Wars Of America Sculpture at Military Park

Wars Of America Sculpture at Military Park

Downtown Newark, New Jersey

On Thursday, May 5, 2016

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Military Park (Newark) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Military Park is a 6-acre (24,000 m2) city park in Downtown Newark, Essex County, New Jersey … Military Park Commons Historic District … A statue of Monsignor George Hobart Doane, for whom the park is named, was unveiled in 1908.


Wars of America

U.S. National Register of Historic Places

New Jersey Register of Historic Places

Wars of America located on Military Park,

614-706 Broad Street, Newark, New Jersey

Area        less than one acre,   Built        1926                  

Architect     Borglum,Gutzon

MPS              Public Sculpture in Newark MPS

NRHP Reference #      94001257[1] , Added to NRHP  October 28, 1994

NJRHP #                       1338[2]Designated NJRHP  September 13, 1994

Wars of America is a “colossal” bronze sculpture by Gutzon Borglum containing “forty-two humans and two horses”,[3]located in Military ParkNewarkEssex CountyNew Jersey, United States. The sculpture sets on a base of granite fromStone Mountain.

The sculpture was erected in 1926, eight years after World War I ended, but its intent was broadened to honor all of America’s war dead. In describing it, Borglum said “The design represents a great spearhead. Upon the green field of this spearhead we have placed a Tudor sword, the hilt of which represents the American nation at a crisis, answering the call to arms.”[4]

The sculpture was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 28, 1994.

 Military Park
Broad St. and Park Pl.

Map / Directions to Military Park
Map / Directions to all Newark Revolutionary War Sites       Washington’s troops camped here during the retreat of 1776. It is believed that        Thomas Paine began writing The American Crisis while camped here. [4]       One end of the park has a liberty pole, in the spot where the original stood in the 1700’s.          In the park is The Wars of America sculpture, depicted soldiers from all of America’s wars,         including the Revolutionary War. It was sculpted in 1926 by Gutzon Borglum,         who also sculpted Mount Rushmore.

For more information please visit the following link:


The following article is written by Linda Stamato | Star-Ledger Guest Columnist:


Wars of America: Newark’s triumphant memorial sculpture

By Linda Stamato | Star-Ledger Guest Columnist 
on May 25, 2015 at 11:17 AM, updated May 26, 2015 at 7:07 AM

Among Newark’s gems, are the public works of Gutzon Borglum, the extraordinary sculptor whose most famous work, of course, is Mount Rushmore. In Newark, far from South Dakota, and situated downtown, just across from the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, sits one of the most compelling of Borglum’s works: Wars of America. He created this magnificent sculpture over the course of six years, completing it in 1926. It memorializes all the major conflicts in which Americans participated up to and including the First World War.


On Memorial Day it seems more than fitting to reflect on why we build memorials and what this one, in particular, signifies. It was commissioned several years after the end of the World War, but its intent was not solely to honor the courageous men who fought in that war but to honor all of America’s war dead.

The bronze masterpiece consists of forty-two human beings and two horses and commemorates America’s participation in the Revolution, War of 1812; Indian Wars; Mexican War, the Civil War, Spanish American War and World War I.

It is in Military Park, which dates back to 1667–when the park was a training ground for soldiers and, later, a drill field for the Colonial and Continental armies–where the colossal Wars of America statue stands in striking relief. It is the centerpiece of the park.


Gutzon Borglum inspecting his sculpture: 1926 Amazon.com

In describing it, Borglum said: “The design represents a great spearhead. Upon the green field of this spearhead we have placed a Tudor sword, the hilt of which represents the American nation at a crisis, answering the call to arms.” (The New York Times; November 7, 1926.)

From John Taliaferro’s “Great White Fathers: The Story of the Obsessive Quest to Create Mount Rushmore”:

“The statue is fronted by four nameless officers, one dressed in the uniform of the Revolution, one from the union army, one from World War I, and a fourth figure representing the navy. Behind them come thirty-eight more full-size figures, plus two very restive horses. Only a half dozen of the men carry weapons and the Revolutionary officer carries a sword, yet the composition still manages to evoke, in Borglum’s words, ‘an entire nation mobilizing under great pressure of war.’ The group is leaning forward en masse, a concerted thrust of citizen soldiers. Borglum wanted to express the “indignation, fear….physical distress, and pathos “ of war. He achieves all of these and more.”


“Wars” is a brilliant sculpture, that, to Taliaferro, complements all Borglum’s talent and experience. Many of the warriors were actually Borglum’s friends and acquaintances. Easiest to spot are the sculptor himself and his son, Lincoln, depicted halfway down the left flank of the sculpture as the anxious father sends his young son off to battle. His wife, Mary, also appears.

The sculpture represents a“sincere nationalism, with great faith in the United States,” according to Rosa Portell, the curator of theStamford Museum & Nature Center in Connecticut:

“Borglum was living in the era of American manifest destiny, when the United States was becoming a world power, and he felt awe for the men who created, preserved and expanded the country.”


The sculpture was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 28, 1994.

Newark has a collection of treasures waiting to be discovered over and over again. Prior to “Wars”, for example, Borglum created three other bronze sculptures that grace the city’s streets and parks: The magnificentSeated Lincoln (in 1911); theIndian and Puritan (in 1916), and a bas-relief, First Landing Party of the Founders of Newark (in 1916.)


It is in art that we capture best, I think, the spirit and courage of the brave people who fought, and those who supported them. War memorials provide symbolic, social and historical experiences that are so compelling that they can impose meaning and order beyond the temporal and chaotic experiences of life. (Ben Barber: Place, Symbol and Utilitarian Functions in War Memorials :1949)


On Memorial Day, especially, Wars of America is a sculpture to visit, to gaze upon and reflect, to give thanks for those who fought and died for the nation. But, it is also just the place to be as we hope the day comes when there is less need for more memorials.

Wars of America: A tribute to those who fought and died for the nation Pam Hasegawa 

This is the end of Linda Stamato’s article.  Thanks for her article; her conclusion is exactly the way I wish the world to be “We hope the day comes when there is less need for more memorials”.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, May 22, 2016

Gutzon Borglum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) was an American artist and sculptor. He is most associated with his creation of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota. He was associated with other public works of art, including a bust of Abraham Lincoln exhibited in the White House by Theodore Roosevelt and now held in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C..

The son of Danish-American immigrants, Gutzon Borglum was born in 1867 in St. Charles in what was then Idaho Territory. Borglum was a child of Mormon polygamy. His father, Jens Møller Haugaard Børglum (1839-1909), had two wives when he lived in Idaho: Gutzon’s mother, Christina Mikkelsen Borglum (1847-1871) and Gutzon’s mother’s sister, who was Jens’s first wife.[1] Jens Borglum decided to leave Mormonism and moved to Omaha, Nebraska where polygamy was both illegal and taboo; he left Gutzon’s mother and took his first wife with him.[2] Jens Borglum worked mainly as a woodcarver before leaving Idaho to attend the Saint Louis Homeopathic Medical College [3] in Saint Louis, Missouri. Upon his graduation from the Missouri Medical College in 1874, Dr. Borglum moved the family to Fremont, Nebraska, where he established a medical practice. Gutzon Borglum remained in Fremont until 1882, when his father enrolled him in St. Mary’s College, Kansas.[4]

After a brief stint at Saint Mary’s College, Gutzon Borglum relocated to Omaha, Nebraska, where he apprenticed in a machine shop and graduated from Creighton Preparatory School. He was trained in Paris at the Académie Julian, where he came to know Auguste Rodin and was influenced by Rodin’s impressionistic light-catching surfaces. Back in the U.S. in New York City he sculpted saints and apostles for the new Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in 1901; in 1906 he had a group sculpture accepted by the Metropolitan Museum of Art[5]— the first sculpture by a living American the museum had ever purchased—and made his presence further felt with some portraits. He also won the Logan Medal of the Arts. His reputation soon surpassed that of his younger brother, Solon Borglum, already an established sculptor.

In 1925, the sculptor moved to Texas to work on the monument to trail drivers commissioned by the Trail Drivers Association. He completed the model in 1925, but due to lack of funds it was not cast until 1940, and then was only a fourth its originally planned size. It stands in front of the Texas Pioneer and Trail Drivers Memorial Hall next to the Witte Museum in San Antonio. Borglum lived at the historic Menger Hotel, which in the 1920s was the residence of a number of artists. He subsequently planned the redevelopment of the Corpus Christi waterfront; the plan failed,[why?] although a model for a statue of Christ intended for it was later modified by his son and erected on a mountaintop in South Dakota. While living and working in Texas, Borglum took an interest in local beautification. He promoted change and modernity, although he was berated by academicians.[6]

A fascination with gigantic scale and themes of heroic nationalism suited his extroverted personality. His head of Abraham Lincoln, carved from a six-ton block of marble, was exhibited in Theodore Roosevelt‘s White House and can be found in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C. A “patriot,” believing that the “monuments we have built are not our own,” he looked to create art that was “American, drawn from American sources, memorializing American achievement,” according to a 1908 interview article. Borglum was highly suited to the competitive environment surrounding the contracts for public buildings and monuments, and his public sculpture is sited all around the United States.

In 1908, Borglum won a competition for a statue of the Civil War General Philip Sheridan to be placed in Sheridan Circle in Washington. D.C. A second version of General Philip Sheridan was erected in Chicago, Illinois, in 1923. Winning this competition was a personal triumph for him because he won out over sculptor J.Q.A.Ward, a much older and more established artist and one whom Borglum had clashed with earlier in regard to the National Sculpture Society. At the unveiling of the Sheridan statue, one observer, President Theodore Roosevelt (whom Borglum was later to include in the Mount Rushmore portrait group), declared that it was “first rate;” a critic wrote that “as a sculptor Gutzon Borglum was no longer a rumor, he was a fact.” (Smith:see References)

Borglum was active in the committee that organized the New York Armory Show of 1913, the birthplace of modernism in American art. By the time the show was ready to open, however, Borglum had resigned from the committee, feeling that the emphasis on avant-garde works had co-opted the original premise of the show and made traditional artists like himself look provincial. He lived in Stamford, Connecticut for 10 years.

