Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic and Egyptian Art History Part 1

Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic

and Egyptian Art History Part 1

Ing’s Peace Poem “Peace Comes to You”

Translated into Arabic by Nancy Emad on October 14, 2015

Subject: Peace peom in arabic
From: “Nancy Emad”
Date: Wed, October 14, 2015 1:18 am
Priority: Normal
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Hi Ing,my name is Nancy. I am the egyptian customer you met few days agoat your shop. I must say your peom is lovely. I wrote the translation andyou should receive it soon with my friend. I also wanted to write it here

as well so that you have both resources. I hope you like it and it reaches


Best regards,


Hi Nancy,

Today is my lucky and happy day receiving your translation of my Peace poem, “Peace Comes to You”, into Arabic.  Thank you so much for your generosity and speedily work on the translation. 

Would you mind explaining to me about your Arabic translation?  Are your Arabic characters and translation universal or just for the Egyptian version and meaning?

I will post your translation and Egyptian art with a brief history of Egypt, on my Blog page.  I have few more projects to be completed and posted on my website first.  I will send you the link after I finish.  I love Egyptian art and long history.  I can hardly wait to have time to do the research on this subject.

I just posted   “Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Iranian and Iranian Artwork” not too long ago.  The link is:

If you have time please view this project, it will give you some idea about how I am going to work on your Arabic translation for the project.  Your name will be in your written translation.  A person who translated Iranian did not want to have the name in the project.

Ing’s Peace Project page is a main page containing different languages.

Peace Poem – Chinese Part 1

Thanks again for translating my peace proem into Arabic.  My peace project is not copyrighted.  You can show to your friends and family.  If you want to open your own peace project in your country that will be very nice.  We can exchange ideas and materials, for example you can use my work to post on your website or Facebook and I will be glad to put your work on my website.  The idea is to encourage and activate the conversation on Peace.  We need peace all over the world.  You are part of our younger generation that going to govern the future of the human race.  We need more young people to participate and be more conscious about World Peace.

All the best,


Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

PS. Do you mind if I post our email conversation in the project of your Arabic translation?


Nancy Emad

The translation is to the original Arabic language not only Egyptian, it can work for any Arabic speaking tongue. I wrote it with my handwriting and you should be receiving the paper soon from my friend.

Nancy Emad

Thank you very much Nancy.  I am looking forward to see your handwriting of your Arabic translation.




And of course you can post my email and my name 🙂

It’s been a pleasure.

Best regards,

Nancy Abdelmalak

Ancient Egypt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the British history magazine, see Ancient Egypt (magazine).

The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.

Part of a series on the

History of Egypt

Prehistoric Egypt

pre–3100 BC

Ancient Egypt

Early Dynastic Period

3100–2686 BC

Old Kingdom

2686–2181 BC

1st Intermediate Period

2181–2055 BC

Middle Kingdom

2055–1650 BC

2nd Intermediate Period

1650–1550 BC

New Kingdom

1550–1069 BC

3rd Intermediate Period

1069–664 BC

Late Period

664–332 BC

Achaemenid Egypt

525–332 BC

Middle Ages

Arab Egypt


Fatimid Egypt


Ayyubid Egypt


Mamluk Egypt


Modern Egypt

British occupation


Sultanate of Egypt


Kingdom of Egypt




Egypt portal

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of six civilizations globally to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology)[1] with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh.[2] The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power during the New Kingdom, in the Ramesside period where it rivalled the Hittite Empire, Assyrian Empire and Mitanni Empire, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was invaded or conquered by a succession of foreign powers, such as the Canaanites/Hyksos, Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, Babylonians, the Achaemenid Persians, and the Macedonians in the Third Intermediate Period and the Late Period of Egypt. In the aftermath of Alexander the Great‘s death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.[3]

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.[4][5]

The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known ships,[6] Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty, made with the Hittites.[7] Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy.[8]

History of ancient Egypt, History of Egypt and Population history of Egypt

Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)

Jeff Dahl – Own work. See #References for references used creating the map. Image renamed from File:Ancient Egypt map.svg (see #Original upload log).

Map of Ancient Egypt, showing the Nile up to the fifth cataract, and major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC). Cairo and Jerusalem are shown as reference cities.

The Nile has been the lifeline of its region for much of human history.[9] The fertile floodplain of the Nile gave humans the opportunity to develop a settled agricultural economy and a more sophisticated, centralized society that became a cornerstone in the history of human civilization.[10] Nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers began living in the Nile valley through the end of the Middle Pleistocene some 120,000 years ago. By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of the area to concentrate along the river region.

Predynastic period

Predynastic Egypt

A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. (Predynastic Period)

A Naqada II vase decorated with gazelles, on display at the Louvre.

Unknown – Guillaume Blanchard, Juillet 2004, Fujifilm S6900

In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were covered in treed savanna and traversed by herds of grazing ungulates. Foliage and fauna were far more prolific in all environs and the Nile region supported large populations of waterfowl. Hunting would have been common for Egyptians, and this is also the period when many animals were first domesticated.[11]

By about 5500 BC, small tribes living in the Nile valley had developed into a series of cultures demonstrating firm control of agriculture and animal husbandry, and identifiable by their pottery and personal items, such as combs, bracelets, and beads. The largest of these early cultures in upper (Southern) Egypt was the Badari, which probably originated in the Western Desert; it was known for its high quality ceramics, stone tools, and its use of copper.[12]

The Badari was followed by the Amratian (Naqada I) and Gerzeh (Naqada II) cultures,[13] which brought a number of technological improvements. As early as the Naqada I Period, predynastic Egyptians imported obsidian from Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from flakes.[14] In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the Near East, particularly Canaan and the Byblos coast.[15] Over a period of about 1,000 years, the Naqada culture developed from a few small farming communities into a powerful civilization whose leaders were in complete control of the people and resources of the Nile valley.[16] Establishing a power center at Hierakonpolis, and later at Abydos, Naqada III leaders expanded their control of Egypt northwards along the Nile.[17] They also traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the western desert to the west, and the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean and Near East to the east.[17] Royal Nubian burials at Qustul produced artifacts bearing the oldest-known examples of Egyptian dynastic symbols, such as the white crown of Egypt and falcon.[18][19]

The Naqada culture manufactured a diverse selection of material goods, reflective of the increasing power and wealth of the elite, as well as societal personal-use items, which included combs, small statuary, painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, and jewelry made of gold, lapis, and ivory. They also developed a ceramic glaze known as faience, which was used well into the Roman Period to decorate cups, amulets, and figurines.[20] During the last predynastic phase, the Naqada culture began using written symbols that eventually were developed into a full system of hieroglyphs for writing the ancient Egyptian language.[21]

Early Dynastic Period (c. 3050–2686 BC)

Main article: Early Dynastic Period of Egypt

The Early Dynastic Period was approximately contemporary to the early SumerianAkkadian civilisation of Mesopotamia and of ancient Elam. The third-century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs from Menes to his own time into 30 dynasties, a system still used today.[22] He chose to begin his official history with the king named “Meni” (or Menes in Greek) who was believed to have united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt (around 3100 BC).[23]

The transition to a unified state happened more gradually than ancient Egyptian writers represented, and there is no contemporary record of Menes. Some scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have been the pharaoh Narmer, who is depicted wearing royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette, in a symbolic act of unification.[24] In the Early Dynastic Period about 3150 BC, the first of the Dynastic pharaohs solidified control over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, from which he could control the labour force and agriculture of the fertile delta region, as well as the lucrative and critical trade routes to the Levant. The increasing power and wealth of the pharaohs during the early dynastic period was reflected in their elaborate mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified pharaoh after his death.[25] The strong institution of kingship developed by the pharaohs served to legitimize state control over the land, labour, and resources that were essential to the survival and growth of ancient Egyptian civilization.[26]

The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.[27]

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

Old Kingdom

The Giza Pyramids

All Giza Pyramids in one shot.  Ricardo LiberatoAll Gizah Pyramids

Major advances in architecture, art, and technology were made during the Old Kingdom, fueled by the increased agricultural productivity and resulting population, made possible by a well-developed central administration.[28] Some of ancient Egypt’s crowning achievements, the Giza pyramids and Great Sphinx, were constructed during the Old Kingdom. Under the direction of the vizier, state officials collected taxes, coordinated irrigation projects to improve crop yield, drafted peasants to work on construction projects, and established a justice system to maintain peace and order.[29]

Khafre Enthroned

Jon Bodsworth –

Statue of Khafre in diorite. Valley Temple of Khafra, Giza. Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Main floor – room 42. Diorite: height 168 cm, width 57 cm, depth 96 cm. JE 10062 – CG 14.

File:Khafre statue.jpg,  Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 10 December 2007

Permission details

This file was transferred from Egypt Archive website under the license Copyrighted free use (see permission here). In short: you are free to use it for any purpose including unrestricted redistribution, commercial use, and modification. This is Mr. Jon Bodsworth’s statement about his pictures from Egypt Archive: “All the photographs on this site are from my own originals and are copyright free. They can be reproduced in any medium. If you use any on the web I would appreciate an email. This site was designed to put as many photographs on the web as possible in an easy to use format. I have deliberately kept captions to a minimum but if you would like more information on any of the photographs let me know. The photographs on this website are only a small proportion of over 3,500 that I have covering many areas of Egypt. If there is a specific photograph that you are looking for please let me know.” If you use any of the pictures on the web, the author Jon Bodsworth would appreciate an email: As of March 2011, Egypt Archive website was closed so if a file is uploaded after that time we need further proof of permission.

Thanks to Mr. Jon Bodsworth for his generosity to allow people to use his photos copyright free.              Ing-On VibulBhan-Watts

Along with the rising importance of a central administration arose a new class of educated scribes and officials who were granted estates by the pharaoh in payment for their services. Pharaohs also made land grants to their mortuary cults and local temples, to ensure that these institutions had the resources to worship the pharaoh after his death. Scholars believe that five centuries of these practices slowly eroded the economic power of the pharaoh, and that the economy could no longer afford to support a large centralized administration.[30] As the power of the pharaoh diminished, regional governors called nomarchs began to challenge the supremacy of the pharaoh. This, coupled with severe droughts between 2200 and 2150 BC,[31] is assumed to have caused the country to enter the 140-year period of famine and strife known as the First Intermediate Period.[32]

First Intermediate Period (2181–1991 BC)

First Intermediate Period of Egypt

After Egypt’s central government collapsed at the end of the Old Kingdom, the administration could no longer support or stabilize the country’s economy. Regional governors could not rely on the king for help in times of crisis, and the ensuing food shortages and political disputes escalated into famines and small-scale civil wars. Yet despite difficult problems, local leaders, owing no tribute to the pharaoh, used their new-found independence to establish a thriving culture in the provinces. Once in control of their own resources, the provinces became economically richer—which was demonstrated by larger and better burials among all social classes.[33] In bursts of creativity, provincial artisans adopted and adapted cultural motifs formerly restricted to the royalty of the Old Kingdom, and scribes developed literary styles that expressed the optimism and originality of the period.[34]

Free from their loyalties to the pharaoh, local rulers began competing with each other for territorial control and political power. By 2160 BC, rulers in Herakleopolis controlled Lower Egypt in the north, while a rival clan based in Thebes, the Intef family, took control of Upper Egypt in the south. As the Intefs grew in power and expanded their control northward, a clash between the two rival dynasties became inevitable. Around 2055 BC the northern Theban forces under Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II finally defeated the Herakleopolitan rulers, reuniting the Two Lands. They inaugurated a period of economic and cultural renaissance known as the Middle Kingdom.[35]

Middle Kingdom (2134–1690 BC)

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom

Own work (Guillaume Blanchard)

Antiquité égyptienne du musée du Louvre. Visage d’Amenemhat III, en calcaire.

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Egypte louvre 231 visage.jpg, Uploaded by Aoineko, Created: 30 June 2004

The pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom restored the country’s prosperity and stability, thereby stimulating a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects.[36] Mentuhotep II and his Eleventh Dynasty successors ruled from Thebes, but the vizier Amenemhat I, upon assuming kingship at the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty around 1985 BC, shifted the nation’s capital to the city of Itjtawy, located in Faiyum.[37] From Itjtawy, the pharaohs of the Twelfth Dynasty undertook a far-sighted land reclamation and irrigation scheme to increase agricultural output in the region. Moreover, the military reconquered territory in Nubia that was rich in quarries and gold mines, while laborers built a defensive structure in the Eastern Delta, called the “Walls-of-the-Ruler“, to defend against foreign attack.[38]

With the pharaohs’ having secured military and political security and vast agricultural and mineral wealth, the nation’s population, arts, and religion flourished. In contrast to elitist Old Kingdom attitudes towards the gods, the Middle Kingdom experienced an increase in expressions of personal piety and what could be called a democratization of the afterlife, in which all people possessed a soul and could be welcomed into the company of the gods after death.[39] Middle Kingdom literature featured sophisticated themes and characters written in a confident, eloquent style.[34] The relief and portrait sculpture of the period captured subtle, individual details that reached new heights of technical perfection.[40]

The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III, allowed Semitic-speaking Canaanite settlers from the Near East into the delta region to provide a sufficient labour force for his especially active mining and building campaigns. These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with severe Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties. During this decline, the Canaanite settlers began to seize control of the delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the Hyksos.[41]

Second Intermediate Period (1674–1549 BC) and the Hyksos

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

Around 1785 BC, as the power of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs weakened, a Semitic Canaanite people called the Hyksos had already settled in the Eastern Delta town of Avaris, seized control of Egypt, and forced the central government to retreat to Thebes. The pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute.[42] The Hyksos (“foreign rulers”) retained Egyptian models of government and identified as pharaohs, thus integrating Egyptian elements into their culture. They and other Semitic invaders introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot.[43]

After their retreat, the native Theban kings found themselves trapped between the Canaanite Hyksos ruling the north and the Hyksos’ Nubian allies, the Kushites, to the south of Egypt. After years of vassalage, Thebes gathered enough strength to challenge the Hyksos in a conflict that lasted more than 30 years, until 1555 BC.[42] The pharaohs Seqenenre Tao II and Kamose were ultimately able to defeat the Nubians to the south of Egypt, but failed to defeat the Hyksos. That task fell to Kamose’s successor, Ahmose I, who successfully waged a series of campaigns that permanently eradicated the Hyksos’ presence in Egypt. He established a new dynasty. In the New Kingdom that followed, the military became a central priority for the pharaohs seeking to expand Egypt’s borders and attempting to gain mastery of the Near East.[44]

The maximum territorial extent of ancient Egypt (15th century BC)

Original by [[en:User:Andrei Nacu]], edits by Jeff Dahl – Modified from en:Image:Egypt_1450_BC.svg by [[en:User:Andrei Nacu]], modified by uploader

Map of Egypt’s territorial control during the New Kingdom. Modified from en:Image:Egypt_1450_BC.svg; includes a more muted color scheme.

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Egypt NK edit.svg, Uploaded by Rowanwindwhistler, Created: 7 July 2008

New Kingdom (1549–1069 BC)

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbours, including the Mitanni Empire, Assyria, and Canaan. Military campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grandson Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen. Between their reigns, Hatshepsut generally promoted peace and restored trade routes lost during the Hyksos occupation, as well as expanding to new regions. When Tuthmosis III died in 1425 BC, Egypt had an empire extending from Niya in north west Syria to the fourth waterfall of the Nile in Nubia, cementing loyalties and opening access to critical imports such as bronze and wood.[45]

Djeser-Djeseru is the main building of Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri; the building is an example of perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon by a thousand years

Andrea Piroddi – Own work

Il tempio di Hatshepsut a Luxor

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Il tempio di Hatshepsut.JPG, Uploaded by Piroddi.andrea, Uploaded: 8 February 2008

The New Kingdom pharaohs began a large-scale building campaign to promote the god Amun, whose growing cult was based in Karnak. They also constructed monuments to glorify their own achievements, both real and imagined. The Karnak temple is the largest Egyptian temple ever built.[46] The pharaoh Hatshepsut used such hyperbole and grandeur during her reign of almost twenty-two years.[47] Her reign was very successful, marked by an extended period of peace and wealth-building, trading expeditions to Punt, restoration of foreign trade networks, and great building projects, including an elegant mortuary temple that rivaled the Greek architecture of a thousand years later, a colossal pair of obelisks, and a chapel at Karnak. Despite her achievements, Amenhotep II, the heir to Hatshepsut’s nephew-stepson Tuthmosis III, sought to erase her legacy near the end of his father’s reign and throughout his, touting many of her accomplishments as his.[48] He also tried to change many established traditions that had developed over the centuries, which some suggest was a futile attempt to prevent other women from becoming pharaoh and to curb their influence in the kingdom.

