Have A Happy Holiday Everyone, Adventure at the Water Lily Pond with Bodhi and Kai

Have A Happy Holiday Everyone

Adventure at the Water Lily Pond with Bodhi and Kai

By Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Kai is a young lad of five years old who is so proud of himself as the Best Brother Ever!

After Kai and his little nine month – old brother, Bodhi, filled their stomachs with delicious food that grandma Ing fed them, they are going for a ride.  Bodhi is ready to be in his walker.   Kai gets his mini truck out, putting a robe around the back of his truck and tied it on the front of Bodhi’s walker.  Then he starts to drive Bodhi around the house.  Kai and his brother cannot go outside because of the COVID 19 pandemics trouble.

At the end of the trip, Kai stops at the area that Grandma Ing is putting one of her large artworks, “By the Water Lily Pond”, on the hallway wall.  Bodhi touches the face of the girl in the artwork.  He murmurs, a sound, like, “Mom ma, Mom ma”.    

Kai is interested in counting the number of butterflies in the artwork.

Then Kai turns to his grandma Ing and asks “How many Butterflies in your artwork, Grandma?”

Grandma Ing says “One big Swallowtail Butterfly in front of you, four small butterflies on your right-hand side and another big brown one above the girl’s head.

Grandma Ing continues, “One plus four, plus one, what is the total of number of butterflies?”

Kai cries out load “Grandma—–ma—–ma, It’s not time for learning.  It’s time for play.”

Then he opens his mouth wide and makes many funny faces.

Bodhi is really interested in the girl.  He keeps looking at her for a while.

Then he turns to grandma with a confused face as if to ask Grandma “Who is she?”.   He is too young to talk.  He only can make sounds like Ma – Ma or Da – Da.  The next word he probably says is Kai – Kai.

Bodhi shows his expression as though he wants to do something.

Then suddenly he appears next to the girl in the Water Lilly Pond with a Flower in his mouth.

Then he calls his brother “Kai, Kai come in the pond.”

Bodhi comes out of the pond and sits in front of the girl and watching her arrange the Water Lily Flowers.  Kai jumps into the pond and yells, “Bodhi, Bodhi, here I am in the pond.”

Bodhi moves closer to the girl and plays with and pats the cat, saying, “Hi Kitty cat, you are so cute.”

“Bodhi, Bodhi, I am up here!  There’s a big bee on the Water Lily Flower.  Bodhi!  Say hello to the Thai girl and boy.” 

“Lady!  Can I have one of your flowers?”  Bodhi Takes one of the Water Lily Flowers from the tray.

“Bodhi!  Look!  I have some of Water Lily Flowers for you.”  Kai gets a big bunch of Water Lily Flowers from the pond.  “I am going to give one each to Mommy, and Daddy.  How about we give two flowers to Papa?  I’ll give one to Nana, one to Pa, one to Grandma Ing and one to Grandpa John.  I think I have enough for everyone.” 

Bodhi tries to have a conversation with the girl.  “How are you lady?  I like sitting here.  The weather is very nice by the Pond.  Do you like it, Lady?” 

“Hay!  Bodhi!  Come in the water!  It’s fun to swim.  You can see fish, crabs, frogs and other fun things.”  Kai wants Bodhi to join him.

“Kai! I see the mother duck, and baby duck.  Do you see the parrot flying this way?  I love this Pond.  We can see all kind of animals.  They’re so beautiful.  I love them all.”  Bodhi is happy to be outside of the house in nature.

“Bodhi!  I am very close to the ducks.  The duckling is so cute.  Yes, I see the parrot flying my way.”  Kai is happy to be in the water.

“I love to play with these Flowers.   Kai! From here I see a lot of butterflies.  Hey Kai, look at the beautiful swallowtail Butterfly!”  Bodhi is very interested in the butterfly. 

Come on Bodhi!  Jump in the water!  You’ll like it.  I ‘ll teach you how to swim”.  Kai is having a very good time.  “Thank you, Brother Kai, but I love to sit up here seeing all the Water Lilies and animals around the pond.”  Bodhi smiles happily.

Grandma Ing has woken up from day dream and wishes that her two grandsons can go to the park or someplace outdoors rather than staying in the house all the time.  Hopefully, the vaccine for COVID 19 will help improve the situation, and prevent people from getting the virus. Then we can go out to enjoy nature and people can come together again.  Especially, in spring we love to celebrate the cherry blossoms and have lunch together with the family and friends at Branch brook park, in Newark, New Jersey, USA.

I produced “By the Water Lily Pond” in 1998.”

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Thursday, December 24, 2020

Have A Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year Bodhi, Kai, Mali, Jim, Nana, Pa, Papa and all the Aunties, Uncles and Cousins

Love, from Ing & John

Thursday, December 24, 2020

For more information and photos of cherry blossoms at Branch brook park, Newark, New Jersey, USA please visit the following links:

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey

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TED: Watch the Countdown Global Launch, a call to action on climate change and Ing & John’s Garden

TED: Watch the Countdown Global Launch, a call to action on climate change

 Ing & John’s Garden in Downtown Newark, New Jersey, USA, September 27, 2020

[Full livestream] Watch the Countdown Global Launch, a call to action on climate change


Streamed live 10 hours ago



18.1M subscribers  SUBSCRIBE

This virtual event, streamed free on 10.10.2020, is the Global Launch of Countdown, a new initiative to accelerate solutions to the climate crisis. Watch five curated sessions packed with more than 50 speakers, activists, actors and musicians, who share actionable and science-backed ideas, paired with moments of wonder, inspiration and optimism. Presented by TED and Future Stewards. Learn how you can take action on climate change and join the race to a zero-carbon world: #JoinTheCountdown Website: https://countdown.ted.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/TEDCountdown Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/tedcountdown Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TED Countdown Global Launch agenda and speaker list: Session 1: Urgency (19:35) Hosted by Mark Ruffalo and Don Cheadle Featuring: Johan Rockström, Angel Hsu, António Guterres, Prince Royce, David Lammy and Christiana Figueres Session 2: Leadership (1:28:58) Hosted by Al Gore and Jaden Smith Featuring: Severn Cullis-Suzuki, Ursula von der Leyen, Olafur Eliasson, Rebecca Henderson, Elif Shafak, Jesper Brodin, Pia Heidenmark Cook, Dave Clark, Kara Hurst, Aparna Nancherla, Carlos Moreno, Yvonne Aki-Sawyerr and Yemi Alade Session 3: Transformation (2:38:42) Hosted by Jane Fonda and Xiye Bastida Featuring: Varun Sivaram, Myles Allen, Rose M. Mutiso, Raye Zaragoza, Monica Araya, Al Gore, Gloria Kasang Bulus, Nana Firman, Ximena Loría, Tim Guinee, Stephen Wilkes and Yemi Alade Session 4: Breakthroughs (3:47:37) Hosted by Prajakta Koli and Hannah Stocking Featuring: Thomas Crowther, Ernestine Leikeki Sevidzem, Brent Loken, John Doerr, Hal Harvey, Sigrid, Karen Scrivener, Tom Schuler, Rahwa Ghirmatzion, Zelalem Adefris and Prince William Session 5: Action (4:55:37) Hosted by Priyanka Chopra Jonas and Chris Hemsworth Featuring: Amanda Gorman, Roman Krznaric, Sophie Howe, Miao Wang, Alok Sharma, Nigel Topping, Lisa Jackson, Liz Ogbu, Ava DuVernay, His Holiness Pope Francis, Andri Snær Magnason and Cynthia Erivo We’re dedicated to making Countdown as impactful as possible. Share your feedback here: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/3827W7J

Ing & John’s Garden in Downtown Newark, New Jersey, USA, September 27, 2020

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

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Astronaut Kai visits Grandpa John and Grandma Ing’s garden

Astronaut Kai visits Grandpa John and Grandma Ing’s garden

Golden rod flowers and others flowers from our backyard garden during August and September, 2020, Downtown Newark, New Jersey, USA

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Astronaut Kai observes flowers in the garden.

He sees beautiful patterns of flowers casting on his orange astronaut uniform.

Astronaut Kai is hiding in the dark to witness the sun light shining on the trees creating beautiful designs on the wooden deck.  

The yellow golden rod flowers brighten the garden when the blooming season arrived.  The big and small insects enjoy the nectar of flowers.

Astronaut Kai loves to play hide and seek.

Astronaut Kai is admiring the purple butterfly bush flowers with the nice perfume aroma.

Astronaut Kai walks into the deep dark jungle and takes off with his rocket to search for the unknown of the universe as he disappears to far, far away planets.

Our Grandson Kai, just turned 5 years old yesterday on September. 21, 2020.  He came to visit us in his astronaut outfit.  He is so proud of his astronaut uniform. He wore it all day long, and took it off only when he went to sleep at night.  I enjoy seeing the little one having a good time playing as an astronaut.  It is a good relieve for me from the reality of political turmoil and the trouble from COVID –19 virus at this present time. 

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, October 5, 2020

 Due to COVID-19 social distancing we cannot see our grandson that often.  But we talk to our daughter and grandson Kai almost everyday from 6 pm for an hour or more via internet-FaceTime.  I teach Kai some spelling and math.  John reads some books or does drawing with Kai.  On this Sunday, August 30, 2020, Kai suggested that he wanted to draw The Life Cycle of a Butterfly.  His mother just orders a set of real-life butterfly eggs to let Kai observes the real life hatching of a caterpillar and the transform into cocoons and the becoming of a butterfly at the end of the life cycle.  John drew a caterpillar and a butterfly also.

John Watts’ Drawing

Kai’s drawing:  The Life Cycle of a Butterfly (black & white), Sunday, August 30, 2020

Kai’s drawing:  The Life Cycle of a Butterfly (colors), Sunday, August 30, 2020

 I told Kai that Ms. Fran, his Newark Museum teacher, wrote us a message on my website comments section, as follows:

Hi Kai & Ing,
I hope you and your family are well! What a lovely trip down memory lane to see these photos! Just a little more than a year ago. I hope we can visit sometime soon, when the museum opens up to the public. Till then, stay well and have FUN!”

Kai said that he misses Ms. Fran also, and he would like her to see his, “The Life Cycle of a Butterfly,” drawing.  He really enjoyed drawing to make his first little book and museum tour trip with Ms. Fran.  He said he would love to see her again when the museum is opened for the new classes.  

For more photos and information of Kai taking lessons with Ms. Fran Garrido at The Newark Museum please visit the following link:

Kai & Teacher, Ms. Fran Garrido in Creative Play at the Newark Museum, July 17, 2019

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The late Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg lies in state at the U.S. Capitol on September 25, 2020

The late Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg lies in state at the U.S. Capitol on September 25, 2020

WATCH: Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg lies in state at the U.S. Capitol | September 25, 2020 PBS NewsHour Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour  Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

The following Photographs were captured from PBS’ s Video stream: 

The US flag drapes the casket of Ruth Bater Ginsburg, who died at the age of 87 on Friday, September 18, 2020.  Members of Congress, top military officials, friends and family pay respect to Supreme Court Justice Ginsburg.