Borglum was an active member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons (the Freemasons), raised in Howard Lodge #35, New York City, on June 10, 1904, and serving as its Worshipful Master 1910-11. In 1915, he was appointed Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City Consistory on October 25, 1907.[7]

Borglum was a member of the Ku Klux Klan.[8] He was one of the six knights who sat on the Imperial Koncilium in 1923, which transferred leadership of the Ku Klux Klan from Imperial Wizard Colonel Simmons to Imperial Wizard Hiram Evans.[9] In 1925, having only completed the head of Robert E. Lee, Borglum was dismissed from the Stone Mountain project, with some holding that it came about due to infighting within the KKK, with Borglum involved in the strife.[10] Later, he stated, “I am not a member of the Kloncilium, nor a knight of the KKK'”, but Howard and Audrey Shaff add that, “that was for public consumption.”[11] The museum at Mount Rushmore displays a letter to Borglum from D. C. Stephenson, the infamous Klan Grand Dragon who was later convicted of the rape and murder of Madge Oberholtzer. The 8×10 foot portrait contains the inscription, “To my good friend Gutzon Borglum, with the greatest respect”. Correspondence from Borglum to Stephenson during the 1920s detailed a deep racist conviction in Nordic moral superiority, and urges strict immigration policies.[12]

Borglum died in 1941 and is buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale in California in the Memorial Court of Honor. His second wife, Mary Montgomery Williams Borglum, 1874–1955 (they were married May 20, 1909), is interred alongside him. In addition to his son, Lincoln, he had a daughter, Mary Ellis (Mel) Borglum Vhay (1916–2002).

Borglum was initially involved in the carving of Stone Mountain in Georgia. Borglum’s nativist stances made him seem an ideologically sympathetic choice to carve a memorial to heroes of the Confederacy, planned for Stone Mountain, Georgia. In 1915, he was approached by the United Daughters of the Confederacy with a project for sculpting a 20-foot (6 m) high bust of General Robert E. Lee on the mountain’s 800-foot (240 m) rockface. Borglum accepted, but told the committee, “Ladies, a twenty foot head of Lee on that mountainside would look like a postage stamp on a barn door.'”[13]

Borglum’s ideas eventually evolved into a high-relief frieze of Lee, Jefferson Davis, and ‘Stonewall’ Jackson riding around the mountain, followed by a legion of artillery troops. Borglum agreed to include a Ku Klux Klan altar in his plans for the memorial to acknowledge a request of Helen Plane in 1915, who wrote to him: “I feel it is due to the KKK that saved us from Negro domination and carpetbag rule, that it be immortalized on Stone Mountain”.[10]


After a delay caused by World War I, Borglum and the newly chartered Stone Mountain Confederate Monumental Association set to work on this unexampled monument, the size of which had never been attempted before. Many difficulties slowed progress, some because of the sheer scale involved. After finishing the detailed model of the carving, Borglum was unable to trace the figures onto the massive area on which he was working, until he developed a gigantic magic lantern to project the image onto the side of the mountain.


Carving officially began on June 23, 1923, with Borglum making the first cut. At Stone Mountain he developed sympathetic connections with the reorganized Ku Klux Klan, who were major financial backers for the monument. Lee’s head was unveiled on Lee’s birthday January 19, 1924, to a large crowd, but soon thereafter Borglum was increasingly at odds with the officials of the organization. His domineering, perfectionist, authoritarian manner brought tensions to such a point that in March 1925 Borglum smashed his clay and plaster models. He left Georgia permanently, his tenure with the organization over. None of his work remains, as it was all cleared from the mountain’s face for the work of Borglum’s replacement Henry Augustus Lukeman. In in his abortive attempt, Borglum had developed necessary techniques for sculpting on a gigantic scale that made Mount Rushmore possible.[14]

His Mount Rushmore project, 1927–1941, was the brainchild of South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson. His first attempt with the face of Thomas Jefferson was blown up after two years. Dynamite was also used to remove large areas of rock from under Washington’s brow. The initial pair of presidents, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson was soon joined by Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt.


Ivan Houser , father of John Sherrill Houser, was assistant sculptor to Gutzon Borglum in the early years of carving; he began working with Borglum shortly after the inception of the monument and was with Borglum for a total of seven years. When Houser left Gutzon to devote his talents to his own work, Gutzon’s son, Lincoln, took over as Assistant-Sculptor to his father.


Borglum alternated exhausting on-site supervising with world tours, raising money, polishing his personal legend, sculpting a Thomas Paine memorial for Paris and a Woodrow Wilson one for Pozna?, Poland (1931).[15] In his absence, work at Mount Rushmore was overseen by his son, Lincoln Borglum. During the Rushmore project, father and son were residents of Beeville, Texas. When he died in Chicago, following complications after surgery, his son finished another season at Rushmore, but left the monument largely in the state of completion it had reached under his father’s direction.


In 1908, Borglum completed the statue of Comstock Lode silver baron John William Mackay (1831–1902). The statue is located at the University of Nevada, Reno.

In 1909, the sculpture Rabboni was created as a grave site for the Ffoulke Family in Washington, D.C. at Rock Creek Cemetery. [16]

In 1912, the Nathaniel Wheeler Memorial Fountain was dedicated in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

In 1918, he was one of the drafters of the Czechoslovak declaration of independence.[17]

One of Borglum’s more unusual pieces is the Aviator completed in 1919 as a memorial for James R. McConnell, who was killed in World War I while flying for the Lafayette Escadrille. It is located on the grounds of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.[18]

Four public works by Borglum are in Newark, NJ: Seated Lincoln (1911), Indian and Puritan (1916), Wars of America (1926), and a bas-relief, First Landing Party of the Founders of Newark (1916).[19]

Borglum sculpted the memorial Start Westward of the United States, which is located in Marietta, Ohio (1938).

He built the statue of Daniel Butterfield at Sakura Park in Manhattan (1918).[20]

He created a memorial to Sacco and Vanzetti (1928), a plaster cast of which is now in the Boston Public Library.[21]


Another Borglum design is the North Carolina Monument on Seminary Ridge at the Gettysburg Battlefield in south-central Pennsylvania. The cast bronze sculpture depicts a wounded Confederate officer encouraging his men to push forward during Pickett’s Charge. Borglum had also made arrangements for an airplane to fly over the monument during the dedication ceremony on July 3, 1929. During the sculpture’s unveiling, the plane scattered roses across the field as a salute to those North Carolinians who had fought and died at Gettysburg.

Popular culture[edit]


The following article is from PBS, American Experience: Biography Rushmore-Borglum


John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum liked to tinker with his own legend, subtracting a few years from his age, changing the story of his parentage. The best archival research has revealed that he was born in 1867 to one of the wives of a Danish Mormon bigamist.  When his father decided to conform to societal norms that were pressing westward with the pioneers, he abandoned Gutzon’s mother, and remained married to his first wife, her sister.

In 1884, when Gutzon was 16, the family moved to Los Angeles. His father, unhappy in California, soon returned to Nebraska, but Gutzon stayed behind. He studied art and met Elizabeth Jaynes Putnam, a painter and divorcee 18 years his senior. Lisa Putnam became a teacher and mentor to Gutzon, helping manage his career and advising his education. They were married in 1889. While in California, Gutzon painted a portrait of General John C. Fremont and learned the value of having a wealthy and socially connected patron. Although the general died a few years after sitting for his painting, his widow provided Borglum with contacts to men such as Leland Stanford and Theodore Roosevelt.


The Borglums traveled to Paris to work and study, and there Gutzon met sculptor Auguste Rodin. As much as he admired Rodin, more than one historian has suggested that the reason Gutzon gave up painting was to compete with his brother Solon, who had been making his name as a sculptor. Gutzon’s talent was immediately apparent and he found a few commissions (certainly the fact that Solon had already associated the name Borglum with fine sculpture didn’t hurt). At the same time, Gutzon’s marriage was falling apart. He left Paris alone in 1901 and aboard ship met Mary Montgomery, an American who had just completed her doctorate at the University of Berlin. He and Mary wed as soon as Lisa granted him a divorce. They bought a house and farm in Connecticut and named it “Borgland.”


Borglum’s major work back in America included a bust of Abraham Lincoln, which he was able to exhibit in Theodore Roosevelt’s White House. The Lincoln portrait and other much admired works gave Borglum a national reputation, and he was invited by Helen Plane of the United Daughters of the Confederacy to some of the techniques that would later be used on Rushmore.

While at Stone Mountain, Borglum became associated with the newly reborn Ku Klux Klan. Whether this accorded with a racist world view, or if it was simply one way to bond with some of his patrons on the Stone Mountain project, is unclear. Frankly, Borglum had little time for anyone, white or black, who was not a Congressman or millionaire, or happened to be in his way. There is no indication, for example, that he treated his long-suffering black chauffeur Charlie Johnson any differently than any white employee — he owed him back pay just like everyone else. Stone Mountain was not finished by Borglum, but it inspired his next job: Mount Rushmore.


When South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson read about Stone Mountain, he invited Borglum out to the Black Hills of South Dakota to create a monument there. Borglum, perhaps realizing that Stone Mountain had only regional support, immediately suggested a national subject for Rushmore: Presidents George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Jefferson were added to the program soon afterward. Borglum had met and campaigned for Roosevelt, and by invoking that president’s acquisition of the Panama Canal and Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase, the Rushmore monument became a story of the expansion of the United States, the embodiment of Manifest Destiny.

Work on the mountain was not constantly supervised by Borglum. When he was at Rushmore, Borglum would be climbing all over the mountain and all over the hills, to determine the best angle for each feature, and advising the carvers on how to create the nuanced details that might not even be visible from below. But after creating the models, siting the sculpture, and developing methods for transferring the image to the mountain and carving the rock, there were long periods during which Borglum’s presence was not required. He would often leave his assistants, including his son Lincoln, to supervise the work and then travel. He would go to Washington, D.C. to lobby for more money, and he also traveled around the world, finding and completing other commissions, sculpting a Thomas Paine for Paris and a Woodrow Wilson (for Poland, and meeting politicians and celebrities such as Helen Keller. (Helping her feel pieces by his old friend Rodin, he recalled her comment: “Meeting you is like a visit from the gods.” He sometimes felt the same way about himself, writing in his journal: “I must see, think, feel and draw in Thor’s dimension.”) When he returned to the Dakotas, a rock might have been roughly blasted into an egg shape and he would be back to looking over every detail.

Borglum’s stubborn insistence on having things done his way led to numerous confrontations with John Boland, who chaired the executive committee of the Mount Rushmore Commission. His temper and perfectionism caused him to fire his best workmen (who then had to be hired back by Borglum’s son Lincoln). Borglum’s ambition and hubris motivated him to recreate a landscape in his image (a tableau of prominent white men) rather than for the Native Americans who held the Black Hills sacred. Borglum was stubborn, insistent, temperamental, perfectionist, high-reaching, and proud — but these were also the characteristics that were required to carve a mountain. Big, brash, almost larger than life, only a man like Gutzon Borglum could have conceived of and created the monument on Mount Rushmore.