Around 1350 BC, the stability of the New Kingdom seemed threatened further when Amenhotep IV ascended the throne and instituted a series of radical and chaotic reforms. Changing his name to Akhenaten, he touted the previously obscure sun deity Aten as the supreme deity, suppressed the worship of most other deities, and attacked the power of the temple that had become dominated by the priests of Amun in Thebes, whom he saw as corrupt.[49] Moving the capital to the new city of Akhetaten (modern-day Amarna), Akhenaten turned a deaf ear to events in the Near East (where the Hittites, Mitanni, and Assyrians were vying for control). He was devoted to his new religion and artistic style. After his death, the cult of the Aten was quickly abandoned, the priests of Amun soon regained power and returned the capital to Thebes. Under their influence the subsequent pharaohs Tutankhamun, Ay, and Horemheb worked to erase all mention of Akhenaten’s heresy, now known as the Amarna Period.[50]

Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel

Steve F-E-Cameron (Merlin-UK) – Own work (Self Photograph)

Abu Simbel in the heart of Nubia, the Temple of Rameses II

CC BY-SA 3.0view terms, File:SFEC EGYPT ABUSIMBEL 2006-003.JPG, Uploaded by Merlin-UK, Created: 31 December 2005

Around 1279 BC, Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, ascended the throne, and went on to build more temples, erect more statues and obelisks, and sire more children than any other pharaoh in history.[51] A bold military leader, Ramesses II led his army against the Hittites in the Battle of Kadesh (in modern Syria) and, after fighting to a stalemate, finally agreed to the first recorded peace treaty, around 1258 BC.[52] With both the Egyptians and Hittite Empire proving unable to gain the upper hand over one another, and both powers also fearful of the expanding Middle Assyrian Empire, Egypt withdrew from much of the Near East. The Hittites were thus left to compete unsuccessfully with the powerful Assyrians and the newly arrived Phrygians.

Egypt’s wealth, however, made it a tempting target for invasion, particularly by the Libyan Berbers to the west, and the Sea Peoples, a conjectured[53][54] confederation of seafarers from the Aegean. Initially, the military was able to repel these invasions, but Egypt eventually lost control of its remaining territories in southern Caanan, much of it falling to the Assyrians. The effects of external threats were exacerbated by internal problems such as corruption, tomb robbery, and civil unrest. After regaining their power, the high priests at the temple of Amun in Thebes accumulated vast tracts of land and wealth, and their expanded power splintered the country during the Third Intermediate Period.[55]

Third Intermediate Period (1069–653 BC)

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

Following the death of Ramesses XI in 1078 BC, Smendes assumed authority over the northern part of Egypt, ruling from the city of Tanis. The south was effectively controlled by the High Priests of Amun at Thebes, who recognized Smendes in name only.[56] During this time, Berber tribes from what was later to be called Libya had been settling in the western delta, and the chieftains of these settlers began increasing their autonomy. Libyan princes took control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945 BC, founding the Libyan Berber, or Bubastite, dynasty that ruled for some 200 years. Shoshenq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions.

In the mid-ninth century BC, Egypt made a failed attempt to once more gain a foothold in Western Asia. Osorkon II of Egypt, along with a large alliance of nations and peoples, including Persia, Israel, Hamath, Phoenicia/Caanan, the Arabs, Arameans, and neo Hittites among others, engaged in the Battle of Karkar against the powerful Assyrian king Shalmaneser III in 853 BC. However, this coalition of powers failed and the Neo Assyrian Empire continued to dominate Western Asia.

Libyan Berber control began to erode as a rival native dynasty in the delta arose under Leontopolis. Also, the Nubians of the Kushites threatened Egypt from the lands to the south.[57]

Around 730 BC Libyans from the west fractured the political unity of the country

Around 730 BC Libyans from the west fractured the political unity of the country

Jeff Dahl – Own work

A map showing the political divisions in ancient Egypt during the Third intermediate Period, about 730 BC. The rulers of the 22nd and 23rd Dynasties ruled simultaneously, alongside Libyan chieftains controlling most of the Delta.

GFDL, File:Third Intermediate Period map.svg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 3 January 2008

Drawing on millennia of interaction (trade, acculturation, occupation, assimilation, and war[58]) with Egypt,[59] the Kushite king Piye left his Nubian capital of Napata and invaded Egypt around 727 BC. Piye easily seized control of Thebes and eventually the Nile Delta.[60] He recorded the episode on his stela of victory. Piye set the stage for subsequent Twenty-fifth dynasty pharaohs,[61] such as Taharqa, to reunite the “Two lands” of Northern and Southern Egypt. The Nile valley empire was as large as it had been since the New Kingdom.

The Twenty-fifth dynasty ushered in a renaissance period for ancient Egypt.[62] Religion, the arts, and architecture were restored to their glorious Old, Middle, and New Kingdom forms. Pharaohs, such as Taharqa, built or restored temples and monuments throughout the Nile valley, including at Memphis, Karnak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal, etc.[63] It was during the Twenty-fifth dynasty that there was the first widespread construction of pyramids (many in modern Sudan) in the Nile Valley since the Middle Kingdom.[64][65][66]

Piye made various unsuccessful attempts to extend Egyptian influence in the Near East, then controlled by Assyria. In 720 BC, he sent an army in support of a rebellion against Assyria, which was taking place in Philistia and Gaza. However, Piye was defeated by Sargon II and the rebellion failed. In 711 BC, Piye again supported a revolt against the Assyrians by the Israelites of Ashdod and was once again defeated by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Subsequently, Piye was forced from the Near East.[67]

From the 10th century BC onwards, Assyria fought for control of the southern Levant. Frequently, cities and kingdoms of the southern Levant appealed to Egypt for aide in their struggles against the powerful Assyrian army. Taharqa enjoyed some initial success in his attempts to regain a foothold in the Near East. Taharqa aided the Judean King Hezekiah when Hezekiah and Jerusalem was besieged by the Assyrian king, Sennacherib. Scholars disagree on the primary reason for Assyria’s abandonment of their siege on Jerusalem. Reasons for the Assyrian withdrawal range from conflict with the Egyptian/Kushite army to divine intervention to surrender to disease.[68] Henry Aubin argues that the Kushite/Egyptian army saved Jerusalem from the Assyrians and prevented the Assyrians from returning to capture Jerusalem for the remainder of Sennacherib’s life (20 years).[69] Some argue that disease was the primary reason for failing to actually take the city, however Senacherib’s annals claim Judah was forced into tribute regardless.[70]

Sennacherib had been murdered by his own sons for destroying the rebellious city of Babylon, a city sacred to all Mesopotamians, the Assyrians included. In 674 BC Esarhaddon launched a preliminary incursion into Egypt, however this attempt was repelled by Taharqa.[71] However, In 671 BC, Esarhaddon launched a full-scale invasion. Part of his army stayed behind to deal with rebellions in Phoenicia, and Israel. The remainder went south to Rapihu, then crossed the Sinai, and entered Egypt. Esarhaddon decisively defeated Taharqa, took Memphis, Thebes and all the major cities of Egypt, and Taharqa was chased back to his Nubian homeland. Esarhaddon now called himself “king of Egypt, Patros, and Kush“, and returned with rich booty from the cities of the delta; he erected a victory stele at this time, and paraded the captive Prince Ushankhuru, the son of Taharqa in Nineveh. Esarhaddon stationed a small army in northern Egypt and describes how “All Ethiopians (read Nubians/Kushites) I deported from Egypt, leaving not one left to do homage to me”.[72] He installed native Egyptian princes throughout the land to rule on his behalf.[73] The conquest by Esarhaddon effectively marked the end of the short lived Kushite Empire.

However, the native Egyptian rulers installed by Esarhaddon were unable to retain full control of the whole country for long. Two years later, Taharqa returned from Nubia and seized control of a section of southern Egypt as far north as Memphis. Esarhaddon prepared to return to Egypt and once more eject Taharqa, however he fell ill and died in his capital, Nineveh, before he left Assyria. His successor, Ashurbanipal, sent an Assyrian general named Sha-Nabu-shu with a small, but well trained army, which conclusively defeated Taharqa at Memphis and once more drove him from Egypt. Taharqa died in Nubia two years later.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Wufei07 – Own work, Nubian Pharoahs

Public Domainview terms, File:NubianPharoahs.jpg, Uploaded by Wufei07, Uploaded: 29 July 2009

His successor, Tanutamun, also made a failed attempt to regain Egypt for Nubia. He successfully defeated Necho, the native Egyptian puppet ruler installed by Ashurbanipal, taking Thebes in the process. The Assyrians then sent a large army southwards. Tantamani (Tanutamun) was heavily routed and fled back to Nubia. The Assyrian army sacked Thebes to such an extent it never truly recovered. A native ruler, Psammetichus I was placed on the throne, as a vassal of Ashurbanipal, and the Nubians were never again to pose a threat to either Assyria or Egypt.[74]

Late Period (672–332 BC)

Main articles: Late Period of ancient Egypt and History of Achaemenid Egypt

With no permanent plans for conquest, the Assyrians left control of Egypt to a series of vassals who became known as the Saite kings of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. By 653 BC, the Saite king Psamtik I (taking advantage of the fact that Assyria was involved in a fierce war conquering Elam and that few Assyrian troops were stationed in Egypt) was able to free Egypt relatively peacefully from Assyrian vassalage with the help of Lydian and Greek mercenaries, the latter of whom were recruited to form Egypt’s first navy. Psamtik and his successors however were careful to maintain peaceful relations with Assyria. Greek influence expanded greatly as the city of Naukratis became the home of Greeks in the delta.

In 609 BC Necho II went to war with Babylonia, the Chaldeans, the Medians and the Scythians in an attempt to save Assyria, which after a brutal civil war was being overrun by this coalition of powers. However, the attempt to save Egypt’s former masters failed. The Egyptians delayed intervening too long, and Nineveh had already fallen and King Sin-shar-ishkun was dead by the time Necho II sent his armies northwards. However, Necho easily brushed aside the Israelite army under King Josiah but he and the Assyrians then lost a battle at Harran to the Babylonians, Medes and Scythians. Necho II and Ashur-uballit II of Assyria were finally defeated at Carchemish in Aramea (modern Syria) in 605 BC. The Egyptians remained in the area for some decades, struggling with the Babylonian kings Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar II for control of portions of the former Assyrian Empire in The Levant. However, they were eventually driven back into Egypt, and Nebuchadnezzar II even briefly invaded Egypt itself in 567 BC.[70] The Saite kings based in the new capital of Sais witnessed a brief but spirited resurgence in the economy and culture, but in 525 BC, the powerful Persians, led by Cambyses II, began their conquest of Egypt, eventually capturing the pharaoh Psamtik III at the battle of Pelusium. Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from his home of Susa in Persia (modern Iran), leaving Egypt under the control of a satrapy. A few temporarily successful revolts against the Persians marked the fifth century BC, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians.[75]

Following its annexation by Persia, Egypt was joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia (modern Lebanon) in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. This first period of Persian rule over Egypt, also known as the Twenty-seventh dynasty, ended after more than one-hundred years in 402 BC, and from 380–343 BC the Thirtieth Dynasty ruled as the last native royal house of dynastic Egypt, which ended with the kingship of Nectanebo II. A brief restoration of Persian rule, sometimes known as the Thirty-first Dynasty, began in 343 BC, but shortly after, in 332 BC, the Persian ruler Mazaces handed Egypt over to the Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great without a fight.[76]

Ptolemaic Period

Alexander the Great, 100 BC – 100 AD, 54.162, Brooklyn Museum                                    Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund – Brooklyn Museum

Alexander the Great, 100 B.C.E. – 100 C.E. marble, 3 1/2 x 2 x 1 1/2 in. (8.9 x 5.1 x 3.8 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 54.162

No restrictions, File:Alexander the Great, 100 B.C.E. – 100 C.E., 54.162.jpg, Uploaded by Johnbod, Created: 15 July 2014

History of Ptolemaic Egypt and Ptolemaic Kingdom

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians and was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. The administration established by Alexander’s successors, the Macedonian Ptolemaic Kingdom, was based on an Egyptian model and based in the new capital city of Alexandria. The city showcased the power and prestige of Hellenistic rule, and became a seat of learning and culture, centered at the famous Library of Alexandria.[77] The Lighthouse of Alexandria lit the way for the many ships that kept trade flowing through the city—as the Ptolemies made commerce and revenue-generating enterprises, such as papyrus manufacturing, their top priority.[78]

Hellenistic culture did not supplant native Egyptian culture, as the Ptolemies supported time-honored traditions in an effort to secure the loyalty of the populace. They built new temples in Egyptian style, supported traditional cults, and portrayed themselves as pharaohs. Some traditions merged, as Greek and Egyptian gods were syncretized into composite deities, such as Serapis, and classical Greek forms of sculpture influenced traditional Egyptian motifs. Despite their efforts to appease the Egyptians, the Ptolemies were challenged by native rebellion, bitter family rivalries, and the powerful mob of Alexandria that formed after the death of Ptolemy IV.[79] In addition, as Rome relied more heavily on imports of grain from Egypt, the Romans took great interest in the political situation in the country. Continued Egyptian revolts, ambitious politicians, and powerful Syriac opponents from the Near East made this situation unstable, leading Rome to send forces to secure the country as a province of its empire.[80]

Roman Period

History of Roman Egypt

The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.

Public Domain, File:Fayum-22.jpg, Uploaded by Eloquence, Uploaded: 9 November 2004

Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire in 30 BC, following the defeat of Marc Antony and Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII by Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) in the Battle of Actium. The Romans relied heavily on grain shipments from Egypt, and the Roman army, under the control of a prefect appointed by the Emperor, quelled rebellions, strictly enforced the collection of heavy taxes, and prevented attacks by bandits, which had become a notorious problem during the period.[81] Alexandria became an increasingly important center on the trade route with the orient, as exotic luxuries were in high demand in Rome.[82]

Although the Romans had a more hostile attitude than the Greeks towards the Egyptians, some traditions such as mummification and worship of the traditional gods continued.[83] The art of mummy portraiture flourished, and some Roman emperors had themselves depicted as pharaohs, though not to the extent that the Ptolemies had. The former lived outside Egypt and did not perform the ceremonial functions of Egyptian kingship. Local administration became Roman in style and closed to native Egyptians.[83]

From the mid-first century AD, Christianity took root in Egypt and it was originally seen as another cult that could be accepted. However, it was an uncompromising religion that sought to win converts from Egyptian Religion and Greco-Roman religion and threatened popular religious traditions. This led to the persecution of converts to Christianity, culminating in the great purges of Diocletian starting in 303, but eventually Christianity won out.[84] In 391 the Christian Emperor Theodosius introduced legislation that banned pagan rites and closed temples.[85] Alexandria became the scene of great anti-pagan riots with public and private religious imagery destroyed.[86] As a consequence, Egypt’s native religious culture was continually in decline. While the native population certainly continued to speak their language, the ability to read hieroglyphic writing slowly disappeared as the role of the Egyptian temple priests and priestesses diminished. The temples themselves were sometimes converted to churches or abandoned to the desert.[87]

Government and economy

Administration and commerce

The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.

Jeff Dahl – Own work

Pharaoh, the king of ancient Egypt, is often depicted wearing the nemes headdress and an ornate shendyt. Based on New Kingdom tomb paintings.

GFDL, File:Pharaoh.svg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 31 December 2007

The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. The king was the supreme military commander and head of the government, who relied on a bureaucracy of officials to manage his affairs. In charge of the administration was his second in command, the vizier, who acted as the king’s representative and coordinated land surveys, the treasury, building projects, the legal system, and the archives.[88] At a regional level, the country was divided into as many as 42 administrative regions called nomes each governed by a nomarch, who was accountable to the vizier for his jurisdiction. The temples formed the backbone of the economy. Not only were they houses of worship, but were also responsible for collecting and storing the nation’s wealth in a system of granaries and treasuries administered by overseers, who redistributed grain and goods.[89]

Much of the economy was centrally organized and strictly controlled. Although the ancient Egyptians did not use coinage until the Late period, they did use a type of money-barter system,[90] with standard sacks of grain and the deben, a weight of roughly 91 grams (3 oz) of copper or silver, forming a common denominator.[91] Workers were paid in grain; a simple laborer might earn 5½ sacks (200 kg or 400 lb) of grain per month, while a foreman might earn 7½ sacks (250 kg or 550 lb). Prices were fixed across the country and recorded in lists to facilitate trading; for example a shirt cost five copper deben, while a cow cost 140 deben.[91] Grain could be traded for other goods, according to the fixed price list.[91] During the fifth century BC coined money was introduced into Egypt from abroad. At first the coins were used as standardized pieces of precious metal rather than true money, but in the following centuries international traders came to rely on coinage.[92]

Social status

Egyptian society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed. Farmers made up the bulk of the population, but agricultural produce was owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land.[93] Farmers were also subject to a labor tax and were required to work on irrigation or construction projects in a corvée system.[94] Artists and craftsmen were of higher status than farmers, but they were also under state control, working in the shops attached to the temples and paid directly from the state treasury. Scribes and officials formed the upper class in ancient Egypt, known as the “white kilt class” in reference to the bleached linen garments that served as a mark of their rank.[95] The upper class prominently displayed their social status in art and literature. Below the nobility were the priests, physicians, and engineers with specialized training in their field. Slavery was known in ancient Egypt, but the extent and prevalence of its practice are unclear.[96]

Punishment in ancient Egypt.

Unknown –

Punishment in Ancient Egypt. Slave (?) beating in Ancient Egypt

Public Domain, File:Slavebeating.jpg, Uploaded by Artuller, Created: Wall painting from 15th century BC Egyptian tomb.

Young Egyptian laborers treated by doctors after circumcision, as a part of a rite of passage to citizenship.

Young Egyptian laborers treated by doctors after circumcision, as a part of a rite of passage to citizenship.

