinth, Greece

“On my first visit to Greece in 1985 I explored the Acrocorinth, or Upper Corinth. Like the Acropolis in Athens, it was the formation overlooking the city. Unlike the Acropolis it was nearly deserted and basically open. I don’t remember if anyone else was even there, but sheep were roaming among the ruins. It made me feel how travelers to Greece in the 18th century must have felt in the then-village of Athens. I’ve been to Greece a number of times since, and driven by on my way to my family’s hometown, but haven’t been back. I’m afraid it would be less wild now.” gjg64

Photo credit: Bradley Weber/CC BY 2.0.

Ostia Antica

Rome, Italy

“After watching a documentary about the ancient port of Rome we decided to visit Ostia before leaving our two-week visit to Italy. Wow! Our first impression was how we had the site almost to ourselves. It was as if the port was sleeping and awaiting our arrival. Far more intimate than sites like Pompei with an amazing forum and arena and enormous mosaics still in the process of restoration. Magical!” Bob_L

Photo credit: Tours in Croatia/CC BY 2.0.

Diocletian’s Palace

Split, Croatia

“Roman Emperor Diocletian’s Palace in Split, Croatia, was a pretty awesome place. And there was a flower show inside!” bowmancheryl

Photo credit: Arian Zwegers/CC BY 2.0.

Uxmal Pyramid

Yucatán, Mexico

“It’s great to read about so many incredible ruins in Mexico, one of my favorite places to visit. During a trip to the Yucatán, we skipped Chichen Itza to explore some of the lesser-known sites. Uxmal was by far the most impressive. Wandering about this magical place, virtually alone, we could feel something indescribable, a spirit from the past perhaps. It’s something I can still feel today.” michwillshea

Photo credit: yeowatzup/CC BY 2.0.

Volubilis Archaeological Site

Meknes, Morocco

“Volubilis, Morocco. The ruins of the Roman city were amazing to explore. An earthquake in the 18th century destroyed many of the buildings, and it’s now a preserved archaeological site. Considered to be one of the most remote cities of the Roman Empire.” clantongraphics

Photo credit: Continentaleurope/CC BY-SA 4.0.

?a?ar Qim

Malta

“More ancient than Stonehenge. Older than the Pyramids of Giza. It’s ?a?ar Qim, among the oldest of structures. Mysterious? Yes, to us, as are the pyramids and Stonehenge. But were they mysterious to the people who built them and hung out there? Contemplating all of this as you walk and explore and imagine is the best part of being there.” penelopeashe

Photo credit: Steven dosRemedios/CC BY-ND 2.0.

Copán Ruins

Copán Department, Honduras

“It’s hard to pick, but I think I’d have to go with Copán in Honduras. It’s not the most vertically impressive Mesoamerican site I’ve been to (that would have to be Tikal) and it doesn’t have the best setting (I’d vote for Palenque), but it has some of the most amazing carvings—detailed, baroque, and full of meaning. There’s even a stairway covered in Mayan hieroglyphs. The site museum is also off the charts. You enter by descending into a reproduction of a gateway into the underworld, and the centerpiece is a reproduction of a beautiful red temple they found buried under later works. Go early in the day and the morning squawks and flights of scarlet macaws in the jungle trees will make it even more magical.” aeddubh

Photo credit: Jim Greenhill, U.S. Army/Public Domain.

Ruins of Jerash

Jerash, Jordan

“It’s the most intact Roman city outside of Italy. And because of its location, it is also partly Greek, Byzantine, and Nabatean. It was a crossroads and ancient artifacts from many cultures ave been found there. We had the place mostly to ourselves when we were there.” — BrettElliott

Photo credit: Kroelleboelle/CC BY-SA 3.0.

Norba Ruins

Lazio, Italy

“When wandering the Italian countryside, we randomly came upon the ruins of the Latium town of Norba, which was destroyed in 82 B.C. by Lucius Cornelius Sulla when he marched on Rome.” wynoochie

Photo credit: David Taylor/CC BY 2.0.

Gran Quivira

New Mexico

“I love ruins! I have visited sites all over—Asia, Middle East, Central/South America, Africa—my favorites are in Israel. But I have a great fondness for the ruins I visited earliest in my life, in New Mexico, especially Gran Quivira.” jedwardboring

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Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia, USA TODAY, and PBS NewsHour

Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia, USA TODAY, and PBS NewsHour

Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia

In the aftermath of the January 6 United States Capitol attack, the proposal to form a bicameral commission failed due to a filibuster from Republicans in the Senate.[13] In late May, when it had become apparent that the filibuster would not be overcome, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi indicated that she would appoint a select committee to investigate the events as a fallback option.[14][15][16][17]

On June 30, 2021, the resolution, H.Res.503 – Establishing the Select Committee to Investigate the January 6th Attack on the United States Capitol,[18] passed on the House floor by a vote of 222 to 190, with all Democratic members and two Republican members, Adam Kinzinger and Liz Cheney, voting in favor.[19] Sixteen Republican members did not vote.[20] The resolution empowered Pelosi to appoint eight members to the committee, and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy could appoint five members “in consultation” with the Speaker.[21] Pelosi indicated that she would name a Republican as one of her eight appointees.[22]

On July 1, Pelosi appointed eight members, seven Democrats and one Republican, Liz Cheney (R-WY); Bennie Thompson (D-MS) would serve as committee chair.[23] On July 19, McCarthy announced the five members he would recommend as the minority on the select committee. He recommended that Jim Banks (R-IN) serve as Ranking Member, and minority members be Jim Jordan (R-OH), Rodney Davis (R-IL), Kelly Armstrong (R-ND), and Troy Nehls (R-TX).[24] Banks, Jordan, and Nehls voted to overturn the Electoral College results in Arizona and Pennsylvania. Banks and Jordan had also signed onto the Supreme Court case Texas v. Pennsylvania to invalidate the ballots of voters in four states.[25]

Logo of the committee

On July 21, Thompson stated in an interview that he would investigate Trump as part of the inquiry into Capitol attack.[26] Hours later, Pelosi said in a statement that she had informed McCarthy that she would reject the recommendations of Jordan and Banks, citing concerns for the investigation’s integrity and relevant actions and statements made by the two members. She approved the recommendations of the other three.[27] McCarthy then pulled all of his picks for the committee and stated that he would not appoint anyone on the committee unless all five of his choices were approved.[28][29]

After McCarthy rescinded his recommendations, Pelosi announced on July 25 that she had appointed Adam Kinzinger (R-IL) to the committee.[30][31] Kinzinger was one of the ten House Republicans who voted for Trump’s second impeachment.[32] Pelosi also hired a Republican, former Rep. Denver Riggleman (R-VA), as an outside committee staffer or advisor.[33] Cheney voiced her support and pushed for both of their involvement.[32]

On February 4, 2022, the Republican National Committee voted to censure Cheney and Kinzinger, which it had never before done to any sitting congressional Republican. The resolution formally drops “all support of them as members of the Republican Party”, arguing that they are, through their work on the January 6 House Committee, hurting Republican prospects in the midterm elections.[7][34] Kinzinger had already announced on October 29, 2021, that he would not run for reelection.[35] Cheney lost the primary for her reelection on August 16, 2022.[36]

 Members 117th United States Congress

The commitee’s chair is Bennie Thompson, and the vice chair is Liz Cheney. Seven Democrats sit on the committee, while only two Republicans sit on the committee.

Chair Bennie Thompson

Vice Chair Liz Cheney

Majority Minority
·         Bennie ThompsonChair, Mississippi[37]

·         Zoe Lofgren, California[38]

·         Adam Schiff, California[39]

·         Pete Aguilar, California[40]

·         Stephanie Murphy, Florida[41]

·         Jamie Raskin, Maryland[42]

·         Elaine Luria, Virginia[43]

·         Liz CheneyVice Chair, Wyoming[44]

·         Adam Kinzinger, Illinois[45]

From left, Rep. Pete Aguilar, D-Calif., Rep. Adam Schiff, D-Calif., Rep. Zoe Lofgren, D-Calif., Chairman Bennie Thompson, D-Miss., Vice Chair Liz Cheney, R-Wyo., Rep. Adam Kinzinger, R-Ill., Rep. Jamie Raskin, D-Md., and Rep. Elaine Luria, D-Va., sit on the dais as the House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol continues, Monday, June 13, 2022 on Capitol Hill in Washington.

POOL PHOTO BY JABIN BOTSFORD USA TODAY

In July 2021, Thompson announced the senior staff for the select committee. They included:[46]

David Buckley as staff director. Served as CIA inspector general, and House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence minority staff director

Kristin Amerling as deputy staff director and chief counsel. Served as deputy general counsel at the Transportation Department and chief counsel of multiple congressional committees.

Hope Goins as counsel to the chairman. Served as top advisor to Thompson on homeland security and national security matters.

Candyce Phoenix as senior counsel and senior advisor. Serves as staff director of the House Oversight Subcommittee on Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.

Tim Mulvey as communications director. Served as communications director for the House Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Throughout August 2021, Thompson announced additional staffers for the select committee.[47][48] Those being:

Denver Riggleman, senior technical adviser for the January 6 Committee. He previously served as a Republican congressman from Virginia and was an ex-military intelligence officer.