On March 6, 1941, Borglum died, following complications after surgery. His son finished another season

at Rushmore, but left the monument largely in the state of completion it had reached under his father’s



“Beauty is like a soul that hovers over the surface of form. Its presence is unmistakable in Art or in Life. The measure of its revelation depends on the measure of our own soul- consciousness, the boundaries of our own spirit.” — Gutzon Borglum

Before he created Mount Rushmore, Gutzon Borglum already had a productive and successful career as an artist.

The Stamford Museum and Nature Center organized a 1999 exhibition titled “Out of Rushmore’s Shadow: The Artistic Development of Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941).” Selections from that exhibit illustrate some of the influences Borglum incorporated into his work. Frequently, Borglum favored muscular, dynamic poses for his subjects, and he also liked to make art on a large scale.

The following article is written by Mark Di Ionno | The Star-Ledger The Star-Ledger
on February 16, 2009 at 8:34 PM, updated September 01, 2009 at 2:52 PM


Four score and 18 years ago, sculptor left his mark on Newark

In this, the season of presidents, the story of Mount Rushmore is often retold. It took 14 years and 400 men to carve in stone the vision of sculptor Gutzon Borglum. A sheer mountain face of South Dakota’s granite Black Hills was shaped into a 60-foot-high monument to four great American presidents.

Borglum, born in Idaho two years after Abraham Lincoln’s death, had believed in creating art “drawn from American sources, memorializing American achievement,” he said in 1908.

Borglum’s public works reflected his sense of a big, expansive America. They were grand in scale, not absorbed by either the cityscapes of the Northeast or the mountains of the West.


Two works of such magnitude are here in Newark: “Seated Lincoln” in front of the Essex County Historic Courthouse, and “Wars of America,” the centerpiece of Military Park.

There are also two smaller Borglums in the city. A stone sculpture, known as “Puritan and Indian,” is on the north end of Washington Park, and a marble relief carving of the founding of Newark is on Saybrook Place.

Long before Mount Rushmore, Borglum exercised his artist’s vision of “American achievement” here.

“He had a sincere nationalism, with great faith in the United States,” said Rosa Portell, the curator of the Stamford Museum & Nature Center in Connecticut. Borglum had his studio in Stamford, and the museum has a large Borglum collection.

“He was living in the era of American manifest destiny, when the United States was becoming a world power, and he felt awe for the men who created, preserved and expanded the country.”

In this season of presidents, the 200th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln is being celebrated. Perhaps no other artist is as closely associated with Lincoln’s image as Borglum.

“He was dedicated and devoted to Lincoln,” Portell said. “He named his son Lincoln. He studied every available image of Lincoln, and had his own death mask made.”


His “Colossal Lincoln” was commissioned by Teddy Roosevelt and now sits in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.

“The images of Lincoln that impressed him the most were of the anguish on his face when he was getting the daily casualty reports from the battlefields,” Portell said. “He would go the White House gardens to hear these reports, and they impacted him deeply. The Newark statue, I believe, reflects that anguish.”

“Seated Lincoln” was commissioned 100 years ago by a group of Newark citizens for the century anniversary of Lincoln’s birth. (A wealthy Newark resident, Civil War veteran Amos Hoaglund Van Horn, contributed $250,000 for both Lincoln and the “Wars of America.”)


President Theodore Roosevelt came to dedicate “Seated Lincoln” on Memorial Day 1911, as thousands jammed the streets around the new courthouse.

Newark in the Gilded Age was a place of such wealth and prestige, it attracted the day’s greatest names in American public art and architecture.

Cass Gilbert, most famous for New York’s Woolworth Building, designed the Essex courthouse.

Stanford White, builder of the Washington Square Arch, the second Madison Square Garden and the New York Herald Building, did the High Street mansion of brewer Christian Feigenspan.


Landscape architect John Charles Olmsted, the son of Frederick Law Olmsted, laid out Branch Brook and Weequahic parks.

“Newark was the kind of city where wealth accumulated, but instead of buying art for their own salons, the wealthy sponsored public art,” Portell said. “That is a spirit the community should always treasure.”

Borglum’s granddaughter, Robin Borglum Carter, who lives in Corpus Christi, Texas, remembers coming to Newark “many, many years ago” to see the sculptures. She has photos of them in her book, “Gutzon Borglum: His Life and Works.”

Love Birds

“Seated Lincoln,” she said, is one of his best works. Maybe the best. And agrees with Portell that both “Seated Lincoln” and “Wars of America” are among the very best of Borglum’s inventory. Portells put them in the top five, and Carter says, “Absolutely.”

But “Wars of America” has a sentimental value to Carter, too.

In the faces of the soldiers and their families, Gutzon Borglum put himself, his wife, Mary, and son, Lincoln.

“I see my father (Lincoln), my grandfather and grandmother,” she said. “I think that’s why I’m so fond of it.”

 Public Service Electric and Gas Company’s Head Quarter  (PSE&G HQ)

All these glass buildings are great.  They act like canvases with artwork.  The artwork is changing every minute with time and climate, painting the image of the reality of sky and surrounding area at the vicinity of specific buildings.

Prudential Tower, Newark, New Jersey

I wonder why?????

These corporations such as PSE&G and Prudential are so prosperous.  They are able to build huge fancy buildings.  They get richer and bigger and bigger every year.  But the majority of customers who pay for gas and electric or insurance are saving every penny to pay for these bills.  There are so many homeless in every city and town.  These corporations are so smart to make good profit from millions of customers.  These millions of customers have to check their bills for the increasing rates every year.

I think these corporations should give their customers some reduction instead of increasing rates.  They can build houses for the homeless or give out food to needy people.  Fairness is the name of the game. If more and more people cannot pay for gas and electric or insurance bills these companies are going to lose their customers anyhow.  Corporations should run their business to serve people rather than greedily taking all that they can. 

Balance and fairness helps society go on smoothly so that peace and harmony can be with everyone.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, May 22, 2016, 3:35 A.M.

Students having pizza after school in the park           

Gutzon Borglum, The Sculptor (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941)

Below are some of Gutzon Borglum’s sculptures

1  Memorial to Charles Brantley Aycock, Noth Carolina State Capitol (1941)

2  Thomas Paine, Montsouris, Paris (1936)

3  Memorial to Henry Lawson Wyatt, North Carolina State Capitol (1912)

4  Rabboni, Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D. C. (1909)

5  Statue of John Peter Altgeld, Lincoln Park, Chicago (1915)

6  Statue of John William Mackay, Mackay School of Earth Sciences and Engineering (1908)

General Philip Sheridan, sculpted by Borglum in 1908, in Washington, D.C.

Stone Mountain located near Atlanta, Georgia

9  Monument depicting North Carolinian soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg

Mount Rushmore located in the Black Hills of South Dakota

Left:  Bust of Abraham Lincoln, Crypt of the U.S. Capitol (1908)

Right:  Seated Lincoln is a memorial sculpture by Gutzon Borglum located next to the Essex County Courthouse in NewarkEssex CountyNew Jersey, United States. The bronze sculpture of Abraham Lincoln seated at one end of a bench was dedicated by President Theodore Roosevelt on Memorial Day 1911.[3]

  Gutzon Borglum with his Colossal Lincoln, The Borglum Archives

Among the heroes being celebrated in public monuments, few were as prevalent as Abraham Lincoln. His popularity was particularly strong around 1909, the centenary of his birth. Artists vied with each other trying to prove that their version of Lincoln was the best. In 1907 Borglum had made a colossal head of Lincoln which, at Teddy Roosevelt’s urging, was shown at the White House and eventually donated to the United States Capitol Building by Eugene Meyer. Much admired by Lincoln’s son, Robert, this sculpture helped cement Borglum’s reputation as a monumental sculptor.”

Public Service Enterprise Group Inc.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Service_Enterprise_Group

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Traded as

S&P 500 Component
Dow Jones Utility Average component






Newark, New Jersey, U.S.

Key people

Ralph Izzo (Pres., CEO)
Caroline Dorsa (EVP, CFO)


  • US$ 9.968 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 9.781 billion (2012) [1]

Operating income

  • US$ 2.299 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 2.278 billion (2012) [1]

Net income

  • US$ 1.243 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 1.275 billion (2012) [1]

Total assets

  • US$ 32.522 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 31.725 billion (2012) [1]

Total equity

  • US$ 11.609 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 10.781 billion (2012) [1]

Number of employees

10,352 (2009)[2]


PSE&G, PSEG Power,
PSEG Energy Holdings



Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG), founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G), is a publicly traded diversified energy company headquartered in Newark, New Jersey. The company’s largest subsidiary retains the old PSE&G name. New Jersey’s oldest and largest investor owned utility, Public Service Electric and Gas Company is a regulated gas and electric utility company serving the state of New Jersey.[3]

The Public Service Corporation was formed in 1903 by amalgamating more than 400 gas, electric and transportation companies in New Jersey. It was renamed Public Service Electric and Gas Company in 1948. The transportation operations of PSE&G were purchased by New Jersey Transit in 1980, leaving PSE&G exclusively in the utility business. In 1985, Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) formed as a holding company, and in 1989 established Enterprise Diversified Holdings Inc. (now PSEG Energy Holdings), to begin consolidation of its unregulated businesses. In 2000, PSE&G split its unregulated national power generation assets to form PSEG Power, while PSE&G continued operating in New Jersey as a regulated gas and electric delivery company.[4]

In June 2005, the acquisition of PSEG by Exelon, a Chicago and Philadelphia based utility conglomerate, was approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; however, the deal was never consummated and eventually dissolved after it became clear that it would not win state regulatory approval from the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities.[5]

In 2009, PSEG began installing solar panels on 200,000 utility poles in its service area in a project costing $773 million, the largest such project in the world.[6][7] The Solar 4 All project increased the capacity for renewable energy in New Jersey and was completed in 2013.[8] In addition, PSEG is building four solar farms in Edison, Hamilton, Linden, and Trenton.[9]

Public Service Enterprise Group consists of four companies:

  • Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G)
    • PSEG Long Island, LLC
  • PSEG Power
    • PSEG Fossil
    • PSEG Nuclear
    • PSEG Energy Resources and Trade
  • PSEG Energy Holdings
    • PSEG Global
    • PSEG Solar Source, LLC
    • PSEG Resources
  • PSEG Services Corporation[13]

Kearny plant

PSE&G serves the population in an area consisting of a 2,600-square-mile (6,700 km2) diagonal corridor across the state from Bergen to Gloucester Counties.[14][15] PSE&G is the largest provider of gas and electric service, servicing 1.8 million gas customers and 2.2 million electric customers in more than 300 urban, suburban and rural communities, including New Jersey’s six largest cities.