GoShow – Own workFlickr photo

This is a poor papyri copy reproduced sold to tourists from an original relief line-art of the ancient Egyptian stela now on display at the Oriental Institute in Chicago, Illinois. It is a depiction originally in Ankhmahor’s tomb dating to Dynasty 6 and reign of King Teti (2355-2343 BCE) which appears on the east thickness of a doorway in the tomb in the pyramid complex of Teti. Depicting two men being circumcised, the scene has been interpreted in different ways however the nude male at right is surmounted by an inscription in which he says: sin wnnt r mnx (“Sever, indeed, thoroughly”) and the man kneeling before him, identifed as a Hm-kA, mortuary priest, says: iw(.i) r irt r nDm (“I will proceed carefully”). Finally the man doing the restraining is saying: nDr sw m rdi dbA.f (“Hold him fast. Do not let him faint”) whilst the restrainer says: iri.i r Hst.k (“I will do as you wish”). The Greek historian Herodotus, writing in the mid fifth century BCE, stated the Egyptians “practise circumcision for the sake of cleanliness, considering it better to be cleanly than comely.”

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Egyptian Doctor healing laborers on papyrus.jpg, Uploaded by External Radiance, Created: 28 August 2012

The ancient Egyptians viewed men and women, including people from all social classes except slaves, as essentially equal under the law, and even the lowliest peasant was entitled to petition the vizier and his court for redress.[97] Although, slaves were mostly used as indentured servants. They were able to buy and sell, or work their way to freedom or nobility, and usually were treated by doctors in the workplace.[98] Both men and women had the right to own and sell property, make contracts, marry and divorce, receive inheritance, and pursue legal disputes in court. Married couples could own property jointly and protect themselves from divorce by agreeing to marriage contracts, which stipulated the financial obligations of the husband to his wife and children should the marriage end. Compared with their counterparts in ancient Greece, Rome, and even more modern places around the world, ancient Egyptian women had a greater range of personal choices and opportunities for achievement. Women such as Hatshepsut and Cleopatra VI even became pharaohs, while others wielded power as Divine Wives of Amun. Despite these freedoms, ancient Egyptian women did not often take part in official roles in the administration, served only secondary roles in the temples, and were not as likely to be as educated as men.[97]

Scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.

Original by User:Rama, photoshop cropped and background darkened version by User:Jeff Dahl – Original by User:Rama, photoshop cropped and background darkened version by User:Jeff Dahl

Cropped and background darkened version (photoshop) of Image:Louvre-antiquites-egyptiennes-p1020372.jpg which is available under CC-BY-SA 2.0 France

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Louvre-antiquites-egyptiennes-p1020372 Cropped and bg reduced.png, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 9-19-07

Legal system

The head of the legal system was officially the pharaoh, who was responsible for enacting laws, delivering justice, and maintaining law and order, a concept the ancient Egyptians referred to as Ma’at.[88] Although no legal codes from ancient Egypt survive, court documents show that Egyptian law was based on a common-sense view of right and wrong that emphasized reaching agreements and resolving conflicts rather than strictly adhering to a complicated set of statutes.[97] Local councils of elders, known as Kenbet in the New Kingdom, were responsible for ruling in court cases involving small claims and minor disputes.[88] More serious cases involving murder, major land transactions, and tomb robbery were referred to the Great Kenbet, over which the vizier or pharaoh presided. Plaintiffs and defendants were expected to represent themselves and were required to swear an oath that they had told the truth. In some cases, the state took on both the role of prosecutor and judge, and it could torture the accused with beatings to obtain a confession and the names of any co-conspirators. Whether the charges were trivial or serious, court scribes documented the complaint, testimony, and verdict of the case for future reference.[99]

Punishment for minor crimes involved either imposition of fines, beatings, facial mutilation, or exile, depending on the severity of the offense. Serious crimes such as murder and tomb robbery were punished by execution, carried out by decapitation, drowning, or impaling the criminal on a stake. Punishment could also be extended to the criminal’s family.[88] Beginning in the New Kingdom, oracles played a major role in the legal system, dispensing justice in both civil and criminal cases. The procedure was to ask the god a “yes” or “no” question concerning the right or wrong of an issue. The god, carried by a number of priests, rendered judgment by choosing one or the other, moving forward or backward, or pointing to one of the answers written on a piece of papyrus or an ostracon.[100]


See also: Ancient Egyptian agriculture, Ancient Egyptian cuisine and Gardens of ancient Egypt

A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.

A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.

Norman de Garis Davies, Nina Davies (2-dimensional 1 to 1 Copy of an 15th century BC Picture) – Matthias Seidel, Abdel Ghaffar Shedid: Das Grab des Nacht. Kunst und Geschichte eines Beamtengrabes der 18. Dynastie in Theben-West, von Zabern, Mainz 1991 ISBN 3805313322

Agricultural scene from the tomb of Nakht, 18th Dynasty Thebes

Public Domain, File:Tomb of Nakht (2).jpg, Uploaded by Marcus Cyron, Created: 31 December 1906

Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes, Egypt (Eighteenth dynasty).

Alma E. Guinness – Guiness, Alma E..”Reader’s Digest: Mysteries of the Bible: The Enduring Question of the Scriptures”.Pleasantville, New York/Montreal.The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc.1988.ISBN: 0-89577-293-0

Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the Tomb of Menena, at Thebes (18th dynasty).

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Measure and Harvest005.jpg, Uploaded by External Radiance, Created: 19 June 2012

Alma E. Guinness – Guiness, Alma E..”Reader’s Digest: Mysteries of the Bible: The Enduring Question of the Scriptures”.Pleasantville, New York/Montreal.The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc.1988.ISBN: 0-89577-293-0

Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the Tomb of Menena, at Thebes (18th dynasty).

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Measure and Harvest005.jpg, Uploaded by External Radiance, Created: 19 June 2012

A combination of favorable geographical features contributed to the success of ancient Egyptian culture, the most important of which was the rich fertile soil resulting from annual inundations of the Nile River. The ancient Egyptians were thus able to produce an abundance of food, allowing the population to devote more time and resources to cultural, technological, and artistic pursuits. Land management was crucial in ancient Egypt because taxes were assessed based on the amount of land a person owned.[101]

Farming in Egypt was dependent on the cycle of the Nile River. The Egyptians recognized three seasons: Akhet (flooding), Peret (planting), and Shemu (harvesting). The flooding season lasted from June to September, depositing on the river’s banks a layer of mineral-rich silt ideal for growing crops. After the floodwaters had receded, the growing season lasted from October to February. Farmers plowed and planted seeds in the fields, which were irrigated with ditches and canals. Egypt received little rainfall, so farmers relied on the Nile to water their crops.[102] From March to May, farmers used sickles to harvest their crops, which were then threshed with a flail to separate the straw from the grain. Winnowing removed the chaff from the grain, and the grain was then ground into flour, brewed to make beer, or stored for later use.[103]

The ancient Egyptians cultivated emmer and barley, and several other cereal grains, all of which were used to make the two main food staples of bread and beer.[104] Flax plants, uprooted before they started flowering, were grown for the fibers of their stems. These fibers were split along their length and spun into thread, which was used to weave sheets of linen and to make clothing. Papyrus growing on the banks of the Nile River was used to make paper. Vegetables and fruits were grown in garden plots, close to habitations and on higher ground, and had to be watered by hand. Vegetables included leeks, garlic, melons, squashes, pulses, lettuce, and other crops, in addition to grapes that were made into wine.[105]

Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.

Painter of the burial chamber of Sennedjem – The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH.

File:Maler der Grabkammer des Sennudem 001.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: circa 1200 BCE

Hatshepsuts Trading Expedition to the Land of Punt.


This is a fine relief of members of Hatshepsut’s trading expedition to the mysterious ‘Land of Punt’ from this pharaoh’s elegant mortuary temple at Deir El-Bahri. In this scene, Egyptian soldiers bear tree branches and axes.

CC BY 2.0, File:Relief of Hatshepsut’s expedition to the Land of Punt by ???????.jpg, Uploaded by Soerfm, Created: 11 September 2008


The Egyptians believed that a balanced relationship between people and animals was an essential element of the cosmic order; thus humans, animals and plants were believed to be members of a single whole.[106] Animals, both domesticated and wild, were therefore a critical source of spirituality, companionship, and sustenance to the ancient Egyptians. Cattle were the most important livestock; the administration collected taxes on livestock in regular censuses, and the size of a herd reflected the prestige and importance of the estate or temple that owned them. In addition to cattle, the ancient Egyptians kept sheep, goats, and pigs. Poultry such as ducks, geese, and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them.[107] The Nile provided a plentiful source of fish. Bees were also domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, and they provided both honey and wax.[108]

The ancient Egyptians used donkeys and oxen as beasts of burden, and they were responsible for plowing the fields and trampling seed into the soil. The slaughter of a fattened ox was also a central part of an offering ritual.[107] Horses were introduced by the Hyksos in the Second Intermediate Period, and the camel, although known from the New Kingdom, was not used as a beast of burden until the Late Period. There is also evidence to suggest that elephants were briefly utilized in the Late Period, but largely abandoned due to lack of grazing land.[107] Dogs, cats and monkeys were common family pets, while more exotic pets imported from the heart of Africa, such as lions, were reserved for royalty. Herodotus observed that the Egyptians were the only people to keep their animals with them in their houses.[106] During the Predynastic and Late periods, the worship of the gods in their animal form was extremely popular, such as the cat goddess Bastet and the ibis god Thoth, and these animals were bred in large numbers on farms for the purpose of ritual sacrifice.[109]

Natural resources

Further information: Mining industry of Egypt

Egypt is rich in building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones. These natural resources allowed the ancient Egyptians to build monuments, sculpt statues, make tools, and fashion jewelry.[110] Embalmers used salts from the Wadi Natrun for mummification, which also provided the gypsum needed to make plaster.[111] Ore-bearing rock formations were found in distant, inhospitable wadis in the eastern desert and the Sinai, requiring large, state-controlled expeditions to obtain natural resources found there. There were extensive gold mines in Nubia, and one of the first maps known is of a gold mine in this region. The Wadi Hammamat was a notable source of granite, greywacke, and gold. Flint was the first mineral collected and used to make tools, and flint handaxes are the earliest pieces of evidence of habitation in the Nile valley. Nodules of the mineral were carefully flaked to make blades and arrowheads of moderate hardness and durability even after copper was adopted for this purpose.[112] Ancient Egyptians were among the first to use minerals such as sulfur as cosmetic substances.[113]

The Egyptians worked deposits of the lead ore galena at Gebel Rosas to make net sinkers, plumb bobs, and small figurines. Copper was the most important metal for toolmaking in ancient Egypt and was smelted in furnaces from malachite ore mined in the Sinai.[114] Workers collected gold by washing the nuggets out of sediment in alluvial deposits, or by the more labor-intensive process of grinding and washing gold-bearing quartzite. Iron deposits found in upper Egypt were utilized in the Late Period.[115] High-quality building stones were abundant in Egypt; the ancient Egyptians quarried limestone all along the Nile valley, granite from Aswan, and basalt and sandstone from the wadis of the eastern desert. Deposits of decorative stones such as porphyry, greywacke, alabaster, and carnelian dotted the eastern desert and were collected even before the First Dynasty. In the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods, miners worked deposits of emeralds in Wadi Sikait and amethyst in Wadi el-Hudi.[116]


Ancient Egyptian trade

Hatshepsut’s trading expedition to the Land of Punt.

The ancient Egyptians engaged in trade with their foreign neighbors to obtain rare, exotic goods not found in Egypt. In the Predynastic Period, they established trade with Nubia to obtain gold and incense. They also established trade with Palestine, as evidenced by Palestinian-style oil jugs found in the burials of the First Dynasty pharaohs.[117] An Egyptian colony stationed in southern Canaan dates to slightly before the First Dynasty.[118] Narmer had Egyptian pottery produced in Canaan and exported back to Egypt.[119]

By the Second Dynasty at latest, ancient Egyptian trade with Byblos yielded a critical source of quality timber not found in Egypt. By the Fifth Dynasty, trade with Punt provided gold, aromatic resins, ebony, ivory, and wild animals such as monkeys and baboons.[120] Egypt relied on trade with Anatolia for essential quantities of tin as well as supplementary supplies of copper, both metals being necessary for the manufacture of bronze. The ancient Egyptians prized the blue stone lapis lazuli, which had to be imported from far-away Afghanistan. Egypt’s Mediterranean trade partners also included Greece and Crete, which provided, among other goods, supplies of olive oil.[121] In exchange for its luxury imports and raw materials, Egypt mainly exported grain, gold, linen, and papyrus, in addition to other finished goods including glass and stone objects.[122]

Please continue to view Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic and Egyptian Art History Part 2”

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Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic and Egyptian Art History Part 2

Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic

And Egyptian Art History Part 2

Ing’s Peace Poem “Peace Comes to You”

Translated into Arabic by Nancy Emad on October 14, 2015

Egyptian language

The Egyptian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic language closely related to the Berber and Semitic languages.[123] It has the second longest history of any language (after Sumerian), having been written from c. 3200 BC to the Middle Ages and remaining as a spoken language for longer. The phases of ancient Egyptian are Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian (Classical Egyptian), Late Egyptian, Demotic and Coptic.[124] Egyptian writings do not show dialect differences before Coptic, but it was probably spoken in regional dialects around Memphis and later Thebes.[125]

Ancient Egyptian was a synthetic language, but it became more analytic later on. Late Egyptian develops prefixal definite and indefinite articles, which replace the older inflectional suffixes. There is a change from the older verb–subject–object word order to subject–verb–object.[126] The Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts were eventually replaced by the more phonetic Coptic alphabet. Coptic is still used in the liturgy of the Egyptian Orthodox Church, and traces of it are found in modern Egyptian Arabic.[127]

Sounds and grammar

Ancient Egyptian has 25 consonants similar to those of other Afro-Asiatic languages. These include pharyngeal and emphatic consonants, voiced and voiceless stops, voiceless fricatives and voiced and voiceless affricates. It has three long and three short vowels, which expanded in Later Egyptian to about nine.[128] The basic word in Egyptian, similar to Semitic and Berber, is a triliteral or biliteral root of consonants and semiconsonants. Suffixes are added to form words. The verb conjugation corresponds to the person. For example, the triconsonantal skeleton S-?-M is the semantic core of the word ‘hear’; its basic conjugation is s?m, ‘he hears’. If the subject is a noun, suffixes are not added to the verb:[129] s?m ?mt, ‘the woman hears’.

Adjectives are derived from nouns through a process that Egyptologists call nisbation because of its similarity with Arabic.[130] The word order is predicate–subject in verbal and adjectival sentences, and subject–predicate in nominal and adverbial sentences.[131] The subject can be moved to the beginning of sentences if it is long and is followed by a resumptive pronoun.[132] Verbs and nouns are negated by the particle n, but nn is used for adverbial and adjectival sentences. Stress falls on the ultimate or penultimate syllable, which can be open (CV) or closed (CVC).[133]


Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic

The Rosetta stone (ca 196 BC) enabled linguists to begin the process of hieroglyph decipherment.[134]

Unknown – The website of the European Space Agency (ESA) [1]

A picture of the Rosetta Stone, in a high contrast, readable format

Public Domainview terms, File:Rosetta Stone BW.jpeg, Uploaded by Ssolbergj, Created: 3 January 2009

Hieroglyphic writing dates from c. 3000 BC, and is composed of hundreds of symbols. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts. Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed as individual works of art. In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic, which was quicker and easier. While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction (though typically written from right to left), hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows. A new form of writing, Demotic, became the prevalent writing style, and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompany the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.[135]

Around the first century AD, the Coptic alphabet started to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a modified Greek alphabet with the addition of some Demotic signs.[136] Although formal hieroglyphs were used in a ceremonial role until the fourth century, towards the end only a small handful of priests could still read them. As the traditional religious establishments were disbanded, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. Attempts to decipher them date to the Byzantine[137] and Islamic periods in Egypt,[138] but only in 1822, after the discovery of the Rosetta stone and years of research by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion, were hieroglyphs almost fully deciphered.[139]


Ancient Egyptian literature

The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC) describes anatomy and medical treatments and is written in hieratic.

The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC) describes anatomy and medical treatments and is written in hieratic.

Jeff Dahl – Edited version of Image:EdSmPaPlateVIandVIIPrintsx.jpg

The Edwin Smith papyrus, the world’s oldest surviving surgical document. Written in hieratic script in ancient Egypt around 1600 B.C., the text describes anatomical observations and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 48 types of medical problems in exquisite detail. Among the treatments described are closing wounds with sutures, preventing and curing infection with honey and moldy bread, stopping bleeding with raw meat, and immobilization of head and spinal cord injuries. Translated in 1930, the document reveals the sophistication and practicality of ancient Egyptian medicine. Plate 6 and 7 of the papyrus, pictured here, discuss facial trauma.