Riggleman left the committee in April 2022.[49]

Joe Maher as principal deputy general counsel from the Department of Homeland Security

Timothy J. Heaphy was appointed as the committee’s chief investigative counsel.[50][51]

Investigation

The select committee’s work is ongoing. Its investigative teams each focus on a specific area like funding, individuals’ motivations, organizational coalitions, and how Trump may have pressured other politicians.[52] The investigation commenced with public hearings on July 27, 2021, when four police officers testified. As of the end of 2021, it had interviewed more than 300 witnesses and obtained more than 35,000 documents.[53] By May 2022, those totals had surpassed 1,000 witnesses and 125,000 records.[2] Some interviews were recorded.[54] As of the October 13th hearing, the select committee has conducted more than 1,000 depositions and interviews, reviewed hundreds of hours of videos (security camera footage, documentary footage, etc.) as well as hundreds of thousands of pages of documents collected throughout their investigation. .[55] While the investigation is still in progress, the select committee has been very cautious on what they publicly communicate on as it has only communicated some, but not all, of the information it has found.

The select committee has split their multi-pronged investigation into multiple color-coded teams.[56][57][58] The teams consist of:

Green Team, which is tasked with investigating the money trail and whether or not Trump and other Republican allies defrauded their supporters by spreading misinformation regarding the 2020 presidential election, despite knowing the claims were not true.

Gold Team, which is tasked with investigating whether members of Congress participated or assisted in Trump’s attempted to overturn the election. They are also looking into Trump’s pressure campaign on local and state officials as well as on executive departments, like the Department of JusticeDepartment of Homeland SecurityDepartment of Defense, and others to try to keep himself in power.

Purple Team, which is tasked with investigating Domestic violent extremist groups, such as the QAnon movement and the militia groups, the Oath Keepers and the Proud Boys and their involvement with the attack.

Red Team, which is tasked with investigating the planners of the January 6th rally and other “Stop the Steal” organizers and if they knew the rally would intentionally become violent.

Blue Team, which is tasked with understanding the threats leading up to the attack, how intelligence was shared among law enforcement, and their preparations or lack thereof.[59] Additionally, Blue team has access to thousands of documents from more than a dozen agencies that other security reviews did not have.[60]

Ultimately, the select committee’s findings may be used to inform new legislation. For example, in October 2021, committee members were already collaborating to draft a bill that would clarify the procedures for certifying presidential elections.[61] Election certification is governed by the 1887 Electoral Count Act.

The select committee’s findings may also be used in arguments to hold individuals, notably Donald Trump,[2] legally accountable. Possible criminal charges for Trump are obstruction of the electoral certification proceedings, which could carry a maximum sentence of 20 years;[62] “dereliction of duty” in not stopping the riot,[63] especially given testimony from his inner circle who say he was repeatedly advised to stop it;[64] and seditious conspiracy.[65][66][67] Other Republicans could face charges of wire fraud for telling lies in their fundraising efforts.[68][69]

A conviction, in turn, may be used to bar individuals from running for office in the future, as insurrectionists are constitutionally ineligible to hold public office. It is, however, unclear who enforces that.[70][71] In January 2022, lawyers challenged Representative Madison Cawthorn‘s eligibility to run for reelection,[72][73] and, in March 2022, Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene‘s eligibility was similarly challenged.[74] The first elected official to be removed from office for participating in the Capitol attack was Couy Griffin, a county commissioner from New Mexico. A judge removed him from office on September 6, 2022, citing the 14th Amendment and ruling that Griffin had participated in an “insurrection”.[75]

The select committee’s work may also aid the state of Georgia if it decides to prosecute Trump for solicitation of election fraud. On May 2, 2022, Fulton County‘s District Attorney Fani Willis opened a special grand jury to consider criminal charges.[76]

Simultaneous investigations by the Justice Department

Main article: United States Justice Department investigation into attempts to overturn the 2020 presidential election

The DOJ is probing the months-long efforts to falsely declare that the election was rigged, including pressure on the DOJ, the fake-electors scheme, and the events of January 6 itself. Potential charges against Trump include seditious conspiracy and conspiracy to obstruct a government proceeding.[77]

It was long anticipated that the House select committee would formally recommend that the Justice Department bring criminal charges.[78] At this point, however, it may not. Congressional committees typically are supposed to stick to legislative goals.[79] Congress does sometimes recommend criminal charges, but their “recommendation” or “referral” has no legal force in itself,[80] and the Justice Department is already investigating anyway. On September 25, 2022, Representative Schiff said he favored a criminal referral and hoped the committee would be unanimous on this point.[81]

The select committee is sharing certain information with the Justice Department: for example, the committee’s suspicion of witness tampering in Trump’s placing of a phone call to a witness.[82]

However, the committee has not yet fulfilled the Justice Department’s request that it turn over all its interview transcripts. The Justice Department sent a letter on April 20, 2022, asking for transcripts of past and future interviews. Thompson, the committee chair, told reporters he did not intend to give the Justice Department “full access to our product” especially when “we haven’t completed our own work.” Instead, the select committee negotiated for a partial information exchange.[83] On June 15, the Justice Department repeated its request. They gave an example of a problem they had encountered: The trial of the five Proud Boys indicted for seditious conspiracy had been rescheduled for the end of 2022 because the prosecutors and the defendants’ counsel did not want to start the trial without the relevant interview transcripts.[84] On July 12, 2022, the committee announced it was negotiating with the Justice Department about the procedure for information-sharing and that the committee had “started producing information” related to the Justice Department’s request for transcripts. Representative Thompson told CNN that they would likely “establish a procedure to look at some of the material” later in July after the eighth public hearing.[85] In an interview with Nicole Wallace on Deadline: White House, Representative Lofgren stated that the public will get the report at the same time as the DOJ, though the DOJ may receive an unredacted version of the final report.[86]

Information received from Mark Meadows 

Donald Trump and Mark Meadows in 2020

In September 2021, the select committee subpoenaed former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows. Meadows initially cooperated but ultimately did not provide a complete set of requested documents[87] and sued to block the two congressional subpoenas. (Meadows did comply with a different subpoena, also January 6-related, issued by the Justice Department in 2022.)[88] On December 14, 2021, the full House voted to hold Meadows in contempt of Congress,[89] but the Justice Department decided not to criminally charge him.[90] The Justice Department does, however, believe the House subpoena was justified and that Meadows has only “qualified” immunity given that Trump is no longer in office[91][92] (as it argued in a July 15, 2022 amicus brief[93] filed at the request of U.S. District Court Judge Carl J. Nichols, regarding Meadow’s claim of immunity from the congressional subpoena).[94] On October 31, 2022, the judge ruled that the congressional subpoenas were “protected legislative acts” that were “legitimately tied to Congress’s legislative functions’.”[95]

In late 2021, before Meadows stopped cooperating, he provided thousands of emails and text messages.[96][87] that revealed efforts to overturn the election results:

The day after the election, former Texas governor and former Secretary of Energy Rick Perry sent Meadows a proposed strategy for Republican-controlled state legislatures to choose electors and send them directly to the Supreme Court before their states had determined voting results.[97][98]

Fox News host Sean Hannity exchanged text messages with Meadows suggesting that Hannity was aware in advance of Trump’s plans for January 6. The committee wrote to Hannity asking him to voluntarily answer questions.[99][100]

Representative Jim Jordan asked Meadows if Vice President Mike Pence could identify “all the electoral votes that he believes are unconstitutional”.[101]

The day after the riot, one text stated that “We tried everything we could in our objections to the 6 states. I’m sorry nothing worked.”[102][101]

Meadows also participated in a call with a Freedom Caucus group including Rudy Giuliani, Representative Jim Jordan, and Representative Scott Perry during which they planned to encourage Trump supporters to march to the Capitol on January 6.[103]

Meadows also exchanged post-election text messages with Ginni Thomas, the wife of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, in which they expressed support of Trump’s claims of election fraud. On November 5, in the first of 29 text messages, Ginni Thomas sent to Meadows a link to a YouTube video about the election.[104] She emailed Arizona and Wisconsin lawmakers on November 9 to encourage them to choose different electors, exchanged emails with John Eastman, and attended the rally on January 6.[105][106][107]

Some of the communications revealed Trump allies who privately expressed disagreement with the events of January 6 while defending Trump in public:

Donald Trump Jr. pleaded with Meadows during the January 6 riot to convince his father that “it has gone too far and gotten out of hand.”[108]

Similarly, Fox News hosts Brian Kilmeade, Sean Hannity, and Laura Ingraham asked Meadows to persuade Trump to appear on TV and quell the riot.[109]

In mid-2022, CNN spoke to over a dozen people who had texted Meadows that day, and all of them said they believed that Trump should have tried to stop the attack.[110]