PSEG Nuclear operates three nuclear reactors at two facilities in Lower Alloways Creek Township. PSEG owns one reactor at Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station and operates two reactors at Salem Nuclear Power Plant where PSEG Nuclear holds a 57 percent stake (in partnership with Exelon Corporation). Exelon also operates two reactors at Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station in a 50/50 joint venture with PSEG.[16]

PSEG Long Island provides electricity to 1.1 million customers in Nassau and Suffolk counties, and the Rockaway Peninsula of Queens, part of New York City.[17] This system operates under an agreement with the Long Island Power Authority, the state agency that owns the system, that went into effect January 1, 2014.[18] PSEG was selected to essentially privatize LIPA, taking over near complete control of the system including its brand name, whereas before this agreement only a number of functions were performed by the private sector and the system was operated under the LIPA name.

System information

PSEG’s transmission line voltages are 500,000 volts, 345,000 volts, 230,000 volts and 138,000 volts with interconnections to utilities in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New York. The company’s subtransmission voltages are 69,000 volts and 26,000 volts. PSEG’s distribution voltages are 13,000 volts and 4,160 volts.

Environmental record

In 2001, PSEG received The Walter B. Jones Memorial and NOAA Excellence Awards in Coastal and Ocean Resource Management[19] in the category of Excellence in Business Leadership for its Estuary Enhancement Program.[20]

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have identified PSEG as the 48th-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States, with roughly five million pounds of toxic chemicals released annually into the air.[21] Major pollutants indicated by the study include manganese, chromium and nickel salts; sulfuric and hydrochloric acid.[22]

For more information please visit the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Service_Enterprise_Group

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Prudential Plant Wall Mural and Military Park

Prudential Plant Wall Mural and Military Park

Downtown Newark, New Jersey

On Thursday, May 5, 2016

Prudential Tower

I was happy to see the gardeners were working on the Plant Wall Mural.  I had a chance talking to Mr. Francisco Diaz, supervisor, exterior service of John Mini distinctive landscapes company, managing the Plant Wall Mural for Prudential Corporation.

Left: PSE&G new tall glass building

Military Park

I stopped to say thanks to the park gardeners.  I appreciate how they are cultivating the park garden so well.  I told them how downtown Newark is changing a lot, especially the buildings around Military Park.  About forty years ago during 1972-1976 I lived in Jersey City.   I took the Path train from Jersey City to Newark, Penn Station and  I walked on Raymond Boulevard from Penn station to Rutgers University on University Avenue when I studied for my undergraduate, Bachelor degree in chemistry.  There was no Public Service Electric and Gas Company ( PSE&G) new tall glass building, or Prudential Tower or New Jersey Performing Art Center ( NJPAC) at that time.  There was a small row of shops along Raymond Boulevard.  One specialty cheese shop located on Raymond Boulevard close to Broad Street sold goat milk; we usually bought goat milk for our daughter when she was a baby in 1979. 

After John read my writing he said “I remember I bought one kind of cheese that smell very strong, named Swedish Farmer’s cheese.  You did not like it I had to put it outside on the windowsill.”  I recall that moment.  I hardly knew much about cheese, at that time even cedar cheese or other ordinary cheese I still did not like.  But now I like them and can eat many kinds of cheese.  In the same token John did not like the smell of fish sauce.  So I use soy sauce to substitute for fish sauce.  We all like things we are accustomed to or dislike what we are not used to but we have to compromise and hope that time will allow us to try other culture to be able to understand the differences from one own culture in order to have a chance to live together in peaceful coexistence.

PSE&G new building complete in 1980, NJPAC building was completed in 1997 and Prudential Tower was completed in 2015.

War Memorial in Military Park, Newark, New Jersey

Beautiful Dogwood flowers in Spring

Military Park is a 6-acre (24,000 m2) city park in Downtown NewarkEssex CountyNew Jersey, United States.  It is a nearly triangular park located between Park Place, Rector Street and Broad Street, built in 1916, Architect Ely, Wilson and John; Guilbert and Betelle,  Architectural style Renaissance, Italianate.  From 1667, when the city was planned, until 1869 it was a training ground for soldiers. In 1869 it became the town commons.

The New Jersey Historical SocietyMilitary Park Building and the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, and the Robert Treat Center are located across Park Place from the park. A $3.25 million renovation led by Dan Biederman was announced in February 2012.[2][3] The reconstruction was expected to be completed in late 2013,[4][5] but due to harsh weather was postponed until spring 2014.[6] A restaurant, the first in the park, is planned.[7] The park reopened in June 2014.[8]   

Address: 51 Park Pl, Newark, NJ 07102

Year built: 1916


Military Park (Newark)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Military Park Commons Historic District

U.S. National Register of Historic Places

U.S. Historic district

Wars of America statue

Prudential Headquarters

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Prudential Plaza – headquarters on Broad Street – Newark, photograph by Hudconja…

General information

Completed        1956

Opening            1960

 Height:    Roof     114 m (374 ft)

Technical details:  Floor count   24 

Design and construction:

Architect Voorhees, Walker, Smith, Smith and Haines

 Prudential Tower

Night view of new Prudential Tower in Newark, Photograph by Deepen03

General information

Construction started    2013

Completed        2015 

Opening            2015

 Height:    Roof     45.73 m (150.0 ft)

Technical details:  Floor count 44  

Prudential Financial, as it is known today, began as The Widows and Orphans Friendly Society in 1875. For a short time it was called the Prudential Friendly Society, and for many years after 1877 it was known as the Prudential Insurance Company of America,[10] a name still widely in use. Based in Newark, New Jersey, the company has constructed a number of buildings to house its headquarters downtown in the Four Corners district.[11] In addition to its own offices, the corporation has financed large projects in the city, including Gateway Center and Prudential Center. Prudential has about 5,200 employees in the city.

Prudential Home Office[edit]

The original Prudential buildings from the turn of the 20th century were early examples of steel framing in Newark, clad in gray Indiana limestone with Romanesque Gothic styling, the work of George B. Post. The four buildings were known as the Main, the North, the West, and the Northwest and were the tallest in the city at the turn of the 20th century. They were demolished in 1956 to make way for the current headquarters. The proposed 45-story Prudential Tower would have been one of the tallest in Newark had it been built.[12]

Gibraltar Building[edit]

The Gibraltar Building, headquarters for the financial services company until 1986, is situated between two other office towers later built for the firm, all of which are connected by underground passage[13] The name is inspired by the company’s logo, the Rock of Gibraltar. The Gothic Revival structure was designed by the architect Cass Gilbert, renowned for many works including the Woolworth Building and the United States Supreme Court Building. Gilbert was also architect for the Kinney Building at the southeast corner of Broad and Market Streets.[14] Sold in 1987 and later renovated and restored, it now is home the Superior Court of New Jersey‘s Essex County Vicinage Family Court, Chancery, and Tax Court, as well as other government agencies and private enterprises.[5][15] [16]

Prudential Building[edit]

“Prudential Building” redirects here. For the building in Chicago formerly known as the Prudential Building, see One Prudential Plaza.

Shortly after Prudential Building was completed in 1942, it was taken over by the federal government for use by the Office of Dependency Benefits (ODB), which was moved to Newark from Washington during World War II. The ODB was responsible for payments to military dependents and their families. Work went on round the clock at 213 Washington Street until it was returned to Prudential in 1946.

Prudential Plaza[edit]

Prudential’s current headquarters, the Prudential Plaza, opened in 1960 during the New Newark era when modernist buildings were built downtown. The International style building is one the tallest and most prominent on the Newark skyline. The facade of Vermont marble includes 1600 windows set in aluminum frames. On August 1, 2004, the U.S. Office of Homeland Security announced the discovery of terrorist threats against the Plaza prompting large-scale security measures such as concrete barriers and internal security changes such as X-ray machines.[17]

The lobby of building was originally adorned with triptych of mosaics designed by Hildreth Meiere entitled “The Pillars of Hercules,” The panels had been removed and put in storage, Two were formally installed at the Center for Hellenic Studiesin Washington, DC and another in Newark Museum.[18][19]

Prudential Tower[edit]

In 2011, Prudential announced plans to construct an office tower for its headquarters complex. The company had received a $250 million urban transit tax credit, from the state, which required that it create new jobs and build within walking distance of a transit hub.[20] The site of the $444 million 650,000 sq ft (60,000 m2) tower is on Broad Street just west of Military Park.[21][22][23] Construction began in July 2013.[24][25][26] The exterior of the tower was completed as of January 2015 and the building opened in July 2015.<r[27]

For more information on Plant Wall Murals please visit the following links:



Living/Green Walls  https://www.verticalplantscapes.co.nz/livingwalls.html



Left: Mt Maunganui installation designed by Tracey Peryman

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Jacob Landau and His Circle Art Exhibition

Jacob Landau and His Circle Art Exhibition

At Gaelen Gallery East

760 Northfield Avenue, West Orange, NJ 07052

Reception on Saturday, April 10, 2016

Joanne Leone is a great contemporary artist and our good friend.  She invited us to the reception at an art exhibition that displayed her work along with the art work of other artists.  This exhibition is unique and important because the central artist of the show, Jacob Landau, was a legendary master teacher and artist, of Joanne and all the other artists in the show.  Jacob Landau’s artwork exhibited with six of his students, Eleta Caldwell, Gladys Grauer, Joanne Leone, Jack McGovern, George Schorr, and Myron Wasserman.

Joanne always tells us how proud and privileged she is to have studied with Jacob Landau.  I have asked her to write her experiences with this special art teacher, which I will post in this project when she finishes her composition.  We enjoyed the art show and were very glad to see some friends. The following is some of the photographs that I took at the reception:

   Joanne was telling her friends and the viewers about how her teacher, Jacob Landau, advised her about how to visualize and approach the start of a painting.

Dr. David Herrstron, president of the Jacob Landau Institute discussed the Holocaust Suite lithographs

Father’s Love

 Lovely Tessa, Joanne’s granddaughter

Our two good friends, Patricia Meidel and Joanne Leone

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Website: www.ingpeaceproject.com

Email: ingpeaceproject@gmail.com

Hi Joanne,

It was nice talking to you on the phone.  Thank you so much for wanting to write your experience with your art teacher Jacob Landau.  The attachment is the incomplete project for you to see.  I will post it after I complete the project on my website, Blog page.  I will send you the link after I post the project.

