Swansea Center, Wall Murals and the Shoppers on, May 26&28, 2019

Swansea Center, Wall Murals and the Shoppers on, May 26&28, 2019

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

  The USA flag shows the location of American Hotel by the beach in Swansea.

We left Swansea beach and walked toward TESCO supermarket, which took about 10 minutes and it is close to the Shopping Center. We saw a man sitting on the sidewalk.

 We are not sure that he wanted to rest or beg.

 We arrived at TESCO and found out that the supermarket closes early on Sunday.

 I love to see the rays of sun rays upon the building.

 After TESCO we walked toward home, we went through Bus Station. We saw a young man outside Bus Station. He asked for change while we were passing him.

This young lady, holding a cigarette, standing by a door inside the Bus Station, asked us for change as well.

This sign inside the bus station advertises the Quadrant Shopping Center.

There were not many people traveling on Sunday, only these two pigeons, who enjoyed walking freely.

After we came out of the Bus Station, another man asked us for money. I am sad to see these people begging for money. I do not know what are their circumstances that caused them to beg. But I wish someone or the government would help them both mentally and physically.

 We passed a Tattoo shop and I was glad to see the mural on the wall. I noticed that tattoos are very popular here. I saw both men and women with tattoos, some only on an arm or leg, but some have tattoo’s covering a lot of their body. I thought that only young people love to tattoos for fashion, but I also saw middle aged people with tattoos.

I presume that this wall mural was produced by, Fresh Murals Co.

The signature shown here is, Read and Weeps.

An interesting graffiti near the wall mural.

John was waiting for me as I was taking photographs of the wall mural. The advertising on the opposite wall between people at both ends and John sitting by the tattoo sign made it an interesting composition.

We passed the Swansea Grand Theatre.


I like the sign of this Indian Cuisine restaurant.

Interesting mural on the store gate of a Tatto Lab shop.

Volunteer, Donate and Service, for good causes are good for society at last.

There is quite a mixed population in Swansea. Many Arabic shops, and Chinese shops on St. Helens Road and also Arabic, Chinese, Indian, and Thai restaurants throughout Swansea. So, we see all races of people walking on Swansea streets.

This is Swansea Shopping center, where I took these photographs on Tuesday, May 28, 2019.

By accident, I captured a picture of Phyllis neighbors and friends, Mikey, and Betty, his sister, stood next to him, they were talking to someone. These two people were very helpful to Phyllis, John’s sister. We are very grateful for their generosity.

John told me that he saw Chinese people in Swansea more than in previous years.

I was really surprised and enjoyed seeing this Seagull eating French frys on the tray, as if he or she was one of Burger King’s customers.

It is fun to see our reflection on the glass window.

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Swansea Beach and the Visitors on Sunday, May 26, 2019

Swansea Beach and the Visitors on Sunday, May 26, 2019

  First thing we did before we went out of the house is to enjoy the blooming of spring flowers in Phyllis’s little garden. We miss Mom and Phyllis who devoted their energy and time taking care of family and this house. We wish they were here. Please do not fight, we will all perish one day, soon or later. Please get along and enjoy each other while you can.

I love plants and beautiful flowers. Thanks, Phyllis and Mom who created a beautiful little place for us.

Swansea Library allowed us to be temporary members. As members we can use free internet for 2 hours each day. Without membership free internet is only available for 30 minutes a day. For the record, we went to Swansea city center and asked a shop the cost of using the internet. The rate was 1 pound for 20 minutes. The library and the shop are the same distance from the house we are staying in. We appreciate the help Swansea Library gives to foreigners and others who come to visit Swansea.

After visiting the library, we usually enjoy the beach which is situated right next to the library. In fact, the large library windows look out directly onto Swansea Bay.

John was eager to step onto the beach, to walk about enjoying the scenery and remembering his youth playing here every chance he could.

We visited Swansea beach about two years ago, on Monday, October 9, 2017 and I wrote a poem as follows: Swansea Shore!