One of the most revealing documents provided by Meadows was Trump.[118][113] Politico reported in January 2022 that Bernard Kerik had testified to the committee that Waldron also originated the idea of a PowerPoint presentation[111][112] describing a strategy for overturning the election results. The presentation had been distributed by Phil Waldron, a retired Army colonel (now owning a bar in Texas)[113] who specialized in psychological operations and who later became a Trump campaign associate. A 36-page version appeared to have been created on January 5,[114][111] and Meadows received a version that day.[115][116][117] He eventually provided a 38-page version to the committee.[114] It recommended that Trump declare a national security emergency to delay the January 6 electoral certification, invalidate all ballots cast by machine, and order the military to seize and recount all paper ballots.[115][116] (Meadows claims he personally did not act on this plan.[115]) Waldron was associated with former Trump national security advisor Michael Flynn and other military-intelligence veterans who played key roles in spreading false information to allege the election had been stolen from a military seizure of voting machines, which was included in a draft executive order dated December 16.[119][120] The next month, Politico published emails between Waldron, Flynn, Kerik, Washington attorney Katherine Friess and Texas entrepreneur Russell Ramsland that included another draft executive order dated December 16. That draft was nearly identical to the draft Politico had previously released and embedded metadata indicated it had been created by One America News anchor Christina Bobb. An attorney, Bobb had also been present at the Willard Hotel command center.[121][122]

Obstacles

Release of documents from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

One of the main challenges to the committee’s investigation was Trump’s use of legal tactics to try to block the release of the White House communication records held at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).[123] He succeeded in delaying the release of the documents for about five months. The committee received the documents on January 20, 2022.[124][125]

Some of the documents had been previously torn up by Trump and taped back together by NARA staff.[126] Trump is said to have routinely shredded and flushed records by his own hand, as well as to have asked staff to place them in burn bags, throughout his presidency.[127][128] Additionally, as the presidential diarist testified to the committee in March 2022, the Oval Office did not send the diarist detailed information about Trump’s daily activities on January 5 and 6, 2021.[129]

Trump’s phone records from the day of the attack, as provided by NARA to the committee, have a gap of seven-and-a-half hours that spans the time when the Capitol was being attacked. It is not that pages were removed from his call logs; rather, no calls during this period were ever logged,[129] suggesting he was using a “burner” cell phone during that time.[130] He is said to have routinely used burner phones during his presidency.[131] The committee had not subpoenaed his personal phone records as of July 2022.[132]

The committee began its request for the NARA records in August 2021.[133][134] Trump asserted executive privilege over the documents.[135] Current president Joe Biden rejected that claim,[136][137] as did a federal judge (who noted that Trump was no longer president),[138] the DC Circuit Court of Appeals,[139] and the U.S. Supreme Court.[140][141] While the request for NARA documents was being litigated, the committee agreed to a Biden administration request that they forgo obtaining certain documents from NARA relating to sensitive national security matters that had no bearing on events of January 6.[142]

Trump warning Republicans not to testify

Another difficulty is that Trump has told Republican leaders not to cooperate with the committee.[143][144][145][146] Messages intended to pressure witnesses may constitute witness tampering, punishable by up to 20 years in prison.[147] While hundreds of people have testified voluntarily,[148] the committee has also had to issue dozens of subpoenas[149] to legally compel certain uncooperative individuals to testify. Some people who were subpoenaed nevertheless refused to testify: Roger Stone and John Eastman pleaded their Fifth Amendment rights, while Steve Bannon and Mark Meadows were found in contempt of Congress. In December 2021, Michael Flynn sued to block a subpoena for his phone records and to delay his testimony, though a federal judge dismissed his suit within a day.[150]

Secret Service, DHS and Pentagon text messages deleted

Soon after the attack on the Capitol, the Secret Service assigned new phones.[151] In February 2021, the office of Department of Homeland Security Inspector General Joseph Cuffari, a Trump appointee, learned that text messages of Secret Service agents had been lost. He considered sending data specialists to attempt to retrieve the messages, but a decision was made against it.[152] In June 2021, DHS asked for text messages from 24 individuals—including the heads for Trump and Pence security, Robert Engel and Tim Giebels—and did not receive them. In October 2021, DHS considered publicizing the Secret Service’s delays.[153][154] On July 26, 2022, Chairman Thompson, in his capacity as Chair of the House Homeland Security Committee, and Carolyn Maloney, Chair of the House Oversight & Reforms Committee, jointly wrote to the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency about Cuffari’s failure to report the lost text messages and asked CIGIE chair Allison Lerner to replace Cuffari with a new Inspector General who could investigate the matter.[155] Additionally, renewed calls to have President Biden dismiss Cuffari have started gaining traction, with Senator Dick Durbin, who chairs the Senate Judiciary Committee requesting Attorney General Garland to investigate the missing text messages. However, as of July 2022, it is unknown if President Biden will fire Cuffari as he made a campaign promise to never fire an inspector general during his tenure as POTUS.

On August 1, 2022, House Homeland Security Chairman Bennie Thompson reiterated calls for Cuffari to step down due to a “lack of transparency” that could be “jeopardizing the integrity” of crucial investigations regarding the missing Secret Service text messages.[156] That same day, an official inside the DHS inspector general’s office told Politico that Cuffari and his staff are “uniquely unqualified to lead an Inspector General’s office, and … The crucial oversight mission of the DHS OIG has been compromised.”[157] Congress also obtained a July 2021 e-mail, from deputy inspector general Thomas Kait, who told senior DHS officials there was no longer a need for any Secret Service phone records or text messages. Efforts to collect communications related to Jan. 6 were therefore shutdown by Kait just six weeks after the internal DHS investigation began. The Guardian wrote that “Taken together, the new revelations appear to show that the chief watchdog for the Secret Service and the DHS took deliberate steps to stop the retrieval of texts it knew were missing, and then sought to hide the fact that it had decided not to pursue that evidence.”[158]

On August 2, 2022, CNN reported that relevant text messages from January 6, 2021, were also deleted from the phones of Trump-appointed officials at the Pentagon, despite the fact that FOIA requests were filed days after the attack on the Capitol.[159][160] The Secret Service was later reported to have been aware of online threats against lawmakers before the attack on the Capitol, according to documents obtained by the House select committee.[161]

Trump funding legal defense of Republicans who might testify against him

Trump’s Save America PAC has paid hundreds of thousands of dollars to lawyers representing over a dozen witnesses called by the committee. It is not illegal to pay someone else’s legal fees, but it raises the question of why Trump would do so and what kind of influence he might have over those people’s testimony.[162] On September 1, 2022, Trump said on a right-wing radio show that he had recently met supporters in his office. He said he was “financially supporting” them, adding: “It’s a disgrace what they’ve done to them.”[163]

The American Conservative Union is providing legal defense funds for some people who resist the committee. The organization says it only assists people who do not cooperate with the committee and who oppose its mission, according to chairman Matt Schlapp.[164]

Republican National Committee (RNC) claiming committee is illegitimate

Though the Republican National Committee has long insisted that the committee is invalid and should not be allowed to investigate, a federal judge found on May 1, 2022, that the committee’s power is legitimate.[165]

Witness not appearing for public hearing

Bill Stepien, Donald Trump’s final campaign manager, cancelled his plans to testify for the second hearing, under subpoena, an hour before it started, due to his wife’s going into labor, resulting in a delay of 45 minutes while the Select Committee scrambled to rearrange its presentation, with Bill Stepien’s lawyer to read a statement for him.[166][167] Instead, they used clips of his deposition.[168]

Public findings

United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack public hearings

2021 public hearings

The House select committee began its investigation with a preliminary public hearing on July 27, 2021, called “The Law Enforcement Experience on January 6th”.[169][170] Capitol and District of Columbia police testified, describing their personal experiences on the day of the attack, and graphic video footage was shown.[171]

2022 public hearings

Part of this section is transcluded from Public hearings of the United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack(edit | history)

In 2022, the Committee held live televised public hearings.[172] The New York Times presented a detailed summary of the eight hearings held in June and July.[173]

During the first hearing on June 9, 2022, the chair and vice-chair (Democrat Bennie Thompson and Republican Liz Cheney, respectively) said that President Donald Trump tried to stay in power even though he lost the 2020 presidential election. Thompson called it a “coup”.[174] Cheney said the hearings would present evidence showing that Trump used a seven-part plan, culminating in the January 6 attack on the Capitol. The committee has been calling live witnesses, most of whom are Republicans, and some are Trump loyalists.[175][176] They testified under oath. The committee is also making extensive use of video from a number of sources, including sworn deposition testimony obtained earlier. During this hearing, the committee shared footage of the attack, discussed involvement of the Proud Boys, and included testimony from a documentary filmmaker and a member of the Capitol Police.

Officer Caroline Edwards and documentary filmmaker Nick Quested before testifying on June 9, 2022, during the opening of the committee hearing to investigate the attack on the Capitol.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

Washington Metropolitan Police Department officer Daniel Hodges, left, and former Washington Metropolitan Police Department officer Michael Fanone arrives as the House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol holds its first public hearing to reveal the findings of a year-long investigation, at the Capitol in Washington, Thursday, June 9, 2022.