Please let me know what you think about it.  Your recommendations will be very helpful.  I hope to see you after John comes back from Wales.

All the best,



Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Joanne Leone’s email

DEAR ING…..THANK YOU FOR DOING THIS AND FOR DOING ALL YOU DO…I LOVE YOU and will write a composition as soon as I can …..       joanne

Thanks Joanne, I love what you have done with your family and Art also.  John left to Wales at 5:45 pm yesterday.  I already miss him.  I will talk to you soon. 

Take care, 


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Jacob Landau Artist and Teacher

Jacob Landau Artist and Teacher


Jacob Landau (artist)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jacob Landau (December 17, 1917 in Philadelphia – November 24, 2001) was an American artist best known for his evocative works on the human condition. Typically, his works address the Great DepressionWorld War II, and the impact of technology and politics on individuals and their surroundings. Landau’s works can be found in the permanent collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Library of Congress, the Museum of Modern Art, and the National Gallery.

Songs in the Night from the Holocaust Suite Circa 1967

Landau was born December 17, 1917, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. By the age of three he began drawing everything around him. When he was 12, he began studying at the Graphic Sketch Club, now the Samuel Fleisher Memorial.

The Question from the Holocaust Suite Circa 1967

At the age of 17, Landau’s illustrations for Kipling’s Jungle Book won a competition in Scholastic Magazine. He won the competition the following year as well.  In 1935, Landau received a scholarship from the Museum School of Industrial Art (today the University of the Arts) to study illustration, printmaking and painting.[1]

The Road Back from the Holocaust Suite Circa 1967

After his graduation in 1939, Landau moved to New York City where he experimented with a variety of styles, treatments and media. His first phase as a professional artist included illustrating books and magazines.

Man’s End from the Holocaust Suite Circa 1967

In 1943, Landau was drafted into the armed forces, serving two years overseas in the Mediterranean Theater. In the army, Landau served in a number of capacities which utilized his artistic talents. His service in Italy included work as the art editor, photographer, and reporter of At Ease, a special services magazine. After his discharge in 1946, Landau used the G.I. Bill to further study art.

The Geography of Hell from the Holocaust Suite Circa 1967

Landau spent a year (1948-1949) at New York’s New School for Social Research before moving to Paris with his wife, Frances, and young son to study at the Academie Julian and the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere. While in Paris, Landau met printmaker Leonard Baskin, who taught him the medium of woodcuts.[1]


Holocaust from the Holocaust Suite Circa 1967

From 1954-1957 Landau taught at the Philadelphia College of Art before moving to Pratt Institute where he would teach for over 20 years. During his time at Pratt, Landau helped to establish the University Without Walls program, in which students worked closely with instructors to gain hands-on experience. In 1975, Landau became a faculty member of the Artist Teacher Institute, a 10-day summer residency program sponsored by the New Jersey State Council on the Arts.

The Mark of Cain from the Holocaust Suite Circa 1967

 In addition to his art and teaching, Landau was very involved in the community. He was active in many different organizations including: Alliance for Arts Education, American Humanist Association, Association for Humanistic Psychology, Coalition for Nuclear Disarmament, International Arts Association, Jewish Federation, Linkage Project, New Jersey School for the Arts, Printmaking Council, and World Futures Society. In 1974 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member and became a full Academician in 1979.


The Willet Hauser Studios association with Jacob Landau began when he was commissioned by Keneseth Israel Reform Synagogue in Philadelphia to create paintings that were to be interpreted into stained glass windows.  The congregation had conducted a search for a well-known artist to design the windows.  Landau’s work deals with the universal concerns of Turmoil, Symbiosis, Love and Grief.  His depictions of the scriptural prophets exhibited in his paintings for these windows bring them into the present.  He was called a reformist, a visionary as were these prophets.

In that Landau had no previous experience in designing stained glass, Benoit Gisoul translated his drawings into original cartoons and the Willet Hauser Studios fabricated the windows.

A series of ten stained glass windows at
the Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, Elkins Park, PA



Landau and his wife Frances lived in Roosevelt, New Jersey as part of a small community of artists. There he built a geodesic dome which was created as an art studio. His wife died in 1993 of Alzheimer’s Disease. They had two sons, Jonas and Stefan.

Jacob Landau died on November 24, 2001, at the age of 85, and is buried in the Roosevelt Cemetery near his friends Ben Shahn and Gregorio Prestopino.[2] After his death, the Jacob Landau Institute was formed to preserve his legacy, share his unique philosophy of education, and nurture individual artists.[3]

Earth – Mother


Landau’s art communicates his consciousness of humankind’s predicament, its beauty and its horror.[4] Growing up during the Great Depression and having been profoundly affected by The Holocaust, Landau’s work expresses the self-inflicted human turmoil of the 20th century. He often drew from biblical or literary sources, presenting unpleasant topics in a way that emphasized the unlimited possibilities of peace and greater understanding. Existential philosopher Walter Kauffman described Landau’s work as “unmistakenly modern and at the same time in the tradition of Goya and Blake.”[1]



Distinguished by vigorous creativity and superb craftsmanship, the graphic works of Jacob Landau also reflect his deep intellectual and philosophical concerns as an internationally respected humanist-artist and futures-oriented thinker. While some artists reject objectivity in their work, Landau continues to explore the basic themes of human existence with passionate and indignant insight.

Appearing below are various comments made by Artist Jacob Landau over the course of his career.  His remarks shed insight into the mind of this brilliant and talented artist.

“No revolutionary can ever realize his programmatic aims, because history is the resultant of all factors at work. Hence the need to rearrange history, to destroy those who would spoil the ‘design’.”



 Jacob Landau’s comments

“We need memory above all as a means to bolster or restore self esteem. We count on others to reassure the good things we do, and to reward us for these deeds. Nothing is more unsettling than caring for someone with a loss of memory – each minute is a test, a new beginning. There is no stored-up acknowledgment, no capital, nothing in the bank.”


Jacob Landau’s comments

“What’s wrong with all religion is the assumption that each is universal – and universally good. Each postulates a utopia – but each, in direct proportion to the amount of secular power, creates a hell.”

Mark Twain

Jacob Landau’s comments

“We live in the fallen world of crimes and punishments, the endless round of atrocities. Does the punishment fit the crime, as in Dante’s comedy? Then the punishment is also a crime. And so it goes, toward the ultimate crimes of genocide and ecocide, each crime a punishment, each punishment a crime.”


Jacob Landau’s comments

“Without Chochmah, there is no justice. Without justice, the law is repression. We all break laws, the poor or powerless get caught. The powerful often can arrange the laws to suit themselves yet the greatest law breakers are the nation–states who perpetrate the DRESDENS, the HIROSHIMAS, the DACHAUS.”


Jacob Landau’s comments

“The Judeo-Christian “Problematique” Choose: Either no chastisement for sin (no sin) or infinite regress to original sin (all is sin/all is chastisement for sin). Catastrophes become necessary as chastisement fore ordained. So God is evil, God is chastisement, God is catastrophe, history is catastrophe. We need catastrophe to bring us to God and the “true” faith. History is punishment for sin. Holocaust is God’s will. Anger is God’s style. Is God then the storm trooper, the pogromist, the destroyer, friend and ally of the wicked, punisher of the righteous? Where then is Divine Justice? The archetype of wrath is the flip-side of the archetype of love. Christ of the Apocalypse is the shadow of Christ of the Gospels.”

Dante 01

Jacob Landau’s Comments

“The Spiritual perspective – hierarchy seen as “the higher is the better” – mind over matter, brain over body, spirit versus bodily functions (soul versus sex), life of the mind as better than mindless life (so people are more important than animals, trees, the ocean), the rational over the emotional, adults superior to children, men to women (i.e. men are more “abstract” “rational”, women are involved with their feelings). “civilized” are better than ” primitive”. All religion is based on variations of this perspective. D.H. Lawrence knew better!”

Dante 02

Jacob Landau’s Comments

“Thou shalt not kill”, we say, except when authorized by the state. And so the slaughter goes on, one hundred million in this century alone, and still counting. And death is not enough. We humans are the only creatures on earth who practice torture.”

Dante 03

Jacob Landau’s Comments

“The literal adherence to a particular rule of what is thought to be good almost always results in unmitigated evil.”


Jacob Landau’s Comments

“Are we performers in relation to scenarios of mystic proportions – ARCHETYPES, root metaphors – or are we play things of fate? Are we heroes or victims, winners or losers? Do we form ourselves or are we formed? In whose book are we characters?”


Jacob Landau’s Comments

“Theoretically an adult is someone who can exist in the physical world without a lot of supportive devices. In the cybernetic womb, however, we are all infantilized, the technological placenta is our garden of delights.”

Dog and Cat

Jacob Landau’s Comments

“Art is re-creation, a second coming, resurrection of past life, of things dead and gone. Creative living is also recreation at every moment, to greet the new by reassembling the old, reforming our existences in terms of the new, but from the roots of the old, new/old form, revolution and external return cyclical yet spiral.”


Jacob Landau’s Comments

“Opinions sort out on a bell curve – majority opinions at the apex, minority opinions at the ends. In times of stress, the curve may amplify towards one or the other extreme, but most remain attached to the ambiguous middle.”


Jacob Landau’s Comments 1999

“When I was young I was attracted to edges of forms rather than volumes. I loved the 16th century engravers, particularly Schongower and Durer. It proved to be too confining and in the sixties I separated the lines from the forms. My work became “painterly”. The quest for the linear, which had begun with an admiration for the comic book with it’s flat colors and it’s defying of gravity, gave way to a play with light and air.

Horse from Animal series

In the seventies I returned to line, but line that is modified by atmosphere. The earlier linear period climaxed with my Dante Lithographs. My figures hovered in a more complex space, involving all of-the elements held in suspension. the works became more sparse, not concerned with sowing off what my hand can do. The climax of this period, interrupted by illness, was reached in the cycle of drawings I did for my wife’s coming down with Alzheimer’s. In these drawings the need to speak directly and without adornments arose. If I can speak directly about my own process at this time, 1999, I hope to complete a group of drawings called Necropolis, to express my horror at the carnage of the 20th century – 130 million killed in all the wars.”