The US flag drapes the casket of Ginsburg, who died at the age of 87 on Friday, September 18, 2020.  Members of Congress, top military officials, friends and family pay respect to Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg lies in state in, The Statuary Hall, of the U.S. Capitol in Washington on Friday, September 25, 2020.

The late Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg lays in state at the U.S. Capitol, on Friday, September 25, 2020.  She is the first woman in American history to do so.  It is a commemoration of her extraordinary life.

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said it was “With profound sorrow”, that she welcomed Ginsburg as she opened the private service.

Opera singer, Denyce Graves, performs during the ceremony for Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg as she lies in state in the U.S. Capitol on Friday, September 25, 2020.

Rabbi Lauren Holtzblatt, of the, Adas Israel Congregation, in Washington, gives a praising commemoration to Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

House Speaker, Nancy Pelosi, and Senate Democratic leader, Chuck Schumer, pay their respects to Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg as she lies in state in the U.S. Capitol on Friday, September 25, 2020.

Senate Kamala Harris, pay respects to, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, as she lies in state in the U.S. Capitol on Friday, September 25, 2020.

Democratic presidential candidate, former Vice President Joe Biden, and his wife, Jill Biden, pay their respects to Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg as she lies in state in the U.S. Capitol on Friday, September 25, 2020.

Bryant Johnson, the justice’s beloved trainer for her popular RBG workouts did three quick pushups as he pays respect to, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

The late Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, will be buried next week in Arlington National Cemetery beside her husband, Martin, who died in 2010.

I love butterflies

They are beautiful and benefit the world

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg is beautiful

She contributed her life for humanity

She made our world a better place

She is as beautiful as my butterflies

She gives us peace

And the happiness of a better future

 For all the children of our planet

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg fulfilled her life

As a guardian of human rights

Rest in peace my beautiful butterfly

 Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, September 28, 2020

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Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and The Swallowtail Butterfly in Ing & John’s Backyard Garden  

Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and The Swallowtail Butterfly in Ing & John’s Backyard Garden  

I love my little garden in our backyard, in Downtown Newark, New Jersey.  I feel calm and peaceful seeing green leaves with beautiful flowers in different shade of color.  The bees are buzzing and dancing around different flowers for the juicy nectar.  I saw some Monarch Butterflies on difference occasions.  On Monday, July 27, 2020 I was very lucky to have a large beautiful Swallowtail butterfly come to visit our garden and enjoy tasting the nectar from our butterfly bush flowers.  I ran in the house to get my camcorder to record for our grandsons.  One grandson is 5 months old and other just turned 5 years old.

Nature always gives us peace and happiness, if we cultivate and take care of it.  Humans are part of nature.  Some who cultivate their behavior and contribute their knowledge and time for the good of society thereby help humanity reach harmony and peace.  Sadly, such a person just passed away. The late Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg was a person that we can be proud to know about. She will always be remembered and we will forever be grateful for her contributions.  

I wish to dedicate my peaceful garden to the late Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, for her lifelong achievements.  May she rest in peace.  We will always keep her in our minds and hearts.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, September 21, 2020

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (/?be?d?r ???nzb??r?/; born Joan Ruth Bader; March 15, 1933 – September 18, 2020),[1] also known by her initials RBG, was an American jurist who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1993 until her death in 2020. She was nominated by President Bill Clinton and was generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court. Ginsburg was the second woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, after Sandra Day O’Connor. During her tenure on the Court, Ginsburg authored notable majority opinions, including United States v. Virginia (1996), Olmstead v. L.C. (1999), and Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc. (2000). Following O’Connor’s retirement in 2006 and until Sonia Sotomayor joined the Court in 2009, she was the only female justice on the Supreme Court. During that time, Ginsburg became more forceful with her dissents, which were noted by legal observers and in popular culture.

Ginsburg was born and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. Her older sister died when she was a baby, and her mother died shortly before Ginsburg graduated from high school. She then earned her bachelor’s degree at Cornell University and became a wife to Martin D. Ginsburg and a mother before starting law school at Harvard, where she was one of the few women in her class. Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School, where she graduated tied for first in her class. Following law school, Ginsburg entered academia. She was a professor at Rutgers Law School and Columbia Law School, teaching civil procedure as one of the few women in her field.

Ginsburg spent a considerable part of her legal career as an advocate for gender equality and women’s rights, winning multiple arguments before the Supreme Court. She advocated as a volunteer attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsels in the 1970s. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, where she served until her appointment to the Supreme Court. Ginsburg received attention in American popular culture for her fiery liberal dissents and refusal to step down. She was playfully dubbed “The Notorious R.B.G.”, a reference to Brooklyn-born rapper The Notorious B.I.G.[2]

 Ginsburg died at her home in Washington, D.C., on September 18, 2020, at the age of 87, from complications of metastatic pancreatic cancer.[3][4]

Early life and education

Joan Ruth Bader was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the second daughter of Celia (née Amster) and Nathan Bader, who lived in the Flatbush neighborhood. Her father was a Jewish emigrant from OdessaRussian Empire, and her mother was born in New York to Austrian Jewish parents.[5][6][7] The Baders’ elder daughter Marylin died of meningitis at age six, when Ruth was 14 months old.[1]:3[8][9] The family called Joan Ruth “Kiki”, a nickname Marylin had given her for being “a kicky baby”.[1]:3[10] When “Kiki” started school, Celia discovered that her daughter’s class had several other girls named Joan, so Celia suggested the teacher call her daughter “Ruth” to avoid confusion.[1]:3 Although not devout, the Bader family belonged to East Midwood Jewish Center, a Conservative synagogue, where Ruth learned tenets of the Jewish faith and gained familiarity with the Hebrew language.[1]:14–15 At age 13, Ruth acted as the “camp rabbi” at a Jewish summer program at Camp Che-Na-Wah in Minerva, New York.[10]

Celia took an active role in her daughter’s education, often taking her to the library.[10] Celia had been a good student in her youth, graduating from high school at age 15, yet she could not further her own education because her family instead chose to send her brother to college. Celia wanted her daughter to get more education, which she thought would allow Ruth to become a high school history teacher.[11] Ruth attended James Madison High School, whose law program later dedicated a courtroom in her honor. Celia struggled with cancer throughout Ruth’s high school years and died the day before Ruth’s high school graduation.[10]

 Bader attended Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, and was a member of Alpha Epsilon Phi.[12] While at Cornell, she met Martin D. Ginsburg at age 17.[11] She graduated from Cornell with a bachelor of arts degree in government on June 23, 1954. She was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and the highest-ranking female student in her graduating class.[12][13] Bader married Ginsburg a month after her graduation from Cornell. She and Martin moved to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, where he was stationed as a Reserve Officers’ Training Corps officer in the Army Reserve after his call-up to active duty.[11][14][13] At age 21, she worked for the Social Security Administration office in Oklahoma, where she was demoted after becoming pregnant with her first child.[9] She gave birth to a daughter in 1955.[9]

In the fall of 1956, Ginsburg enrolled at Harvard Law School, where she was one of only nine women in a class of about 500 men.[15][16] The Dean of Harvard Law reportedly invited all the female law students to dinner at his family home and asked the female law students, including Ginsburg, “Why are you at Harvard Law School, taking the place of a man?”[a][11][17][18] When her husband took a job in New York City, Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School and became the first woman to be on two major law reviews: the Harvard Law Review and Columbia Law Review. In 1959, she earned her law degree at Columbia and tied for first in her class.[10][19]

Early career

At the start of her legal career, Ginsburg encountered difficulty in finding employment.[20][21][22] In 1960, Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter rejected Ginsburg for a clerkship position due to her gender. She was rejected despite a strong recommendation from Albert Martin Sacks, who was a professor and later dean of Harvard Law School.[23][24][b] Columbia law professor Gerald Gunther also pushed for Judge Edmund L. Palmieri of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York to hire Ginsburg as a law clerk, threatening to never recommend another Columbia student to Palmieri if he did not give Ginsburg the opportunity and guaranteeing to provide the judge with a replacement clerk should Ginsburg not succeed.[9][10][25] Later that year, Ginsburg began her clerkship for Judge Palmieri, and she held the position for two years.[9][10]


From 1961 to 1963, Ginsburg was a research associate and then an associate director of the Columbia Law School Project on International Procedure; she learned Swedish to co-author a book with Anders Bruzelius on civil procedure in Sweden.[26][27] Ginsburg conducted extensive research for her book at Lund University in Sweden.[28] Ginsburg’s time in Sweden also influenced her thinking on gender equality. She was inspired when she observed the changes in Sweden, where women were 20 to 25 percent of all law students; one of the judges whom Ginsburg watched for her research was eight months pregnant and still working.[11]

Her first position as a professor was at Rutgers Law School in 1963.[29] The appointment was not without its drawbacks; Ginsburg was informed she would be paid less than her male colleagues because she had a husband with a well-paid job.[22] At the time Ginsburg entered academia, she was one of fewer than 20 female law professors in the United States.[29] She was a professor of law, mainly civil procedure, at Rutgers from 1963 to 1972, receiving tenure from the school in 1969.[30][31]

In 1970, she co-founded the Women’s Rights Law Reporter, the first law journal in the U.S. to focus exclusively on women’s rights.[32] From 1972 to 1980, she taught at Columbia Law School, where she became the first tenured woman and co-authored the first law school casebook on sex discrimination.[31] She also spent a year as a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University from 1977 to 1978.[33]

Ginsburg in 1977, photographed by Lynn Gilbert

Litigation and advocacy

In 1972, Ginsburg co-founded the Women’s Rights Project at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and in 1973, she became the Project’s general counsel.[13] The Women’s Rights Project and related ACLU projects participated in more than three hundred gender discrimination cases by 1974. As the director of the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project, she argued six gender discrimination cases before the Supreme Court between 1973 and 1976, winning five.[23] Rather than asking the court to end all gender discrimination at once, Ginsburg charted a strategic course, taking aim at specific discriminatory statutes and building on each successive victory. She chose plaintiffs carefully, at times picking male plaintiffs to demonstrate that gender discrimination was harmful to both men and women.[23][31] The laws Ginsburg targeted included those that on the surface appeared beneficial to women, but in fact reinforced the notion that women needed to be dependent on men.[23] Her strategic advocacy extended to word choice, favoring the use of “gender” instead of “sex”, after her secretary suggested the word “sex” would serve as a distraction to judges.[31] She attained a reputation as a skilled oral advocate, and her work led directly to the end of gender discrimination in many areas of the law.[34]

Ginsburg volunteered to write the brief for Reed v. Reed404 U.S. 71 (1971), in which the Supreme Court extended the protections of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to women.[31][35][c] In 1972, she argued before the 10th Circuit in Moritz v. Commissioner on behalf of a man who had been denied a caregiver deduction because of his gender. As amicus she argued in Frontiero v. Richardson411 U.S. 677 (1973), which challenged a statute making it more difficult for a female service member (Frontiero) to claim an increased housing allowance for her husband than for a male service member seeking the same allowance for his wife. Ginsburg argued that the statute treated women as inferior, and the Supreme Court ruled 8–1 in Frontiero’s favor.[23] The court again ruled in Ginsburg’s favor in Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld420 U.S. 636 (1975), where Ginsburg represented a widower denied survivor benefits under Social Security, which permitted widows but not widowers to collect special benefits while caring for minor children. She argued that the statute discriminated against male survivors of workers by denying them the same protection as their female counterparts.[37]

Ginsburg filed an amicus brief and sat with counsel at oral argument for Craig v. Boren429 U.S. 190 (1976), which challenged an Oklahoma statute that set different minimum drinking ages for men and women.[23][37] For the first time, the court imposed what is known as intermediate scrutiny on laws discriminating based on gender, a heightened standard of Constitutional review.[23][37][38] Her last case as an attorney before the Supreme Court was in 1978 Duren v. Missouri439 U.S. 357 (1979), which challenged the validity of voluntary jury duty for women, on the ground that participation in jury duty was a citizen’s vital governmental service and therefore should not be optional for women. At the end of Ginsburg’s oral argument, then-Associate Justice William Rehnquist asked Ginsburg, “You won’t settle for putting Susan B. Anthony on the new dollar, then?”[39] Ginsburg said she considered responding, “We won’t settle for tokens,” but instead opted not to answer the question.[39]

 Legal scholars and advocates credit Ginsburg’s body of work with making significant legal advances for women under the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.[31][23] Taken together, Ginsburg’s legal victories discouraged legislatures from treating women and men differently under the law.[31][23][37] She continued to work on the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project until her appointment to the Federal Bench in 1980.[31] Later, colleague Antonin Scalia praised Ginsburg’s skills as an advocate. “She became the leading (and very successful) litigator on behalf of women’s rights—the Thurgood Marshall of that cause, so to speak.” This was a comparison that had first been made by former Solicitor General Erwin Griswold who was also her former professor and dean at Harvard Law School, in a speech given in 1985.[40][41][d]

Ginsburg with President Jimmy Carter in 1980

U.S. Court of Appeals

Ginsburg was nominated by President Jimmy Carter on April 14, 1980, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit vacated by Judge Harold Leventhal after his death.[30] She was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 18, 1980, and received her commission later that day.[30] Her service terminated on August 9, 1993, due to her elevation to the United States Supreme Court.[30][42][43] During her time as a judge on the DC Circuit, Ginsburg often found consensus with her colleagues including conservatives Robert H. Bork and Antonin Scalia.[44][45] Her time on the court earned her a reputation as a “cautious jurist” and a moderate.[46] David S. Tatel replaced her after Ginsburg’s appointment to the Supreme Court.[47]

Chief Justice William Rehnquist swearing in Ginsburg as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, as her husband Martin Ginsburg and President Clinton watch

Supreme Court

Nomination and confirmation

Ginsburg officially accepting the nomination from President Bill Clinton on June 14, 1993

President Bill Clinton nominated Ginsburg as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on June 14, 1993, to fill the seat vacated by retiring Justice Byron White. She was recommended to Clinton by then–U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno,[19] after a suggestion by Utah Republican Senator Orrin Hatch.[48] At the time of her nomination, Ginsburg was viewed as a moderate. Clinton was reportedly looking to increase the court’s diversity, which Ginsburg did as the only Jewish justice since the 1969 resignation of Justice Abe Fortas. She was the second female and the first Jewish female justice of the Supreme Court.[46][49][50] She eventually became the longest-serving Jewish justice.[51] The American Bar Association’s Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary rated Ginsburg as “well qualified”, its highest possible rating for a prospective justice.[52]

During her testimony before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary as part of the confirmation hearings, Ginsburg refused to answer questions about her view on the constitutionality of some issues such as the death penalty as it was an issue she might have to vote on if it came before the court.[53]

At the same time, Ginsburg did answer questions about some potentially controversial issues. For instance, she affirmed her belief in a constitutional right to privacy and explained at some length her personal judicial philosophy and thoughts regarding gender equality.[54]:15–16 Ginsburg was more forthright in discussing her views on topics about which she had previously written.[53] The United States Senate confirmed her by a 96–3 vote on August 3, 1993,[e][30] She received her commission on August 5, 1993[30] and took her judicial oath on August 10, 1993.[56]

Ginsburg’s name was later invoked during the confirmation process of John Roberts. Ginsburg herself was not the first nominee to avoid answering certain specific questions before Congress,[f] and as a young attorney in 1981 Roberts had advised against Supreme Court nominees’ giving specific responses.[57] Nevertheless, some conservative commentators and Senators invoked the phrase “Ginsburg precedent” to defend his demurrers.[52][57] In a September 28, 2005, speech at Wake Forest University, Ginsburg said Roberts’ refusal to answer questions during his Senate confirmation hearings on some cases was “unquestionably right”.[58]

Supreme Court jurisprudence

Ginsburg characterized her performance on the court as a cautious approach to adjudication.[59] She argued in a speech shortly before her nomination to the court that “[m]easured motions seem to me right, in the main, for constitutional as well as common law adjudication. Doctrinal limbs too swiftly shaped, experience teaches, may prove unstable.”[60] Legal scholar Cass Sunstein characterized Ginsburg as a “rational minimalist”, a jurist who seeks to build cautiously on precedent rather than pushing the Constitution towards her own vision.[61]:10–11

 Sandra Day O’ConnorSonia Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Elena Kagan, October 1, 2010. O’Connor is not wearing a robe because she was retired from the court when the picture was taken.

The retirement of Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in 2006 left Ginsburg as the only woman on the court.[62][g] Linda Greenhouse of The New York Times referred to the subsequent 2006–2007 term of the court as “the time when Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg found her voice, and used it”.[64] The term also marked the first time in Ginsburg’s history with the court where she read multiple dissents from the bench, a tactic employed to signal more intense disagreement with the majority.[64]

With the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens, Ginsburg became the senior member of what was sometimes referred to as the court’s “liberal wing”.[31][65][66] When the court split 5–4 along ideological lines and the liberal justices were in the minority, Ginsburg often had the authority to assign authorship of the dissenting opinion because of her seniority.[65][h] Ginsburg was a proponent of the liberal dissenters speaking “with one voice” and, where practicable, presenting a unified approach to which all the dissenting justices can agree.[31][65]

Gender discrimination

Ginsburg authored the court’s opinion in United States v. Virginia518 U.S. 515 (1996), which struck down the Virginia Military Institute‘s (VMI) male-only admissions policy as violating the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. VMI is a prestigious, state-run, military-inspired institution that did not admit women. For Ginsburg, a state actor such as VMI could not use gender to deny women the opportunity to attend VMI with its unique educational methods.[68] Ginsburg emphasized that the government must show an “exceedingly persuasive justification” to use a classification based on sex.[69]

Commissioned portrait of Ginsburg in 2000

Ginsburg dissented in the court’s decision on Ledbetter v. Goodyear550 U.S. 618 (2007), a case where plaintiff Lilly Ledbetter filed a lawsuit against her employer claiming pay discrimination based on her gender under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In a 5–4 decision, the majority interpreted the statute of limitations as starting to run at the time of every pay period, even if a woman did not know she was being paid less than her male colleague until later. Ginsburg found the result absurd, pointing out that women often do not know they are being paid less, and therefore it was unfair to expect them to act at the time of each paycheck. She also called attention to the reluctance women may have in male-dominated fields to making waves by filing lawsuits over small amounts, choosing instead to wait until the disparity accumulates.[70] As part of her dissent, Ginsburg called on Congress to amend Title VII to undo the court’s decision with legislation.[71] Following the election of President Barack Obama in 2008, the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, making it easier for employees to win pay discrimination claims, became law.[72][73] Ginsburg was credited with helping to inspire the law.[71][73]

Abortion rights

Ginsburg discussed her views on abortion and gender equality in a 2009 New York Times interview, in which she said about abortion “[t]he basic thing is that the government has no business making that choice for a woman.”[74] Although Ginsburg consistently supported abortion rights and joined in the court’s opinion striking down Nebraska‘s partial-birth abortion law in Stenberg v. Carhart530 U.S. 914 (2000), on the 40th anniversary of the court’s ruling in Roe v. Wade410 U.S. 113 (1973), she criticized the decision in Roe as terminating a nascent democratic movement to liberalize abortion laws which might have built a more durable consensus in support of abortion rights.[75] Ginsburg was in the minority for Gonzales v. Carhart550 U.S. 124 (2007), a 5–4 decision upholding restrictions on partial birth abortion. In her dissent, Ginsburg opposed the majority’s decision to defer to legislative findings that the procedure was not safe for women. Ginsburg focused her ire on the way Congress reached its findings and with the veracity of the findings.[76] Joining the majority for Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt579 U.S. 15-274 (2016), a case which struck down parts of a 2013 Texas law regulating abortion providers, Ginsburg also authored a short concurring opinion which was even more critical of the legislation at issue.[77] She asserted the legislation was not aimed at protecting women’s health, as Texas had said, but rather to impede women’s access to abortions.[76][77]

Search and seizure

Although Ginsburg did not author the majority opinion, she was credited with influencing her colleagues on the case Safford Unified School District v. Redding557 U.S. 364 (2009).[78] The court ruled that a school went too far in ordering a 13-year-old female student to strip to her bra and underpants so female officials could search for drugs.[78] In an interview published prior to the court’s decision, Ginsburg shared her view that some of her colleagues did not fully appreciate the effect of a strip search on a 13-year-old girl. As she said, “They have never been a 13-year-old girl.”[79] In an 8–1 decision, the court agreed that the school’s search went too far and violated the Fourth Amendment and allowed the student’s lawsuit against the school to go forward. Only Ginsburg and Stevens would have allowed the student to sue individual school officials as well.[78]

In Herring v. United States555 U.S. 135 (2009), Ginsburg dissented from the court’s decision not to suppress evidence due to a police officer’s failure to update a computer system. In contrast to Roberts’ emphasis on suppression as a means to deter police misconduct, Ginsburg took a more robust view on the use of suppression as a remedy for a violation of a defendant’s Fourth Amendment rights. Ginsburg viewed suppression as a way to prevent the government from profiting from mistakes, and therefore as a remedy to preserve judicial integrity and respect civil rights.[80]:308 She also rejected Roberts’ assertion that suppression would not deter mistakes, contending making police pay a high price for mistakes would encourage them to take greater care.[80]:309

International law

Ginsburg advocated the use of foreign law and norms to shape U.S. law in judicial opinions, a view rejected by some of her conservative colleagues. Ginsburg supported using foreign interpretations of law for persuasive value and possible wisdom, not as precedent which the court is bound to follow.[81] Ginsburg expressed the view that consulting international law is a well-ingrained tradition in American law, counting John Henry Wigmore and President John Adams as internationalists.[82] Ginsburg’s own reliance on international law dated back to her time as an attorney; in her first argument before the court, Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971), she cited two German cases.[83] In her concurring opinion in Grutter v. Bollinger539 U.S. 306 (2003), a decision upholding Michigan Law School’s affirmative action admissions policy, Ginsburg noted there was accord between the notion that affirmative action admissions policies would have an end point and agrees with international treaties designed to combat racial and gender-based discrimination.[82]