SCOTT APPLEWHITE, AP

Sandra Garza, the long-time partner of Capitol Hill Police Officer Brian Sicknick who died shortly after the January 6 riot and U.S. Capitol Police Sgt. Harry Dunn (right) reacts as a video of rioters entering the Capitol plays during the opening of the select committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY 

The second hearing on June 13, 2022, focused on evidence showing that Trump knew he lost and that most of his inner circle knew claims of fraud did not have merit. William Barr testified that Trump had “become detached from reality” because he continued to promote conspiracy theories and pushed the stolen election myth without “interest in what the actual facts were.” [177][178]

Former Attorney General Bill Barr says he made it clear to President Donald Trump that claims of election fraud weren’t true.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The third hearing on June 16, 2022, examined how Trump and others pressured Vice President Mike Pence to selectively discount electoral votes and overturn the election by unconstitutional means, using John Eastman‘s fringe legal theories as justification.[179]

Former Vice President Mike Pence in a video during the opening public hearing of the Jan. 6 committee on June 9, 2022.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

Greg Jacob (left), former counsel to Vice President Mike Pence testifies along with J. Michael Luttig, retired judge for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit and informal advisor to the Vice President during the House select committee to investigate the Jan.6th attack on the Capitol on June 16, 2022.

JARRAD HENDERSON, USA TODAY

A video plays showing an image from Jan. 6, 2021 of a gallows in front of the U.S. Capitol on a large screen during the opening moments of the House select committee to investigate the Jan.6th attack on the Capitol on June 16, 2022.

JARRAD HENDERSON, USA TODAY

The fourth hearing on June 21, 2022, included appearances by election officials from Arizona and Georgia who testified they were pressured to “find votes” for Trump and change results in their jurisdictions. The committee revealed attempts to organize fake slates of alternate electors and established that “Trump had a direct and personal role in this effort.”[180][181]

From left, Rusty Bowers, Brad Raffensperger and Gabriel Sterling testify on June 21, 2022, before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The fifth hearing on June 23, 2022, focused on Trump’s pressure campaign on the Justice Department to rubber stamp his narrative of a stolen election, the insistence on numerous debunked election fraud conspiracy theories, requests to seize voting machines, and Trump’s effort to install Jeffrey Clark as acting attorney general.[182]

From left, Steven Engel, Jeffrey Rosen and Richard Donoghue are sworn in June 23, 2022, before testifying before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The exclusive witness of the sixth hearing on June 28, 2022, was Cassidy Hutchinson, top aide to former White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows.[183] Conversations within Trump’s inner circle revealed White House officials knew, days in advance of January 6, that violence was possible. Her testimony showed Trump knew supporters at the Ellipse rally were armed with AR-15s and other weapons and that he wanted less stringent security checks at his speech. Trump planned to join the crowd at the Capitol and became irate when the Secret Service refused his request. Closing the hearing, Rep. Liz Cheney presented evidence that witness tampering may have occurred.[184]

Cassidy Hutchinson, aide to former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows, testifies before the House Select Committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol, Tuesday, June 28, 2022, at the Capitol in Washington. Part of her testimony included an account of Donald Trump allegedly ordering his Secret Service to take him to the Capitol on Jan. 6, trying to grab the steering wheel of his transport vehicle and being stopped by Secret Service agent Robert Engel.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

The seventh hearing on July 12, 2022, showed how Roger Stone and Michael Flynn connected Trump to domestic militias like the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys that helped coordinate the attack.[185][186][187]

A photograph of former National Security Advisor to former President Donald Trump Michael Flynn with Oath Keepers is projected on a large screen during a public hearing of the House committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Stephen Ayres (right) testifies during a public hearing before the House committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol. Ayres was criminally charged for his actions during the Capitol insurrection. Right is Jason Van Tatenhove is a former spokesperson for the Oath Keepers.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

 The eighth hearing on July 21, 2022, presented evidence and details of Trump’s refusal to call off the attack on the Capitol, despite several hours of repeated pleas from numerous officials and insiders. According to The New York Times, this final July hearing focused on evidence and witness testimony that highlighted two significant positions that the select committee wanted to communicate to the American people. First, Rep. Liz Cheney made the case that Trump should never hold office again, asking: “Can a president who is willing to make the choices Donald Trump made during the violence of Jan. 6 ever be trusted with any position of authority in our great nation again?” Secondly, there were urgent calls for legally-binding federal investigations into the actions of the former president and his associates: “If there is no accountability for Jan. 6, for every part of this scheme, I fear that we will not overcome the ongoing threat to our democracy,” Rep. Bennie Thompson said. “There must be stiff consequences for those responsible.”[173]

Matthew Pottinger and Sarah Matthews are sworn in July 21, 2022, before testifying before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

Matthew Pottinger Former Deputy National Security Adviser for Trump Administration

Sarah Matthews Former Deputy Press Secretary for Trump Administration

Pat Cipollone Former White House Counsel

Donald J. Trump’s tweet

Cassidy Hutchinson, aide to former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows, testifies before the House Select Committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol 

The ninth hearing on October 13, 2022,[188][189] may be the final hearing, though vice-chair Cheney wants more hearings.[188][189][190][191] The hearing presented video of Roger Stone and evidence that some Trump associates planned to claim victory in the 2020 election regardless of the official results.[192][193] The committee voted unanimously to subpoena Trump for documents and testimony[190][191]

House Speaker Rep. Nancy Pelosi, (R), Ca., appears in video footage during the Oct. 13, 2022 hearing of the committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol in Washington DC.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Rep. Liz Cheney, R-Wyo, makes a motion to subpoena former President Trump during the Oct. 13, 2022 hearing of the committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol in Washington DC.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Final report

The committee may release an interim report.[194] The committee is expected to hire a writer to help produce its final report, which will be presented in a multimedia format.[195][194] Though it had been expected to release a report before the midterm elections,[196] as of September the committee was looking at “the end of the year” (before the 117th Congress ends).[197][49]

For more information, please visit the following links:

https://www.google.com/search?q=jan.+6+committee+hearings+wikipedia&oq=Jan.+6+Committee+hearings&aqs=chrome.4.0i512l5j69i61l3.6083j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

https://www.usatoday.com/picture-gallery/news/politics/2022/06/10/jan-6-committee-hearings-capitol-riots-photos/7570769001/

 

January 6 United States Capitol attack 

Wikipedia

On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump’s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 9 – 4:25:53

PBS NewsHour 883,270 views Streamed live on Oct 13, 2022

WARNING: This video may include graphic or disturbing depictions of violence. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the Capitol has announced another public hearing. It will be the first public committee event since July, when the last hearing concluded for a summer break. Since then, the committee has continued to compile witness testimony and evidence, according to committee chair Rep. Bennie Thompson, D-Miss. The hearing was originally scheduled for Sept. 28, but was postponed as Hurricane Ian approached landfall in Florida. The committee is now slated to gavel in Oct. 13 at 1:00pm EDT. Join the PBS NewsHour’s digital coverage beginning at 11:30 a.m. EDT with a look back at key moments from the eight public hearings held over the summer and a look ahead to the next. The last committee hearing in July focused on President Donald Trump’s actions on Jan. 6, 2021, as hundreds of his supporters broke into the U.S. Capitol. The hearing guided viewers minute-by-minute through the deadly afternoon, from the end of Trump’s speech encouraging supporters to march to the Capitol to a video he released late that afternoon telling the rioters they were “very special” but they had to go home. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48HH4LVn07g&t=2s

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 8 – 2:56:39

PBS NewsHour 1,280,464 views Streamed live on Jul 21, 2022

WARNING: This video may include strong and disturbing language and images. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its eighth public hearing July 21. The hearing is expected to focus on what then-President Donald Trump was doing during the three plus hours that his supporters were attacking the U.S. Capitol in an effort to stop the certification Joe Biden’s presidential victory on Jan. 6, 2021. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 8 p.m. ET. To preview the hearing, beginning at 7 p.m. ET, the PBS NewsHour will take a look back at the last seven public hearings and Digital Anchor Nicole Ellis will host a conversation looking ahead at what can be expected to come out of the July 21 primetime hearing. The hearing comes after the committee on July 12 focused on the role of far-right extremist groups like the Proud Boys and Oath Keepers ahead of the attack and the role that Trump and his allies played in stoking baseless theories of election fraud ahead of the insurrection. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 7 – 6:46:08

PBS NewsHour  1,601,465 views Streamed live on Jul 12, 2022

WARNING: This video includes strong and disturbing language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its seventh public hearing July 12. It is not yet clear what the focus of the hearing will be about. To preview the hearing, the PBS NewsHour’s Nicole Ellis will speak with NewsHour’s Laura Barrón-López at 12:45 p.m. ET. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET. The hearing comes after the committee on June 28 focused their hearing on the testimony of Cassidy Hutchinson, a senior aide to former Trump chief of staff Mark Meadows, who, in the course of her work for the White House, had firsthand insight into communications between Meadows and former President Donald Trump, including those leading up to the insurrection and in the days afterward. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 6 – 6:37:25