Horses and Men




Fanning: You are a humanist and an apocalyptic artist. In your own words, what does that mean?
Landau:            I have a big anxiety about the future. I’ve been involved in Future Studies for quite a long time and the apocalyptic aspect is simply a recognition that the human enterprise is in serious danger. What was, in 1960, when I first got on this kick, definitely a minority point of view, is now very definitely a majority point of view. Among most technicians, technologists, engineers, statesmen, United Nation’s experts and various other futurologists and futurists, practically everyone now concedes that the world is in serious danger. I went to a conference in Texas sponsored by the education section of the World Future Society. A lot of the people there were public school teachers from the West and the whole place looked like Squaresville. I couldn’t believe my eyes! I sit down on the bus next to these innocent-looking women and they’re talking futurism and they’re talking apocalypse and the dangers to the world and I think, boy, if it’s reached them, way out there in the boonies, y’know, it has spread!
In the sixties when I was calling myself an apocalyptist, I gathered a few loyal friends around me. We were, in a way, freaks. You know, there were songs like Bob Dylan’s “A Hard Rain’s Gonna Fall,” among many that dealt with apocalyptic themes. I remember The Doors saying: “…this is the end, my friend.” The youth of that time were beginning to recognize the handwriting on the wall.
Another famous one during that period was The Quicksilver Messenger Service one called “Pride of Man”- “Oh, God, pride of man, broken in the dust again…can’t you see that flash of fire ten time brighter than the day…” dealing with the atom bomb, and so on. Now, even the heads of corporations know that the system isn’t working.
Peccei, president of the Olivetti Corporation, has formed a group composed of executives of corporations in the European area, called: The Club of Rome. They produced the Limits to Growth study about six years ago (1973) and they have become identified with the struggle to save the world from itself.

Beggs: That’s nice to hear.
Landau:            Yes, it’s really exciting to hear that there are a lot of influential people who are beginning to get involved, to work on world problems. Their first study, Limits to Growth, attempted to figure out how much more we could afford to grow economically, and what needs to be done, in economic and political spheres, to cut back on growth in order to avoid catastrophe. The indications are this: that unless certain things are done in a certain order by a certain time, the world system will fail. So, that’s the apocalypse. And, you know, the word apocalypse, in Greek, means revelation; in the last book of the New Testament, “The Revelation of St. John,” which is sometimes called the Apocalypse, the image is one of simultaneous collapse and rebirth or transformation. You must have heard of the famous Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse? One of my students recently declared her belief that “the world will come to an end within the next 15-20 years, that we are in the last period of human history,” that the “Second Coming is at hand.” These beliefs are derived from St. John’s prophecies.
I think it would be inhuman to go on thinking of oneself and one’s career and one’s personal concerns under a situation of international and global emergency. This is not by any means a philosophical point of view that came about as a result of my perception of what’s going on in the world. It’s a philosophical point of view that actually preceded, to a large degree, those perceptions. In other words, I have been a humanist ever since I was a kid, in the sense that I’ve always had a feeling that there are a lot of problems in the world and that I’d like to address myself to them, in one way or another, mostly in my work and not so much in going around with a little collection cup, picking up coins…I mean, that never appealed as a particularly important activity for me. But, I always felt, as an artist, that I wanted to communicate my anxieties and concerns to other people through my art.

Fanning:            So was this the kind of feeling that you felt was always with you, no event changed you?
Landau:            No, no major revelation took place at any time. I have a book called “Cosmic Consciousness” written at the turn of the century by a man called Bucke, who collected from literature hundreds and hundreds of examples of people whose lives were changed by a sudden revelation, almost like an LSD experience, but in most instances without the help of any external agent like a drug. Something happened to them suddenly to make them aware of their connections with other people, with animals and plants, with the universe, with God. The whole feeling of no longer being a separated ego, but of being part of a larger system of interconnecting linkages. I think I was born with a sense of connection. It’s hard to say why certain people feel that way. I’ve always been inter-disciplinary; I’ve always gone beyond boundaries, any one enclave or territory.
When I went to the New School in ’49 and took five courses, one in sociology, one in history, one in music, one in psychology and one in cultural anthropology, I felt that, instead of writing five separate papers, I wanted to write one, integrated study. I went to each of my instructors and said, “I want to write one paper covering the inter-connections between your subjects.” They agreed. So, you see, as long as I can remember it’s been part of my personality, my dream.


Fanning:            Did you think that when you began you art work that you would educate people by reflecting similar attitudes?
Landau:            From the beginning, I tended to be didactic. I was an obnoxious kid and I used to think that I had all the answers, that no one else had them. In my youth I was involved with leftist solutions to the world’s problems, with Marxist ideas.

Archivarius Lindhorst

Fanning:            You proposed these solutions through your artwork?
Landau:            Through my artwork and at that point I also got involved with Young Socialists, Young Communists, Young Radicals. This was during the latter years of my high school experience and the first few years of my time in art school. Later I became disillusioned with radical activism and became more and more interested in developing my art. But, I am proud of what we accomplished. I was involved in organizing, along with others, a cultural workshop in New York City which had a pretty fantastic program. We created art for trade unions and farm cooperatives. We presented shadow plays, puppet shows, elaborate theatre productions, musical events, exhibitions and publications, all dedicated to democratic ideals. We had exciting cultural events on Saturday nights, parties to raise money for the various activities we were engaged in. People like Pete Seeger, Woody Guthrie, Leadbelly and so many others came ‘round to help us raise money by singing at these affairs.
It was the actual beginning of what later became the folk music craze, long before it was popular. We had a printing press in our headquarters and we turned out leaflets for the Trade Union Movement in New York City. We put out several portfolios of prints which we sold through galleries and dealers, in emulation of the Mexican workshop, the Taller Graficas Populares, a group of radical artists. But, I found, after a few years, that I couldn’t do any of my own work. I was too busy organizing the work of other people.

Fanning:            I guess that’s the classic confrontation for many artists. “Shall I pursue my own work or shall I organize for others?”
Landau:            That’s right. Exactly.
Fanning:            What was your army experience like?
Landau:            Well, I spent three years fighting Fascism from a desk… actually behind a bottle of booze. I was bartender for my outfit. This was in Italy. My commanding officer asked me to run an enlisted man’s club for the ‘boys.’ Then I became involved with Special Services where I edited a magazine, wrote and illustrated articles, took photographs, did layouts and so on.
Fanning:            So by editing you became familiar with words.
Landau:            Yes, I’m a word man, too. I’m an omnivorous reader. I have an almost photographic memory for correct spelling. I love communication through language.

Modern Prometheus
Fanning:            Most artists I know say they have a difficult time relating to the written word.
Landau:            Don’t always believe that that’s true, A lot of artists ‘pretend’ that they don’t relate to the written word but they do. It’s a pose, in many instances. It’s part of the tendency toward specialization in our time. You know, a visual artist is supposed to be purely ‘visual’ so he’s not supposed to be a writer or have verbal aspirations. They go around, ‘Duh-duh-duh-duh,’ acting like they can’t say ‘nuttin.’ But, ask them to write a statement about their own art and it often turns out to be most erudite.


Fanning:            What else were you doing in the Army?
Landau:            Well, I was editing and doing photography work. It was fun, because I was asked to travel around Italy to visit different outfits and find out what they were doing in Special Services activities. I was only a corporal but everywhere I went I was taken for a spy from headquarters. So, the officers wined me and dined me, and I would go into my moral act: “I cannot accept this case of whiskey because it might be interpreted as a bribe.” While I was in Italy, three friends and I decided we were going to Rome, which at that time was OFF-LIMITS, to see the Vatican and the Sistine Chapel, because, you know, nobody in the Army ever knew how long he would be stationed in one place. We were afraid we’d move somewhere and miss our chance.
So, we took a weapons carrier, which was authorized for recreational purposes, to Rome, which we definitely were not authorized to do! An Italian civilian, who worked on our base, claimed that he was a cousin to the Pope’s secretary and said he could get us into the Vatican. We weren’t allowed to transport Italian civilians in military vehicles so we dressed him up in a soldier’s uniform. This was an even more heinous offense! We were driving along, bleary-eyed, tired, and all of a sudden there was the Coliseum! We stopped, went into the Coliseum, and the driver of the vehicle took off the distributor cap just to make sure nobody stole the vehicle. We come out, sure enough, the vehicle’s gone! So, as we’re sitting around trying to figure out what to do next, we see, at the next corner, our weapons carriers being towed by a military police tow-truck. For blocks we chase this vehicle as it moves through Italian traffic. We finally trace it to the military pound-where they impound unauthorized vehicles. Of course, we claim our truck, and of course, they find out about the civilian who isn’t a soldier, and they type a full report to our commanding officer, and then they give us back our vehicle, and it’s only 10:30 in the morning so we say; “Onward to the Vatican!”


Beggs:            You were in trouble already.
Landau:            Sure, what did we have to lose? So, we went to the Vatican and, sure enough, this guy turns out to be a cousin to the Pope’s secretary and he got us in. We were attached to a group of pilgrims who were on their way to an audience with the Pope. And we were all blessed and we saw the Sistine Chapel. It was an ideal circumstance because there were only 25 people in the group. We were given a guided tour through the Vatican Museum and went home feeling very happy only to discover that we had all been ‘Reduced in Grade.’ In my own case, from corporal to private first class!


Fanning:            Have you been back to Italy?
Landau:            Several times. I LOVE that country. It’s a great country and the Italians are such marvelous people. They know how to live, they are more relaxed. My wife and I went into a fruit and vegetable store at noon and the guy said: “Sorry, closed, can’t sell you anything now.” So, we come back later thinking we could buy bananas we wanted and found it was still closed… strange. So, we drop by the following morning and I ask the owner in what little Italian I can muster: “How come you were closed yesterday in the afternoon?” He said, “Well, I made enough money in the morning so I went fishing.” That’s pretty terrific, isn’t it? It’s so much more human.
Fanning:            How did you become involved in the type of work you’re doing now?
Landau:            It was a long, hard climb. At first I developed a portfolio, took it around. I’d pick up freelance jobs here and there. I had an agent. I was really interested in spending my time painting but I didn’t have the wherewithal to do it. In 1949 I married Fran and we decided to go off to Europe on the G.I. Bill which offered me at the time, five years of education, including a living stipend. I began to do woodcuts in Europe and on my return was commissioned by many publishers to do large numbers of prints.