Public Domainview terms, File:Edwin Smith Papyrus v2.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Uploaded: 4 October 2007

Writing first appeared in association with kingship on labels and tags for items found in royal tombs. It was primarily an occupation of the scribes, who worked out of the Per Ankh institution or the House of Life. The latter comprised offices, libraries (called House of Books), laboratories and observatories.[140] Some of the best-known pieces of ancient Egyptian literature, such as the Pyramid and Coffin Texts, were written in Classical Egyptian, which continued to be the language of writing until about 1300 BC. Later Egyptian was spoken from the New Kingdom onward and is represented in Ramesside administrative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in Demotic and Coptic texts. During this period, the tradition of writing had evolved into the tomb autobiography, such as those of Harkhuf and Weni. The genre known as Sebayt (“instructions”) was developed to communicate teachings and guidance from famous nobles; the Ipuwer papyrus, a poem of lamentations describing natural disasters and social upheaval, is a famous example.

The Story of Sinuhe, written in Middle Egyptian, might be the classic of Egyptian literature.[141] Also written at this time was the Westcar Papyrus, a set of stories told to Khufu by his sons relating the marvels performed by priests.[142] The Instruction of Amenemope is considered a masterpiece of near-eastern literature.[143] Towards the end of the New Kingdom, the vernacular language was more often employed to write popular pieces like the Story of Wenamun and the Instruction of Any. The former tells the story of a noble who is robbed on his way to buy cedar from Lebanon and of his struggle to return to Egypt. From about 700 BC, narrative stories and instructions, such as the popular Instructions of Onchsheshonqy, as well as personal and business documents were written in the demotic script and phase of Egyptian. Many stories written in demotic during the Greco-Roman period were set in previous historical eras, when Egypt was an independent nation ruled by great pharaohs such as Ramesses II.[144]


Daily life

Ostraca of hunting a lion with a spear, aided by a dog.

Keith Schengili-Roberts – Own Work (photo)

Ostracon from the Ramesside period, dynasties 19-20. From Thebes.

CC BY-SA 2.5view terms, File:Ostracon04-RamessidePeriod MetropolitanMuseum.png, Uploaded by Captmondo, Created: 2 February 2007

Statues depicting lower-class ancient Egyptian occupations.

Wells, H. G. – The outline of history, being a plain history of life and mankind. New York: The Macmillan.

Low Class Ancient Egyptian Statuettes

PD-US, File:LowClassAncientEgyptianStatuettes.png, Uploaded by Reddi, Created: 1921

A painted depiction of Senet (in the tomb of Queen Nefertari, Valley of the Queens, Thebes, Egypt), one of the world’s earliest known board games.

Maler der Grabkammer der Nefertari – The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH.

File:Maler der Grabkammer der Nefertari 003.jpg, Uploaded by File Upload Bot (Eloquence), Created: circa 1298-1235 BCE

Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day. Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling grain and a small oven for baking the bread.[145] Walls were painted white and could be covered with dyed linen wall hangings. Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.[146]

The ancient Egyptians placed a great value on hygiene and appearance. Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty soap made from animal fat and chalk. Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness; perfumes and aromatic ointments covered bad odors and soothed skin.[147] Clothing was made from simple linen sheets that were bleached white, and both men and women of the upper classes wore wigs, jewelry, and cosmetics. Children went without clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved. Mothers were responsible for taking care of the children, while the father provided the family’s income.[148]

The ancient Egyptians maintained a rich cultural heritage complete with feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.

Ägyptischer Maler um 1400 v. Chr. – The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH.

File:Musicians and dancers on fresco at Tomb of Nebamun.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 1420-1

Music and dance were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular. In the New Kingdom, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, drums, and imported lutes and lyres from Asia.[149] The sistrum was a rattle-like musical instrument that was especially important in religious ceremonies.

The ancient Egyptians enjoyed a variety of leisure activities, including games and music. Senet, a board game where pieces moved according to random chance, was particularly popular from the earliest times; another similar game was mehen, which had a circular gaming board. Juggling and ball games were popular with children, and wrestling is also documented in a tomb at Beni Hasan.[150] The wealthy members of ancient Egyptian society enjoyed hunting and boating as well.

The excavation of the workers’ village of Deir el-Madinah has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of community life in the ancient world that spans almost four hundred years. There is no comparable site in which the organisation, social interactions, working and living conditions of a community were studied in such detail.[151]


Ancient Egyptian cuisine

Egyptian cuisine remained remarkably stable over time; indeed, the cuisine of modern Egypt retains some striking similarities to the cuisine of the ancients. The staple diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs. Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days while the upper classes indulged on a more regular basis. Fish, meat, and fowl could be salted or dried, and could be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.[152]

Karnak temple’s hypostyle halls are constructed with rows of thick columns supporting the roof beams.

Jon Bodsworth –

Hypostyle hall in Karnak temple

the author Jon Bodsworth would appreciate an email: As of March 2011,

File:Hypostyle hall, Karnak temple.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 9-28-07


Ancient Egyptian architecture

The well preserved Temple of Horus at Edfu is an exemplar of Egyptian architecture.

Steve F-E-Cameron (Merlin-UK) – My photograph

Approach and first pylon – Temple of Horus @ Edfu

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:S F-E-CAMERON EGYPT 2006 FEB 00289.JPG, Uploaded by Merlin-UK, Created: 31 December 2005

The architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the most famous structures in the world: the Great Pyramids of Giza and the temples at Thebes. Building projects were organized and funded by the state for religious and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the power of the pharaoh. The ancient Egyptians were skilled builders; using simple but effective tools and sighting instruments, architects could build large stone structures with accuracy and precision.[153]

The domestic dwellings of elite and ordinary Egyptians alike were constructed from perishable materials such as mud bricks and wood, and have not survived. Peasants lived in simple homes, while the palaces of the elite were more elaborate structures. A few surviving New Kingdom palaces, such as those in Malkata and Amarna, show richly decorated walls and floors with scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geometric designs.[154] Important structures such as temples and tombs that were intended to last forever were constructed of stone instead of bricks. The architectural elements used in the world’s first large-scale stone building, Djoser‘s mortuary complex, include post and lintel supports in the papyrus and lotus motif.

The earliest preserved ancient Egyptian temples, such as those at Giza, consist of single, enclosed halls with roof slabs supported by columns. In the New Kingdom, architects added the pylon, the open courtyard, and the enclosed hypostyle hall to the front of the temple’s sanctuary, a style that was standard until the Greco-Roman period.[155] The earliest and most popular tomb architecture in the Old Kingdom was the mastaba, a flat-roofed rectangular structure of mudbrick or stone built over an underground burial chamber. The step pyramid of Djoser is a series of stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms, but most later rulers abandoned them in favor of less conspicuous rock-cut tombs.[156] The Twenty-fifth dynasty was a notable exception, as all Twenty-fifth dynasty pharaohs constructed pyramids.[64][65][66]


The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art.

Arkadiy Etumyan – Own work

Bust of queen Nefertiti in the Neues Museum, Berlin

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Nefertiti 30-01-2006.jpg, Uploaded by Gutza, Created: 28 January 2006

Art of ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians produced art to serve functional purposes. For over 3500 years, artists adhered to artistic forms and iconography that were developed during the Old Kingdom, following a strict set of principles that resisted foreign influence and internal change.[157] These artistic standards—simple lines, shapes, and flat areas of color combined with the characteristic flat projection of figures with no indication of spatial depth—created a sense of order and balance within a composition. Images and text were intimately interwoven on tomb and temple walls, coffins, stelae, and even statues. The Narmer Palette, for example, displays figures that can also be read as hieroglyphs.[158] Because of the rigid rules that governed its highly stylized and symbolic appearance, ancient Egyptian art served its political and religious purposes with precision and clarity.[159]

Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone to carve statues and fine reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved substitute. Paints were obtained from minerals such as iron ores (red and yellow ochres), copper ores (blue and green), soot or charcoal (black), and limestone (white). Paints could be mixed with gum arabic as a binder and pressed into cakes, which could be moistened with water when needed.[160]

Pharaohs used reliefs to record victories in battle, royal decrees, and religious scenes. Common citizens had access to pieces of funerary art, such as shabti statues and books of the dead, which they believed would protect them in the afterlife.[161] During the Middle Kingdom, wooden or clay models depicting scenes from everyday life became popular additions to the tomb. In an attempt to duplicate the activities of the living in the afterlife, these models show laborers, houses, boats, and even military formations that are scale representations of the ideal ancient Egyptian afterlife.[162]

Despite the homogeneity of ancient Egyptian art, the styles of particular times and places sometimes reflected changing cultural or political attitudes. After the invasion of the Hyksos in the Second Intermediate Period, Minoan-style frescoes were found in Avaris.[163] The most striking example of a politically driven change in artistic forms comes from the Amarna period, where figures were radically altered to conform to Akhenaten‘s revolutionary religious ideas.[164] This style, known as Amarna art, was quickly and thoroughly erased after Akhenaten’s death and replaced by the traditional forms.[165]

Religious beliefs

Ancient Egyptian religion

The Book of the Dead was a guide to the deceased’s journey in the afterlife.

unknown Egyptian artisan – Jon Bodsworth (photographer)

Weighing of the heart scene, with en:Ammit sitting, from the book of the dead of Hunefer. From the source: “The judgement, from the papyrus of the scribe Hunefer. 19th Dynasty. Hunefer is conducted to the balance by jackal-headed Anubis. The monster Ammut crouches beneath the balance so as to swallow the heart should a life of wickedness be indicated. EA9901.” Anubis conducts the weighing on the scale of Maat, against the feather of truth. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart is lighter than the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the waiting chimeric devouring creature Ammit, which is composed of the deadly crocodile, lion, and hippopotamus. In the next panel, showing the scene after the weighing, a triumphant Hunefer, having passed the test, is presented by falcon-headed Horus to the shrine of the green-skinned Osiris, god of the underworld and the dead, accompanied by Isis and Nephthys. The 14 gods of Egypt are shown seated above, in the order of judges.

File:BD Hunefer.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 8 December 2007

Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were ingrained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its inception; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of kings. The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection. However, the gods were not always viewed as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be appeased with offerings and prayers. The structure of this pantheon changed continually as new deities were promoted in the hierarchy, but priests made no effort to organize the diverse and sometimes conflicting myths and stories into a coherent system.[166] These various conceptions of divinity were not considered contradictory but rather layers in the multiple facets of reality.[167]

The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest

The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest

Jon Bodsworth –

Ka statue of Horawibra – (Pharaoh w:Hor)

the author Jon Bodsworth would appreciate an email: As of March 2011

File:Ka Statue of horawibra.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 10 December 2007

Gods were worshiped in cult temples administered by priests acting on the king’s behalf. At the center of the temple was the cult statue in a shrine. Temples were not places of public worship or congregation, and only on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carrying the statue of the god brought out for public worship. Normally, the god’s domain was sealed off from the outside world and was only accessible to temple officials. Common citizens could worship private statues in their homes, and amulets offered protection against the forces of chaos.[168] After the New Kingdom, the pharaoh’s role as a spiritual intermediary was de-emphasized as religious customs shifted to direct worship of the gods. As a result, priests developed a system of oracles to communicate the will of the gods directly to the people.[169]

The Egyptians believed that every human being was composed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects. In addition to the body, each person had a šwt (shadow), a ba (personality or soul), a ka (life-force), and a name.[170] The heart, rather than the brain, was considered the seat of thoughts and emotions. After death, the spiritual aspects were released from the body and could move at will, but they required the physical remains (or a substitute, such as a statue) as a permanent home. The ultimate goal of the deceased was to rejoin his ka and ba and become one of the “blessed dead”, living on as an akh, or “effective one”. For this to happen, the deceased had to be judged worthy in a trial, in which the heart was weighed against a “feather of truth”. If deemed worthy, the deceased could continue their existence on earth in spiritual form.[171]

Pharaohs’ tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as this golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.

Jon Bodsworth –

Golden funeral mask of king Tutankham

The author Jon Bodsworth would appreciate an email: As of March 2011

File:Tutmask.jpg, Uploaded by Robors, Created: 10 December 2007

Burial customs

Ancient Egyptian burial customs

The ancient Egyptians maintained an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure immortality after death. These customs involved preserving the body by mummification, performing burial ceremonies, and interring with the body goods the deceased would use in the afterlife.[161] Before the Old Kingdom, bodies buried in desert pits were naturally preserved by desiccation. The arid, desert conditions were a boon throughout the history of ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the elaborate burial preparations available to the elite. Wealthier Egyptians began to bury their dead in stone tombs and use artificial mummification, which involved removing the internal organs, wrapping the body in linen, and burying it in a rectangular stone sarcophagus or wooden coffin. Beginning in the Fourth Dynasty, some parts were preserved separately in canopic jars.[172]

Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.

self – website

Picture of wall painting from the tomb of Sennedjem. Anubis attending the mummy of the deceased.

File:Anubis attending the mummy of Sennedjem.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 9-13-07

By the New Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had perfected the art of mummification; the best technique took 70 days and involved removing the internal organs, removing the brain through the nose, and desiccating the body in a mixture of salts called natron. The body was then wrapped in linen with protective amulets inserted between layers and placed in a decorated anthropoid coffin. Mummies of the Late Period were also placed in painted cartonnage mummy cases. Actual preservation practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Roman eras, while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appearance of the mummy, which was decorated.[173]

Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods for the deceased. Beginning in the New Kingdom, books of the dead were included in the grave, along with shabti statues that were believed to perform manual labor for them in the afterlife.[174] Rituals in which the deceased was magically re-animated accompanied burials. After burial, living relatives were expected to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased.[175]


Military of ancient Egypt

An Egyptian chariot.

Joseph Bonomi – Scanned from Nineveh and Its Palaces, by Joseph Bonomi, figure 108

Egyptian Chariot, Char Egyptien

File:Egyptian-Chariot.png, Uploaded by Bf5man, Created: 31 December 1852,

The ancient Egyptian military was responsible for defending Egypt against foreign invasion, and for maintaining Egypt’s domination in the ancient Near East. The military protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods. The military was responsible for maintaining fortifications along important trade routes, such as those found at the city of Buhen on the way to Nubia. Forts also were constructed to serve as military bases, such as the fortress at Sile, which was a base of operations for expeditions to the Levant. In the New Kingdom, a series of pharaohs used the standing Egyptian army to attack and conquer Kush and parts of the Levant.[176]

Typical military equipment included bows and arrows, spears, and round-topped shields made by stretching animal skin over a wooden frame. In the New Kingdom, the military began using chariots that had earlier been introduced by the Hyksos invaders. Weapons and armor continued to improve after the adoption of bronze: shields were now made from solid wood with a bronze buckle, spears were tipped with a bronze point, and the Khopesh was adopted from Asiatic soldiers.[177] The pharaoh was usually depicted in art and literature riding at the head of the army; it has been suggested that at least a few pharaohs, such as Seqenenre Tao II and his sons, did do so.[178] However, it has also been argued that “kings of this period did not personally act as frontline war leaders, fighting alongside their troops.”[179] Soldiers were recruited from the general population, but during, and especially after, the New Kingdom, mercenaries from Nubia, Kush, and Libya were hired to fight for Egypt.[180]

Technology, medicine, and mathematics


Ancient Egyptian technology

In technology, medicine and mathematics, ancient Egypt achieved a relatively high standard of productivity and sophistication. Traditional empiricism, as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri (c. 1600 BC), is first credited to Egypt. The Egyptians created their own alphabet and decimal system.

Glassmaking was a highly developed art.

Jon Bodsworth –

Ancient Egyptian glass jar from the New Kingdom. Matériaux : Pâte de verre.

the author Jon Bodsworth would appreciate an email: As of March 2011

File:Egyptian glass jar.jpg, Uploaded by Jeff Dahl, Created: 8 December 2007

Faience and glass

Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had developed a glassy material known as faience, which they treated as a type of artificial semi-precious stone. Faience is a non-clay ceramic made of silica, small amounts of lime and soda, and a colorant, typically copper.[181] The material was used to make beads, tiles, figurines, and small wares. Several methods can be used to create faience, but typically production involved application of the powdered materials in the form of a paste over a clay core, which was then fired. By a related technique, the ancient Egyptians produced a pigment known as Egyptian Blue, also called blue frit, which is produced by fusing (or sintering) silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as natron. The product can be ground up and used as a pigment.[182]

The ancient Egyptians could fabricate a wide variety of objects from glass with great skill, but it is not clear whether they developed the process independently.[183] It is also unclear whether they made their own raw glass or merely imported pre-made ingots, which they melted and finished. However, they did have technical expertise in making objects, as well as adding trace elements to control the color of the finished glass. A range of colors could be produced, including yellow, red, green, blue, purple, and white, and the glass could be made either transparent or opaque.[184]


Ancient Egyptian medicine

Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic period inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo.

Jeff Dahl – self-made, taken May 2005

Inscription detailing ancient Egyptian medical instruments, including bone saws, suction cups, knives and scalpels, retractors, scales, lances, chisels and dental tools.

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Ancient Egyptian medical instruments.jpg, Uploaded by JMCC1, Created: 7 May 0010

The medical problems of the ancient Egyptians stemmed directly from their environment. Living and working close to the Nile brought hazards from malaria and debilitating schistosomiasis parasites, which caused liver and intestinal damage. Dangerous wildlife such as crocodiles and hippos were also a common threat. The lifelong labors of farming and building put stress on the spine and joints, and traumatic injuries from construction and warfare all took a significant toll on the body. The grit and sand from stone-ground flour abraded teeth, leaving them susceptible to abscesses (though caries were rare).[185]

The diets of the wealthy were rich in sugars, which promoted periodontal disease.[186] Despite the flattering physiques portrayed on tomb walls, the overweight mummies of many of the upper class show the effects of a life of overindulgence.[187] Adult life expectancy was about 35 for men and 30 for women, but reaching adulthood was difficult as about one-third of the population died in infancy.[188]

Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, such as Imhotep, remained famous long after their deaths.[189] Herodotus remarked that there was a high degree of specialization among Egyptian physicians, with some treating only the head or the stomach, while others were eye-doctors and dentists.[190] Training of physicians took place at the Per Ankh or “House of Life” institution, most notably those headquartered in Per-Bastet during the New Kingdom and at Abydos and Saïs in the Late period. Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments.[191]

Wounds were treated by bandaging with raw meat, white linen, sutures, nets, pads, and swabs soaked with honey to prevent infection,[192] while opium thyme and belladona were used to relieve pain. The earliest records of burn treatment describe burn dressings that use the milk from mothers of male babies. Prayers were made to the goddess Isis. Moldy bread, honey and copper salts were also used to prevent infection from dirt in burns.[193] Garlic and onions were used regularly to promote good health and were thought to relieve asthma symptoms. Ancient Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bones, and amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some injuries were so serious that they could only make the patient comfortable until death occurred.[194]


Seagoing ship from Hateshepsut’s Deir el-Bahari temple relief of a Punt Expedition

Hateshepsut Deir-Bahari temple wall relief – Memphis University Press

File:Ancient Egyptian Seafaring Ship.jpg, Uploaded by VitoPisani, Created: 29 April 2014

Documented extent of Ancient Egyptian geographic knowledge

John D. Croft – Own work

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Language Maps Known Egyptian World 1.jpg, Uploaded by John D. Croft, Created: 13 January 2014

Early Egyptians knew how to assemble planks of wood into a ship hull and had mastered advanced forms of shipbuilding as early as 3000 BC. The Archaeological Institute of America reports that some of the oldest ships yet unearthed are known as the Abydos boats.[6] These are a group of 14 discovered ships in Abydos that were constructed of wooden planks “sewn” together. Discovered by Egyptologist David O’Connor of New York University,[195] woven straps were found to have been used to lash the planks together,[6] and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams.[6] Because the ships are all buried together and near a mortuary belonging to Pharaoh Khasekhemwy, originally they were all thought to have belonged to him, but one of the 14 ships dates to 3000 BC, and the associated pottery jars buried with the vessels also suggest earlier dating. The ship dating to 3000 BC was 75 feet (23 m) long and is now thought to perhaps have belonged to an earlier pharaoh. According to professor O’Connor, the 5,000-year-old ship may have even belonged to Pharaoh Aha.[195]

Early Egyptians also knew how to assemble planks of wood with treenails to fasten them together, using pitch for caulking the seams. The “Khufu ship“, a 43.6-metre (143 ft) vessel sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza in the Fourth Dynasty around 2500 BC, is a full-size surviving example that may have filled the symbolic function of a solar barque. Early Egyptians also knew how to fasten the planks of this ship together with mortise and tenon joints.[6]

Large seagoing ships are known to have been heavily used by the Egyptians in their trade with the city states of the eastern Mediterranean, especially Byblos (on the coast of modern-day Lebanon), and in several expeditions down the Red Sea to the Land of Punt.[196] In fact one of the earliest Egyptian words for a seagoing ship is a “Byblos Ship”, which originally defined a class of Egyptian seagoing ships used on the Byblos run; however, by the end of the Old Kingdom, the term had come to include large seagoing ships, whatever their destination.[197]

In 2011 archaeologists from Italy, the United States, and Egypt excavating a dried-up lagoon known as Mersa Gawasis have unearthed traces of an ancient harbor that once launched early voyages like Hatshepsut‘s Punt expedition onto the open ocean.[198] Some of the site’s most evocative evidence for the ancient Egyptians’ seafaring prowess include large ship timbers and hundreds of feet of ropes, made from papyrus, coiled in huge bundles.[198] And in 2013 a team of Franco-Egyptian archaeologists discovered what is believed to be the world’s oldest port, dating back about 4500 years, from the time of King Cheops on the Red Sea coast near Wadi el-Jarf (about 110 miles south of Suez).[199]


Egyptian mathematics

Astronomical chart in Senemut’s tomb, 18th dynasty[200]

NebMaatRa – selbst

Kalendereinteilung im Grab des Senenmut (TT353); astronomical ceiling in the tomb of Senenmut (TT353)

GPLview terms, File:Senenmut-Grab.JPG, Uploaded by NebMaatRa, Created: 25 July 2008

The earliest attested examples of mathematical calculations date to the predynastic Naqada period, and show a fully developed numeral system.[201] The importance of mathematics to an educated Egyptian is suggested by a New Kingdom fictional letter in which the writer proposes a scholarly competition between himself and another scribe regarding everyday calculation tasks such as accounting of land, labor, and grain.[202] Texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus show that the ancient Egyptians could perform the four basic mathematical operations—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division—use fractions, compute the volumes of boxes and pyramids, and calculate the surface areas of rectangles, triangles, and circles. They understood basic concepts of algebra and geometry, and could solve simple sets of simultaneous equations.[203]

Mathematical notation was decimal, and based on hieroglyphic signs for each power of ten up to one million. Each of these could be written as many times as necessary to add up to the desired number; so to write the number eighty or eight hundred, the symbol for ten or one hundred was written eight times respectively.[204] Because their methods of calculation could not handle most fractions with a numerator greater than one, they had to write fractions as the sum of several fractions. For example, they resolved the fraction two-fifths into the sum of one-third + one-fifteenth. Standard tables of values facilitated this.[205] Some common fractions, however, were written with a special glyph—the equivalent of the modern two-thirds is shown on the right.[206]

Ancient Egyptian mathematicians had a grasp of the principles underlying the Pythagorean theorem, knowing, for example, that a triangle had a right angle opposite the hypotenuse when its sides were in a 3–4–5 ratio.[207] They were able to estimate the area of a circle by subtracting one-ninth from its diameter and squaring the result:

Area ? [(8?9)D]2 = (256?81)r 2 ? 3.16r 2,

a reasonable approximation of the formula ?r 2.[207][208]

The golden ratio seems to be reflected in many Egyptian constructions, including the pyramids, but its use may have been an unintended consequence of the ancient Egyptian practice of combining the use of knotted ropes with an intuitive sense of proportion and harmony.[209]


Tourism in Egypt

Tourists riding a bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The pyramid of Menkaure is on background.

kallerna – Own work

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Camel and the pyramids.jpg, Uploaded by Kallerna, Created: 31 December 2009

Frontispiece of Description de l’Égypte, published in 38 volumes and published by the French government from 1809-1823.

The original uploader was SnowFire at English Wikipedia

EgyptFrontispiece.jpg, Uploaded by Misa123a, Created: 13 November 2006

The culture and monuments of ancient Egypt have left a lasting legacy on the world. The cult of the goddess Isis, for example, became popular in the Roman Empire, as obelisks and other relics were transported back to Rome.[210] The Romans also imported building materials from Egypt to erect Egyptian-style structures. Early historians such as Herodotus, Strabo, and Diodorus Siculus studied and wrote about the land, which Romans came to view as a place of mystery.[211]

During the Middle Ages and The Renaissance, Egyptian pagan culture was in decline after the rise of Christianity and later Islam, but interest in Egyptian antiquity continued in the writings of medieval scholars such as Dhul-Nun al-Misri and al-Maqrizi.[212] In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, European travelers and tourists brought back antiquities and wrote stories of their journeys, leading to a wave of Egyptomania across Europe. This renewed interest sent collectors to Egypt, who took, purchased, or were given many important antiquities.[213]

Although the European colonial occupation of Egypt destroyed a significant portion of the country’s historical legacy, some foreigners had more positive results. Napoleon, for example, arranged the first studies in Egyptology when he brought some 150 scientists and artists to study and document Egypt’s natural history, which was published in the Description de l’?gypte.[214]

In the 20th century AD, the Egyptian Government and archaeologists alike recognized the importance of cultural respect and integrity in excavations. The Supreme Council of Antiquities now approves and oversees all excavations, which are aimed at finding information rather than treasure. The council also supervises museums and monument reconstruction programs designed to preserve the historical legacy of Egypt.

Left:  Early Dynastic Period of Egypt  Stela of the 2nd dynasty pharaoh Raneb, displaying the hieroglyph for his name within a serekh, surmounted by Horus. On display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.Stela of the 2nd dynasty pharaoh Raneb, displaying the hieroglyph for his name within a serekh, surmounted by Horus. On display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Keith Schengili-Roberts – Own Work (photo)

Right:  Old Kingdom, Graywacke statue of the pharaoh Menkaura and his consort Queen Khamerernebty II. Originally from his Giza Valley temple, now on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Graywacke statue of the pharaoh Menkaura and his consort Queen Khamerernebty II. Originally from his Giza Valley temple, now on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.  Keith Schengili-Roberts – Own work (photo)

Left:  Pottery model of a house used in a burial from the First Intermediate Period, on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.  Keith Schengili-Roberts – Own Work (photo)

Right: Sphinx of the Nubian pharaoh TaharqaUdimu (Own work)

Left:  An Osiride statue of Mentuhotep II, the founder of the Middle Kingdom,                                  Jon Bodsworth –

Right:  Statuette of Merankhre Mentuhotep VI, a minor king of the 16th Dynasty, reigning over the Theban region c. 1585 BC.  Juan R. Lazaro – Photo by Juan R. Lazaro,

Egypt and its world in 1300 BC.  Talessman at English Wikipedia

The Great Pyramid (Kheops pyramid).  Alex lbh – Own work

For more information please visit the following links:

Outline of ancient Egypt

Glossary of ancient Egypt artifacts

Index of ancient Egypt-related articles

Toynbee’s law of challenge and response

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Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic and Egyptian Art History Part 3

Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

In ancient times the Egyptian lotus was worshipped, especially in Egypt. It was considered a symbol of creation there. In Ancient Greece, it was a symbol of innocence and modesty.

The Egyptian lotus is the national flower of Egypt. It is depicted on many of the seals of the different Provinces in Thailand. It is also an element of the Coptic flag.

For more information please visit the following link:

Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic

And Egyptian Art History Part 3

Ing’s Peace Poem “Peace Comes to You”

Translated into Arabic by Nancy Emad on October 14, 2015

Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Hatshepsut and Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut c.1473–1458 BC 18th Dynasty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other ancient Egyptians called Maatkare, see Maatkare.


Statue of Hatshepsut on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Postdlf from w

Detail of Hatshepsut, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, c. 1473-1458 B.C. Indurated limestone sculpture at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Hatshepsut is depicted in the clothing of a male king though with a feminine form. Inscriptions on the statue call her “Daughter of en:Re” and “Lady of the Two Lands.” Most of the statue’s fragments were excavated in 1929, by the Museum’s Egyptian Expedition, near Hatshepsut’s funerary temple at Deir el-Bahri in Thebes. The lower part of the statue was acquired by Karl Richard Lepsius and taken to Berlin in 1845. The head, left forearm, and parts of the throne were excavated by the Museum, 1926-27 season and acquired in the division of finds. The Berlin fragment was acquired by the Museum in an exchange in 1929.

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Hatshepsut.jpg, Uploaded by Riccardov, Created: 27 December 2005


Reign           c. 1473–1458 BC (18th Dynasty)

 Predecessor      Thutmose II

Successor           Thutmose III

Royal titulary [show]


Thutmose II




Thutmose I




c. 1507 [2]BC[3]


1458 BC (aged 50)


KV20 (possibly re-interred in KV60[3])


Temple of Karnak, Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Speos Artemidos

Hatshepsut (/hæt???ps?t/;[4] also Hatchepsut; meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies;[5] 1508–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III who had ascended to the throne as a child one year earlier. Hatshepsut was the chief wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. According to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as “the first great woman in history of whom we are informed.”[6]

Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmes. Her husband Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a secondary wife named Mutnofret, who carried the title King’s daughter and was probably a child of Ahmose I. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure. Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife.

Left:  Trade with other countries was re-established; here trees transported by ship from Punt are shown being moved ashore for planting in Egypt—relief from Hatshepsut mortuary temple

83d40m (talk) 00:02, 2 February 2008 (UTC) – Own work (Original text: self-made)

Photograph of a portion of a painted relief showing trees being transported from Punt to Egypt for transplantation; from Deir el Bahari in the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, a pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt reigning from c. 1479 to 1458 BC

File:Trees to transplant from Punt to Egypt – Hatshepsut Mortuary Temple-rotated.jpg, Uploaded by Rotatebot, Created: 1 February 2008

Right:  The Hawk of the Pharaoh, Hatshepsut—Temple at Luxor

Steve F-E-Cameron (Merlin-UK) – Own work (Self Photograph)

CC BY-SA 3.0view terms, File:S F-E-CAMERON Hatshepsut Hawk.JPG, Uploaded by Rotatebot, Created: 31 December 2005

A tree in front of Hatshepsut’s temple, claimed to have been brought from Punt by Hatshepsut’s Expedition which is depicted on the Temple walls, Edal Anton Lefterov – Own work

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Hatshepsut-tree.jpg, Uploaded by Edal, Created: 20 September 2011

Djeser-Djeseru is the main building of Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri. Designed by Senemut, her vizier, the building is an example of perfect symmetry that predates the Parthenon, and it was the first complex built on the site she chose, which would become the Valley of the Kings

Temple of Hatshepsut, Steve F-E-Cameron – Own work, CC BY 3.0view terms, File:SFEC AEH -ThebesNecropolis-2010-Hatshepsut-023.jpg, Uploaded by Merlin-UK,                                 Created: 12 February 2010

Colonnaded design of Hatshepsut temple, Andrea Piroddi – Own work                                         Il tempio di Hatshepsut a Luxor                                                                                                    CC BY-SA 3.0, File:Il tempio di Hatshepsut.JPG, Uploaded by Piroddi.andrea, Uploaded: 8 February 2008

Left:  Large granite sphinx bearing the likeness of the pharaoh Hatshepsut, depicted with the traditional false beard, a symbol of her pharaonic power—Metropolitan Museum of Art                            Keith Schengili-Roberts – Own Work (photo)                                                                       Closeup shot of a large granite sphinx bearing the likeness of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut. Dating to the joint reign of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, circa 1479-1458 B.C.

CC BY-SA 2.5view terms, File:Hatshepsut-CollosalGraniteSphinx02 MetropolitanMuseum.png,              Uploaded by Captmondo, Created: 2 February 2007

Osirian statues of Hatshepsut at her tomb, one stood at each pillar of the extensive structure, note the mummification shroud enclosing the lower body and legs as well as the crook and flail associated with Osiris—Deir el-Bahri, Steve F-E-Cameron (Merlin-UK) – My photograph

Osirian statue of Hatshepsut – Temple of Hatshepsut @ Luxor

CC BY-SA 3.0, File:S F-E-CAMERON 2006-10-EGYPT-WESTBANK-0153.JPG, Uploaded by Merlin-UK, Created: 31 December 2005

A stone statue of Hatshepsut, rob koopman from Leiderdorp, netherlands – Maat-ka-Re Hatsjepsoet (RMO Leiden), Beeld van koningin Hatsjepsoet Maat-ka-Re Hatsjepsoet               (RMO Leiden)

CC BY-SA 2.0, File:WLANL – koopmanrob – Maat-ka-Re Hatsjepsoet (RMO Leiden).jpg, Uploaded by BotMultichillT, Created: 16 June 2009

Sphinx of Hatshepsut with unusual rounded ears and ruff that stress the lioness features of the statue, but with five toes – newel post decorations from the lower ramp of her tomb complex Small sphinx of Hatshepsut, originally positioned on the newel posts of the lower ramp of her temple complex. 18th dynasty, circa 1503-1482 B.C.

Keith Schengili-Roberts – Own Work (photo)

CC BY 2.5view terms, File:Hatshepsut-SmallSphinx MetropolitanMuseum.png, Uploaded by Captmondo, Created: 1 February 2007

These two statues once resembled each other, however, the symbols of her pharaonic power: the Uraeus, Double Crown, and traditional false beard have been stripped from the left image; many images portraying Hatshepsut were destroyed or vandalized within decades of her death, possibly by Amenhotep II at the end of the reign of Thutmose III, while he was his co-regent, in order to assure his own rise to pharaoh and then, to claim many of her accomplishments as his.

JCarriker, uploaded by Giorces – Own work

Hatshepsut, ex enwiki

CC BY 2.5, File:Hatshepsut.jpeg, Uploaded by Giorces, Created: 15 November 2005

The image of Hatshepsut has been deliberately chipped away and removed – Ancient Egyptian wing of the Royal Ontario Museum   Keith Schengili-Roberts – Own Work (photo)

Plaster cast recreation of Queen Hatshepsut’s expedition to punt, the image of the Queen deliberately chipped away and removed. From the Ancient Egyptian wing of the Royal Ontario Museum.

CC BY-SA 3.0view terms, File:QueenHatshepsut-ExpeditionToPunt-PlasterCast-ROM.png, Uploaded by Captmondo, Created: 15 January 2007

Dual stela of Hatshepsut (centre left) in the blue Khepresh crown offering wine to the deity Amun and Thutmose III behind her in the hedjet white crown, standing near WosretVatican Museum

Sebastian Bergmann

This is an important stela which dates to the period between the coregency of Hatshepsut and her stepson / possible son-in law (and successor) Thutmose III from the early 18th dynasty of Egypt. It depicts Hatshepsut (the female king on the centre left) and Thutmose III (behind her) who ruled together during the early New Kingdom.

CC BY-SA 2.0, File:Dual stela of Hatsheput and Thutmose III (Vatican).jpg, Uploaded by JMCC1,             Created: 21 September 2007

Hieroglyphs showing Thutmose III on the left and Hatshepsut on the right, she having the trappings of the greater role — Red Chapel, Karnak

Markh –

Thutmose III and Hatshepsut from the Red Chapel at Karnak

File:Thutmose III and Hatshepsut.jpg, Uploaded by JLCA~commonswiki, Uploaded: 19 October 2006

A Fallen obelisk of Hatshepsut – Karnak.    Olaf Tausch – Own work                                       Fallen Obelisk at the Temple of Karnak north of Luxor, Egypt. (This obelisk was made by Hatshepsut).                                                                                                                                       CC BY 3.0view terms, File:Karnak Tempel Obelisk 04.jpg, Uploaded by Oltau, Created: 1 April 2009

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut                     From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Djeser-Djeseru)

Coordinates: 25.738266°N 32.606588°E

Hatshepsut’s Temple

The Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, the Djeser-Djeseru (“Holy of Holies”), is located beneath the cliffs at Deir el Bahari on the west bank of the Nile near the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. The mortuary temple is dedicated to the sun god Amon-Ra and is located next to the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II, which served both as an inspiration, and later, a quarry. It is considered one of the “incomparable monuments of ancient Egypt.” [1] The temple was the site of the massacre of 62 people, mostly tourists, by Islamist extremists that took place on 17 November 1997.

The Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw is responsible for the study and restoration of the three levels of the temple. As of spring 1995, the first two levels were almost complete, and the top level was still under reconstruction.[2]


HatshepsutsTempleHeight of the cliffs beyond

Deir-El-Bahari prior to reconstruction efforts in early 20th century

Hatshepsut’s chancellor, royal architect Senenmut oversaw construction.[3] Although the adjacent, earlier mortuary temple of Mentuhotep was used as a model, the two structures are nevertheless significantly different in many ways. Hatshepsut’s temple employs a lengthy, colonnaded terrace that deviates from the centralised structure of Mentuhotep’s model – an anomaly that may be caused by the decentralized location of her burial chamber.[1] There are three layered terraces reaching 97 feet tall. Each story is articulated by a double colonnade of square piers, with the exception of the northwest corner of the central terrace, which employs Proto Doric columns to house the chapel. These terraces are connected by long ramps which were once surrounded by gardens with foreign plants including frankincense and myrrh trees.[3] The layering of Hatshepsut’s temple corresponds with the classical Theban form, employing pylons, courts, hypostyle hall, sun court, chapel and sanctuary.

A partially surviving relief in the temple

Relief and sculpture

The relief sculpture within Hatshepsut’s temple recites the tale of the divine birth of a female pharaoh – the first of its kind. The text and pictorial cycle also tell of an expedition to the Land of Punt, an exotic country on the Red Sea coast. While the statues and ornamentation have since been stolen or destroyed, the temple once was home to two statues of Osiris, a sphinx avenue as well as many sculptures of the Queen in different attitudes – standing, sitting, or kneeling. Many of these portraits were destroyed at the order of her stepson Thutmose III after her death.

Astronomical alignment

Panoramic view of the mortuary temple

The main and axis of the temple is set to an azimuth of about 116½° and is aligned to the winter solstice sunrise,[4] which in our modern era occurs around the 21st or 22 December each year. The sunlight penetrates through to the rear wall of the chapel, before moving to the right to highlight one of the Osiris statutes that stand on either side of the doorway to the 2nd chamber.[4] A further subtlety to this main alignment is created by a light-box, which shows a block of sunlight that slowly moves from the central axis of the temple to first illuminate the god Amen-Ra to then shining on the kneeling figure of Thutmose III before finally illuminating the Nile god Hapi.[4] Additionally, because of the heightened angle of the sun, around 41 days on either side of the solstice, sunlight is able to penetrate via a secondary light-box through to the innermost chamber.[4] This inner-most chapel was renewed and expanded in the Ptolemaic era and has cult references to Imhotep the builder of Djoser‘s Step Pyramid and Amenhotep son of Hapu – the overseer of the works of Amenhotep III.[5]

Historical influence

Hatshepsut’s temple is considered the closest Egypt came to Classical architecture.[1] Representative of New Kingdom funerary architecture, it both aggrandizes the pharaoh and includes sanctuaries to honor the gods relevant to her afterlife.[6] This marks a turning point in the architecture of Ancient Egypt, which forsook the megalithic geometry of the Old Kingdom for a temple which allowed for active worship, requiring the presence of participants to create the majesty. The linear axiality of Hatshepsut’s temple is mirrored in the later New Kingdom temples. The architecture of the original temple has been considerably altered as a result of misguided reconstruction in the early twentieth century AD.

For more information please view the following links:

All Gizah Pyramids and Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Poem “Ancient Monument Destroy”

All Gizah Pyramids, Scarab and Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Poem “Peace Comes to You”, translated into Arabic by Nancy Emad

 Please continue to viewIng’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic and Egyptian Art History Part 4”

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Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic and Egyptian Art History Part 4

Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts                

Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic

And Egyptian Art History Part 4

Ing’s Peace Poem “Peace Comes to You”

Translated into Arabic by Nancy Emad on October 14, 2015

Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts             

Art, Architecture, and the City in the Reign of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (ca. 1353–1336 B.C.)

The seventeen-year reign of the pharaoh Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten is remarkable as revealing ideas, architecture, and art that stand out as different against Egypt’s long tradition.

As a beehive of building and production, the city provides many insights into ancient industry and technology, from construction, to manufacture of glass and faience, to statuary and textile production, to bread making.

1.  Taweret amulet with double head, New Kingdom, late Dynasty 18–Dynasty 19, ca. 1390–1213 b.c., Egyptian; from Egypt, Blue faience

2.  Head of Queen Tiye, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, ca. 1388–1340 b.c., Egyptian, Red quartzite

3.  Fragment of the face of a queen, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egypt, Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten); inc. el-Hagg Qandil, Yellow jasper

4.  Nose and lips of Akhenaten, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from el-Amarna (Akhetaten), inc. el-Hagg Qandil, Great Aten Temple, pit outside southern wall, Petrie/Carter 1891–92, Indurated limestone

5.  Fragmentary statuette of a vizier, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Egypt, Indurated limestone

6.  Head from a statuette, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten), inc. el-Hagg Qandil, House no. 68 (T36.68), EES 1930–31, Limestone, paint

7.  Statue of two men and a boy that served as a domestic icon, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from southern Upper Egypt, Gebelein (Nag el-Gharira; Krokodilopolis), Limestone, paint

8.  Torso of Akhenaten, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten), inc. el-Hagg Qandil, Great Aten Temple, pit outside southern wall, Petrie/Carter 1891–92
Indurated limestone

9.  Goblet inscribed with the names of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Egypt, Travertine (Egyptian alabaster)

10.  Blue-painted storage jar, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Egypt, Pottery

11.  Finger ring of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten), inc. el-Hagg Qandil, Town, Petrie 1891–92, Gold

12.  Talatat with Offerings in the Temple, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten), inc. el-Hagg Qandil, Great Aten Temple, pit outside southern wall, Petrie/Carter 1891–92
Limestone, paint

13.  Tile with persea fruit and leaves, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten), inc. el-Hagg Qandil, Royal Palace of Akhenaten, Petrie 1891–92, Polychrome faience

14.  Akhenaten Sacrificing a Duck, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone

15.  Scene of Fishing and Fowling, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, probably el-Amarna, possibly Hermopolis, Limestone, paint

16.  Two Princesses, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten), inc. el-Hagg Qandil, King’s House Color facsimile by Nina deGaris Davies (1881–1965), Tempera on paper

17.  “Green Room” in the North Palace at Amarna, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c., Egyptian; original from Amarna, North Palace, Color facsimile by Norman (1865–1941) or Nina de Garis Davies (1881–1965), Tempera on paper

Relief of Queen Nefertiti, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1352–1336 b.c., Egyptian; from Upper Egypt, Thebes, probably Karnak, Sandstone                                                            H. 8 11/16 in. (22 cm), W. 12 5/8 in. (32 cm), Rogers Fund, 1961 (61.117)

Nefertiti, whose name means “the Beautiful One Is Here,” was principal queen of Akhenaten. Like her mother-in-law Queen Tiye, Nefertiti was a powerful figure in the court. She is frequently shown participating in religious rituals on an equal footing with her husband, and she already played an unprecedented role in the decoration of the Aten structures that Amenhotep IV built at Karnak, from which this block almost certainly came, before his move to Tell el-Amarna.

This relief block shows the queen wearing an elaborate wig surmounted by what was originally a towering crown of uraei, sun disk, two cow horns, and two feathers. Her arm is raised in offering to the Aten. The queen’s image is rendered in an exaggerated style seen in some earlier Amarna art, with a drooping chin, thin slanted eyes, and a sharply angled nose and brow, similar to that seen in depictions of her husband (see 66.99.40).

In fact, as one specialist in Amarna art has recently pointed out, the traces of the Aten rays around the queen’s face and arms indicate the disk was almost directly overhead. The queen must have stood alone, without her husband, beneath the rays. She would have been followed by a small figure of her eldest daughter, labeled in the column of hieroglyphs behind her head. The unusual arrangement is known from the pylons of the early Temple of the Benben at Karnak, and from some enigmatic structures known as the Pillars of Nefertiti. The relief may well have originated in one of these structures.

Jewelry elements for a broad collar, New Kingdom, Amarna Period, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 b.c.
Egyptian; from Middle Egypt, el-Amarna (Akhetaten), EES 1928–29 (neg. 121b), 1930–31
Faience, H. 5 1/8 in. (13 cm), W. 16 15/16 in. (43 cm)
Gift of Mrs. John Hubbard and Egypt Exploration Society, 1931 (31.114.2a)                                                  These faience necklace elements were excavated at Amarna. The beads include palm fronds (green), lotus petals (white), dates (green, blue, and red), bunches of grapes (dark blue), cornflowers (green, blue, and white), persea fruit (yellow), and dom-palm fruit (red). The individual beads were made in molds and small ring beads were attached later to allow stringing. These elements were intended for a collar necklace, so rings were attached at top and bottom so that the beads could interlock two strings. The triangular necklace terminal in the shape of a lotus blossom was pierced with holes for the necklace threads before it was fired.                                                                                                                                  These jewelry elements come from houses in the North Suburb of Amarna where there were sites with a high density of faience molds and pendants, suggesting production took place in those areas.

Shortly after coming to the throne, the new pharaoh Amenhotep IV, a son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye, established worship of the light that is in the orb of the sun (the Aten) as the primary religion, and the many-armed disk became the omnipresent icon representing the god. The new religion, with its emphasis on the light of the sun and on what can be seen, went together with new emphases on time, movement, and atmosphere in the arts. Exceptional as the new outlook seems, it certainly had roots in the increasing prominence of the solar principle, or Re, in the earlier eighteenth dynasty, and in the emphasis on the all-pervasive quality of the god Amun-Re, developments reaching a new height in the reign of Amenhotep III (ca. 1390–1353 B.C.). Likewise, artistic changes were afoot before the reign of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten. For example, Theban tombs of Dynasty 18 had begun to redefine artistic norms, exploring the possibilities of line and color for suggesting movement and atmospherics or employing more natural views of parts of the body.

While the art and texts of what is commonly called the Amarna Period after the site of the new city for the Aten are striking, and their naturalistic imagery easy to appreciate, it is more difficult to bring the figure of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten himself or the lived experiences of Atenism into focus. The courtiers who helped the king monumentalize his vision refer to a kind of teaching that the king provided, to them at a minimum, and the art and particular hymns or prayers convey a striking appreciation of the physical world.

Beautifully you appear from the horizon of heaven, O living Aten who initiates life—

For you are risen from the eastern horizon and have filled every land with your beauty;

For you are fair, great, dazzling and high over every land,

And your rays enclose the lands to the limit of all you have made;

For you are Re, having reached their limit and subdued them for your beloved son;

For although you are far away, your rays are upon the earth and you are perceived.


When your movements vanish and you set in the western horizon,

The land is in darkness, in the manner of death.

(People), they lie in bedchambers, heads covered up, and one eye does not see its fellow.

All their property is robbed, although it is under their heads, and they do not realize it.

Every lion is out of its den, all creeping things bite.

Darkness gathers, the land is silent.

The one who made them is set in his horizon.


(But) the land grows bright when you are risen from the horizon,

Shining in the orb in the daytime, you push back the darkness and give forth your rays.

The Two Lands are in a festival of light—

Awake and standing on legs, for you have lifted them up:

Their limbs are cleansed and wearing clothes,

Their arms are in adoration at your appearing.

The whole land, they do their work:

All flocks are content with their pasturage,

Trees and grasses flourish,

Birds are flown from their nests, their wings adoring your Ka;

All small cattle prance upon their legs.

All that fly up and alight, they live when you rise for them.

Ships go downstream, and upstream as well, every road being open at your appearance.

Fish upon the river leap up in front of you, and your rays are within the Great Green (sea).

(excerpted from the Great Hymn to the Aten in the Tomb of Aya, as translated in William J. Murnane, Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt, edited by Edmund S. Meltzer [Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995])

At the same time, Atenism gave the king himself a divine-like role as sole representative and interpreter of the Aten—as stated elsewhere in the above hymn, “there is no one who knows you except your son”—so that any access to and understanding of the god was mediated through the figure of the king and his family. Although there is no reason to think the king’s self-promotion was only politically motivated, the differentiation of king and gods was altered.

The Last Years

Possibly even Akhenaten’s last years and certainly the period after his death give evidence of a troubled succession. Nefertiti, Meritaten, the mysterious pharaoh Smenkhkare, and the female pharaoh Ankhetkhepherure—for whom the chief candidates in discussions so far have been Nefertiti and Meritaten, the eldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti—and ultimately Tutankhaten all have roles. Energetic scholarly discussion of the events of this period and the identity, parentage, personal history, and burial place of many members of the Amarna royal family is ongoing. It is clear that already during the succession period, there was some rapprochement with Amun’s adherents at Thebes. With the reign of Tutankhaten / Tutankhamun, the royal court left Akhetaten and returned to Memphis; traditional relations with Thebes were resumed and Amun’s priority fully acknowledged. With Haremhab, Akhenaten’s constructions at Thebes were dismantled, and dismantling began at Amarna. Apparently in the reign of Ramses II, the formal buildings of Akhetaten were completely destroyed, and many of their blocks reused as matrix stone in his constructions at Hermopolis and elsewhere. The site had presumably been abandoned.

Citation: Hill, Marsha. “Art, Architecture, and the City in the Reign of Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (ca. 1353–1336 B.C.)”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (November 2014)
Marsha Hill  Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
For more information please view the following links:                      

An Artisan’s Tomb in New Kingdom Egypt

Almost thirty-three centuries ago, a young man named Khonsu became a “servant in the Place of Truth”—a designation that identified members of the crew of artisans who carved and decorated the royal tombs of the New Kingdom. These artisans included quarrymen, scribes (23.3.4), draftsmen (14.108), sculptors, painters, and carpenters. The entire crew, which usually numbered no more than sixty, lived with their families in a walled community known to its residents simply as the Village, a ruin now known as Deir el-Medina. Situated in a small desert valley on the west bank of the Nile, at the edge of the Theban cliffs, the Village was within easy reach of the two principal royal cemeteries: the Great Place, now called the Valley of the Kings; and the Place of Beauty, or the Valley of the Queens.

The same talents that created a spectacular sepulchre for the ruling king were also put to use in the more modest burial places of the workers themselves.

Khonsu was the fourth son in a large family, and like most members of the royal work crew, he and at least one of his brothers had followed in the footsteps of their father, Sennedjem (86.1.10), who was also a servant in the Place of Truth. Sennedjem was an active member of the crew in the time of Menmaatre Seti, the son of a former general named Ramesses who had ascended the throne of Egypt and founded a new dynasty.

Sennedjem and his sons were fortunate to live during a period of great prosperity for the Village. At the height of Sennedjem’s career, in the first sixteen years of the new dynasty, two royal tombs were required. The amount of time it took the crew to complete a royal tomb depended on the length of a king’s reign, and work was sometimes cut short by the pharaoh’s death. Because of the length of time required for mummification, the team would have up to three months to finish its work, and then the process would begin all over again for the new pharaoh.

The same talents that created a spectacular sepulchre for the ruling king were also put to use in the more modest burial places of the workers themselves. Located in a terraced cemetery on the hillside adjacent to the Village, their funerary monuments included small, vaulted, above-ground offering chapels that were topped by miniature, steep-sided pyramids. In or near the chapels, shafts cut deep into the bedrock led to groupings of corridors and vaulted rooms that were often used by many generations of the same family. One of the finest of these tombs belonged to Sennedjem and his descendants. Built at the southern end of the cemetery, the family crypt was just a stone’s throw away from its owner’s house. The upper level of the complex had offering chapels for both Sennedjem and Khonsu, and the decorated burial chamber contained the mummies of Sennedjem and his wife, Iineferti; Khonsu and his wife, Tameket; Khonsu’s younger brother Ramesses; and four other named members of the family, as well as eleven unidentified mummies.

In preparation for his journey to the afterworld, Khonsu commissioned a pair of nesting anthropoid coffins (86.1.1,.2) made of wood. The lid of each depicts Khonsu in the form of a mummy, with arms crossed over his chest and hands clutching the tyet amulet and djed pillar, the same magical symbols that were used some 200 years earlier on Hatnofer’s chair (36.3.152) to ensure the owner’s well-being. The coffins are covered with magical texts and vignettes featuring deities as well as Khonsu and Tameket. A mask of painted wood (86.1.4) and cartonnage completed the ensemble. Khonsu had also obtained a painted canopic box to hold his internal organs and several shawabtis (86.1.14,.18,.21; 67.80; 86.1.128), little figurines that were intended to substitute for the deceased owner if he were called upon to perform any kind of manual labor in the next life (30.4.2).

When he finally began his own journey to the afterworld, Khonsu was about sixty-five years of age and had seen two generations of his descendants enter the work crew. He was placed in the family tomb along with his parents, and the funeral rites were probably performed by his sons Nakhemmut and Nakhtmin, who spoke the words of the offering texts and repeated the names of those who had passed on to the next world, thus giving them renewed life. After being used by many generations of Khonsu’s descendants, the family crypt was sealed at last and remained undisturbed until February 1, 1886, when it was uncovered by agents of the Egyptian Antiquities Service.

Catharine H. Roehrig
Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Citation:  Roehrig, Catharine H. “An Artisan’s Tomb in New Kingdom Egypt”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2004)

Left:  Shawabti box and shawabtis, New Kingdom, reign of Ramesses II, ca. 1279–1213 b.c., Egyptian; From the tomb of Sennedjem, Deir el–Medina, western Thebes.  Painted wood; limestone and ink; H. of box 11 1/4 in. (28.5 cm), The wooden shawabti box is inscribed for Paremhab, a servant in the Place of Truth who was a son or grandson of Sennedjem and Iineferti. The shawabti figures, from left to right, are inscribed for Iineferti and her eldest son, Khabekhnet; for Khonsu; for Khabekhnet alone; and for a woman named Mesu. Although Khabekhnet had a separate tomb complex near that of Sennedjem, he is depicted with his siblings in the decoration of Sennedjem’s burial chamber, and objects inscribed with his name were buried in the family tomb.

Right:  Artists gridded sketch, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Hatshepsut, ca. 1479–1458 b.c.,
Egyptian; From western Thebes, Limestone and ink; W. 5 1/2 in. (14 cm).   This small sketch depicts a frequently occurring group of hieroglyphs meaning “life, prosperity, and dominion.” The grid lines allowed the artist to draw the hieroglyphs at whatever scale was needed.

Left:  Writing board with an architectural drawing, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, ca. 1550–1295 b.c.,
Egyptian; From western Thebes, Plastered and painted wood; W. 13 7/8 in. (35.2 cm)
Right:  Jar from the tomb of Sennedjem, New Kingdom, reign of Ramesses II, ca. 1279–1213 b.c.,
Egyptian; From the tomb of Sennedjem, Deir el–Medina, western Thebes,                                                 Painted red pottery; H. 12 in. (30.5 cm)

Left:  Khonsu’s anthropoid coffins, New Kingdom, reign of Ramesses II, ca. 1279–1213 b.c.,
Egyptian; From the tomb of Sennedjem, Deir el–Medina, western Thebes,                                           Gessoed and painted wood; H. of taller coffin 78 3/4 in. (200 cm)
Right top:  Khonsu’s funerary mask, New Kingdom, reign of Ramesses II, ca. 1279–1213 b.c.
Egyptian; From the tomb of Sennedjem, Deir el–Medina, western Thebes,
Painted wood and cartonnage; H. 18 7/8 in. (48 cm)
Right bottom:  Box from the tomb of Sennedjem, New Kingdom, reign of Ramesses II, ca. 1279–1213 b.c., Egyptian; From the tomb of Sennedjem, Deir el–Medina, western Thebes,
Gessoed and painted wood; H. 6 1/4 in. (16 cm)

Facsimile of a scene depicting the afterlife (Tomb of Sennedjem) (detail), ca. 1922,
Charles K. Wilkinson (American, born Britain, 1897–1986),
Tempera on paper; H. 54 in. (137.2 cm),                                                                                        The east wall of Sennedjem’s vaulted crypt is decorated with a vignette that illustrates spell number 110 in the Book of the Dead. Here, in a photograph taken at the site, Sennedjem and Iineferti are shown harvesting grain, sowing seeds, and pulling flax in the abundant fields of the next world.

For more information please view the following links:

Egypt in the Late Period (ca. 712–332 B.C.)

1. Kushite Pharaoh, Late Period, Dynasty 25, ca. 713–664 b.c., Egyptian,
Bronze with gilding; H. 3 in. (7.5 cm)
2. Statuette of a Kushite Priest, Adapted for a King, late Dynasty 25, ca. 700–664 b.c., Egyptian, Leaded bronze, precious metal leaf ,8 1/4 in. (21 cm)

3. enat of Taharqo, Late Period, Dynasty 25, reign of Taharqo, ca. 690–664 b.c., Egyptian,
Faience; H. 3 3/4 in. (9.5 cm), Bequest of W. Gedney Beatty, 1941 (41.160.104)

4. Statuette of a Woman, Late Period, Dynasty 26, reign of Necho II, ca. 610–595 b.c.,
Egyptian, Silver; H. 9 1/2 in. (24 cm)

5. Ritual figure, 4th century b.c.–early Ptolemaic Period (380–246 b.c.), Egyptian,
Wood, formerly clad in lead sheet; H. 8 1/4 in. (21 cm), W. 5 5/8 in. (14.3 cm)

6. Cat, Ptolemaic Period, ca. 400–30 b.c., Egyptian, Bronze; H. 11 in. (27.9 cm)

Top left:  Kneeling statue of Amenemope–em–hat, Late Period, Dynasty 26, reign of Psamtik I, ca. 664–610 b.c., Egyptian; Apparently from Memphis, Ptah temple, Graywacke; H. including base 25 1/4 in. (64 cm)

Top right:  Block statue of a governor, Late Period, Dynasty 26 (ca. 664–525 b.c.), Egyptian,
Graywacke; 14 in. (30.5 cm)

Bottom:  Reliefs from the Tomb of Nes–peka–shuty, Late Period, early Dynasty 26, late reign of Psamtik I, ca. 656–610 b.c., Egyptian; Deir el–Bahri, western Thebes, Limestone; 13 3/4 x 22 1/2 in. (35 x 57 cm)

1. Ram’s–head amulet, Late Period, Dynasty 25, ca. 712–657 b.c.,
Egyptian/Nubian, Gold; 1 5/8 x 1 3/8 in. (4.2 x 3.6 cm)

2. Cosmetic container in the form of a Bes image holding the cap of a kohl tube, Late Period, Dynasty 27, ca. 525–404 b.c., Egyptian, Faience; H. 3 5/8 in. (9.2 cm), W. 1 3/4 in. (4.4 cm)

3. Inlays and shrine elements, Dynasty 30–Ptolemaic Period, ca. 380–30 b.c., Egyptian,
Glass; H. (each drum) 1 5/8 in. (4.1 cm)

4. Bark Sphinx (Sib), Dynasty 26, ca. 664–525 b.c., Egyptian, Leaded bronze,                                8 1/2 in. x 6 1/4 in. (21.5 cm x 16 cm)

5. Head of a Priest, 4th century b.c., Egyptian,
Basalt; H. 8 3/8 in. (21.2 cm), W. 5 3/4 in. (14.5 cm)

1. Head of the pharaoh Apries, Late Period, Dynasty 26, reign of Apries, ca. 589–570 b.c., Egyptian,
Diorite; H. 11 15/16 in. (30.3 cm)

2. Statuette of the goddess Taweret, Ptolemaic Period, ca. 332–30 b.c., Egyptian,
Glassy faience; H. 4 1/4 in. (10.8 cm)

3. Statuette of the god Anubis as embalmer, Ptolemaic Period, ca. 332–30 b.c., Egyptian,
Wood with gesso and paint; H. 16 1/2 in. (42 cm)

4. Statuette of Isis and Horus, Ptolemaic Period, ca. 304–30 b.c., Egyptian,
Egyptian faience; H. 6 3/4 in. (17 cm)

5. Statue of the falcon god Horus with Nectanebo II, Late Period, Dynasty 30, reign of Nectanebo II, ca. 360–343 b.c., Egyptian, Basalt; H. 28 1/4 in. (72 cm)

6. Torso of a striding statue of a general, 4th century b.c., Egyptian, Schist; H. 27 1/4 in. (69.2 cm)

7. Head attributed to Arsinoe II, Ptolemaic Period, reign of Arsinoe II, ca. 278–270 b.c.,
Egyptian; From Abu Roash, Indurated limestone; H. 4 5/8 in. (11.8 cm)

8. Head of an Antelope, Late Period, Dynasty 27, ca. 525–404 b.c., Egyptian,
Greywacke, agate, Egyptian alabaster; H. 3 1/2 in. (9 cm)

Left: Relief of Apries, Late Period, Dynasty 26, reign of Apries, ca. 589–570 b.c., Egyptian, Limestone

Right: Sarcophagus of Horkhebit, Late Period, Dynasty 26, ca. 590 b.c., Egyptian; From Saqqara,
Basalt; L. 8 ft. 4 in. (2.55 m), W. 4 ft. (1.21 m)

Kushite Period, or Dynasty 25 (ca. 712–664 B.C.)
From ca. 728 to 656 B.C., the Nubian kings of Dynasty 25 dominated Egypt. Like the Libyans before them, they governed as Egyptian pharaohs. Their control was strongest in the south. In the north, Tefnakht’s successor, Bakenrenef, ruled for four years (ca. 717–713 B.C.) at Sais until Piankhy’s successor, Shabaqo (ca. 712–698 B.C.), overthrew him and established Nubian control over the entire country. The accession of Shabaqo can be considered the end of the Third Intermediate Period and the beginning of the Late Period in Egypt.

During the Late Period, the reemergence of a centralized royal tradition that interacted with the relatively decentralized network inherited from the Third Intermediate Period created a rich artistic atmosphere.

Nubian rule, which viewed itself as restoring the true traditions of Egypt, benefited Egypt economically and was accompanied by a revival in temple building and the arts that continued throughout the Late Period. At the same time, however, the country faced a growing threat from the Assyrian empire to its east. After forty years of relative security, Nubian control—and Egypt’s peace—were broken by an Assyrian invasion in ca. 671 B.C. The current pharaoh, Taharqo (ca. 690–664 B.C.), retreated south and the Assyrians established a number of local vassals to rule in their stead in the Delta. One of them, Necho I of Sais (ca. 672–664 B.C.), is recognized as the founder of the separate Dynasty 26. For the next eight years, Egypt was the battleground between Nubia and Assyria. A brutal Assyrian invasion in 663 B.C. finally ended Nubian control of the country. The last pharaoh of Dynasty 25, Tanutamani (664–653 B.C.), retreated to Napata. There, in relative isolation, he and his descendants continued to rule Nubia, eventually becoming the Meroitic civilization, which flourished in Nubia until the fourth century A.D.

Saite Period, or Dynasty 26 (664–525 B.C.)
When the Assyrians withdrew after their final invasion, Egypt was left in the hands of the Saite kings, though it was actually only in 656 B.C. that the Saite king Psamtik I was able to reassert control over the southern area of the country dominated by Thebes. For the next 130 years, Egypt was able to enjoy the benefits of rule by a single strong, native family, Dynasty 26. Elevated to power by the invading Assyrians, Dynasty 26 faced a world in which Egypt was no longer concerned with its role in international power politics but with its sheer survival as a nation. The Egyptians, however, still chose to think of their land as self-contained and free from external influence, unchanged from the days of the pyramid builders 2,000 years earlier. In deference to this ideal, the Saite pharaohs deliberately adopted much from the culture of earlier periods, particularly the Old Kingdom, as the model for their own. Later generations would remember this dynasty as the last truly Egyptian period and would, in turn, recapitulate Saite forms.

Under Saite rule, Egypt grew from a vassal of Assyria to an independent ally. There were even echoes of the bygone might of Egypt’s New Kingdom in Saite military campaigns into Asia Minor (after the collapse of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C.) and Nubia. In pursuit of these goals, however, the Saite pharaohs had to rely on foreign mercenaries—Carian (from southwestern Asia Minor, modern Turkey), Phoenician, and Greek—as well as Egyptian soldiers. These different ethnic groups lived in their own quarters of the capital city, Memphis. The Greeks were also allowed to establish a trading settlement at Naukratis in the western Delta. This served as a conduit for cultural influences traveling from Egypt to Greece.

After the fall of Assyria in 612 B.C., the major foreign threat to Egypt came from the Babylonians. Although Babylonia had invaded Egypt in 568 B.C. during a brief civil war, both countries formed a mutual alliance in 547 B.C. against the rising threat of a third power, the Persian empire—but to no avail. The Persians conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C. and Egypt in 525 B.C., bringing an end to the Saite dynasty and native control of Egypt.

Persian Period, or Dynasty 27 (525–404 B.C.)
Egypt’s new Persian overlords adopted the traditional title of pharaoh, but unlike the Libyans and Nubians, they ruled as foreigners rather than Egyptians. For the first time in its 2,500-year history as a nation, Egypt was no longer independent. Though recognized as an Egyptian dynasty, Dynasty 27, the Persians ruled through a resident governor, called a satrap, helped by local native chiefs. Persian domination actually benefited Egypt under Darius I (521–486 B.C.), who built temples and public works, reformed the legal system, and strengthened the economy. The military defeat of Persia by the Greeks at Marathon in 490 B.C., however, inspired resistance in Egypt; and for nearly a century thereafter, Persian control was challenged by a series of local Egyptian kings, primarily in the Delta.

Dynasties 28–30 (404–343 B.C.)
In 404 B.C., a coalition of these rulers succeeded in overthrowing their Persian masters. From 404 to 399 B.C., Egypt seems to have been ruled by Amyrtaios II of Sais, who is traditionally recognized as the only pharaoh of Dynasty 28. Control then passed for twenty years (399–380 B.C.) to Dynasty 29, in the eastern Delta city of Mendes, and finally to Dynasty 30, in the mid-Delta city of Sebennytos.

The first king of Dynasty 30, Nectanebo I (380–362 B.C.), managed to repel a Persian attack shortly after he ascended the throne. The remaining years of his reign were fairly peaceful and were marked by an ambitious program of temple construction, which was continued on an even grander scale by Nectanebo II (360–343 B.C.). The latter king managed to hold off another Persian attack in 351 B.C., but in 343 B.C. a third attack succeeded, and Egypt fell once again to the Persians, who were defeated in turn by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. These final invasions were the death blow to Egyptian control of their own country. Nectanebo’s dynasty is recognized as the last in ancient Egyptian history, and Nectanebo II became the last Egyptian to rule in Egypt for the next 2,500 years.

Art and Culture
During the Late Period, the reemergence of a centralized royal tradition that interacted with the relatively decentralized network inherited from the Third Intermediate Period created a rich artistic atmosphere.

Particularly among royal artworks, it is possible to speak of marked affinities for models from certain anterior periods: Kushite kings admired Old Kingdom models, Saite kings those of the Old and New Kingdoms, and later kings of Dynasty 30 looked back beyond the Persian interlud to the kings of late Dynasty 26. Viewed from the perspective of metal statuary produced in temples or of nonroyal artworks, however, stylistic patterns suggest a complex interplay of influences less hierarchically determined by the temporal power of the king than in previous periods, with the result that the choices of patrons and artists are more recognizable.

A taste for realistic modeling of features of nonroyal persons emerges, while attention to the naturalistic modeling of flesh and bone in human and animal sculpture reaches new heights.

While precious metal and bronze statuary and equipment had long associations with temple cult and ritual, by the first millennium B.C. changes in beliefs and practices had come about. A broad range of individuals made temple offerings, including relatively valuable bronze statuettes and equipment. While the king made offerings in his role as mediator between the gods and mankind, for private donors the goal was attainment of eternal life, for which the personal favor of or physical proximity to a deity was now believed to be as or even more efficacious than tombs and mortuary cult provisions. Osiris and the flourishing cults of animal avatars of certain gods were particular beneficiaries of these new offering practices.

Following the period of Persian rule, the kings of Dynasties 28 through 30 brought a new focus to their role as maintainers of a long tradition. Prodigious temple building and major production of statuary enacted an impressive reformulation and promulgation of the concept of divine kingship and formalized many other aspects of Egypt’s ancient artistic and religious traditions in the face of threatening outside powers.

Marsha Hill
Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of ArtJames Allen
Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

For more information please view the following links:

All Gizah Pyramids and Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Poem “Ancient Monument Destroy”

Please continue to view Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic and Egyptian Art History Part 5”

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Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic And Egyptian Art History Part 5


Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Ing’s Peace Poem Translated into Arabic

And Egyptian Art History Part 5

Ing’s Peace Poem “Peace Comes to You”

Translated into Arabic by Nancy Emad on October 14, 2015

Artwork  by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Ancient Egyptian Art, Painting, Sculpture

The following information is from the CRYSTALINKS’ article.

Ancient Egyptian art is five thousand years old. It emerged and took shape in the ancient Egypt, the civilization of the Nile Valley. Expressed in paintings and sculptures, it was highly symbolic and fascinating – this art form revolves round the past and was intended to keep history alive.

In a narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2D and 3D art developed in Egypt from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. It is to be noted that most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over the 3000 year period that represents the ancient civilization without strong outside influence. The same basic conventions and quality of observation started at a high level and remained near that level over the period.


Old Kingdom (2680 BC-2258 BC)

Middle Kingdom (2134 BC-1786 BC)

New Kingdom (1570 BC-1085 BC)

Amarna Period (1350 BC-1320 BC)



In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, replacing the earlier serekh.

The cartouche has become a symbol representing protection from evil and give good luck Egyptians believed that if you had your name written down in some place, then you would not disappear after you died.

Character and Style

Because of the highly religious nature of Ancient Egyptian civilization, many of the great works of Ancient Egypt depict gods, goddesses, and Pharaohs, who were also considered divine. Ancient Egyptian art is characterized by the idea of order. Clear and simple lines combined with simple shapes and flat areas of color helped to create a sense of order and balance in the art of ancient Egypt.

Of the materials used by the Egyptian sculptors, we find – clay, wood, metal, ivory, and stone – stone was the most plentiful and permanent, available in a wide variety of colors and hardness. Sculpture wasoften painted in vivid hues as well. Egyptian sculpture has two qualities that are distinctive; it can be characterized as cubic and frontal. It nearly always echoes in its form the shape of the stone cube or block from which it was fashioned, partly because it was an image conceived from four viewpoints. The front of almost every statue is the most important part and the figure sits or stands facing strictly to the front. This suggests to the modern viewer that the ancient artist was unable to create a naturalistic representation, but it is clear that this was not the intention.


Symbolism also played an important role in establishing a sense of order. Symbolism, ranging from the Pharaoh’s regalia (symbolizing his power to maintain order) to the individual symbols of Egyptian gods and goddesses, was omnipresent in Egyptian art. Animals were usually also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. Color, as well, had extended meaning – Blue and green represented the Nile and life; yellow stood for the sun god; and red represented power and vitality. The colors in Egyptian artifacts have survived extremely well over the centuries because of Egypt’s dry climate. Despite the stilted form caused by a lack of perspective, ancient Egyptian art is often highly realistic. Ancient Egyptian artists often show a sophisticated knowledge of anatomy and a close attention to detail, especially in their renderings of animals.


The word paper is derived from “papyrus”, a plant which was cultivated in the Nile delta. Papyrus sheets were derived after processing the papyrus plant. Some rolls of papyrus discovered are lengthy, up to 10 meters. The technique for crafting papyrus was lost over time, but was rediscovered by an Egyptologist in the 1940s.

Papyrus texts illustrate all dimensions of ancient Egyptian life and include literary, religious, historical and administrative documents. The pictorial script used in these texts ultimately provided the model for two most common alphabets in the world, the Roman and the Arabic.


During Neolithic times, known to Egyptologists as the Predynastic period, the dead were buried in a contracted position in shallow pits dug in the sand and were surrounded by grave goods consisting of pots that probably contained food and drink, and personal items such as cosmetic palettes. These objects suggest that there was already a belief in the afterlife. The vessel illustrated here is typical of the Naqada II period, being decorated in red line on a light background. The elaborate motifs relate in part to life on the Nile, and show oared boats, water plants, standards, and birds. Other examples also include wild animals and male or female figures. Such vessels were probably made specifically for burial, rather than for everyday use.

Textile and Dye Making

The beginning of the arts of weaving and dyeing are lost in antiquity. Mummy cloths of varying degrees of fitness, still evidencing the dyer’s skill, are preserved in many museums.


A hieroglyphic script is one consisting of a variety of pictures and symbols. Some of symbols had independent meanings, whereas some of such symbols were used in combinations. In addition, some hieroglyphs were used phonetically, in a similar fashion to the Roman alphabet. Some symbols also conveyed multiple meanings, like the legs meant to walk, to run, to go and to come. The script was written in three directions: from top to bottom, from left to right, and from right to left. This style of writing continued to be used by the ancient Egyptians for nearly 3500 years, from 3300 BC till the third century AD.


Ancient Egyptian literature also contains elements of Ancient Egyptian art, as the texts and connected pictures were recorded on papyrus or on wall paintings and so on. They date from the Old Kingdom to the Greco-Roman period. The subject matter of such literature related art forms include hymns to the gods, mythological and magical texts, mortuary texts. Other subject matters were biographical and historical texts, scientific premises, including mathematical and medical texts, wisdom texts dealing with instructive literature, and stories. A number of such stories from the ancient Egypt have survived thousand of years, the most famous being Cinderella, where her names is Rhodopis in the oldest version of the story.


Ancient Egyptian paintings survived due to the extremely dry climate. The ancient Egyptians created paintings to make the afterlife of the deceased a pleasant place. Accordingly, beautiful paintings were created. The themes included journey through the afterworld or their protective deities introducing the deceased to the gods of the underworld. Some examples of such paintings are paintings of Osiris and Warriors.

Tomb Paintings show activities that the deceased were involved
in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity.

In the New Kingdom and later, the Book of the Dead was buried with the entombed person. It was considered important for an introduction to the afterlife.

The Amarna Period

During the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt the Pharaoh Akhenaten took the throne. He worshiped a monotheistic religion based on the worship of Aten, a sun god. Artistic changes followed political upheaval, although some stylistic changes are apparent before his reign. A new style of art was introduced that was more naturalistic than the stylized frieze favored in Egyptian art for the previous 1700 years. After Akhenaton’s death, however, Egyptian artists reverted to their old styles, although there are many traces of this period’s style in late art.

The Ancient Egyptian art style known as Amarna Art was a style of art that was adopted in the Amarna Period (i.e. during and just after the reign of Akhenaten in the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and is noticeably different from more conventional Egyptian art styles.

The Tree of Life

On the Tree Of Life, the birds represent the various stages of human life. Starting in the lower right-hand corner and proceeding counter-clockwise:

  • The light gray bird symbolizes infancy.
  • The red bird symbolizes childhood.
  • The green bird symbolizes youth.
  • The blue bird symbolizes adulthood.
  • The orange bird symbolizes old age.

In ancient Egypt, the direction east was considered the direction of life, because the sun rose in the east. West was considered the direction of death, of entering the underworld, because the sun set in the west. They believed that during the night, the sun traveled through the underworld to make its way back to the east so it could rise in the east again on the next day. On the tree of life, note that the birds representing the first four phases of life all face to the east, but the bird representing old age faces to the west, anticipating the approach of death.

In ancient Egypt, both men and women wore eye makeup, and to manufacture it they ground up mineral pigments on a palette. Such palettes were often put into graves, perhaps to ensure that the deceased had the means to grind eye makeup in the next world.

This palette is made from polished green slate, with two bird heads carved in profile at the top. Three holes have been drilled: a central one may be for hanging, whereas the other two, serving as eyes for the birds, may originally have been inlaid. The birds are possibly falcons, perhaps an early reference to the sky god Horus.

This rectangular coffin was put together from local timber for a priestess of the goddess Hathor called Nebetit. The head end is identified by a pair of stylized eyes, known as wedjat eyes, painted in a panel on the side. The coffin would have been oriented in the tomb with the head end pointing north. This would have enabled the deceased, lying on her side, magically to look out through the wedjat eyes at the sun rising on the eastern horizon – a symbol of rebirth.

The coffin has hieroglyphic inscriptions on the sides, end, and lid. The vertical inscriptions on the sides and ends identify the owner. The long horizontal inscriptions consist of “offering formulae” and ask for offerings for the ‘ka’ (spirit) of Nebetit. These include beef, fowl, bread, and beer, and also a request for “a good burial in her tomb in the necropolis of the western desert.”

Funerary Cones

Clay funerary cones originally decorated the mudbrick facades of private tombs at Thebes. They were embedded in rows to form friezes and may have been intended to represent the ends of roof beams. The flattened base of each cone, which was all that remained visible, was stamped with the titles and name of the tomb owner. The cone shown here bears the name of Merymose, the viceroy of Nubia during the reign of Amenhotep III.

The cone bears three columns of hieroglyphic text reading from left to right. The name of Merymose is found in the third column. The first column and the top of the second form the phrase “revered before Osiris.” This is followed by “king’s son of Kush,” the title given to the viceroy of Nubia, a territory to the south of Egypt stretching into modern northern Sudan that was conquered and ruled by the Egyptians during the New Kingdom (1550 – 1070 B.C.).


The goddess Isis, sister-consort of Osiris, god of the dead, is represented seated with her son placed at a right angle to her on her lap. She wears a tight-fitting dress and a vulture headdress surmounted by a sun disk enclosed by a pair of cow’s horns, which are now broken. The horns and sun disk were originally associated with the goddess Hathor, but later they were used by Isis too. The child is supported by his mother’s left arm, while her right hand offers her breast for suckling.

Horus is given the attributes of a child, being shown naked, with a single lock of hair falling on the right side of his otherwise shaven head, and sucking his forefinger. However, he is also closely associated with the ideal of kingship – the living king being a manifestation of Horus – and so he wears a uraeus (cobra), a symbol of kingship, on his forehead.

Isis was revered as an emblem of motherhood and protector of young children. Possibly due to the shift of political power to the Delta, where in myth Isis raised Horus in secret, the cult of Isis and the child Horus strengthened from the Third Intermediate period onward, and during the Greco-Roman period spread widely through the ancient world. After the Emperor Constantine had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire, the mother-child image formerly attached to Isis and Horus reemerged in representations of the Virgin and Child.

Isis was revered as an emblem of motherhood and protector of young children. Possibly due to the shift of political power to the Delta, where in myth Isis raised Horus in secret, the cult of Isis and the child Horus strengthened from the Third Intermediate period onward, and during the Greco-Roman period spread widely through the ancient world. After the Emperor Constantine had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire, the mother-child image formerly attached to Isis and Horus reemerged in representations of the Virgin and Child.

Ancient Egyptian Funerary Texts

The Book of the Dead is a funerary text that emerged in the New Kingdom as a descendant of the Depicted above is part of a painted scene or vignette showing the funeral procession to the tomb. The procession moves to the left. On the left of the scene is Anubis, the jackal god of embalming, on a shrine. In the middle, a priest drags the canopic chest containing the viscera of the deceased. On the right is a line of women mourners. Two of them, facing one another, display the characteristic gesture of mourning, which consists of raised arms and backward-facing palms, as though beating the forehead or casting dust over the body. Between the two women stands a small male figure who may be Paheby, the owner of the papyrus. If the fragmentary scene had been complete, Paheby’s sarcophagus would have been seen at the head of the procession.


Canopic Jars

Canopic jars were used by the Ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife. They were commonly either carved from limestone or were made of pottery. These jars were used by Ancient Egyptians from the time of the Old Kingdom up until the time of the Late Period or the Ptolemaic Period, by which time the viscera were simply wrapped and placed with the body. The viscera were not kept in a single canopic jar: each jar was reserved for specific organs. The name “canopic” reflects the mistaken association by early Egyptologists with the Greek legend of Canopus. Canopic jars of the Old Kingdom were rarely inscribed, and had a plain lid. In the Middle Kingdom inscriptions became more usual, and the lids were often in the form of human heads. By the Nineteenth dynasty each of the four lids depicted one of the four sons of Horus, as guardians of the organs.

Burial, Afterlife

Egyptian Afterlife

In order to enter the afterlife, it was important that the deceased have a proper burial with all the correct rituals and traditional funerary equipment. First, the body had to be preserved through mummification, a process by which it was artificially dehydrated and then wrapped in linen bandages. The invention of mummification may have stemmed from the initial practice during predynastic times of burying bodies directly in the ground. The preservative properties of the hot, desiccating sand may have suggested to the Egyptians that survival of the body was necessary for continued existence in the afterlife. Later, in the Early Dynastic period, when the body was no longer directly surrounded by sand but was placed in a specially constructed burial chamber, the natural processes of decay set in. When they discovered this, the Egyptians over the course of centuries developed a way of keeping the body intact using resins and the naturally occurring salt, natron.


The winged scarab symbolized self-creation. This potent symbolism appears in tomb paintings, manuscripts, hieroglyphic inscriptions on buildings and carvings. In addition to its use as an amulet for the living and the dead, scarabs adorned jewelry including necklaces, bracelets, wrist cuffs and wide decorative collars. A bracelet from the tomb of Tutankhamun featured a bright blue scarab holding a cartouche between its front legs. A cartouche is an oval frame that encloses a name. The ancient Egyptians sometimes painted or carved scarabs on a deceased person’s sarcophagus, the human-shaped coffin that held the mummy. Scarabs often hold a sun disk over their heads.

This wooden anthropoid coffin consists of a separate bottom and lid. It is plastered and painted on the outside, but the inside was left undecorated. It is made of irregular pieces of native Egyptian wood, and gaps between planks are filled in with mud. The underside of the base is decorated with a large figure of the goddess of the west, recognizable by the falcon emblem, the hieroglyph for west, that she wears on her head. Because the sun sets in the west, where it was believed to enter the underworld, the goddess was associated with the necropolis and helped the dead make the passage from this life to the next. As such, she often appears in tombs and on coffins.

Below an elaborate collar, a winged goddess with a sun disk on her head kneels with arms outstretched to protect the deceased. Beneath her, the mummy of the deceased lies on the lion bed that was used in the ritual embalming. Under the bed are four canopic jars to hold the viscera, with stoppers carved in the form of the four sons of Horus. These beings appear again on the lower part of the lid with mummified bodies. Between them are five columns of text. The outer two identify the figures, and the three middle ones contain the traditional offering formula asking for a series of benefits for the deceased in the next life. The name of the owner would have been included at the end of this text but is now lost through damage. Figures of Anubis, the god of embalming, in the form of two black jackals lying on pedestals decorate the foot of the coffin.

King Tutankhamun’s Tomb

The Tomb of King Tut is much smaller than, any of the other kings tombs, with plain walls, until you reach the burial chamber. It took almost a decade of meticulous and painstaking work to empty the tomb of Tutankhamen. Around 3500 individual items were recovered. Tutankhamen is the only pharaoh, in the Valley of the Kings, still to have his mummy in its original burial location.


The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, and Pharaohs, the divine kings and queens, in physical form. Massive and magnificent statues were built to represent gods and famous kings and queens. These statues were intended to give eternal life to the ÒgodÓ kings and queens, as also to enable the subjects to see them in physical forms.

Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. For example, the sky god (Horus) was essentially to be represented with a falconÕs head, the god of funeral rites (Anubis) was to be always shown with a jackalÕs head. Artistic works were ranked according to exact compliance with all the conventions, and the conventions were followed so strictly that over three thousand years, very little changed in the appearance of statutes.

Ramesses II at Abu Simbel

Ancient Flying Vehicles

Egyptian Dynasties

Ancient Priest’s Tomb Painting Discovered Near Great Pyramid at Giza   Live Science – July 16, 2014

A wall painting, dating back over 4,300 years, has been discovered in a tomb located just east of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The painting shows vivid scenes of life, including boats sailing south on the Nile River, a bird hunting trip in a marsh and a man named Perseneb who’s shown with his wife and dog. While Giza is famous for its pyramids, the site also contains fields of tombs that sprawl to the east and west of the Great Pyramid. These tombs were created for private individuals who held varying degrees of rank and power during the Old Kingdom (2649-2150 B.C.), the age when the Giza pyramids were built. The tomb contains a central room, offering room and burial chamber. The complex was first recorded in the 19th century and was noted for its 11 statues, which include depictions of Perseneb and his family. Archaeologists were conducting restoration work and did not expect to make a new discovery. This image shows part of the central room with four of the statues. More Photos …

Egypt’s Oldest Known Art Identified, Is 15,000 Years Old National Geographic – July 11, 2007

Rock face drawings and etchings recently rediscovered in southern Egypt are similar in age and style to the iconic Stone Age cave paintings in Lascaux, France, and Altamira, Spain, archaeologists say.
Palaeolithic rock art, like Lascaux caves in France, discovered in Upper Egypt Al-Ahram – June 19, 2007
The discovery of huge rocks decorated with Palaeolithic illustrations at the village of Qurta on the northern edge of Kom Ombo has caused excitement among the scientific community. The art was found by a team of Belgian archaeologists and restorers and features groups of cattle similar to those drawn on the walls of the French Lascaux caves. They are drawn and painted in a naturalistic style which is quite different from those shown in cattle representations of the well-known classical, pre-dynastic iconography of the fourth millennium BC. Illustrations of hippopotami, fish, birds and human figures can also be seen on the surface of some of the rocks.

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Tample of Baal Shamin Palmyra and Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Poem “Ancient Monument Destroy”

All Gizah Pyramids, Scarab and Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Poem “Peace Comes to You” translated into Arabic by Nancy Emad

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