PBS NewsHour 1,450,352 views Streamed live on Jun 28, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House Jan. 6 committee announced an previously unplanned hearing for June 28, promising new evidence and witness testimony. Committee members did not confirm a focus for Tuesday’s hearing, scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET. But it will likely lean heavily on the testimony of Cassidy Hutchinson, a senior aide to former Trump chief of staff Mark Meadows, the NewsHour and other media outlets confirmed. In the course of her work for the White House, Hutchinson had firsthand insight into communications between Meadows and former President Donald Trump, including those leading up to the insurrection and in the days afterward. In the year since its creation, the committee has conducted more than 1,000 interviews, seeking critical information and documents from people witness to, or involved in, the violence that day. Additional hearings are expected in July. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 5 – 4:32:00

Fundraiser

PBS NewsHour  1,082,683 views Streamed live on Jun 23, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its fifth public hearing June 23, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure the Justice Department to help undo the 2020 presidential election. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 3 p.m. ET on Thursday, June 23. The hearing comes after the committee on Tuesday, June 21 laid out evidence on how Trump and his allies pressured election officials in key states, including Georgia and Arizona, to overturn the 2020 presidential election results. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 4 – 4:31:20

PBS NewsHour  1,374,711 views Streamed live on Jun 21, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its fourth public hearing June 21, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure state legislators and local election officials to change the results of the 2020 presidential election. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET on Tuesday, June 21. The hearing comes after the committee on Thursday, June 16 laid out evidence on how Trump pressured his then- vice president, Mike Pence, to overturn the election, even as the Capitol insurrection was underway. The June 16 hearing played out testimony from several aides and close Trump allies that all testified to the pressure that the president was putting on Pence. The vice president is charged with overseeing the Electoral College vote count — already certified by individual states — in a joint session of Congress following a presidential election– that is what was taking place on Jan. 6, 2021. Pence said on that day that he did not have the constitutional authority to do what the president had asked. Members of the committee said last week they thought they had evidence to indict Trump for seeking to overturn the results of the 2020 election, which they will lay out as part of several public hearings this month. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 3 – 4:21:35

PBS NewsHour  1,424,934 views Streamed live on Jun 16, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its third public hearing June 16, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure former Vice President Mike Pence to reject Congress’ official count of Electoral College votes on the day of the attack. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET on Thursday, June 16. The vice president is charged with overseeing the Electoral College vote count — already certified by individual states — in a joint session of Congress following a presidential election. Trump called on Pence repeatedly to reject the results confirming President Joe Biden’s win, telling supporters in a rally hours before the attack that “it will be a sad day for the country” if his vice president did not come through. Pence said in a statement after the speech he did not have the constitutional authority to do what the president asked. Some rioters began chanting “hang Mike Pence.” Committee member Rep. Liz Cheney, R-Wyo., said at the start of the hearings that upon hearing this, Trump said “maybe our supporters have the right idea.” The committee postponed a hearing scheduled for June 15 that was meant to focus on Trump’s efforts to replace Attorney General Bill Barr, who did not support his claims of voter fraud after the election. Members of the committee said this week they thought they had evidence to indict Trump for seeking to overturn the results of the 2020 election, which they will lay out as part of several public hearings this month. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jblC2Ooog2U&t=917s

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 2 – 2:46:12

PBS NewsHour  3,537,833 views Streamed live on Jun 13, 2022

Warning: This hearing includes graphic language. The House panel investigating the Jan. 6 insurrection presents more of its findings to the public on Monday, June 13. The hearing, the second of several planned by the Jan. 6 committee in the coming weeks, will focus on former President Donald Trump’s level of involvement leading up to and on the day of the attack on the Capitol. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 1 – 3:06:24

PBS NewsHour  3,476,633 views Streamed live on Jun 9, 2022

Warning: This hearing includes footage of violence. The House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol will hold its first hearing June 9, offering a glimpse into what it has learned about what led to the insurrection that day and the role of the White House, law enforcement and other officials and agencies before, during and after the attack. The PBS NewsHour’s special coverage of the hearing will begin at 8 p.m. ET. Before the hearing begins, the PBS NewsHour’s Nicole Ellis will take a look at what we’ve learned about the attack since that day, including conversations with Julian Zelizer, a Princeton University professor of history, on the fallout for democracy, and the NewsHour’s Lisa Desjardins, who reported from inside the Capitol as it was attacked and will cover the committee’s hearing. Thursday’s hearing is the first of several the committee, led by Reps. Bennie Thomas, D-Miss., and Liz Cheney R-Wyo., plans to hold this month to lay out key findings. The nine-member panel has interviewed dozens of witnesses, including those within the Secret Service and the White House along with members of law enforcement, Congress and former President Donald Trump’s family. They’ve subpoenaed more than 100 people to testify in the months leading up to the hearings. A select few have also been indicted by the Department of Justice for being in contempt of Congress after refusing to participate. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Ing’s comment on Democracy of USA

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRE, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 At present, democracy in the United States of America, is balancing on a tight rope.  At any moment, it can falter and tumble if the extreme right-wing of the Republican party gains control of Congress.   If Republican leader, Keven McCarthy, controls the House of Representatives, and Republican leader Mitch McConnell, takes control of the Senate, the government will return to the extreme right-wing policies of the Trump administration even before the presidential election of 2024.

Former president Trump, worked hand in glove with Mitch McConnell, to stack the Supreme Court with three new replacements, of ultra conservative right-wing judges.  When added to the three conservative Judges already on the court, it has created a dangerous super majority that has already begun to overturn settled law, in favor of right-wing extremist ideology.  It is now impossible for the three remaining liberal judges to prevent these actions from taking place.   

The Conservative court has already used its power support major challenges to settled law brought before the court that involve issues such as civil rights, and abortion rights.  Roe V Wade, has been the law of the land for over fifty years, but has already been gutted.  The conservative Supreme Court majority has removed the rights of women to decide for themselves whether an abortion is an appropriate choice for their circumstance.  Even when a ten years old girl is raped and becomes pregnant, in many states she is obligated to have the child.  In some states, even when the pregnancy will cause harm to a woman, the law forces her to carry her pregnancy to the end of the term.  Where are the rights of women?  Are we retuning to a dark age when women had no rights at all? 

Mr. Trump with assistance from Mitch McConnell also appointed two hundred Conservative Federal Court Judge positions to the bench.  Because of this, states now have the ability to make laws that severely restrict abortion, making is essentially illegal.  In contrast, when Barack Obama was president, he attempted to fill vacancies to the Supreme Court and Federal Courts but could not.  President Obama’s nominees were blocked in every instance by the Republican controlled senate led by Mitch McConnell. 

Just as significate in 2010, during the Obama administration, the Supreme Court, in the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case, upheld the right of corporations to make unlimited political expenditures under the first Amendment.  This allowed corporations to donate as much money as they wish to help Republican politicians, win elections.  In return, these politicians then helped pass laws that favor these corporations.

The right wing of the Republican party, which has now become the majority of that party, continues to attempt passing laws and use any other legal maneuver to strip away the rights of the majority of American citizens.  The Midterm election of 2022 is perhaps the last chance for Democrats along with the few remaining centrist Republicans in Congress, to prevent the rightwing extremists taking full control of the government. 

If the Republicans take control of both houses of Congress in the 2022 election, they will be able to control the vote count in the 2024 election.  This is because they will have elected officials in many states who will be able to decertify the vote count in the presidential election of 2024.

This could mean the end of democracy in America because the vote count will be in the hands of those in power to continue in power.  If this happens, through voting manipulation, Donald Trump is very likely to become President in 2024 and we will live in an Autocrat System with a leader that controls our lives in the same way Putin does in Russia, and Kim Jong-un does in North Korea.  The democratic way of life for US citizens could end, and without democracy in the world’s most powerful nation, it will be under even greater threat throughout the world. 

In our retirement years my husband and I watch with great sadness at what may unfold.  We may suffer mentally and physically for the short time we have left, but future generations may suffer their whole lives under a repressive dictatorship.  Our daughter, our little grandsons, and many other families will have to live without the freedom that earlier generations have known.  I still have hope that sanity will prevail, and the United States of America will not lose our gift of freedom that has helped enlighten so many other nations of this world.

I am not a Democrat, Republican, or member of any political party, but I am for a democratic way of life.  Democracy brings freedom of thought, action, and human rights for every citizen, allowing an opportunity to live peacefully in a healthy world.

Together we can face what will be the inevitable problem of global warming, which affect the lives of all of us.  Many lives will be lost before all the complexities of the issue can be attended, but we must begin now or there will be nothing left on earth to care for.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, November 1, 2022

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Save Democracy in the United State & The World, Prevent Future Insurrections

Save Democracy in the United State & The World, Prevent Future Insurrections

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRES, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 Jan 6 Capitol Riot

11 ALIVE: These are the most striking images from the Jan. 6 Capitol riot

Rioters climbing walls, lawmakers taking cover and the QAnon Shaman. Here are some of the most striking images from the Jan. 6 insurrection.

INSURRECTION

An act or instance of rising in revolt, rebellion, or resistance against civil authority or an established government.