I Too Was In Arcady

Fanning: How were you keeping up with your original ideas while you were freelancing?
Landau:            I kept doing drawings that were going to head toward paintings that I didn’t have to time complete during that period. It was all very frustrating. I became very ill during that period. I was very stressed because I wasn’t doing what I wanted to do… I’ve written an article discussing the problems of the artist, what is needed to help out the artist and how other countries have gone a lot further in this direction that our country has. I quote Agnes de Mille’s statement to the effect that in Europe, for hundreds of years nobody expected the arts to pay for themselves. For some reason or other in America we have that expectation. We give artists a grant for one year, assuming that this one year will pull them forward, out of the pits far enough so that they can make it on their own. In the main, that’s bull! The National Endowment of the Arts conducted a survey and found that the average artist’s income ranges between $4 and $8,000 a year. This figure includes income derived from other jobs; if you strip away the average it’s about four thousand bucks a year from the sale of one’s art work, a miserable pittance. We’re talking about the fine arts, of course, commercial artists make out a lot better.

Hamber Land & Schw

Fanning:            What is the situation as far as government taxation of the artist is concerned?
Landau:            How they screw us up, you mean?
Beggs:            As an example, should I buy a piece of Jacob’s work and submit it was a gift, I get a full tax deduction, but if Jacob, as the artist, submits a piece of work to be accepted by a museum, he can only deduct the cost of materials.
Landau:            There’s another part to that. The moment I die, everything in my studio becomes taxed at the full market value! In the instant after my death, my work suddenly becomes that much more valuable to the I.R.S. I can’t judge what all the rationalizations were because I didn’t follow the arguments on the parts of the senators and the congressmen who were voting on these tax laws, but my guess is that they represent, in part, a punitive action against the artist. Because a lot of artists were generally counted as liberals and these congressmen don’t like liberals. They were just trying to get even with them.
Canada spends four times as much as we do, on a per capita basis, for the arts. They’re a much poorer country, of course. Most European countries support the arts more generously than we do. Even at that, it’s still lousy for the artist in many parts of the world.

The Court of Irenus
Fanning:            Why do you think the American government would choose to thwart a segment of society whose goals are to create a better life?
Landau:            The arts are considered luxury items, they’re not considered necessities. Most people are not aware that the arts are just as important as the sciences. Art humanizes us; it makes us more aware of our relationships with the universe, with ourselves, with other human beings. If we don’t have these connections, we turn into monsters; we become one-sided creatures, automata. That’s what’s happening on a global scale. People are becoming more and more “pragmatic,” more willing to put up with inhuman conditions, turning more and more into machine-like creatures. Kids are being taught in school how to learn facts and how to regurgitate facts. They’re not being taught how to relate or interact with each other. Nobody can measure creativity, the art “sense” or art side, so it isn’t taught, it isn’t encouraged. We teach only what we can measure. But interacting with other people is part of the art side of the personality. Being able to show love for other people is part of the art side. Being creative in any direction, not just in the visual arts, is part of the art side. But schools don’t encourage that creativity except within narrow, controlled limits. If you work for a boss and you’re creative for that boss, that’s okay. You stay within the boundaries that are set up for you. But if you get creative to the point of asking: ‘Is this business necessary?’ ‘Does this business cause public injury?’ …you run serious risks. Your creativity is “out of bounds.”


Fanning:            Do you feel that people in society have turned into machine-like personalities because they are afraid to confront what their society has become?
Landau:            Yes. I think the artist is the only role model in our society that still retains a measure of humanity. The vast majority of people have lost theirs, have become dehumanized, and this is by no means an attack on everybody else, on the contrary, it is an attempt to support what’s left of their humanity by pointing out what’s been surrendered or lost. The only reason the artist retains it is that the artist has a tradition of self-actualization, of being preoccupied with the beautiful, and the exploratory, and the experimental, and the creative, and the questioning and the cosmic. The rest of the world is all fragmented and splintered and mechanized and turned into cogs in the machine, or rather ‘wires in the circuit.’


Fanning:            What would you see as a solution for education?
Landau:            The only solution for education is to move toward a “Limits to Growth” concept, toward these non-traditional forms, in my opinion, toward small, human scale operations with learning segments that are not organized around semesters or years. If you want to learn how to do video and it can be taught in five days, do it. If you want to learn how to be a waitress and if you think it can be taught in a weekend, you can do it. Whatever! If you want to be an artist and you want to learn how to draw, then you should be able to take three weeks of solid drawing and then go off on an independent study binge and do a whole lot of drawing on your own. And then come back for another high density stint, a recharging of the batteries. This is the way, I’m sure; it’s going to be in the future.

Madeleine de Scudfel

Fanning:            Why do you think the structure of our educational system has no evolved toward an independent/non-structured environment?
Landau:            It’s obvious that one of the reasons for this is that we live in a society that has to bureaucratize everything. That has to try to set up what they consider to be standards of admission to the club. Whatever club you want to join, you have to get the right credentials, and they have to start measuring everything that goes into it. They have to figure out what it is you’re going to be measured on in order to make it possible for you to enter the club, to get the credentials that will admit you to the club. Once you begin to move in that direction, you end up by setting up huge, fantastic structures that teach everything but the right things.
I’m not saying that the things they’re teaching toward being a doctor or a lawyer are always the wrong things but they are so highly specialized in their tendencies that they simply perpetuate the problems of our society because the medical doctor loses contact with the human values involved and become a money-making machine. Lawyers also lose contact with human values. They each don’t know very much about the other, about each other’s disciplines, and everybody’s fragmented. That’s partly why the world’s in the mess that it is.

Meister Abraham
Fanning:            How does your humanism get translated into a piece of art?
Landau:            First of all, there is a tradition that I relate to. Oddly enough in our art schools, generally, and in the art establishment particularly, there’s a very big worship of the French tradition, the French Modern tradition: Cezanne, Matisse, Picasso and all the rest. When I went to art school, I became, as did everybody, very enamored of Picasso and all the other French artists. At the same time, I had a hard time trying to assimilate them into my own work. I felt that the influences were somehow wrong for me, and I couldn’t figure what it was all about. Simultaneously, with that, I was also very much interested in and influenced by some of the Mexican artists like Orosco and some of the European artists like Beckmann and Grosz. Because the pressure on the part of the schools and the establishment was all in favor of the French tradition, I began to feel guilty that I wasn’t falling for these guys whereas everybody else was. It took me quite a number of years to realize that the German tradition was really my tradition, not the French.
The German tradition and the North European tradition, generally, is much more visionary, romantic, utopian, social-critical, social-humanist, or whatever you want to call it, whereas, the French tradition is much more involved with beauty and sensibility, and the object as an object and the aesthetic aspect of art for art’s sake. I never could go for an art for art’s sake aesthetic. So, in a sense, as an important aspect of my development as an artist, I was beginning to recognize where my artistic roots were, which turned out to be elsewhere than in the French tradition. My work, from the beginning, was to take on an expressionist rather than an impressionist, or post-impressionist or formalist flavor.
I never quite got into political art because that seemed to me to be more closely associated with journalism. I wasn’t into journalistic art. The general, more social, critical aspect was very interesting to me in the ‘30’s and the ‘40’s. I used to do paintings about unemployed people and unfortunates of the world and concentration camps in Germany. And, later I think I became more involved with something that was implicit in my work but had not yet surfaced and that is a vein of personal fantasy; tapping into a dream world or visionary world.

The Queen

Fanning:            Were these fantasies on how ‘you’ would like the world to be?
Landau:            Maybe, but it also has to do with just sheer personal and archetypal fantasy in its own right… sort of working much more with the subconscious, and with the impulses, with the feelings rather than with conscious efforts to teach a lesson. In other words, it was like moving away from didactic, you know, in my earlier years I was an obnoxiously didactic person. I was going around telling everyone what to do and how to do it. After awhile, I moved away from that. I began to realize that there were a lot of things wrong with what I was trying to tell other people about; especially when I began to find that I no longer believed in some of them. That we are all fallible human beings. That no one of us has an final answers and that we’re all explorers in a world full of uncertainty.
I did a suite of lithographs called Charades… I associated the name Charades with what Goya had called Caprichos, …riddles, puzzles. He also did a series called Proverbs, where he picked up on sayings that were common in the land, but dealt with them in mysterious, puzzling ways. And, I dealt with what came out of my obsessions, things that I did not fully understand. Fear o death, for instance, and a sort of frustrated feeling of love. These are obsessions that manifest themselves in various ways and images. The reason they seem to appeal to others is because apparently other people share some of the same obsessions. That’s where the archetypal aspect comes in.

Magister Legen
Fanning:            Is this a constant… this overflow of ideas?
Landau:            I’ve got tons of things on my mind that I’ll probably never realize in my lifetime, that I would love to do and can’t because there just isn’t enough time to do them. Anyhow, I liked lithography (because it is faster than woodcutting) but it has other problems. One of the problems is that unless you want to take the time to do your own printing, you have to have a lot of money to pay a professional printer to do your editions for you.
During the latter part of the ‘60’s it was possible to get print dealers to subsidize the printing of various editions. Now, it’s a good deal more difficult because the market has fallen off for “serious” lithography, whereas there is a much bigger market for decorator art, great, big, brassy, colorful prints that match the sofa. Not the sort of art that I’m particularly interested in.

Fanning:            Is there a difference to you between your prints and projects such as the stained glass windows which may or may no have staying power? (10 stained glass windows Landau designed for the Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel in Philadelphia; 24 ft. tall and 5 ft. wide dealing with the prophets of the Old Testament with whom he had said he strongly identified.)
Landau:            Prints that are stored in museums or cared for in homes will last as long as the windows will. But the windows represent a public work of art, to be seen daily by many people, unlike painting and prints which are primarily designed for private consumption. Artists, all of us, in fact, are concerned in one way or another about immortality. Becker wrote a beautiful book called The Denial of Death, which is a study how all of us throughout history have tried to dent the fact that we die. We construct, not only religions, but various other activities, wars and violence of one kind or another as ways of overcoming our fear of dying. It’s an odd paradox. The way we do it is to attach ourselves to some hero figure or some hero myth, and the hero figure or myth requires us in some way to kill other people or sanction their deaths so we may achieve our own immortality through identification with the hero, the ideology, the dream.
As Becker puts it; “Better you should die than I.” In a way, one of the immortality myths that drives the artist is the feeling that whatever he or she turns out will outlast him or her, that it will be a voice speaking for future generations.
Fanning:            Do you think this quest for immortality is a preoccupation?
Landau:            Though they may not think about it consciously, a lot of artists feel it very strongly. Beethoven, for example, was a very popular composer during a good part of his life but many pieces he wrote were misunderstood, and were not performed widely. He remarked on several occasions: “Future generations will understand this.” If the Impressionist painters of the 19th century had relied exclusively on the renown they achieved during their lifetimes, they would have had very little satisfaction. But they were sustained by a deep belief that what they were doing was in the long run important, even though in the short run, it failed to be recognized or appreciated.