A poor little bird Standing on the edge

Watching the sea roll by

My poor sick husband Trying to compose himself Breathing in the fresh air Oh, Swansea Shore!

I came here before Seeing the waves Rolling and hugging you

In and out with the rhythm of the tides

Oh, Swansea Shore! I will come here again In the sunset of my life

And you will still be here For the long centuries to come

My little Grandson Kai

Holding his hands with his parents

Walking along the shore

Another younger generations will come

Admiring you with the sunset or the sunrise

The full moon appearing in the sky You will give pleasure for all to see,

Oh, Swansea Shore!

I love you!

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, October 11, 2017, 4:17 am

This was one of the pictures that I took two years ago, which I posted along with my poem.

The information about the Swansea Bay which I posted when we came to Swansea last time. “Swansea Bay (Welsh: Bae Abertawe) is a bay on the Bristol Channel on the southern coast of Wales. Places on the bay include Swansea and Port Talbot. The River Neath, River Tawe, River Afan, River Kenfig and Clyne River flow into the bay. Swansea Bay (and upper reaches of the Bristol Channel) experience a large tidal range. The shipping ports in Swansea Bay are Swansea Docks, Port Talbot Docks and Briton Ferry wharfs. Oyster fishing was once an important industry in Swansea Bay, employing 600 people at its height in the 1860s. However, overfishing, disease and pollution had all but wiped out the oyster population by 1920. In 2005 plans were announced to reintroduce the Oyster farming industry.[1]” Beaches[edit] The bay is lined with sandy beaches. Each stretch of beach within the bay has its own individual name: • Aberavon Beach • Baglan Bay • Jersey Marine Beach • Swansea Beach • Mumbles Beach For more information please visit the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

 “Swansea Bay: Harnessing the power of our tides • Did you know… the UK has the second highest tidal range in the world and the difference in the range at Swansea Bay is a massive 7-9 metres! • Dave Sagan, Project Manager • An iconic, world-first infrastructure project in South West Wales • Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon will be the world’s first tidal lagoon power plant. • A tidal lagoon is a ‘U’ shaped breakwater, built out from the coast which has a bank of hydro turbines in it. Water fills up and empties the man-made lagoon as the tides rise and fall. We generate electricity on both the incoming and outgoing tides, four times a day, every day. • Due to the incredible tides on the West Coast of Britain, by keeping the turbine gates shut for just three hours, there is already a 14ft height difference in water between the inside and the outside of the lagoon. Power is then generated as the water rushes through 200ft long draft tubes, rotating the 23ft diameter hydro turbines. • The project was awarded a Development Consent Order in 2015 and is primed for construction. It will comprise 16 hydro turbines, a six-mile breakwater wall, generating electricity for 155,000 homes for the next 120 years. Its major delivery partners include Atkins, General Electric, Andritz Hydro, Le aing O’Rourke and Alun Griffiths Ltd.” For more information please visit the following link: https://www.tidallagoonpower.com/projects/swansea-bay/ I posted the above information about two years ago. I was so glad for the new pollution free project for Wales. I hoped that I would enjoy seeing this project come to reality when we visit Swansea next time. But unfortunately, the project still has not been completed. I hope that no matter what party is in control, the project will still go through. This will benefit the people, help the environment of the country, and in turn the world at large.

I always enjoy seeing the, “funny humps” on the horizon, which is the lighthouse at the Mumbles end of Swansea Bay.

“Swansea Bay: Wind plans In addition to tidal power, construction of an offshore windfarm in the Bay has been approved,[9] but construction has now been deferred owing to the costs involved. The windfarm was to have been sited at Scarweather Sands, about 5 km (3 mi) off the coast and visible from Porthcawl.” For more information please visit the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay I posted above information in 2017, when we visited Swansea last time. We saw some of the wind mills in two locations while we were on the Bus from Heathrow airport to Swansea city. Two of the large wind mills are in the photograph.