Portrait of Ginsburg, c.? 2006

Other activities

At his request, Ginsburg administered the oath of office to Vice President Al Gore for a second term during the second inauguration of Bill Clinton on January 20, 1997.[84] She was the third woman to administer an inaugural oath of office.[85] Ginsburg is believed to have been the first Supreme Court justice to officiate at a same-sex wedding, performing the August 31, 2013, ceremony of Kennedy Center President Michael Kaiser and John Roberts, a government economist.[86] Earlier that summer, the court had bolstered same-sex marriage rights in two separate cases.[87][88] Ginsburg believed the issue being settled led same-sex couples to ask her to officiate as there was no longer the fear of compromising rulings on the issue.[87]

The Supreme Court bar formerly inscribed its certificates “in the year of our Lord”, which some Orthodox Jews opposed, and asked Ginsburg to object to. She did so, and due to her objection, Supreme Court bar members have since been given other choices of how to inscribe the year on their certificates.[89]

Despite their ideological differences, Ginsburg considered Scalia her closest colleague on the court. The two justices often dined together and attended the opera.[90] In addition to befriending modern composers, including Tobias Picker,[91][92] in her spare time, Ginsburg appeared in several operas in non-speaking supernumerary roles such as Die Fledermaus (2003) and Ariadne auf Naxos (1994 and 2009 with Scalia),[93] and spoke lines penned by herself in The Daughter of the Regiment (2016).[94]

In January 2012, Ginsburg went to Egypt for four days of discussions with judges, law school faculty, law school students, and legal experts.[95][96] In an interview with Al Hayat TV, she said the first requirement of a new constitution should be that it would “safeguard basic fundamental human rights like our First Amendment“. Asked if Egypt should model its new constitution on those of other nations, she said Egypt should be “aided by all Constitution-writing that has gone on since the end of World War II”, and cited the United States Constitution and Constitution of South Africa as documents she might look to if drafting a new constitution. She said the U.S. was fortunate to have a constitution authored by “very wise” men but said that in the 1780s, no women were able to participate directly in the process, and slavery still existed in the U.S.[97]

During three separate interviews in July 2016, Ginsburg criticized presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, telling The New York Times and the Associated Press that she did not want to think about the possibility of a Trump presidency. She joked that she might consider moving to New Zealand.[98][99] She later apologized for commenting on the presumptive Republican nominee, calling her remarks “ill advised”.[100]

Ginsburg speaking at a naturalization ceremony at the National Archives in 2018

Ginsburg’s first book, My Own Words published by Simon & Schuster, was released October 4, 2016.[101] The book debuted on The New York Times Best Seller List for hardcover nonfiction at No. 12.[102] While promoting her book in October 2016 during an interview with Katie Couric, Ginsburg responded to a question about Colin Kaepernick choosing not to stand for the national anthem at sporting events by calling the protest “really dumb”. She later apologized for her criticism calling her earlier comments “inappropriately dismissive and harsh” and noting she had not been familiar with the incident and should have declined to respond to the question.[103][104][105]

In 2018, Ginsburg expressed her support for the #MeToo movement, which encourages women to speak up about their experiences with sexual harassment.[106] She told an audience, “It’s about time. For so long women were silent, thinking there was nothing you could do about it, but now the law is on the side of women, or men, who encounter harassment and that’s a good thing.”[106] She also reflected on her own experiences with gender discrimination and sexual harassment, including a time when a chemistry professor at Cornell unsuccessfully attempted to trade her exam answers for sex.[106]

 Martin and Ruth Ginsburg at a White House event, 2009

Personal life

A few days after Bader graduated from Cornell, she married Martin D. Ginsburg, who later became an internationally prominent tax attorney practicing at Weil, Gotshal & Manges. Upon her accession to the D.C. Circuit, the couple moved from New York to Washington, D.C., where her husband became professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center. Their daughter, Jane C. Ginsburg (b. 1955), is a professor at Columbia Law School. Their son, James Steven Ginsburg (b. 1965), is the founder and president of Cedille Records, a classical music recording company based in Chicago, Illinois. Ginsburg was a grandmother of four.[107]

Ginsburg with her husband Martin and their daughter Jane in 1958 copyright AP

After the birth of their daughter, Ginsburg’s husband was diagnosed with testicular cancer. During this period, Ginsburg attended class and took notes for both of them, typing her husband’s dictated papers and caring for their daughter and her sick husband—all while making the Harvard Law Review. They celebrated their 56th wedding anniversary on June 23, 2010. Martin Ginsburg died of complications from metastatic cancer on June 27, 2010.[108] They spoke publicly of being in a shared earning/shared parenting marriage including in a speech Martin Ginsburg wrote and had intended to give before his death that Ruth Bader Ginsburg delivered posthumously.[109]

Ginsburg poses for the camera while holding hands with her grandchildren Clara and Paul Spera in 1993.  Behind her are, from left, son-in-law George Spera, daughter Jane Ginsburg, husband Martin and son James Ginsburg (copyright Doug Mills/AP)

Bader was a non-observant Jew.[110] In March 2015, Ginsburg and Rabbi Lauren Holtzblatt released “The Heroic and Visionary Women of Passover”, an essay highlighting the roles of five key women in the saga: “These women had a vision leading out of the darkness shrouding their world. They were women of action, prepared to defy authority to make their vision a reality bathed in the light of the day.”[111] In addition, she decorated her chambers with an artist’s rendering of the Hebrew phrase from Deuteronomy, “Zedek, zedek, tirdof,” (“Justice, justice shall you pursue”) as a reminder of her heritage and professional responsibility.[112]

Bader was a non-observant Jew.[110] In March 2015, Ginsburg and Rabbi Lauren Holtzblatt released “The Heroic and Visionary Women of Passover”, an essay highlighting the roles of five key women in the saga: “These women had a vision leading out of the darkness shrouding their world. They were women of action, prepared to defy authority to make their vision a reality bathed in the light of the day.”[111] In addition, she decorated her chambers with an artist’s rendering of the Hebrew phrase from Deuteronomy, “Zedek, zedek, tirdof,” (“Justice, justice shall you pursue”) as a reminder of her heritage and professional responsibility.[112]

Ginsburg had a collection of lace jabots from around the world.[113][114] She said in 2014 she had a particular jabot she wore when issuing her dissents (black with gold embroidery and faceted stones) as well as another she wore when issuing majority opinions (crocheted yellow and cream with crystals), which was a gift from her law clerks.[113][114] Her favorite jabot (woven with white beads) was from Cape Town, South Africa.[113]


In 1999, Ginsburg was diagnosed with colon cancer, the first of five[115] bouts of cancer. She underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. During the process, she did not miss a day on the bench.[116] Ginsburg was physically weakened by the cancer treatment, and she began working with a personal trainer. Bryant Johnson, a former Army reservist attached to the Special Forces, trained Ginsburg twice weekly in the justices-only gym at the Supreme Court.[117][118] Ginsburg saw her physical fitness improve after her first bout with cancer; she was able to complete 20 push-ups in a session before her 80th birthday.[117][119]

Nearly a decade after her first bout with cancer, Ginsburg again underwent surgery on February 5, 2009, this time for pancreatic cancer.[120][121] Ginsburg had a tumor that was discovered at an early stage.[120] She was released from a New York City hospital on February 13 and returned to the bench when the Supreme Court went back into session on February 23, 2009.[122][123][124] After experiencing discomfort while exercising in the Supreme Court gym in November 2014, she had a stent placed in her right coronary artery.[125][126]

Ginsburg’s next hospitalization helped her detect another round of cancer.[127] On November 8, 2018, Ginsburg fell in her office at the Supreme Court, fracturing three ribs, for which she was hospitalized.[128] An outpouring of public support followed.[129][130] Although the day after her fall, Ginsburg’s nephew revealed she had already returned to official judicial work after a day of observation,[131] a CT scan of her ribs following her November 8 fall showed cancerous nodules in her lungs.[127] On December 21, Ginsburg underwent a left-lung lobectomy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to remove the nodules.[127] For the first time since joining the Court more than 25 years earlier, Ginsburg missed oral argument on January 7, 2019, while she recuperated.[132] She returned to the Supreme Court on February 15 to participate in a private conference with other justices in her first appearance at the court since her cancer surgery in December 2018.[133]

Months later in August 2019, the Supreme Court announced that Ginsburg had recently completed three weeks of focused radiation treatment to ablate a tumor found in her pancreas over the summer.[134] By January 2020, Ginsburg was cancer-free. By February 2020, Ginsberg was not cancer free but it was not released to the public. [135] However, by May 2020, Ginsburg was once again receiving treatment for a recurrence of cancer.[136] She reiterated her position that she “would remain a member of the court as long as I can do the job full steam”, adding that she remained fully able to do so.[137][138]

Longevity in the court

When John Paul Stevens retired in 2010, Ginsburg became the oldest justice on the court at age 77.[139] Despite rumors that she would retire because of advancing age, poor health, and the death of her husband,[140][141] she denied she was planning to step down. In an August 2010 interview, Ginsburg said her work on the court was helping her cope with the death of her husband.[139] She also expressed a wish to emulate Justice Louis Brandeis‘ service of nearly 23 years, which she achieved in April 2016.[139][142] She stated she had a new “model” to emulate in former colleague Justice John Paul Stevens, who retired at age 90 after nearly 35 years on the bench.[142]

During the presidency of Barack Obama, some progressive attorneys and activists called for Ginsburg to retire so Obama could appoint a like-minded successor,[143][144][145] particularly while the Democratic Party held control of the U.S. Senate.[146] They mentioned Ginsburg’s age and past health issues as factors making her longevity uncertain.[144] Ginsburg rejected these pleas.[65] She affirmed her wish to remain a justice as long as she was mentally sharp enough to perform her duties.[65] Moreover, Ginsburg opined that the political climate would prevent Obama from appointing a jurist like herself.[147] At the time of her death in September 2020, Ginsburg was, at age 87, the fourth-oldest serving U.S. Supreme Court Justice in the history of the country.[148]

Candles left on the steps of the Supreme Court following the death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Ginsburg died from complications of pancreatic cancer on September 18, 2020, at age 87.[149][150][4] One day before her death, Ginsburg was honored on Constitution Day and was awarded the 2020 Liberty Medal by the National Constitution Center.[151] It was reported that she will be interred in Arlington National Cemetery next to her husband Martin D. Ginsburg.[152][153]


Main article: 2020 United States Supreme Court vacancy

Ginsburg’s death created a vacancy on the Supeme Court in a presidential election year.[154] Days before her death, Ginsburg dictated in a statement through her granddaughter Clara Spera, “My most fervent wish is that I will not be replaced until a new president is installed.”[155] Four years earlier, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell refused to allow the Senate to consider President Obama’s nominee to replace Justice Scalia, citing the Thurmond rule, an inconsistently applied practice which posits that the senate will not confirm a Supreme Court nominee during a presidential election year except under certain circumstances.[156]

Ginsburg receiving the LBJ Liberty & Justice for All Award from Lynda Johnson Robb and Luci Baines Johnson at the Library of Congress in January 2020


In 2002, Ginsburg was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.[157] Ginsburg was named one of 100 Most Powerful Women (2009),[158] one of Glamour magazine’s Women of the Year 2012,[159] and one of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people (2015).[160] She was awarded honorary Doctor of Laws degrees by Willamette University (2009),[161] Princeton University (2010),[162] and Harvard University (2011).[163]

In 2009, Ginsberg received a Lifetime Achievement Award from Scribes–The American Society of Legal Writers.[164]

In 2013, a painting featuring the four female justices to have served as justices on the Supreme Court (Ginsburg, Sandra Day O’ConnorSonia Sotomayor, and Elena Kagan) was unveiled at the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.[165][166]

Researchers at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History gave a species of praying mantis the name Ilomantis ginsburgae after Ginsburg. The name was given because the neck plate of the Ilomantis ginsburgae bears a resemblance to a jabot, which Ginsburg was known for wearing. Moreover, the new species was identified based upon the female insect’s genitalia instead of based upon the male of the species. The researchers noted that the name was a nod to Ginsburg’s fight for gender equality.[167][168]

Ginsburg was the recipient of the 2019 $1 million Berggruen Prize for Philosophy and Culture.[169] Awarded annually, the Berggruen Institute stated it recognizes “thinkers whose ideas have profoundly shaped human self-understanding and advancement in a rapidly changing world”,[170] noting Ginsburg as “a lifelong trailblazer for human rights and gender equality”.[171] Ginsburg received numerous awards including the LBJ Foundation’s Liberty & Justice for All Award, the World Peace and Liberty Award from international legal groups, and a lifetime achievement award from Diane von Furstenberg‘s foundation all in 2020 alone.[172]

The Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles created an exhibition focusing on Ginsburg’s life and career exhibition in 2019 called Notorious RBG: The Life and Times of Ruth Bader Ginsburg.[173][174]

A poster depicting Ginsburg as “the Notorious R.B.G.” in the likeness of American rapper The Notorious B.I.G., 2018

In popular culture

Ginsburg has been referred to as a “pop culture icon”.[175][176][177] Ginsburg’s profile began to rise after O’Connor’s retirement in 2006 left Ginsburg as the only serving female justice. Her increasingly fiery dissents, particularly in Shelby County v. Holder570 U.S. 2 (2013), led to the creation of the Notorious R.B.G. Tumblr and Internet meme comparing the justice to rapper The Notorious B.I.G.[178] The creator of the Notorious R.B.G. Tumblr, then-law student Shana Knizhnik, teamed up with MSNBC reporter Irin Carmon to turn the blog into a book titled Notorious RBG: The Life and Times of Ruth Bader Ginsburg.[179] Released in October 2015, the book became a New York Times bestseller.[180] In 2015, Ginsburg and Scalia, known for their shared love of opera, were fictionalized in Scalia v. Ginsburg, an opera by Derrick Wang.[181]

Additionally, Ginsburg’s pop culture appeal has inspired nail art, Halloween costumes, a bobblehead doll, tattoos, t-shirts, coffee mugs, and a children’s coloring book among other things.[179][182][183][184] She appears in both a comic opera and a workout book.[184] Musician Jonathan Mann also made a song using part of her Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. dissent.[185] Ginsburg admitted to having a “large supply” of Notorious R.B.G. t-shirts, which she distributed as gifts.[186]

Since 2015, Kate McKinnon has portrayed Ginsburg on Saturday Night Live.[187] McKinnon has repeatedly reprised the role, including during a Weekend Update sketch that aired from the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland.[188][189] The segments typically feature McKinnon (as Ginsburg) lobbing insults she calls “Ginsburns” and doing a celebratory dance.[190][191] Filmmakers Betsy West and Julie Cohen created a documentary about Ginsburg, titled RBG, for CNN Films, which premiered at the 2018 Sundance Film Festival.[192][25] In the film Deadpool 2 (2018), a photo of her is shown as Deadpool considers her for his X-Force, a team of superheroes.[193] Another film, On the Basis of Sex, focusing on Ginsburg’s career struggles fighting for equal rights, was released later in 2018; its screenplay was named to the Black List of best unproduced screenplays of 2014.[194] English actress Felicity Jones portrays Ginsburg in the film, with Armie Hammer as her husband Marty.[195] Ginsburg herself has a cameo in the film.[196] The seventh season of the sitcom New Girl features a three-year-old character named Ruth Bader Schmidt, named after Ginsburg.[197] A Lego mini-figurine of Ginsburg is shown within a brief segment of The Lego Movie 2. Ginsburg gave her blessing for the cameo, as well as to have the mini-figurine produced as part of the Lego toy sets following the film’s release in February 2019.[198] Also in 2019, Samuel Adams released a limited-edition beer called When There Are Nine, referring to Ginsburg’s well-known reply to the question about when there would be enough women on the Supreme Court.[199]

Chief Justice John G Roberts, front center, poses in 2018 with, back row from left, Neil Gorsuch, Sonia Sotomayor, Elena Kagan, Brett M Kavanaugh and, front raw from left, Stephen Breyer, Clarence Thomas, Ginsburg and Samuel Alito copyright Jim Lo Scalzo/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock


Ginsburg with Senators Daniel Moynihan (left) and Joe Biden in 1993

Although they were on opposite sides of the ideological spectrum, Justice Antonin Scalia (left) and Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg had a professional respect for each other and a personal bond. Nina Totenberg, joined by intern Anthony Palmer, joined the two at a 2015 event.

Image from Nina Totenberg

PBS NewsHour Weekend Full Episode September 19, 2020

Sep 19, 2020  PBS NewsHour

 On this edition for Saturday, September 19, remembering Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg who died due to complications from Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer on Friday — and the political battle her election-year vacancy brings. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Ruth Bader Ginsburg Swearing-In (1993)

Jul 8, 2016  clintonlibrary42

This is video footage of Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg being sworn in as Associate Supreme Court Justice. This footage is official public record produced by the White House Television (WHTV) crew, provided by the Clinton Presidential Library. Date: August 10, 1993 Location: East Room. White House. Washington, DC Access Restriction(s): unrestricted Use Restrictions(s): unrestricted Camera: White House Television (WHTV) / Main Local Identifiers: MT01028 This material is public domain, as it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. Any usage must receive the credit “Courtesy; William J. Clinton Presidential Library,” and no exclusive rights or permissions are granted for usage.

Announcement of Ginsburg as Supreme Court Justice Nominee

Apr 23, 2012  clintonlibrary42

This is video footage of President Clinton announcing the Ruth Bader Ginsburg as Supreme Court Justice nominee. This footage is official public record produced by the White House Television (WHTV) crew, provided by the Clinton Presidential Library. Date: June 14, 1993 Location: Rose Garden. White House. Washington, DC ARC Identifier: 6037153 http://www.archives.gov/research/search/ Access Restriction(s): unrestricted Use Restrictions(s): unrestricted Camera: White House Television (WHTV) / Main Local Identifiers: MT00790 This material is public domain, as it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. Any usage must receive the credit “Courtesy; William J. Clinton Presidential Library,” and no exclusive rights or permissions are granted for usage.

Thanks to Wikipedia for the above information

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Remembering Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, NJ on Earth Day of 2020

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey will give pleasure to a lot of people who have a chance to visit the park again this year, 2016 and the years to come.  We still remember the good times we had in the previous years and the Cherry Blossoms of 2011.

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA

This year Earth Day is Wednesday, April 22, 2020 and  was Friday, April 22, 2011 but my “Earth day” is every day of my life.  I love nature, I am part of nature.  Here is some of nature that I enjoy, captured to share with all of us.  The photographs are the walking steps that I treasured and captured of the Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park in Newark, New Jersey, USA in my memory and my camera.  I am not a photographer but I love to take pictures to record history as I go through my life. I enjoy the beautiful flowers of Cherry Blossom trees and I also enjoy the tall trees that are absent of leaves, having only the limbs of branches spread out just like our blood veins.  The gorgeous Cherry Blossoms will be so lonely without little children running around under the trees.  The parents took snapshots to keep forever with love.  Young couple with children and without children came out to enjoy the Cherry Blossoms.  Some young couples took pictures in different possess of his or her admirer.  The young girl who dresses in a pink kimono is posing for her young man to capture her moods and movements as if she is part of the Cherry Blossoms herself, announcing to her lover to come closer, as if to say, “I am a nature, I am beautiful, enjoy me and love me”, as the young man comes closer to snap the photos with a heart beating faster and faster with every step that he takes toward her.  One can make up all kind of love stories when we walk into Cherry Blossoms land.  Now please enjoy more than one thousand pictures that I have captured from the most beautiful Cherry Blossoms that Newark offers to everyone.  I captured these pictures on Saturday, Sunday and Friday, April 16, 17 and 22, 2011 and previous years.

Branch Brook Park is a county park of Essex County, New Jersey in the United States, located in the North Ward of Newark, between the neighborhoods of Forest Hill and Rose ville. At 360 acres (1.5 km²), Branch Brook Park is the largest public park in the city of Newark. The park is noted for having over 4,000 cherry blossom trees in more than fourteen different varieties,[1] collectively called Cherry blossom land, as well as its spectacular Cherry Blossom Festival each April.

Branch Brook Park is currently in the midst of $25 million, ten-year, restoration program. In 2004, the Park Avenue bridge was repaired, as were the ball fields in the center of the park. By 2010, there will be more than 5,000 cherry trees in the park due to a $650,000 grant from the Essex County Recreation and Open Space Trust Fund in 2006 and private donations.[2]

In memory of my mother, father, my mother-in-law, and father-in-law.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, April 22, 2020

For more photographs and information please visit the following link:

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey

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Ing & Johns Street Art & International Street Art Part 19 & 20

Ing & Johns Street Art & International Street Art Part 19 & 20

Ing & Johns Street Art Part 19: John Watts demonstrated pottery, and Ing’s Peace Project, Ing & John’s Artwork,

International Street Art Part 20: Colossal- JR Reproduces Images of More Than 1,000 NYC Residents in Massive New Mural, Illustrative Murals in Shades of Grey by Paola Delfín Characterize Human Bonds, Floating Worlds Drift By in Murals by Cinta Vidal and A Historic Staircase in Caltagirone, Sicily Used as a Backdrop for Light and Flower Festivals

Ing & John’s Street Art & The International Street Art Part 19

The Halsey Street Festival, Part 4, Thursday, September 19, 2019,

On Halsey Street between Bleaker Street and New Street, Downtown Newark, New Jersey, USA

 John Watts demonstrated pottery,

Ing’s Peace Project, Ing & John’s Artwork,

A lot of Merchants, Food, Music and Fashion Show

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

A lady from local media station videoed and interviewed John.

This artwork is my – Finished “Peace” artwork 8

Shadow of Peace and La Asociación de Barranquiteños de NJ Inc., Puerto Rican Festival in Newark on August 6, 2011, organized by Carlos Maldonado Pastrana, President of La Asociación de Barranquiteños de NJ.  Finished artwork, after the written comments by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Link to Peace Comes to 5th Annual Arts Music Fair Elwood Park Page:

5th Annual Arts & Music Fair, Elwood Park

I was very happy to see a lot more people participating in my Peace Project.  I believe that peace is one of the essential conditions of life.  Life without peace for one’s self causes an individual to be unhappy.  Society without peace cause problems for everyone, particularly in countries such as Syria.  Greedy leaders, politicians and corporations can create a great deal of harm to people around the world.

Humanity is now able to achieve highly advanced levels of technology.  However, some are afraid of development in certain technologies, such as the robotics, which may have the potential to control human activity in direct ways.  Humans produce high technologies including robotics, but all these technologies are dependent on the beliefs of those who create them.  If the people who build them are peaceful, the products will likely benefit humanity and hopefully do no harm.  On the other hand, if greedy people make the products, then everyone should worry.  The things they create may be dangerous and intended to kill millions of people.  Their nuclear weapons, armaments, or robots, can cause irreparable harm. 

Older people, especially, should realize that they cannot take even one penny with them when they die.  Being greedy will only gain them unhappiness and cause problems for others.  History will record your actions for the children, grandchildren and future generations that look back at the legacy of your contributions to the world. 

It is time to seek peace in ourselves, and spread harmony for all humanity.   Now is the time for adults to cultivate peace in the hearts of the next generation so the whole world can grow in universal harmony.   

Please continue to view The Halsey Street Festival Part 5

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts and John Watts, Thursday, April 9, 2020   

For more photographs and information please visit the following link:

Ing & John’s Street Art & The International Street Art Part 19

 Ing & Johns Street Art & International Street Art Part 20

International Street Art Part 20

JR Reproduces Images of More Than 1,000 NYC Residents in Massive New Mural

JR Reproduces Images of More Than 1,000 NYC Residents in Massive New Mural


“The Chronicles of New York City” (2020). Photos by Marc Azoulay. All images © JR-ART.net, shared with permission

French artist JR (previously) is back in New York, transforming pockets of the city with his latest work. Installed on stacked shipping containers, “The Chronicles of New York City” is a compilation of images depicting more than 1,000 New York residents, who the artist photographed and reproduced for the large-scale work. Created in Williamsburg’s Domino Park, the black-and-white mural is JR’s biggest public project to date in the city. It overlooks the East River and features people living in all five boroughs gathered in a public space that mimics the newly built park.

Since opening his exhibition “JR: Chronicles” in October of 2019, the artist has been transforming areas throughout the city, like a space at the Kings Theatre in Flatbush and the Brooklyn Academy of Global Finance in Bedford Stuyvesant. “The Chronicles of New York City” is the centerpiece of the exhibition, which is on view through May 3, 2020, at Brooklyn Museum, and is accompanied by audio recordings of those portrayed in the monochromatic mural. The public installation was a collaboration with architectural firm LOT-EK, which is known for its sustainable design and helped in creating the site.

“Working at the intersections of photography, social engagement, and street art, JR collaborates with communities by taking individual portraits, reproducing them at a monumental scale, and wheat pasting them—sometimes illegally—in nearby public spaces,” says a statement about the exhibition.  See where JR’s work pops up next by following him on Instagram and peek in his shop to check out what’s available for purchase.

Illustrative Murals in Shades of Grey by Paola Delfín Characterize Human Bonds

 Illustrative Murals in Shades of Grey by Paola Delfín Characterize Human Bonds


“Èèn” (2019), for The Crystal Ship, Oostende, België. Photo by Arne Deboosere. All images © Paola Delfín, shared with permission

Paola Delfín’s monochromatic murals found in Cancun, St. Petersburg, and cities worldwide all share a message of unity and community. The Mexico-based artist often creates impeccably detailed and stylized profile views, which show her subjects looking down or into the distance, joined by plants, grasses, and flowers of the local environment.

Her lifelike works center on ideas of women’s strength and their ability to build community, in addition to the ways families are bound together and remember their ancestors?—although Delfín tells Colossal she has a more personal connection to the Cancun mural, which depicts a couple staring forward as they cradle a small boat.

My family, uncle and aunt, are part of (the) pioneers. They moved to this city almost 40 years ago and watched it grow. They started a school. My uncle worked on a ship for many years. Now the younger generations are trying to bring more culture since this city transformed into a tourist paradise, and sometimes we forget this was the place where centuries ago the great Mayan culture (rose).

The artist finds murals challenging because of her desire to “leave something meaningful” for those who pass by her work. Before she begins creating in any location, she studies the history and culture of the neighborhood she’s working in and talks to its residents to learn their stories. For “Familia/Suku,” the artist spoke with Tampere residents to understand how immigrants and natives across generations form a community in the Finnish city. In the horizontal piece, Suham, an Iranian expat, leans toward elderly Maya, who has lived in the country for 50 years, while Suham’s daughter Sofia stands in front of them.

Head to Delfín’s Instagram for more of her large- and small-scale projects, and check out Street Prints to see her work in progress.

“La emperatriz“ for Shine Festival in St. Petersburg, Florida. Photo by Michelle Tannu

“Familia/Suku” (2019), for Upeart Festival, Tampere, Finland

2019, for Proyecto Panorama, Cancun, Mexico. Photo by Gino Caballero

“Juntos” (2019), Paulino Navarro, Mexico City. Photo by Edgar Olguin

Floating Worlds Drift By in Murals by Cinta Vidal

Floating Worlds Drift By in Murals by Cinta Vidal


In Hong Kong. All images © Cinta Vidal, shared with permission

For Cinta Vidal, everything depends on how you look at it. The Barcelona-based artist is known for her gravity-defying projects that manipulate architecture and household objects to create inverted environments dissimilar to daily life. Like her smaller-scale inverted works, Vidal’s murals are concerned with human subjectivity and feature both peculiarly arranged architecture and objects like books, chairs, and even a canoe floating through the air. They cover walls throughout Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Barcelona, among other cities around the world.

Whether it be a young girl seated on an oversized globe or a man peering over a balcony that’s tipped at a 90-degree angle, the works consider how perspectives are informed by a subject’s position.

Everyone has their own view on the world, and my work is my way of expressing this idea: it’s impossible to view something from every perspective at the same time. There’s always a choice, a perception. In my work there also lies a desire to take things out of context, releasing them into the air and, by doing so, giving them new value.

The artist tells Colossal that once she chooses a location to paint a mural, she studies the areas nearby. Vidal intends each project to become part of the existing environment, often prompting her utilize the color already on the building’s surface as her background. “Paint(ing) a mural is about interact(ing) with the wall and everything that surrounds it,” she writes. To get the latest on the artist’s creations, follow her on Instagram.

International University Barcelona.

“Floating Napa” in Napa Valley, California

“Viewpoints” for Thinkspace in Los Angeles

A Historic Staircase in Caltagirone, Sicily Used as a Backdrop for Light and Flower Festivals

A Historic Staircase in Caltagirone, Sicily Used as a Backdrop for Light and Flower Festivals


Photo by Andrea Annaloro

Photo by Andrea Annaloro

Photo by Andrea Annaloro

Built in 1608, the Staircase of Santa Maria del Monte is a 142-step staircase in Caltagirone, Sicily made from thousands of ceramic tiles, one design per step, as a fitting tribute to a city known for its design and production of ceramics and terra-cotta sculptures. For centuries the stairs have been used as a backdrop for various festivals for which images of patron saints and other local themes are illustrated using thousands of flowers or candles. You can learn more about the La Scala Flower Festival over on My Modern Met, or the light festival called the Scala Illuminata. Photos by Andrea Annaloro. (via My Modern Met)

For more photographs and information please visit the following link:

Ing & Johns Street Art & International Street Art Part 20

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Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

I miss visiting the Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey in Spring time. We usually started our trips from the beginning of the month of April, almost every year for more than forty years. We enjoyed strolling under the cherry blossom trees, and seeing children running around with parents watching, while wearing their best dresses and suits to welcome the cherry blossoms in spring.  Some Cherry trees often have just started to open the little buds of flowers and some are in full bloom with white, light pink, dark pink and red of little flowers in clusters on every branches of the cherry trees. It is so beautiful!!

I was in awe when I saw the cherry blossoms the first time, and I promised myself that I would visit this magic and beautiful land of cherry blossoms every year.  It was such a happy time that we looked forward to with our family.  There was always a special lunch, on a blanket under the cherry trees with the comfort of spring temperature, and baking the warm sun in the afternoon. We enjoyed seeing other families and people that came to admire the Cherry Blossoms.  Even though we did not know them, there was the feeling of community, we smiled at each other and said hello to the people who passed by us.  It was a time of happiness, harmony, and peace as humanity celebrated nature that provided us peace and comfort in the spring time.


John with Hunter, our neighbor’s son who came to see me every Saturday to study beginning math lessons.





















As we know that most of the country is locked down, we can go out only to get food and in emergency situation.  I have been in our apartment since March 12.  On March 10, I went to the hospital for our second grandson’s birth.  Then I stayed two nights with our four-year-old, first grandson.  Since then I did not go out anywhere.  My husband, John Watts are my provider, he went out to get food and necessity items that we need for during this lockdown of Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.  The whole world is in the same situation as US.  From the end of December 2019, the coronavirus took place in Wuhan, China and the coronavirus has been spread out all over the world, up to today, Saturday, April 4, 2020, 2:08 P.M.

 [LIVE] Coronavirus Pandemic: Real Time Counter, World Map, News                          Started streaming on Jan 29, 2020   Roylab Stats


 TOTLE CASES: 1,180,725




 I went to view my Cherry Blossom posts in my website and in the photograph files of the Cherry Blossoms that we took for many years.  I enjoy viewing the photographs.  They remind me of happy times we had together with family and the community.  I decided to select some of the photographs to post on my website.  I hope that it will give the viewers some smiles or pleasant feeling that Cherry Blossom in Newark, New Jersey faithfully give pleasure to the community every year in Spring.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, April 4, 2020

For more photographs and information please visit the following link:


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PBS News, Washington Post, Ninja Nerd Science, and Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ NYC Video

PBS News: March 26  & 27, 2020

Washington Post: 1,581people have died from coronavirus in the U.S.

 and Mapping the worldwide spread of the coronavirus

Ninja Nerd Science: COVID-19 – Corona Virus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts: Herald Square Park New York City, New York, Spring 2014 (Video on YouTube)

PBS NewsHour full episode, Mar 27, 2020

Mar 27, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, the House approves the largest economic relief package in U.S. history as the country faces the rising spread of novel coronavirus. Plus: Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer on the national shortage of ventilators, the UN secretary-general on global cooperation, Louisiana is a COVID-19 hot spot, Americans trapped abroad and the political analysis of David Brooks and Ruth Marcus. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS After voting drama, House passes $2.2 trillion relief bill https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZiQD… Whitmer glad Trump invoked DPA, says GM is ready to oblige https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7MMW… News Wrap: Maduro blasts Trump over drug-trafficking charges https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g5Iph… UN head: World not cooperating enough to beat pandemic https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LDcup… Why Louisiana is emerging as a major coronavirus hot spot https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Arh9t… What will become of Americans stranded abroad? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y47fq… Brooks and Marcus on U.S. pandemic preparation failures https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qn6OJ… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Mar 26, 2020

Mar 26, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, the Senate passes a huge economic relief package as U.S. coronavirus cases climb. Plus: Stories from Americans who have lost their jobs, details of the pandemic aid bill, hospitals urgently seek to ramp up capacity, COVID-19 strands migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border, how staying home puts victims of domestic violence at greater risk and the latest from President Trump. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS U.S. now has the most confirmed COVID-19 cases in the world https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmU_7… Stories from Americans the pandemic has left unemployed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_UKYs… Summers: U.S. must spend ‘whatever it takes’ to manage virus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjA5v… News Wrap: DOJ announces indictment of Venezuela’s Maduro https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPbnk… Hospitals take extreme measures to boost capacity, supplies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RuEIt… U.S.-Mexico border closure puts migrants in dangerous limbo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxD94… What ‘shelter at home’ means for those who aren’t safe there https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pS8Mx… Trump says he’s eager to sign economic relief bill into law https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8juWu… Should parents shield their kids from news amid pandemic? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZ_YA… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6


1,581people have died from coronavirus in the U.S.

By Joe FoxBrittany Renee MayesKevin Schaul and Leslie Shapiro

Data as of Mar. 27 at 6:44 PM. Published March 27, 2020

The Washington Post is providing this story for free so that all readers have access to this important information about the coronavirus. For more free stories, sign up for our daily Coronavirus Updates newsletter.

The disease caused by the new coronavirus has killed at least 1,581 people in the United States since Feb. 29, when a 58-year-old man near Seattle became the first announced U.S. death.

Deaths Cases

New deaths reported per day

0100200300Feb. 29Mar. 7Mar. 14Mar. 21Mar. 27

The death toll from covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, began to rise steadily in early March, then more sharply as the disease spread to every state and most U.S. territories. The virus has killed people in nearly every state.

Total deaths reported by county

[Mapping the spread of the coronavirus worldwide]

Because testing was slow to begin in the United States, health officials agree that the number of confirmed cases is much lower than the actual number of people who have the disease, and even the count of deaths is probably low because of differences in reporting by overwhelmed local jurisdictions.

Hotspots have erupted in a few places with large outbreaks, none more dire than in New York, where at least 44,876 cases have been confirmed and at least 527 have died since March 14, when Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo (D) announced the death of an 82-year-old woman.

On Thursday, calls to 911 in New York City exceeded the number that occurred on Sept. 11, 2001.

Deaths Cases

New deaths reported per day in New York

Select a state:

New York

050100Feb. 29Mar. 7Mar. 14Mar. 21Mar. 27

State Confirmed cases Deaths Change from Wednesday
New York 44,876 527 242 deaths +85%
Washington 3,477 157 24 +18%
Louisiana 2,744 119 54 +83%
New Jersey 8,825 108 46 +74%
California 4,657 94 29 +45%
Michigan 3,634 92 49 +114%
Georgia 2,000 64 24 +60%
Florida 2,900 35 12 +52%
Massachusetts 3,240 35 20 +133%
Illinois 3,024 34 15 +79%
Colorado 1,433 27 11 +69%
Connecticut 1,291 27 8 +42%
Texas 1,937 26 11 +73%
Indiana 979 25 11 +79%
Pennsylvania 2,345 22 7 +47%
Ohio 1,137 19 8 +73%
Wisconsin 926 14 7 +100%
South Carolina 542 13 6 +86%
Arizona 665 13 7 +117%
Oregon 416 12 2 +20%
Virginia 607 10 1 +11%
Vermont 184 10 2 +25%
Nevada 536 10 4 +67%
Missouri 666 9
Mississippi 579 8
Oklahoma 322 8
Kentucky 301 7
Tennessee 1,318 6
Maryland 775 5
North Carolina 887 4
Minnesota 396 4
Alabama 587 4
Kansas 206 4
District of Columbia 271 3
Other 77 3
Idaho 205 3
Iowa 235 3
Puerto Rico 79 3
Arkansas 381 3
Delaware 163 2
North Dakota 68 1
Utah 472 1
New Mexico 136 1
Montana 109 1
Maine 168 1
Alaska 58 1
South Dakota 58 1
Guam 51 1
New Hampshire 158 1
Wyoming 70 0
Nebraska 82 0
U.S. Virgin Islands 19 0
Rhode Island 203 0
West Virginia 76 0
Hawaii 106 0
Northern Mariana Islands 0 0
American Samoa 0 0

But New York is far from the only area struggling to contain the disease and treat its victims.

Washington, where the first known U.S. outbreak began in early February, has had a high number of deaths among older people, particularly in the Seattle area. The disease took root early in several King County nursing homes and facilities that care for older, sicker people.

Most deaths worldwide have occurred among people older than 50 and those with underlying health problems, as they are often most vulnerable to respiratory disease.

[What you need to know about coronavirius]

Hard-hit Louisiana is facing a shortage of ventilators and protective equipment for health-care workers, according to Gov. John Bel Edwards (D). A breakout in New Orleans may have been fueled by the month-long Carnival celebration that drew more than a million people to the city in February and culminated in a raucous — and crowded — Mardi Gras.

[Rural areas may be most vulnerable to coronavirus]

California Gov. Gavin Newsom (D) was the first to issue a statewide stay-at-home order on March 19 in an attempt to contain the spread of the disease that had already infiltrated the San Francisco Bay area and greater Los Angeles. The next day, governors in New York and Illinois issued similar orders, and others soon followed.

Wayne County, Mich., which includes Detroit, has a high rate of infections per capita thanks in part, health officials told the Detroit Free Press, to economic disparities. People in areas of concentrated poverty tend to have higher rates of diabetes, heart disease and obesity.

About this story

Deaths and number of cases data from WHO and CDC, collected by Johns Hopkins University, and Post analysis.

Armand Emamdjomeh and Bonnie Berkowitz contributed to this report.

Joe Fox joined The Washington Post as a graphics reporter in 2018. He previously worked at the Los Angeles Times as a graphics and data journalist.

Leslie Shapiro has been a Graphics Reporter for The Washington Post since 2016, focusing on data visualization and new media storytelling.

Brittany Renee Mayes joined The Washington Post as a graphics reporter, focusing on sports and politics, in June 2018. She previously worked at NPR on the visuals team as a news applications developer.

Kevin Schaul is a senior graphics editor for The Washington Post. He covers national politics and public policy using data and visuals.

For more information please visit the following link:



Mapping the worldwide spread of the coronavirus

By Washington Post Staff Updated March 27 at 6:44 p.m.


The Washington Post is providing this story for free so that all readers have access to this important information about the coronavirus. For more free stories, sign up for our daily Coronavirus Updates newsletter.

The epicenter of the covid-19 pandemic has moved from China, where it began late last year, to Europe and the United States. The World Health Organization declared covid-19 a pandemic on March 11 as the coronavirus that causes it infiltrated countries all over the world.

The disease, which can trigger severe respiratory symptoms, has been reported on every continent except Antarctica and in more than 170 countries. Some countries are confirming thousand of new cases each day, including the United States, where testing was slow to begin.

Confirmed cases                                                 Reported deaths

591,802                 26,996

Country Confirmed cases Change from Wednesday Deaths
U.S. 101,657  35,879 +55% 1,581
Italy 86,498  12,112 +16% 9,134
China 81,897  236 0% 3,296
Spain 64,285  14,770 +30% 4,940
Germany 50,871  13,548 +36% 342
France 33,402  7,802 +30% 1,997
Iran 32,332  5,315 +20% 2,378
Britain 14,743  5,103 +53% 761
Switzerland 12,928  2,031 +19% 231
South Korea 9,332  195 +2% 139
Netherlands 8,642  2,204 +34% 547
Austria 7,657  2,069 +37% 58
Belgium 7,284  2,347 +48% 289
Turkey 5,698  3,265 +134% 92
Canada 4,682  1,431 +44% 54
Portugal 4,268  1,273 +43% 76
Norway 3,755  671 +22% 19
Brazil 3,417  863 +34% 92
Australia 3,143  779 +33% 13
Sweden 3,069  543 +21% 105
Israel 3,035  666 +28% 12
Czechia 2,279  625 +38% 9
Denmark 2,200  338 +18% 52
Malaysia 2,161  365 +20% 26
Ireland 2,121  557 +36% 22
Chile 1,610  468 +41% 5
Luxembourg 1,605  272 +20% 15
Ecuador 1,595  422 +36% 36
Japan 1,468  161 +12% 49
Poland 1,389  338 +32% 16
Pakistan 1,331  268 +25% 10
Romania 1,292  386 +43% 26
South Africa 1,170  461 +65% 1
Thailand 1,136  202 +22% 5
Saudi Arabia 1,104  204 +23% 3
Indonesia 1,046  256 +32% 87
Finland 1,041  161 +18% 7
Russia 1,036  378 +57% 4
Greece 966  145 +18% 28
Iceland 890  153 +21% 2
India 887  230 +35% 20
Philippines 803  167 +26% 54
Singapore 732  101 +16% 2
Diamond Princess 712 0 0% 10
Panama 674  231 +52% 9
Peru 635  155 +32% 9
Slovenia 632  104 +20% 9
Argentina 589  202 +52% 13
Croatia 586  144 +33% 3
Mexico 585  180 +44% 8
Dominican Republic 581  189 +48% 20
Estonia 575  171 +42% 1
Qatar 562  25 +5% 0
Colombia 539  69 +15% 6
Egypt 536  80 +18% 30
Bahrain 466  47 +11% 4
Iraq 458  112 +32% 40
Serbia 457  73 +19% 1
Algeria 409  107 +35% 26
UAE 405  72 +22% 2
Lebanon 391  58 +17% 8
New Zealand 368  163 +80% 0
Lithuania 358  84 +31% 5
Morocco 345  120 +53% 23
Armenia 329  64 +24% 1
Ukraine 310  165 +114% 5
Hungary 300  74 +33% 10
Bulgaria 293  51 +21% 3
Latvia 280  59 +27% 0
Slovakia 269  53 +25% 0
Taiwan 267  32 +14% 2
Andorra 267  79 +42% 3
Costa Rica 263  62 +31% 2
Uruguay 238  49 +26% 0
Jordan 235  63 +37% 1
Bosnia 232  56 +32% 4
Tunisia 227  54 +31% 6
Kuwait 225  30 +15% 0
San Marino 223  15 +7% 21
North Macedonia 219  42 +24% 3
Moldova 199  50 +34% 2
Albania 186  40 +27% 8
Burkina Faso 180  34 +23% 9
Azerbaijan 165  72 +77% 3
Vietnam 163  22 +16% 0
Cyprus 162  30 +23% 5
Kazakhstan 150  69 +85% 1
Malta 139  10 +8% 0
Ghana 137  44 +47% 4
Oman 131  32 +32% 0
Senegal 119  20 +20% 0
Brunei 115  6 +6% 0
Afghanistan 110  26 +31% 4
Venezuela 107  16 +18% 1
Sri Lanka 106  4 +4% 0
Ivory Coast 101  21 +26% 0
Cambodia 99 0
Mauritius 94 2
Belarus 94 0
West Bank and Gaza 91 1
Cameroon 91 2
Uzbekistan 88 1
Kosovo 86 1
Georgia 83 0
Montenegro 82 1
Cuba 80 2
Nigeria 70 1
Honduras 68 1
Trinidad and Tobago 66 2
Bolivia 61 0
Kyrgyzstan 58 0
Liechtenstein 56 0
Rwanda 54 0
Paraguay 52 3
Dem. Rep. Congo 51 3
Bangladesh 48 5
Monaco 42 0
Kenya 31 1
Guatemala 28 1
Jamaica 26 1
Madagascar 26 0
Togo 25 0
Barbados 24 0
Uganda 23 0
Zambia 22 0
Maldives 16 0
Ethiopia 16 0
Tanzania 13 0
El Salvador 13 0
Djibouti 12 0
Eq. Guinea 12 0
Mali 11 0
Dominica 11 0
Mongolia 11 0
Niger 10 1
Eswatini 9 0
The Bahamas 9 0
Burma 8 0
Haiti 8 0
Suriname 8 0
Namibia 8 0
Guinea 8 0
Antigua and Barbuda 7 0
Seychelles 7 0
Grenada 7 0
Mozambique 7 0
Gabon 7 1
Laos 6 0
Eritrea 6 0
Benin 6 0
Fiji 5 0
Syria 5 0
Cabo Verde 5 1
Guyana 5 1
Zimbabwe 5 1
Nepal 4 0
Angola 4 0
Holy See 4 0
Congo 4 0
Mauritania 3 0
Sudan 3 1
Chad 3 0
Saint Lucia 3 0
Central African Rep. 3 0
Liberia 3 0
Bhutan 3 0
Gambia 3 1
Somalia 3 0
Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 0
Guinea-Bissau 2 0
Belize 2 0
Nicaragua 2 1
Papua New Guinea 1 0
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1 0
Timor-Leste 1 0
Libya 1 0

See fewer ?

Last updated: March 27 at 6:44 p.m.


4,682 confirmed cases

54 deaths

[Tracking the U.S. coronavirus outbreak, state by state]

The U.S. total of confirmed cases has exceeded China’s and is now the highest in the world. Covid-19 has been reported in every state and in many U.S. territories. As more tests are performed, many states are seeing rapid growth in the number of known cases.

Confirmed cases                                                           Reported deaths

101,657                      1,581

Washington3,477 casesNew York44,876 casesCalifornia4,657 cases

Last updated: March 27 at 6:44 p.m.


163 confirmed cases

2 deaths

[A more detailed look at the virus’s spread through U.S. counties and states]

For months, China had the most confirmed cases worldwide, but its tally of new reported infections peaked in mid-February and is now approaching zero.

Feb. 26March 26U.S.U.S.18,058 new cases18,058 new caseson March 26on March 26Feb. 26March 26ItalyItaly6,2036,203Feb. 26March 26ChinaChina121121

Feb. 26March 26SpainSpain8,271 new cases8,271 new caseson March 26on March 26Feb. 26March 26GermanyGermany6,6156,615Feb. 26March 26FranceFrance3,9513,951Feb. 26March 26IranIran2,3892,389Feb. 26March 26BritainBritain2,1722,172Feb. 26March 26SwitzerlandSwitzerland914914Feb. 26March 26AustriaAustria1,3211,321Feb. 26March 26BelgiumBelgium1,2981,298

 [What you need to know about coronavirus]

As the disease waned in China, it began to surge through Europe, and by late March, more people had died from the virus in Italy and Spain than in China.

Spain64,285France33,402Germany50,871Italy86,498 cases

Last updated: March 27 at 6:44 p.m.

The majority of China’s cases were reported in the Hubei province, where Chinese health officials said the new virus strain leaped to humans from wild animals that were sold at a market in the capital city of Wuhan.

Confirmed cases

0100,000200,000300,000400,000Jan. 22Mar. 26China81,782Othercountries447,809

Note: China total includes cases in Hong Kong and Macau

Last updated: March 27 at 6:44 p.m.

Coronaviruses range from some common cold viruses to those that cause much more serious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Some strains spread more efficiently than others; the virus that causes covid-19 seems to spread easily from person to person, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

[Graphic: How epidemics like covid-19 end (and how to end them faster)]

Read more:

How to prepare for the coronavirus in the U.S.

How the coronavirus tanked the markets

Millions of tweets peddled conspiracy theories about coronavirus in other countries, an unpublished U.S. report says

White House preparing to ask Congress for more money to finance coronavirus response

Coronavirus came from bats or possibly pangolins amid ‘acceleration’ of new zoonotic infections

An earlier version of this graphic included Hong Kong cases that were being monitored.

About this story

Originally published Jan. 22, 2020.

Number of cases data WHOCDCNHC and Dingxiangyuan, collected by Johns Hopkins University.

*U.S. flu season estimates are preliminary and based on data from the CDC’s weekly influenza surveillance reports summarizing key influenza activity indicators.

Lauren TierneyJoe FoxTim MekoChris AlcantaraJohn MuyskensShelly TanAdrián BlancoArmand EmamdjomehYoujin ShinMonica UlmanuHarry StevensKevin Schaul and Bonnie Berkowitz contributed to this report.

For more information please visit the following link:


COVID-19 | Corona Virus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics

Premiered Mar 16, 2020   Ninja Nerd Science

Ninja Nerds, What is Corona virus? What is COVID-19? Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-COV2 is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans. Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.  Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. It is believed that COVID-19 was transmitted from pangolin to humans (current theory). Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death (WHO, 2020). Ninja Nerd Lectures has compiled the most up to date and recent data on COVID-19 as of March 15, 2020. Please follow along with this lecture to understand the origin and zoonosis of COVID-19, the routes of transmission, epidemiology (current as of 3/15/2020), pathophysiology, and diagnostic tests used to identify COVID-19. As new information and research is published we will continue to provide updates on COVID-19 and ensure all of our viewers are kept up to date on the most recent data. SUPPORT US! paypal.me/ninjanerdscience REFERENCES: World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Support us by purchasing apparel and donating to our PayPal or Patreon! ? –Become a Patron of ours and receive the final, high resolution photo of the lecture! FUNDING GoFundMe | https://www.gofundme.com/ninja-nerd-s… APPAREL | Amazon Prime Free Delivery | https://www.amazon.com/Ninja-Nerd-Sci… Teespring | https://teespring.com/stores/ninja-nerd PATREON | https://www.patreon.com/NinjaNerdScience SOCIAL MEDIA FACEBOOK | https://www.facebook.com/NinjaNerdSci… INSTAGRAM | https://www.instagram.com/ninjanerdsc… ALSO, check out our Medical channel | Ninja Nerd Medicine! https://www.youtube.com/ninjanerdmedi…

Category  Education


Herald Square Park New York City, New York, Spring 2014

By Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Dec 26, 2014   naahblubiv

Herald Square Park, New York City, New York In Spring 2014 I am sitting in my art gallery and work room with comfort. It is nice and warm inside the house but outside at this time in late December the weather is cold and I see no flowers and green trees. It made me think of spring time. John and I went to New York City. We stopped at the park between 33rd and 35th Street. The weather was just right with bright sunshine. People enjoyed sitting on the chairs with tables for putting drinks or other items. John enjoyed the sun in a chair. As a flowers lover I gravitated to the bed of beautiful pink and white tulips, daffodils and other spring flowers. People young and old were enjoying spending time in the park. This small Park can give so much pleasure to humans. In general people love nature. Seeing the tall trees and the flowers bloom makes people happy. Thanks to New York City for creating this little oasis named Herald Square Park. For more pictures and information please visit the following link:


Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Friday, December 26, 2014

Category  Education

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Welcome to The World Bodhi

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts and Mali DeSantis

Artwork by John Watts

🙂 🙂 🙂Happy Birthday Bodhi 🙂 🙂 🙂

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

🙂 🙂 🙂Happy Birthday Bodhi 🙂 🙂 🙂

Bodhi’s First Day on Earth, Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

New born, Baby Bodhi, Big Brother Kai, Mommy Mali and Daddy Jim (James DeSantis), Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

Big brother, Kai holds Baby Bodhi for the first time on Tuesday, March 10, 2020

New born, Baby Bodhi, Big Brother Kai, Mommy Mali, Grandma Ing from Thailand, Grandma Maria DeSantis from Italy, and Grandpa Jim DeSantis, descendant of Italian and Polish, on Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

Bodhi and Grandma Maria DeSantis

Bodhi and Grandpa Jim DeSantis

Grandma Maria is taking photos of Bodhi.

Grandpa John, from Wales, UK, could not come to the hospital for the birth of Bodhi, Mommy Mali called him on his iPad at home.  He was so glad to see the new born, Bodhi, on Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

New born, Baby Bodhi was born with a full head of spiky red hair.

Big brother, Kai is gently touching Baby Bodhi head and fingers and, in his mind, saying “I will take care of you my little brother.”.

Daddy holds Baby Bodhi’s hand with all his love and care.  Mommy is so happy to see that finally Baby Bodhi is here, joining with all the family and grownups to be healthy and strong like Big brother Kai.

You talking to me Brother Kai?

Brother Kai!  See!  My tongue is coming out just like yours.

Yes Mommy, I am sorry.

Daddy is carrying me carefully and gently to Mommy for my second drink of Mommy’s milk.

                             🙂  Thank you, Mommy, I am very hungry 🙂

Big Brother, Kai is very Happy to have his Baby Brother, Bodhi on Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

I went out to our small garden to take photographs of our little group of daffodils that have some flowers blooming.  I realized that today is the first day of spring.  I would like to welcome the plants that are starting to show their beautiful flowers from the long sleep during the winter cold. 

As I was looking at photographs of our second new born grandson, baby Bodhi, I thought that this is a great time for me to celebrate and share our new born grandson Bodhi with the world.  This healthy human came to the world giving us happiness and joy, despite the circumstances of the world. 

We will overcome the plight of the coronavirus (COVID-19).  Scientists will find some medication to cure the disease.  This moment makes all people realize that we are part of one humanity.  If one country is in trouble, the whole world will feel the consequence.  It is only a matter of time for the ripple effect to reach the whole world. 

Although trouble comes to us, love still prevails. Our little baby grandson, Bodhi heals our suffering.  He gives us happiness, and joy, for the spring that is arriving, with flowers blooming.  Freshness and beauty will be with us all again.

🙂 Have a Happy Spring Everyone 🙂

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts and John Watts, Friday, March 19, 2020

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