Author: Thais Ackerman

Published: 7:35 PM EST January 5, 2022                                               Updated: 8:35 PM EST January 5, 2022

WASHINGTON D.C., DC — It’s a day that will live on in infamy in American history. 

January, 6 2021 — when rioters stormed the U.S. Capitol, terrorizing lawmakers and vandalizing a meeting place of the nation’s legislature, and symbol of the American people.

It’s now been a year since the breach happened. Here are some of the most striking photos from that day. 

Tensions were high that Wednesday, as a joint session of Congress prepared to gather inside the Capitol to affirm now-President Joe Biden’s victory in the 2020 election. But before they gathered, supporters of former President Donald Trump rallied in Washington.  

“We will never give up. We will never concede,” Trump told the roaring crowd.

Credit: AP

FILE – In this Jan. 6, 2021, file photo, the face of President Donald Trump appears on large screens as supporters participate in a rally in Washington. The House committee investigating the violent Jan. 6 Capitol insurrection, with its latest round of subpoenas in September 2021, may uncover the degree to which former President Donald Trump, his campaign and White House were involved in planning the rally that preceded the riot, which had been billed as a grassroots demonstration. (AP Photo/John Minchillo, File)

Less than an hour after the rally ended, the chaos began. A wave of protestors started swarming the Capitol.  Thousands of people gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. Insurrectionists violently worked to break their way through a police barrier, and successfully did so.

 Credit: AP

FILE – Violent insurrections loyal to President Donald Trump try to break through a police barrier at the Capitol in Washington on Jan. 6, 2021. A revelation about text messages sent by three Fox News personalities to former President Donald Trump’s chief of staff on the day of the Capitol riots raise questions about whether they have lost sight of the ‘news’ aspect of their jobs. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez, File)

Credit: AP

Trump supporters try to break through a police barrier, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, at the Capitol in Washington. As Congress prepared to affirm President-elect Joe Biden’s victory, thousands of people gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)

Things quickly took a turn for the worse. After bulldozing their way through law enforcement, rioters even began climbing the west wall of the Capitol building, gearing up to force their way inside.

Credit: AP

FILE – In this Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021 file photo, supporters of President Donald Trump climb the west wall of the the U.S. Capitol in Washington. The House committee investigating the violent Jan. 6 Capitol insurrection, with its latest round of subpoenas in September 2021, may uncover the degree to which former President Donald Trump, his campaign and White House were involved in planning the rally that preceded the riot, which had been billed as a grassroots demonstration. (AP Photo/Jose Luis Magana, File)

The building now donning the shame of vandalism, with broken windows and doors throughout.

Credit: AP

Windows are cracked and broken by rioters at the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)

A mob sweeps though the hallways, with some individuals clad in armor and equipped with weapons. The images portraying an America at war with itself.

At this point, insurrectionists have taken over the Capitol Building. Jacob Anthony Chansley, notoriously known as the QAnon Shaman, is pictured here alongside other rioters. He later became among one of the 700 people arrested in connection to the Capitol breach.

Credit: AP

Jacob Anthony Chansley, center, with other insurrectionists who supported then-President Donald Trump, are confronted by U.S. Capitol Police in the hallway outside of the Senate chamber in the Capitol, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. Chansley, was among the first group of insurrectionists who entered the hallway outside the Senate chamber. (AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta)

People were forced to take shelter in the House gallery as rioters tried to break into the House Chamber. 

Credit: AP

People shelter in the House gallery as rioters try to break into the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

Credit: AP

Security forces draw their guns as rioters try to break into the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

The rioters continued for hours until police were finally able to secure the inside of the building and clear the scene. 

Credit: AP

U.S. Capitol Police hold rioters at gun-point near the House Chamber inside the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

Credit: AP

Members of the U.S. Secret Service Counter Assault Team walk through the Rotunda as they and other federal police forces responded as violent protesters loyal to President Donald Trump stormed the U.S. Capitol today, at the Capitol in Washington, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

Lawmakers were safely escorted out of the building that evening. Even into the next day, and beyond, security forces stood guard outside the building so they could continue their duties in certifying the election.

Credit: AP

Police stand guard after a day of riots at the U.S. Capitol in Washington on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

 For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.11alive.com/article/news/special-reports/capitol-insurrection/most-striking-images-jan-6-insurrection/85-6789a961-48d1-4bed-90aa-a71e2296e125

Department of Justice releases graphic video from Jan. 6 Capitol riot

11Alive Dec 25, 2021

The Department of Justice released a three-hour video from the Jan. 6 attack.

Related Articles

January 6 United States Capitol attack 

Wikipedia: On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump’s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

WATCH: Rep. Raskin says Trump saw ‘the bloody attack unfold,’ but did not act fast enough on Jan. 6

PBS NewsHour 885,458 views Oct 13, 2022

Rep. Jamie Raskin, D-Md., said former President Donald Trump’s behavior during the Jan. 6 attack was not enough to stop the violence, despite immediate and repeated appeals from those around him. Raskin illustrated Trump’s reported lack of urgency on Oct. 13 as the House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack presented its findings to the public. Raskin said the committee has evidence that Trump refused calls from close advisors and family to make a public announcement as the violence began. Members of Fox News and Republican Party leaders pleaded with Trump to tell the crowd to go home, Raskin said. New footage shows efforts by congressional leaders attempting to call for law enforcement to step in at the same time crowds broke windows and breached the Capitol on live television. “The president watched the bloody attack unfold on Fox News from his dining room,” Raskin said. “Members of Congress and other government officials stepped into the gigantic leadership void created by the president’s chilling and steady passivity that day.” In the week following Jan. 6, Rep. Kevin McCarthy, R-Calif., publicly stated that Trump “bears responsibility” for the attack and “should have immediately denounced the mob when he saw what was unfolding.” Raskin concluded his remarks by stating that “nothing in law or fact” could justify Trump’s failure to act and that the 14th Amendment “disqualifies from the federal and state office anyone who has sworn an oath to defend the Constitution but betrays it by engaging in insurrection or rebellion.” The committee returned to its public-facing work after nearly three months, having rescheduled the current hearing two weeks ago in light of Hurricane Ian. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

#WashingtonPost #CapitolRiot

Inside the U.S. Capitol at the height of the siege | Visual Forensics

Washington Post  4,304,015 views Jan 16, 2021

At 2:12 p.m. on Jan. 6, supporters of President Trump began climbing through a window they had smashed on the northwest side of the U.S. Capitol. “Go! Go! Go!” someone shouted as the rioters, some in military gear, streamed in. It was the start of the most serious attack on the Capitol since the War of 1812. The mob coursed through the building, enraged that Congress was preparing to make Trump’s electoral defeat official. “Drag them out! … Hang them out!” rioters yelled at one point, as they gathered near the House chamber. Officials in the House and Senate secured the doors of their respective chambers, but lawmakers were soon forced to retreat to undisclosed locations. Five people died on the grounds that day, including a Capitol police officer. In all, more than 50 officers were injured. To reconstruct the pandemonium inside the Capitol, The Washington Post examined text messages, photos and hundreds of videos, some of which were exclusively obtained. By synchronizing the footage and locating some of the camera angles within a digital 3-D model of the building, The Post was able to map the rioters’ movements and assess how close they came to lawmakers — in some cases feet apart or separated only by a handful of vastly outnumbered police officers. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: https://wapo.st/2QOdcqK Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonpost Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/washingtonp... Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpost #WashingtonPost #VisualForensics #CapitolRiot

How Police Tried — and Failed — To Stop Capitol Attackers | Visual Investigations 8:54 mins

The New York Times  2,352,097 views Mar 21, 2021

Get an email as soon as our next Visual Investigation is published: https://nyti.ms/3xhj7dE The Times obtained District of Columbia police radio communications and synchronized them with footage from the scene to show in real time how officers tried and failed to stop the attack on the U.S. Capitol. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/U8Ys7n More from The New York Times Video: http://nytimes.com/video ———- Whether it’s reporting on conflicts abroad and political divisions at home, or covering the latest style trends and scientific developments, New York Times video journalists provide a revealing and unforgettable view of the world. It’s all the news that’s fit to watch.

How the Proud Boys Breached the Capitol | Visual Investigations

The New York Times  125,025 views Jun 18, 2022

A Times investigation of court documents, text messages and hundreds of videos shows how the Proud Boys coordinated to instigate multiple breaches of the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/U8Ys7n More from The New York Times Video: http://nytimes.com/video ———- Whether it’s reporting on conflicts abroad and political divisions at home, or covering the latest style trends and scientific developments, New York Times video journalists provide a revealing and unforgettable view of the world. It’s all the news that’s fit to watch.

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January 6 United State Capital Attack

 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from 2021 storming of the United States Capitol)

 Crowd shortly after the breach (top); tear gas deployed against rioters (bottom left); gallows erected by rioters (bottom right).