The lady enjoyed walking on the pathway along the beach.

John concentrated on capturing the action on the beach.  

The fresh air and gentle breeze against these two bikers faces on this beautiful seashore will to be remembered by them.

John probably said “Got it”. One of his perfect photographs, he captured on the beach.

A little one had fun on the beach with brother and mother. I wish to see Kai and his parents on the beach with us.

I saw at least two people holding equipment for digging worms for fishing.

Some people enjoyed the cool breeze on the steps while the tide was out before the waves roll back in covering the steps again.

Riding on the path next to beach is fun, especially having a loved one hugging you by the waist.

Happiness is freedom to enjoy biking, walking, or sitting in the pleasant atmosphere on Swansea beach.

 Swansea Bay, Pollution: For the last two decades of the 20th century, the bay was blighted by pollution, partly from the surrounding heavy industry and partly from sewerage outlets being sited at inappropriate locations including the main one that was located just seaward of Mumbles Lighthouse. A pumping station inside the cliff adjacent to Knab Rock brought all of Swansea city’s effluent in a raw form to this point. Adding to the problem was the natural current flow of the waters in the Bay which often did not move the polluted waters further out to sea. Ironically, the outgoing tide did not carry the raw sewage down the adjacent Bristol Channel, but instead cause it to be sucked in around the circumference of the Bay and only then out down the Channel. If not fully discharged on that tide, the incoming tide would then push the same effluent up the Channel, and once again circulate around the Bay. Efforts were made by the local authority to reduce the pollution in the Bay but care had to be taken to ensure the pollution did not move to the popular beach resorts in south Gower instead. This original sewer outlet was finally made inactive in around 1996 following the construction of a brand new pipeline which ran all the way back around the Bay following the line of the old Mumbles Railway as far as Beach Street, along the sea-side of the Maritime Quarter and through Swansea Docks to a new £90 million sewage treatment plant at Crymlyn Burrows near Port Tennant from which a new outlet was made, extending further out to sea. As a consequence of the huge improvement these works have made, it is hoped that Swansea Bay will achieve Blue Flag Beach status. Aberavon beach was awarded Blue Flag status in December 2007.[2]” For more information please visit the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

After the tide went out, it showed the remaining evidence of the living organisms that exist on the beach.

Soft sand on the sea shore is probably comfortable for running.

I asked John, “What is this big lump of sand? It Looks like poop.” He said, “ That hole was the place where people used a pipe do draw core sample of deeper sand to find warms for fishing. The sand in the pipe get discard on the surface.” One can learn new things, no matter how old you are.

I enjoyed seeing different types of shell, big and small.

 Shells are everywhere on the curve of tide waves that end on the beach. Like our hearts beating, the tide never stops its rhythmic cycle. in and out regularly like our heart beat that never stop until we no longer breath, as if when the tide never came back the beach lay dry and the organisms on the beach are vanishing.

I collected different types of shells for Kai while thinking of him, hoping that he will enjoy seeing the shells from the Swansea shore.

 I wish we would appreciate the sea more than we do, so that we will keep it clean from polution that humans dump in the sea including large quantities of plastic. The earth is not only for humans use. It belongs to all the organisms that live in the sea.

The sun cast our shadow on the beach for me to capture and remember our walk that beautiful day. “We miss you! We miss you! Until we meet again!

 I love this photo where John walked on the beautiful smooth sand, casting his perfect shadow at a 45 degrees angle. In front of him is a tall building reaching into the clouds and blue sky.

The wall dividing the United States and Mexico is a political problem for immigrants into USA, but not this wall.

Playing on the beach with mother and brother is fun, and happy time. They will remember this moment as long as they live.

A pretty young lady on walks alonghe beach.

The wind blows the hair while a cool breeze brings pleasure.

This gentleman is enjoying a time with no rain in the comfortable atmosphere of Swansea beach.