Kingdom of Dreams

Fanning:            Would that seem to be the only reason an artist would attempt a work of art?
Landau:            It would be one reason, not the only reason. The obsessive aspect is an important reason, too. An artist has to be an artist for some internal reasons that have to do with the need to express something, to externalize some kind of vision, or dream, or anxiety or whatever it is that is deeply rooted. Also, artists are moved by a very deep and strong and abiding need to communicate with other human beings in some way; to share themselves.

John Brown
Fanning:            How about creative blocks?
Landau:            Sure, you go through periods where you’re more creative than others. There’s no doubt about that. Most artists cover up for their blocks or hang ups. The only way they can maintain a professional presence in the media environment is by pretending to be more together than they really are which means there’s a need not to admit they’re human. I refer to the media environment that Marshall McLuhan (The Media is the Massage) talked about. It’s a posture, a pose, on camera so to speak, that they have to strike in order to sound as if they’re got it all together all the time that everything is always working out for them. If they do admit to some problems of difficulties, they do it in a very calculated way to make themselves sound a little more human, not necessarily to reveal anything that might undermine that image, the way in which most artists and public figures behave. It’s also part of our educational system, too. We have a tendency to think that when one graduates that he or she is a “finished product.” And, artists, once they’ve “arrived,” also act as if they’re finished products. Although artists will pretend that they’re still growing, involved in process, the actual truth of the matter is many of them do not continue to change once they’ve “arrive.” This, because their clients demand that their work remain essentially fixed at a certain stage because that’s what they’re accustomed to seeing, because the critics, curators and collectors have made an investment in that particular image and they want to hold onto it. I suppose I have as much need as anybody else to play that professional role up to a certain point. Nevertheless, I am inclined to be much more revealing about my own true feelings about things, because I don’t believe in hiding what I am as a person; my work is, in any case, a dead giveaway of who or what I am.
I have my share of paranoia like everybody else in this society, which is partly what I’m talking about. The paranoia urges us to “watch out for the next guy,” and to not reveal any more than we have to about ourselves unless we are in a bar with a couple of other drunks in which case we can talk our heads off and nobody will remember. That’s part of the folklore of American life; that American men, particularly businessmen, will talk to strangers about the most embarrassingly intimate things, things that they wouldn’t even tell their own therapists.
While I have my share of the common paranoia, I guess I have a good deal more trust in other people than many people I know. It tended sometimes to work against me in the sense that I frequently vested trust in people that didn’t deserve it and I got hurt in the process. I would think, each time, that I had learned not to do it again, and then I would go ahead and be trustful the next time, just the same way, all over again.

Fanning:            I think you can trace that back to those human qualities?
Landau:            Yes, I can’t help it. I am not personally-designed; my structure doesn’t allow me to turn into a machine-like, paranoiac, manipulating, controlling personality. I just can’t be that way.
Fanning:            What does the new series of drawings you’re working on deal with?
Landau:            The starting point is the cross image from The Revelation of St. John. In a way, the first part of the series will be dealing with the difficulties the modern world faces as it moves toward what some have called “The Transformation,” from a competitive, exploitative, destructive, manipulative society to utopia or oblivion, in Bucky Fuller’s words: to a more humane society or toward catastrophe.
Fanning:            How do you spread the word about yourself or do you bother?
Landau:            I don’t bother. No, I’ve been relying essentially on galleries to represent me.
Fanning:            Do most artists feel this type of pressure to produce these one-person shows?
Landau:            I don’t think that they acknowledge it but they do feel it. Artists will often pretend that they don’t have any problem with it.
Beggs:            It’s like your new fall line.
Landau:            Yes… most are so completely integrated into the dealer/client/critic/gallery system that they no longer question its value. They accept all the terms under which they are obliged to operate. Many of them are willing to work with galleries that are absolute horrors. I’m talking from the point of view of their human relations, from the fact that they often don’t pay the artist and that they subsidize their operations on the basis of unpaid obligations. Artists are willing to put up with it as long as they have a showcase on the “Avenue” so they can get some critical attention. I think this is part of the corruption that the artist feels he or she must put up with-what a shame!

Fanning:            Just to have their work shown…
Landau:            Right. I’m fortunate in a way, that I’ve gotten to the point in my work where I don’t have to feel that pressure. I sell enough to prove a decent income. I also teach. I don’t need to become rich. So, between these conditions, I’m more or less able to do what I want to. And I want to go on exploring the human condition.

45 East Main street, Holmdel, NJ 07733
Sat. 12pm – 4pm weekend & evening by appointment • 732 993 5278 or 732 993 5ART

 Posted By 13th Dimension on Apr 6, 2014

 Tom Chesek on artist Jacob Landau’s career in comics and fine art.

The forgotten Quality Comics hero THE SNIPER stands as a Golden Age feather in the cap of Jacob “Jay” Landau, in the decades before he became a noted educator, illustrator and fine art printmaker. A retrospective of Landau’s war-themed work is on display at NJ’s Monmouth University, April 10 through 24, 2014.

The late Jacob Landau is pictured with one of the Simon-Kirby studio CAPTAIN AMERICA stories that he likely worked upon.

Collections of Landau’s Work[edit]

The Jacob Landau Institute was founded to preserve the memory and legacy of Jacob Landau. The Institute has established two major cooperative agreements to this end. Drew University Library permanently houses the Jacob Landau Archive, which includes his papers, artwork, and books. The Library is currently working to organize and preserve the materials in the Archive for the use and longevity of Landau’s legacy. The Jacob Landau Institute works in conjunction with Monmouth University inWest Long Branch, New Jersey to create educational programs that have far reaching benefits for the artistic community and general population of Monmouth Countyand beyond.

Ing’s comments on Jacob Landau artist and teacher

One night after I finished school homework, I went to bed but I could not sleep.  I sat by my bedroom window looking at the bright full moon in the sky.  Wondering and thinking about what I want to be when I grow up.

I would like to be a doctor, and then I can take care of people.

I wished I would live in a small village taking care of everyone in the town, seeing people happy, healthy and strong, with loving and kind heats to everyone.

No one would be starving because our farmers would cultivate crops so well.

I was day dreaming at night while the moon was moving to remind me that it was late night.  I must go to sleep because tomorrow will be my final exam for fourth grade.  I will be older and move up to fifth grade next year. 

That was a long time ago in a small village in the middle plain of Thailand when I was about twelve years old.  Now I am old and I am not a doctor but people can call me an artist.  Even though I cannot take care of sick people I still have the same wish to help the mankind.  I wish no one to suffer.  We can all helping to take care of each others’ well-being.  But it is only wishful thinking when they are so many homeless people everywhere and people are suffering from wars around the world.

When I studied Mr. Jacob Landau’s biography I found that some of his comments are similar to my way of thinking, such as:

 “Thou shalt not kill”, we say, except when authorized by the state. And so the slaughter goes on, one hundred million in this century alone, and still counting. And death is not enough. We humans are the only creatures on earth who practice torture.”

“Art is re-creation, a second coming, resurrection of past life, of things dead and gone. Creative living is also recreation at every moment, to greet the new by reassembling the old, reforming our existences in terms of the new, but from the roots of the old, new/old form, revolution and external return cyclical yet spiral.”

Fanning:            Do you feel that people in society have turned into machine-like personalities because they are afraid to confront what their society has become?
Landau:            Yes. I think the artist is the only role model in our society that still retains a measure of humanity. The vast majority of people have lost theirs, have become dehumanized, and this is by no means an attack on everybody else, on the contrary, it is an attempt to support what’s left of their humanity by pointing out what’s been surrendered or lost. The only reason the artist retains it is that the artist has a tradition of self-actualization, of being preoccupied with the beautiful, and the exploratory, and the experimental, and the creative, and the questioning and the cosmic. The rest of the world is all fragmented and splintered and mechanized and turned into cogs in the machine, or rather ‘wires in the circuit.’

Fanning:            Why do you think the structure of our educational system has no evolved toward an independent/non-structured environment?
Landau:            It’s obvious that one of the reasons for this is that we live in a society that has to bureaucratize everything. That has to try to set up what they consider to be standards of admission to the club. Whatever club you want to join, you have to get the right credentials, and they have to start measuring everything that goes into it. They have to figure out what it is you’re going to be measured on in order to make it possible for you to enter the club, to get the credentials that will admit you to the club. Once you begin to move in that direction, you end up by setting up huge, fantastic structures that teach everything but the right things.
I’m not saying that the things they’re teaching toward being a doctor or a lawyer are always the wrong things but they are so highly specialized in their tendencies that they simply perpetuate the problems of our society
because the medical doctor loses contact with the human values involved and become a money-making machine. Lawyers also lose contact with human values. They each don’t know very much about the other, about each other’s disciplines, and everybody’s fragmented. That’s partly why the world’s in the mess that it is.

Fanning:            Would that seem to be the only reason an artist would attempt a work of art?
Landau:            It would be one reason, not the only reason. The obsessive aspect is an important reason, too. An artist has to be an artist for some internal reasons that have to do with the need to express something, to externalize some kind of vision, or dream, or anxiety or whatever it is that is deeply rooted. Also, artists are moved by a very deep and strong and abiding need to communicate with other human beings in some way; to share themselves.

Fanning:            Just to have their work shown…
Landau:            Right. I’m fortunate in a way, that I’ve gotten to the point in my work where I don’t have to feel that pressure. I sell enough to prove a decent income. I also teach. I don’t need to become rich. So, between these conditions, I’m more or less able to do what I want to. And I want to go on exploring the human condition.

I learned a lot from Mr. Jacob Landau’s philosophies and his artwork.  His artwork show’s us a period of turmoil in history.  He deeply felt the horror of the event such as The Holocaust which he translated and expressed in his art form.  I too am deeply affected by the war that is going on at the present time.  Genocide happened and was called, The Holocaust.  But it also happened before this event, and it is still happening now, especially in Syria and some countries in Africa.  It seems like we humans never learn from the past.  But we can manage to learn how to produce better weapons that can be more efficient and kill more people. “Thou shalt not kill, we say, except when authorized by the state. And so the slaughter goes on ——–“

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, May 3, 2016

 Thanks to all the websites and Institutions that recorded Jacob Landau’s artwork and his activities.

For more information please visit the following links:



https://www.jacoblandau.org/jacoblandauinstitute.htmlr s







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