Public predictions of violence

Signs reading “Stop the Steal” and “Off with their heads”, photographed on the day of the attack

January 6 Trump rally

 Protesters at Washington Union Station on the morning of January 6

Donald Trump’s speech

An image of Trump delivering his rally speech from behind a bulletproof shield was projected onto this screen at the rally

March to the Capitol

 Protestors approaching the Capitol Complex

Members of the Proud Boys in front of the U.S. Supreme Court Building

Bombs discovered near Capitol Complex

This section is an excerpt from Law enforcement response to the January 6 United States Capitol attack § Bombs discovered near Capitol Complex.[edit]

One of two pipe bombs discovered adjacent to the Capitol on January 6, 2021.

FBI Wanted Poster offering up to $100,000 for information leading to the conviction of the individual who placed two pipe bombs[242]

Capitol breach

Trump supporters crowding the steps of the Capitol

Officer Daniel Hodges crushed in doorway

Senate adjourned

C-SPAN broadcast of the Senate going into recess after protesters infiltrate the Capitol

Congressional staffers removed the Electoral College certificates from the Senate floor as it was evacuated.

House recessed

Rioters inside the Senate chamber

On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump‘s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. They sought to keep Trump in power by preventing a joint session of Congress from counting the electoral college votes to formalize the victory of President-elect Joe Biden. According to the House select committee investigating the incident, the attack was the culmination of a seven-part plan by Trump to overturn the election.[28][29] Five people died either shortly before, during, or following the event: one was shot by Capitol Police, another died of a drug overdose, and three died of natural causes.[22][30] Many people were injured, including 138 police officers. Four officers who responded to the attack died by suicide within seven months.[23] As of July 7, 2022, monetary damages caused by attackers exceed $2.7 million.[31]

Called to action by Trump,[32][33] thousands of his supporters gathered in Washington, D.C., on January 5 and 6 to support his false claim that the 2020 election had been “stolen by emboldened radical-left Democrats”[34][35][36][37] and to demand that Vice President Mike Pence and Congress reject Biden’s victory.[38] Starting at noon on January 6,[39] at a “Save America” rally on the Ellipse, Trump repeated false claims of election irregularities[40] and said, “If you don’t fight like hell, you’re not going to have a country anymore.”[41][42] In his hour-long speech Trump included 22 grammatical variations of the word “fight”.[41][42][43] During and after his speech,[39] thousands of attendees, including many that Trump knew to be armed, walked to the Capitol and hundreds breached police perimeters[44][45] as Congress was beginning the electoral vote count.

More than 2,000 rioters entered the building,[46][47][48] many of whom occupied, vandalized, and looted it,[49][50] assaulted Capitol Police officers and reporters, and attempted to locate lawmakers to capture and harm them.[51] A gallows was erected west of the Capitol, and some rioters chanted “Hang Mike Pence” after he rejected false claims by Trump and others that the vice president could overturn the election results.[52] Some vandalized and looted the offices of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D?CA) and other members of Congress.[53] With building security breached, Capitol Police evacuated and locked down both chambers of Congress and several buildings in the Capitol Complex.[54] Rioters occupied the empty Senate chamber while federal law enforcement officers defended the evacuated House floor.[55][56] Pipe bombs were found at each of the Democratic National Committee and Republican National Committee headquarters, and Molotov cocktails were discovered in a vehicle near the Capitol.[57][58]

Trump resisted sending the National Guard to quell the mob.[59] Later that afternoon, in a Twitter video, he reasserted that the election was “fraudulent” but told his supporters to “go home in peace”.[60][61] The Capitol was clear of rioters by mid-evening,[62] and the counting of the electoral votes resumed and was completed in the early morning hours of January 7. Pence declared President-elect Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris victorious. Pressured by his administration, the threat of removal, and many resignations, Trump later committed to an orderly transition of power in a televised statement.[63][64]

A week after the riot, the House of Representatives impeached Trump for incitement of insurrection, making him the only U.S. president to have been impeached twice.[65] In February, after Trump had left office, the Senate voted 57–43 in favor of conviction; because this fell short of a two-thirds majority, requiring 67 votes, he was acquitted for a second time.[66] The House passed a bill to create a bipartisan independent commission to investigate the attack, modeled after the 9/11 Commission,[67] but it was blocked by Republicans in the Senate,[51] so the House approved a select committee with seven Democrats and two Republicans to investigate instead.[68][69] By March 2022, Justice Department investigations of participants in the attack had expanded to include activities of others leading up to the attack.[70]

More than 30 members of anti-government groups, including the Oath KeepersProud Boys, and Three Percenters, were charged with conspiracy for allegedly planning their attacks on the Capitol; ten Oath Keepers and five Proud Boys were charged with seditious conspiracy,[71][72] and one Oath Keeper pled guilty.[73][74] As of January 2022, at least 57 people with roles in the day’s events were running for public office.[75] Although most people charged with crimes relating to the attack had no known affiliation with far-right or extremist groups,[27][76][77] a significant number were linked to extremist groups or conspiratorial movements.[78] By October 2022, 417 individuals charged had pleaded guilty.[79]

During summer 2022, the January 6th committee held eight televised public hearings on the January 6 attack. The ninth hearing was scheduled for September 28, 2022, but delayed due to Hurricane Ian.[80] The ninth hearing was moved to October 13,[81] and ended with a vote to subpoena Trump.[82]

Attempts to overturn the presidential election

Main article: Attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election

Democrat Joe Biden defeated incumbent Republican Donald Trump in the 2020 United States presidential election.[83] Trump and other Republicans attempted to overturn the election, falsely claiming widespread voter fraud.[84]

Trump’s tweet shortly after polls had closed

Within hours after the closing of the polls, while votes were still being tabulated, Trump declared victory, demanding that further counting be halted.[85] He began a campaign to subvert the election, through legal challenges and an extralegal effort. Trump’s lawyers had concluded within ten days after the election that legal challenges to the election results had no factual basis or legal merit.[37] Despite those analyses, he sought to overturn the results by initiating the filing of at least sixty lawsuits, including two brought to the Supreme Court. Those actions sought to nullify election certifications and to void votes that had been cast for Biden. Those challenges were all rejected by the courts for lack of evidence or the absence of legal standing.[84]

Trump then mounted a campaign to pressure Republican governors, secretaries of state, and state legislatures to nullify results by replacing slates of Biden electors with those declared to Trump, or by manufacturing evidence of fraud. He further demanded that lawmakers investigate ostensible election “irregularities” such as by conducting signature matches of mailed-in ballots, disregarding any prior analytic efforts. Trump also personally made inquiries proposing the invocation of martial law to “re-run” or reverse the election[84][86] and the appointment of a special counsel to find instances of fraud, despite conclusions by federal and state officials that such cases were few and isolated or non-existent. Trump ultimately undertook neither step.[84] Trump repeatedly urged Vice President Mike Pence to alter the results and to stop Biden from taking office. None of those actions would have been within Pence’s constitutional powers as vice president and president of the Senate. Trump repeated this call in his rally speech on the morning of January 6.[87]

Some have characterized these attempts to overturn the election as an attempted coup d’état,[88] and an implementation of the big lie.[10] On October 31, 2021, a comprehensive and detailed account of the events before, during, and after the attack was published by The Washington Post.[89]

Planning

Congress was scheduled to meet jointly on January 6 to certify the winner of the Electoral College vote, typically a ceremonial affair.[90][91] In December, Congressman Mo Brooks (R-AL) organized three White House meetings between Trump, Republican lawmakers, and others. Attendees included Trump, Vice President Pence, representatives Jody Hice (R-GA), Jim Jordan (R-OH), and Andy Biggs (R-AZ), representative-elect Marjorie Taylor Greene (R-GA), and members of the Trump legal team.[92] The purpose of the meetings was to strategize about how Congress could overturn the election results on January 6.[93]

On December 18, four days after the Electoral College voted, Trump called for supporters to attend a rally before the January 6 Congressional vote count to continue his challenge to the validity of several states’ election results. Trump tweeted, “Big protest in D.C. on January 6th. Be there, will be wild!”[12][94] The “March to Save America” and rally that preceded the riots at the Capitol were initially organized by Women for America First, a 501(c)(4) organization chaired by Amy Kremer, co-founder of Women for Trump.[95] On January 1, 2021, they obtained a permit with an estimated attendance of 5,000 for a first amendment rally “March for Trump”.[96] In late 2020 and early 2021, Kremer organized and spoke at a series of events across the country as part of a bus tour to encourage attendance at the January 6 rally and support Trump’s efforts to overturn the election result.[97] Women for America First invited its supporters to join a caravan of vehicles traveling to the event. Event management was carried out by Event Strategies, a company founded by Tim Unes, who worked for Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign.[95]

On January 2, Trump retweeted a post by Kremer promoting the January 6 rally, adding that he would be there. From that point, although Kremer still held the permit, planning essentially passed to the White House.[97] Trump discussed the speaking lineup and the music to be played at the event. Although the initial plan for the rally called for people to remain at the Ellipse until the counting of electoral slates was complete, the White House said they should march to the Capitol, as Trump repeatedly urged during his speech.[37]