 Millions of pictures were taken by the beach for love ones at home or as a personal memory of the Swansea shore.

 I came to Swansea many times before, when Mom, John’s Mother and Phyllis, John’s sister were still alive. Mom passed away in 1996. We still came to visit Phyllis and Swansea. Then Phyllis passed away three years ago. We still visit Swansea. I miss Mom and Phyllis and said hello when I went in their rooms. Before I concentrated on taking photographs of places and monuments more than people. Lucky technology has allowed us to capture images of people, see their movements on video, and hear them talk. From now on I will concentrate on recording the stories of people rather than places. Places will continue to exist but people are here for only a limited time. Kai my grandson, who is three and a half, will look back at my photos posted on my website in ten or twenty years. Here he will see the difference time has made to the people and culture presented in my work and learn from this.

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Trip To Swansea In My Husband’s Motherland , Wales – Part 1

Ing and John traveled to Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom on September 25 – October 26, 2017.
Artwork at Newark Liberty Airport in the check in area of Air India.
On the Chinese New Year, one can see the festival and celebration from the Dragon Dancing Parade. The Chinese love the dragon symbol in red, which is a favorite color of the Chinese. This artwork reminded me of a Welsh dragon. We had some time left before we went into the gate for boarding. I enjoyed taking photographs of this artwork. We selected Air India because it was the most economical ticket fare and John loves Indian food, me too.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, January 14, 2018

Artwork at Newark Liberty Airport, New Jersey, United States

Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts


Ing & John Traveled to Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom on September 25 – October 26, 2017.

We arrived in Newark Liberty Airport, Newark, New Jersey at about 5 p.m. on Monday 25, for checking in which started at 6:30 pm. We saw a scene of nice sunset sky outside area of Air India’s glass windows.

The reflection of the television screen appeared in the sunset sky of the scene looking out of Newark Liberty Airport, Newark in the check in area of Air India.

Beautiful Sunset Sky, the scene looking out of Newark Liberty Airport,  in the check in area of Air India.

John and I were busy packing again. This time we were heading to Swansea, South Wales, the UK. John was born in Swansea, and most of his family lived there for most of their lives. “No Place Like Home”, it is John’s beloved country.

Ing & John Traveled to Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom on September 25 – October 26, 2017.

The route from Newark Liberty Airport, Newark, New Jersey, USA To Heathrow, London, UK
We boarded and the airplane took off at about 10:30 p.m. The flight attendants started to serve the food and drinks, after our bellies were satisfied by Indian food, John enjoyed checking the movies and I enjoyed learning about flight information.
The airplane from Newark passed over Boston, Windsor, Bay Roberts, Montreal and crossed Atlantic Ocean heading to Amsterdam.

At one point, I opened the flight information. It showed that outside air temperature was -540 degrees Centigrade. I thought if any one drops out of the airplane; the body probably be frozen instantly.

“Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as a small airfield (Great West Aerodrome) on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrowfrom which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there: there was a “Heathrow Farm” about where Terminal 1 is now, a “Heathrow Hall” and a “Heathrow House”. This hamlet was largely along a country lane (Heathrow Road) which ran roughly along the east and south edges of the present central terminals area.
Development of the whole Heathrow area as a very much larger airport began in 1944: it was stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the Far East. But by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended. The government continued to develop the airport as a civil airport; it opened as London Airport in 1946 and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966. The masterplan[clarification needed] for the airport was designed by Sir Frederick Gibberd, who designed the original terminals and central area buildings, including the original control tower and the multi-faith chapel of St George’s.”

For more information please visit the following link:

This flight information showed that the airplane passed through Waterford and Wexford of Island, crossed the Celtic sea passing over South Wales. John said “We should get off here then we do not have to go to Heathrow, London. Save us time and money to ride the bus for five hours from Heathrow to Swansea. For better or worse, we have to follow the system, it was the flight route. We finally reached to our destination, Heathrow Airport, London. The trip duration was about six hours.

“Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries. The airport is the primary hub of British Airways and is a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has four passenger terminals (numbered 2 to 5) and a cargo terminal. Of Heathrow’s 73.4 million passengers in 2014, 93% were international travellers; the remaining 7% were bound for (or arriving from) places in the UK.[9] The busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013.[10]”

For more information please visit the following link:

“Heathrow is 14 mi (23 km) west of central London,[3] near the south end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the built-up areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth, Longford and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow and Hatton to the east. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Slough in Berkshire by the M25 motorway. Heathrow falls entirely under the TW postcode area.
As the airport is west of London and as its runways run east–west, an airliner’s landing approach is usually directly over the conurbation of London when the wind is from the west.
Along with Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend and London City, Heathrow is one of six airports with scheduled services serving the London area, although only Heathrow and London City are within Greater London.

Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow)[2] (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the second busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic (surpassed by Dubai International in 2014), as well as the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic, and the seventh busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic. In 2016, it handled a record 75.7 million passengers, a 1.0% increase from 2015.[1]
Heathrow lies 14 miles (23 km) west of Central London,[3] and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres (4.74 sq mi). The airport is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings, which itself is owned by FGP TopCo Limited, an international consortium led by Ferrovialthat also includes Qatar Holding LLC, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, Alinda Capital Partners, China Investment Corporation and Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS).[4] London Heathrow is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic.
In September 2012, the UK government established the Airports Commission, an independent commission chaired by Sir Howard Davies to examine various options for increasing capacity at UK airports. In July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow and the government”

For more information please visit the following link:

We took the elevator to the Bus Terminal where we saw the Welcome Posters. I wonder after the Brexit, if the British will still welcome foreigners.

“Brexit (/?br?ks?t/ or /?br??z?t/) is the popular term for the prospective withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).[1]
In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9% of the participating UK electorate voted to leave the EU. On 29 March 2017, the British government invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union. The UK is thus on course to leave the EU on Friday, 29 March 2019.[2]
Prime Minister Theresa May announced that the UK would not seek permanent membership of the single market or the customs union after leaving the EU[3][4] and promised to repeal the European Communities Act of 1972 and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law.[5] Negotiations with the EU officially started in June 2017.
The UK joined the European Communities in 1973,[6][7] with membership confirmed by a referendum in 1975. In the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the EC was advocated mainly by Labour Party and trade union figures. From the 1990s, the main advocates of withdrawal were the newly founded UK Independence Party (UKIP) and an increasing number of Eurosceptic Conservatives.”

For more information please visit the following link:

“Brexit Historical background
Main article: History of Britain’s relationship with the European Union
In 1951, the “Inner Six” European countries signed the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), followed shortly by the 1957 Treaties of Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). In 1967, these became known as the European Communities (EC). The UK applied to join in 1963 and 1967, but was vetoed by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.[17] After de Gaulle relinquished the French presidency the UK successfully applied for membership and the Conservative prime minister Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Accession in 1972,[18]Parliament passed the European Communities Act later in the year[19] and the UK became a member of the EC on 1 January 1973 with Denmark and Ireland.[20]
The opposition Labour Party contested the October 1974 general election with a commitment to renegotiate Britain’s terms of membership of the EC and then hold a referendum on whether to remain in the EC on the new terms.[21] After Labour won the election the United Kingdom held its first ever national referendum on whether the UK should remain in the European Communities in 1975. Despite significant division within the ruling Labour Party[22] all major political parties and the mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC. On 5 June 1975, 67.2% of the electorate and all but two[23] UK counties and regions voted to stay in[24] and support for the UK to leave the EC in 1975 appears unrelated to the support for Leave in the 2016 referendum.[25]”

For more information please visit the following link:

“Brexit: Comparison of results of 1975 and 2016 referendums
The Labour Party campaigned in the 1983 general election on a commitment to withdraw from the EC without a referendum[26] although after a heavy defeat Labour changed its policy.[26] In 1985 the Thatcher government ratified the Single European Act—the first major revision to the Treaty of Rome- without a referendum.
In October 1990, under pressure from senior ministers and despite Margaret Thatcher’s deep reservations, the United Kingdom joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), with the pound sterling pegged to the deutschmark. Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister the following month, amid Conservative Party divisions arising partly from her increasingly Eurosceptic views. The United Kingdom and Italy were forced to withdraw from the ERM in September 1992, after the pound sterling and the lira came under pressure (“Black Wednesday”).[27]
Under the Maastricht Treaty, the European Communities became the European Union on 1 November 1993,[28] reflecting the evolution of the organisation from an economic union into a political union.[29]”

For more information please visit the following link:

We saw a lot of sparrows at the bus terminal welcoming the food given to them. Hopefully they were also welcoming us.

“Brexit: Consequences of withdrawal for the United Kingdom[edit]
Long term[edit]
Immigration was cited as the second-most important reason for those voting to Leave. However, some forecasts indicate that immigration ?ows to the UK will remain relatively high after Brexit.[141] KPMG – based on a survey of 2,000 EU workers in UK – estimates that about a million of EU citizens working in the UK, see their future in Britain as over or hanging in the balance[142].
Immediate effects[edit]
Official figures in March 2017 indicated that EU immigration to the UK continued to exceed emigration, but the difference between immigration and emigration (“net migration”) had fallen to its lowest for three years.[143] The number of EU nurses registering with the NHS fell from 1,304 in July 2016 to 46 in April 2017.[144]
Economic effects[edit]
Main article: Economic effects of Brexit
During the referendum, the economic arguments were a major area of debate. Most economists, including the UK Treasury, argued that being in the EU has a strong positive effect on trade and as a result the UK’s trade would be worse off if it left the EU.[145][146] Others argued for the benefits of being free of EU “red tape” regulations and from going the full route of complete free trade. Additionally, not contributing to the EU budget would improve the budget and allowing tax cuts or higher government spending.[147]
After the referendum, the Institute for Fiscal Studies published a report funded by the Economic and Social Research Council which warned that Britain would lose up to £70 billion in reduced economic growth if it didn’t retain Single Market membership, with new trade deals unable to make up the difference.[148] One of these areas is financial services, which are helped by EU-wide “passporting” for financial products, which the Financial Times estimates indirectly accounts for up to 71,000 jobs and 10 billion pounds of tax annually,[149] and some banks have announced plans to relocate some of their operations outside the UK.[150]
On 5 January 2017, Andy Haldane, the Chief Economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England, admitted that forecasts predicting an economic downturn due to the referendum were inaccurate and noted strong market performance after the referendum,[151][152][153] although some have pointed to prices rising faster than wages.[154]
Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority, currently based in London.[155] The EU is also investigating the feasibility of restricting the clearing of euro-denominated trades to Eurozone jurisdictions, attempting to end London’s dominance in this sector.[156]
Effect on academic research[edit]
Main article: Brexit and arrangements for science and technology
The UK received more from the EU for research than it contributed[157] with universities getting just over 10% of their research income from the EU.[158] All funding for net beneficiaries from the EU, including universities, was guaranteed by the government in August 2016.[159] Before the funding announcement, a newspaper investigation reported that some research projects were reluctant to include British researchers due to uncertainties over funding.[160]
Currently the UK is part of the European Research Area and the UK is likely to wish to remain an associated member.[161]
As predicted before the referendum,[162] the Scottish Government announced that officials were planning a second independence referendum on the day after the UK voted to leave and Scotland voted to stay.[163] In March 2017, the SNP leader and First Minister Nicola Sturgeon requested a second Scottish independence referendum for 2018 to 2019 (before Brexit is expected to take effect).[164] The Prime Minister immediately rejected the requested timing (although not the referendum itself).[165] The referendum was approved by the Scottish Parliament on 28 March 2017. Sturgeon is calling for a “phased return” of an independent Scotland back to the EU.[166]
After the referendum, Nicola Sturgeon also stated that Scotland might refuse consent for legislation required to leave the EU,[167] though some lawyers argue that Scotland cannot block Brexit.[168]
International agreements[edit]
The Financial Times approximates there to be 759 international agreements, spanning 168 non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU.[169] This figure does not include World Trade Organisation or United Nations opt-in accords, and excludes “narrow agreements”, which may have to be renegotiated as well.[169]
Options for continuing relationship with the EU[edit]
Main article: Continuing UK relationship with the EU
The UK’s post-Brexit relationship with the remaining EU members could take several forms. A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July 2013 proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market. These include remaining in the European Economic Area,[170]negotiating deep bilateral agreements on the Swiss model,[170] or exit from the EU without EEA membership or a trade agreement under the WTO Option. There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force.
Relations with the Republic of Ireland[edit]

The UK/Republic of Ireland border at Killeen marked only by a speed sign marked in km/h
The Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom as a whole share, since the 1920s, a Common Travel Areawithout border controls. According to statements by Theresa May and Enda Kenny, it is intended to maintain this arrangement.[171] After Brexit, in order to prevent illegal migration across the open Northern Irish land border into the United Kingdom, the Irish and British governments suggested in October 2016 a plan whereby British border controls would be applied to Irish ports and airports. This would prevent a “hard border” arising between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.[172]However, this agreement was never official and was met by opposition from political parties in the Republic of Ireland,[173] and there is still great uncertainty in relation to a ‘hard border’ between the Republic and Northern Ireland.[174]
On 23 March 2017, it was confirmed that British immigration officials would not be allowed to use Irish ports and airports in order to combat immigration concerns following Brexit.[175] A referendum for the reunification of Ireland was suggested by Sinn Féin leader Martin McGuinness immediately after the UK EU referendum results were announced.[176] Creating a border control system between Ireland and Northern Ireland could jeopardise the Good Friday Agreement established in 1998.[177] In April 2017 the European Council agreed that, in the event of Irish reunification, Northern Ireland would rejoin the EU.[178]
Border with France[edit]
The President of the Regional Council of Hauts-de-France, Xavier Bertrand, stated in February 2016 that “If Britain leaves Europe, right away the border will leave Calais and go to Dover. We will not continue to guard the border for Britain if it’s no longer in the European Union,” indicating that the juxtaposed controls would end with a leave vote. French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be “threatened” by a leave vote.[179] These claims have been disputed, as the Le Touquet 2003 treaty enabling juxtaposed controls was not an EU treaty, and would not be legally void upon leaving.[180]
After the Brexit vote, Xavier Bertrand asked François Hollande to renegotiate the Touquet agreement,[181] which can be terminated by either party with two years’ notice.[182] Hollande rejected the suggestion, and said: “Calling into question the Touquet deal on the pretext that Britain has voted for Brexit and will have to start negotiations to leave the Union doesn’t make sense.” Bernard Cazeneuve, the French Interior Minister, confirmed there would be “no changes to the accord”. He said: “The border at Calais is closed and will remain so.”[183]
Gibraltar and Spain[edit]
Main article: Gibraltar after Brexit
During the campaign leading up to the referendum[184] the Chief Minister of Gibraltar warned that Brexit posed a threat to Gibraltar’s safety.[185] Gibraltar overwhelmingly voted to remain in the EU. After the result Spain’s Foreign Minister renewed calls for joint Spanish–British control of the peninsula.[186] These calls were strongly rebuffed by Gibraltar’s Chief Minister[187] and questions were raised over the future of free-flowing traffic at the Gibraltar–Spain border.[188] The British government states it will only negotiate on the sovereignty of Gibraltar with the consent of its people.[189]”
For more information please visit the following link:

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