For several weeks before the event, there were over one million mentions of storming the capitol on social media, including calls for violence against Congress, Pence, and police. This was done on “alt-tech” platforms[a] such as news aggregator website Patriots.win,[b] chat app Telegram and microblogging websites Gab and Parler,[c] as well as on mainstream social media platforms, such as TikTok.[105] Many of the posters planned for violence before the event; some discussed how to avoid police on the streets, which tools to bring to help pry open doors, and how to smuggle weapons into the city.[104] They discussed their perceived need to attack the police.[103][106][107] Following clashes with Washington, D.C. police during protests on December 12, 2020, the Proud Boys and other far-right groups turned against supporting law enforcement.[108] At least one group, Stop the Steal, posted on December 23, 2020, its plans to occupy the Capitol with promises to “escalate” if opposed by police.[105] Multiple sites graphically and explicitly discussed “war”, physically taking charge at the event, and killing politicians, even soliciting opinions about which politician should be hanged first, with a GIF of a noose.[103] Joan Donovan, research director at Harvard‘s Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, said that key figures in the Unite the Right rally and the Gamergate online harassment campaign worked to raise online fury ahead of the attack.[109] Facebook and Twitter have also been cited as playing a role in the fomenting of the Capitol attack.[110]

On the January 4, 2021, edition of Real America’s Voice’s The War Room (podcast), Steve Bannon, while discussing the planning for the upcoming events and speech by Trump on January 6 at The Ellipse, said: “Live from our nation’s capital, you’re in the field headquarters of one of the small divisions of the bloodless coup.”[111][112]

January 6 Trump rally

The “Save America” rally (or “March to Save America”, promoted as a “Save America March”)[199] took place on January 6 in the Ellipse within the National Mall just south of the White House. The permit granted to Women for America First showed their first amendment rally “March for Trump” with speeches running from 9:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., and an additional hour for the conclusion of the rally and dispersal of participants.[96]

Trump supporters gathered on the Ellipse to hear speeches from Trump, Rudy Giuliani, and others, such as Chapman University School of Law professor John C. Eastman, who spoke, at least in part, based on his memorandums, which have been described as an instruction manual for a coup d’état.[200][201] In a court filing in February, a member of the Oath Keepers claimed she had acted as “security” at the rally, and was provided with a “VIP pass to the rally where she met with Secret Service agents”. The U.S. Secret Service denied that any private citizens had coordinated with it to provide security on January 6.[202] On February 22, she changed her story and said she interacted with the Secret Service only as she passed through the security check before the rally.[203]

Mo Brooks (R-AL) was a featured speaker at the rally and spoke around 9 a.m., where he said, “Today is the day American patriots start taking down names and kicking ass”. And later, “Are you willing to do what it takes to fight for America? Louder! Will you fight for America?”[204][205]

Representative Madison Cawthorn (R–NC) said, “This crowd has some fight”.[206] Amy Kremer told attendees, “it is up to you and I to save this Republic” and called on them to “keep up the fight”.[97] Trump’s sons, Donald Jr. and Eric, along with Eric’s wife Lara Trump, also spoke, naming and verbally attacking Republican congressmen and senators who were not supporting the effort to challenge the Electoral College vote, and promising to campaign against them in future primary elections.[207] Donald Jr. said of Republican lawmakers, “If you’re gonna be the zero and not the hero, we’re coming for you”.[208][209]

Rudy Giuliani repeated conspiracy theories that voting machines used in the election were “crooked” and at 10:50 called for “trial by combat“.[210][211] Eastman asserted that balloting machines contained “secret folders” that altered voting results.[212][f] At 10:58, a Proud Boys contingent left the rally and marched toward the Capitol Building.[39]

 Criminal charges

Main article: Criminal proceedings in the January 6 United States Capitol attack

Interim United States Attorney Michael R. Sherwin holds a press conference on criminal charges related to the events at the Capitol

By February 1, 228 people from 39 states and DC had been charged with federal and/or DC offences.[469] By April 23, 439 people had been charged.[470] By early September, there were over 600 federal defendants, 10% of whom had pled guilty,[471] and hundreds more arrests expected to come.[472] By October 13, there were over 630 federal defendants and 100 guilty pleas, with BuzzFeed publishing a searchable table of the plea deals.[473] On January 6, 2022, exactly one year following the attack, over 725 people had been charged for their involvement; as of March 2022, 778 have already been charged in relation to the attack.[474]

Most defendants face “two class-B misdemeanor counts for demonstrating in the Capitol and disorderly conduct, and two class-A misdemeanor counts for being in a restricted building and disruptive activity,” according to BuzzFeed, and therefore most plea deals address those misdemeanors. Some defendants have been additionally charged with felonies.[475] The median prison sentence, for those convicted thus far, is 45 days, with those who committed violence facing longer incarceration periods. Other punishments include home detention, fines, probation, and community service.[474] On January 13, 2022, 10 members of the Oath Keepers, including founder Stewart Rhodes, were arrested and charged with seditious conspiracy.[71]

By March 2022, Justice Department investigations of participants in the attack had expanded to include activities of others leading up to the attack. A federal grand jury was empaneled that issued at least one subpoena seeking records about people who organized, spoke at, or provided security at Trump rallies, as well as information about members of the executive and legislative branches who may have taken part in planning or executing the rallies, or attempted to “obstruct, influence, impede or delay” the certification of the election.[476][70]

On June 17, 2022, after the January 6 Committee had held three hearings, Trump told a Faith and Freedom Coalition conference that he might run again for president and if elected he would “very very seriously” consider pardoning all those who stormed the Capitol. Reporting on Trump’s speech, NBC News reported that Trump expressed no regrets about January 6 and “doubled down” on his unfounded claims about the election.[477] On September 1, 2022, Trump similarly pledged to “very, very strongly” consider “full pardons with an apology” if reelected.[478]

International reactions

These paragraphs are an excerpt from International reactions to the January 6 United States Capitol attack.[edit]

More than seventy countries and international organizations expressed their concerns over the attack and condemned the violence, with some specifically condemning President Donald Trump‘s own role in inciting the attack.[506][507] Foreign leaders, diplomats, politicians, and institutions expressed shock, outrage, and condemnation of the events.[508][509] Multiple world leaders made a call for peace, describing the riots as “an attack on democracy”.[510] The leaders of some countries, including BrazilPoland and Hungary, declined to condemn the situation, and described it as an internal U.S. affair.[511]

As early as January 2021, a few European security officials described the events as an attempted coup.[512]

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_6_United_States_Capitol_attack

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(UPDATE) United States of Conspiracy (full documentary) | FRONTLINE 58:18 mins

FRONTLINE PBS | Official 634,718 views Jan 20, 2021

How trafficking in conspiracy theories went from the fringes of U.S. politics into the White House. This is an update of the 2020 FRONTLINE documentary, “United States of Conspiracy.” An investigation of the alliance among conspiracy theorist Alex Jones, longtime Trump associate Roger Stone and the president — and their role in the battle over truth and lies. This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: http://www.pbs.org/donate As the coronavirus pandemic continues, America reckons with racism and the 2020 election looms, “United States of Conspiracy” investigates how Jones and InfoWars, Stone, and Trump helped to lay the foundation for conspiracy theories to take center stage in America’s national conversation, how the idea of truth itself became part of America’s divide, and what it means for the future of our democracy. #ConspiracyTheories #USPolitics #Documentaries Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available for you to watch any time: https://to.pbs.org/FLVideoApp Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/1BycsJW Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frontlinepbs Twitter: https://twitter.com/frontlinepbs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frontline Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Major funding for FRONTLINE is provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Ford Foundation. Additional funding is provided by the Abrams Foundation; Park Foundation; the Heising-Simons Foundation; the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation; and Koo and Patricia Yuen.

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Plot to Overturn the Election (full documentary) | FRONTLINE 53:17 mins

FRONTLINE PBS | Official 1,558,075 views Mar 29, 2022

How did false claims of election fraud make their way to the center of American politics? FRONTLINE and ProPublica investigate the plot to overturn the 2020 U.S. presidential election. This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: http://www.pbs.org/donate. FRONTLINE and ProPublica uncover how a small group of people helped to create some of the core narratives of fraud that President Donald Trump and many others would go on to champion after the election — and how the legacy of their effort is impacting democracy and shaping elections to come. “Plot to Overturn the Election” is a FRONTLINE production with Midnight Films, LLC in partnership with ProPublica. The correspondent is A.C. Thompson. The producer, writer and director is Samuel Black. The executive producer for FRONTLINE is Raney Aronson-Rath. #2020Election #USPolitics #Documentary Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App, where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available to watch any time: https://to.pbs.org/FLVideoApp Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/1BycsJW Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frontlinepbs Twitter: https://twitter.com/frontlinepbs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frontline FRONTLINE is produced at GBH in Boston and is broadcast nationwide on PBS. Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Additional support for FRONTLINE is provided by the Abrams Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Park Foundation; and the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation, and additional support from Koo and Patricia Yuen.

American Reckoning – A PBS NewsHour Special Report

PBS NewsHour 1,474,657 views Jan 15, 2021

Following the aftermath of the Jan. 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol, “American Reckoning – A PBS NewsHour Special Report” looks at the economic and racial history that led to a political divide between Americans, the impact of President Donald Trump’s rhetoric throughout his presidency and the next steps for the nation to heal from the recent attack on American democracy. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: