Remembering Madeleine Albright, First Woman to Become Secretary of State of U.S.A. Part 1

Remembering Madeleine Albright, First Woman to Become Secretary of State of U.S.A. Part 1

Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright[1] (born Marie Jana Korbelová; May 15, 1937 – March 23, 2022)[2][3] was an American diplomat and political scientist who served as the 64th United States secretary of state in the Clinton administration from 1997 to 2001. A member of the Democratic Party, Albright was the first woman to hold the post.[4]

Albright immigrated with her family to the United States in 1948 from Communist Czechoslovakia. Her father, diplomat Josef Korbel, settled the family in Denver, Colorado, and she became a U.S. citizen in 1957.[5][6] Albright graduated from Wellesley College in 1959 and earned a PhD from Columbia University in 1975, writing her thesis on the Prague Spring.[7] She worked as an aide to Senator Edmund Muskie before taking a position under Zbigniew Brzezinski on the National Security Council. She served in that position until 1981, when President Jimmy Carter left office.[8]

After leaving the National Security Council, Albright joined the academic faculty of Georgetown University and advised Democratic candidates regarding foreign policy. After Bill Clinton‘s victory in the 1992 presidential election, Albright helped assemble his National Security Council.

Vice President Al Gore swears in Madeleine Albright as the nation’s first female secretary of state on Jan. 23, 1997.                  Diana Walker—Getty Images

President Clinton appointed her United States ambassador to the United Nations from 1993 to 1997, a position she held until elevation as secretary of state. Secretary Albright served in that capacity until Clinton left office in 2001.

Albright served as chair of the Albright Stonebridge Group, a consulting firm, and was the Michael and Virginia Mortara Endowed Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service.[9] 

Albright received the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama at the White House on May 29, 2012.                                                                 Alex Wong/Getty Images  

She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. president Barack Obama in May 2012.[10] Albright served on the board of the Council on Foreign Relations.[11]

Madeleine Albright in childhood

Early life and career

Albright was born Marie Jana Korbelová in 1937 in the Smíchov district of PragueCzechoslovakia.[12] Her parents were Josef Korbel, a Czech diplomat, and Anna Korbel (née Spieglová).[13] At the time of Albright’s birth, Czechoslovakia had been independent for less than 20 years, having gained independence from Austria-Hungary after World War I. Her father was a supporter of Tomáš Masaryk and Edvard Beneš.[14] Marie Jana had a younger sister Katherine[15] and a younger brother John (these versions of their names are Anglicized).[16]

When Marie Jana was born, her father was serving as a press-attaché at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Belgrade. The signing of the Munich Agreement in September 1938—and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitler‘s troops—forced the family into exile because of their links with Beneš.[17]

Josef and Anna converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1941.[13] Marie Jana and her siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith.[18][19] In 1997, Albright said her parents never told her or her two siblings about their Jewish ancestry and heritage.[18]

The family moved to Britain in May 1939. Here her father worked for Beneš’s Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Her family first lived on Kensington Park Road in Notting Hill, London—where they endured the worst of the Blitz—but later moved to Beaconsfield, then Walton-on-Thames, on the outskirts of London.[20] They kept a large metal table in the house, which was intended to shelter the family from the recurring threat of German air raids.[21] While in England, Marie Jana was one of the children shown in a documentary film designed to promote sympathy for war refugees in London.[22]

After the defeat of the Nazis in the European theatre of World War II and the collapse of Nazi Germany and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Korbel family returned to Prague.[18] Korbel was appointed as press attaché at Czechoslovakian Embassy in Yugoslavia, and the family moved to Belgrade—then part of Yugoslavia—which was governed by the Communist Party. Korbel was concerned his daughter would be exposed to Marxism in a Yugoslav school, and so she was taught privately by a governess before being sent to the Prealpina Institut pour Jeunes Filles finishing school in Chexbres, on Lake Geneva in Switzerland.[23] She learned to speak French while in Switzerland and changed her name from Marie Jana to Madeleine.[24]

The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over the government in 1948, with support from the Soviet Union. As an opponent of communism, Korbel was forced to resign from his position.[25] He later obtained a position on a United Nations delegation to Kashmir. He sent his family to the United States, by way of London, to wait for him when he arrived to deliver his report to the UN Headquarters, then located in Lake Success, New York.[25]        

Madeleine Albright in her youth

Madeleine Korbel spent her teen years in Denver and in 1955 graduated from the Kent Denver School in Cherry Hills Village, a suburb of Denver. She founded the school’s international relations club and was its first president.[32] She attended Wellesley College, in Wellesley, Massachusetts, on a full scholarship, majoring in political science, and graduated in 1959.[33] The topic of her senior thesis was Zden?k Fierlinger, a former Czechoslovakian prime minister.[34] She became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1957, and joined the College Democrats of America.[35]

Madeleine Albright with her husband

While home in Denver from Wellesley, Korbel worked as an intern for The Denver Post. There she met Joseph Albright. He was the nephew of Alicia Patterson, owner of Newsday and wife of philanthropist Harry Frank Guggenheim.[36] Korbel converted to the Episcopal Church at the time of her marriage.[18][19] The couple were married in Wellesley in 1959, shortly after her graduation.[33] They lived in Rolla, Missouri, while Joseph completed his military service at nearby Fort Leonard Wood. During this time, Albright worked at The Rolla Daily News.[37]

The couple moved to Joseph’s hometown of Chicago, Illinois, in January 1960. Joseph worked at the Chicago Sun-Times as a journalist, and Albright worked as a picture editor for Encyclopædia Britannica.[38] The following year, Joseph Albright began work at Newsday in New York City, and the couple moved to Garden City on Long Island.[39] 

Madeleine Albright with her children

That year, she gave birth to twin daughters, Alice Patterson Albright and Anne Korbel Albright. The twins were born six weeks premature and required a long hospital stay. As a distraction, Albright began Russian language classes at Hofstra University in the Village of Hempstead nearby.[39]

In 1962, the family moved to Washington, D.C., where they lived in Georgetown. Albright studied international relations and continued in Russian at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, a division of Johns Hopkins University in the capital.[40]

Joseph’s aunt Alicia Patterson died in 1963 and the Albrights returned to Long Island with the notion of Joseph taking over the family newspaper business.[41] Albright gave birth to another daughter, Katharine Medill Albright, in 1967. She continued her studies at Columbia University’s Department of Public Law and Government.[42] (It was later renamed as the political science department, and is located within the School of International and Public Affairs.) She earned a certificate in Russian, an M.A. and a PhD, writing her master’s thesis on the Soviet diplomatic corps and her doctoral dissertation on the role of journalists in the Prague Spring of 1968.[43] She also took a graduate course given by Zbigniew Brzezinski, who later became her boss at the U.S. National Security Council.[44]


Joseph was a reporter for the Chicago Sun-Times. He became famous in 1961 after publishing a report on the scandalous meeting of Richard Nixon with his supporters (Joseph hid in the hotel bathroom and recorded the conversation). In 1970, the couple sold all News Day shares for $ 37.5 million.

After 23 years of marriage, on January 31, 1983, the couple divorced. After the divorce, Madeleine got a three-storied house in Georgetown, a wealthy suburb of Washington, and a farm in Virginia, as well as a large part of his fortune.                   

Madeleine Albright with Newspaper Staff at Wellesley College ca. 1958.

 Brooks Kraft LLC/Sygma/Getty Images         Time

Madeleine Albright began her political career early

Madeleine Albright was invited to work in the White House after the 1976 U.S. presidential election of Jimmy Carter. Madeleine’s former professor at Columbia University, Zbigniew Brzezinski, became National Security Adviser and recruited his student to work in the West Wing as the National Security Council’s congressional liaison.

As a Democratic Party activist, in 1984 she became a foreign policy advisor, working with Vice-Presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro when Walter Mondale ran for president. After that, she headed the Center for National Policy, which was created to strengthen the Democratic Party. At that time, Albright managed to broaden contacts and in 1988 became a foreign policy advisor, briefing Presidential candidate Michael Dukakis.

During the presidential debate of Dukakis and his adversary George W. Bush in Washington, Madeleine Albright met Bill Clinton, the then-governor of Arkansas. In 1989, she advised Clinton to join the Council on Foreign Relations (an influential U.S. non-governmental organization), which Clinton did not forget. After becoming president, he appointed Madeleine Albright U.S. Permanent Representative to the U.N.

United Kingdom Ambassador to the United Nations, Sir David Hannay, and US Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright vote during a Security Council meeting in New York to allow Iraq to export a limited amount of oil to cover the cost of humanitarian supplies for its population on April 14, 1995.  TIME

Timothy Clary—AFP/Getty Images

While working at the U.N. as the United States representative, she played a key role when Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic joined NATO. She is known for her involvement in the use of force during the conflict in the Balkans. Many people blame her for the mass killing of Serbs in Kosovo and call her the “executioner of Serbia.”

Madeleine Albright as U.S. Secretary of State

When Clinton began his second term in January 1997, following his re-election, he required a new Secretary of State, as incumbent Warren Christopher was retiring.[66] The top level of the Clinton administration was divided into two camps on selecting the new foreign policy. Outgoing Chief of Staff Leon Panetta favored Albright, but a separate faction argued, “anybody but Albright”, with Sam Nunn as its first choice. Albright orchestrated a campaign on her own behalf that proved successful.[67] When Albright took office as the 64th U.S. Secretary of State on January 23, 1997, she became the first female U.S. Secretary of State and the highest-ranking woman in the history of the U.S. government at the time of her appointment.[68] Not being a natural-born citizen of the U.S., she was not eligible as a U.S. presidential successor.[69]


President Bill Clinton with Secretary of State Madeleine Albright in 1999.Cynthia Johnson / Getty Images file      

Madeleine Albright has often sharply criticized the foreign policy of Russia, in particular, President Vladimir Putin:

“He is smart, but a truly evil man. A KGB officer, who wants to keep everything under control and believes that everyone conspires against Russia. It is not true. Putin had bad cards, but they were played well. At least, in the short-term. I think his goal is to undermine and split the E.U. He wants to drive NATO from his sphere of influence.”

President Bill Clinton confers with Albright before delivering the final statement at the Middle East Summit in the Egyptian resort town of Sharm el-Sheik, Egypt, on October 17, 2000 [File: Jerome Delay/AP Photo]      

When The Washington Post reported on Albright’s Jewish heritage shortly after she had become Secretary of State in 1997, Albright said that the report was a “major surprise”.[149] Albright said that she did not learn until age 59[150] that both her parents were born and raised in Jewish families. As many as a dozen of her relatives in Czechoslovakia—including three of her grandparents—had been murdered in the Holocaust.[18][19][151]

(Al Jazeera)

In the lead-up to the Iraq war in 2003, Albright said the invasion was justified, based on allegations that Baghdad possessed weapons of mass destruction. But she argued that the country did not pose an immediate threat to the US and called for keeping focus on defeating al-Qaeda.

She would later come out forcefully against the war. “Iraq is going to go down in history as the greatest disaster in American foreign policy,” she told Al Jazeera in a 2007 interview.

During efforts to press North Korea to end its nuclear weapons programme, which were eventually unsuccessful, Albright travelled to Pyongyang in 2000 to meet North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, becoming the highest-ranking US official to visit the country.

While hailed in some circles as a feminist icon, critics have criticised Albright’s support for US wars and sanctions.

“Madeline Albright was one of my earliest lessons in the bankruptcy of identity politics. It doesn’t matter if you are the first anything if your politics perpetuate the status quo of racial violence, imperial war making, and capitalist extraction/exploitation,” Palestinian-American author and activist Noura Erakat wrote on Twitter on Wednesday.

State Department spokesperson Ned Price called Albright a “trailblazer” on Wednesday.

“The impact that she has had on this building is felt every single day and just about every single corridor,” Price told reporters.

Nancy Pelosi, the speaker of the US House of Representatives, eulogised Albright as a “towering champion for peace, diplomacy and democracy”.

“Her historic tenure as our nation’s first woman to serve as our top diplomat paved the way for generations of women to serve at the highest levels of our government and represent America abroad,” Pelosi said.          (Al Jazeera)

Former President Barack Obama said in a statement, “Madeleine Albright helped bring peace to the Balkans, paved the way for progress in some of the most unstable corners of the world, and was a champion for democratic values. And as an immigrant herself, she brought a unique and important perspective to her trailblazing career.”

Obama also recounted an interaction he said Albright had with an Ethiopian man at a naturalization ceremony.

Obama said the “man came up to Madeleine and said, ‘Only in America could a refugee from Africa meet the Secretary of State.’ She replied, ‘Only in America could a refugee from Central Europe become Secretary of State.'”   ABC News

Madeleine Albright, 1st female secretary of state, dead at 84

Madeleine Albright’s family said the former secretary of state died Wednesday from cancer.

Alex Wong/Getty Images, FILE   ABC News

Albright died from cancer in Washington, D.C., on March 23, 2022, at the age of 84.[157][158][159] Many political figures paid tribute to her, including presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama and Joe Biden, and former British prime minister Tony Blair.[120]

US President Joe Biden paid tribute to Albright, saying she was a “force for goodness, grace, and decency – and for freedom”. 

 Diana Walker/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images

Georgetown Univiversity professor Madeleine Albright, foreign policy adviser to presiden…Read More   ABC News

U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. Madeleine Albright testifies before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the Peace Powers Act and the National Security Revitalization Act in 1995.

Joyce Naltchayan/AFP via Getty Images

Albright proved adept at making complicated foreign policy accessible to the public.     NPR

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright displays the instruments of accession that brought Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic into NATO.

Cliff Schiappa/AFP via Getty Images

As secretary of state, Albright promoted the eastward expansion of NATO and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.     NPR

Douglas Graham/Congressional Quarterly/Getty Images

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright at the Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearin…Read More ABC News

Madeleine Albright and Representative Barbara Mikulski greet each other at the commemorative ceremony of the NATO Summit in Washington on April 23, 1999. 

Stephen Jaffe—AFP/Getty Images          TIME

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright being interviewed by John F. Kennedy Jr. for George Magazine, 1998.

 David Hume Kennerly—Getty Images  TIME

Albright with Benjamin Netanyahu (left) and Yasser Arafat at the Wye River Memorandum, 1998  Wikipedia

With NATO officers during NATO Ceremony of Accession of New Members, 1999 Wikipedia

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Madeleine Albright at the World Economic Forum Wikipedia

Albright holds a bat before throwing out the first pitch before the game between the Kansas City Royals and the Baltimore Orioles during opening day at Camden Yards in 2002.

Ted Mathias/AFP via Getty Images   NPR

Albright remained an active professor at Georgetown University, training the next generation of diplomats.       

Madeleine Albright, seen here in 2009, served as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and secretary of state.

Spencer Platt/Getty Images             NPR

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry greets Albright, February 6, 2013 Wikipedia

Madeleine Albright, photographed in her sitting room, opposite her office in Washington, D.C., on Sept. 12, 2016.

Luisa Dörr for TIME

Bob Schieffer and Madeleine Albright at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2017 Wikipedia

from Austin – DIG14155-46


Madeleine Albright’s teaching continues — through these books  


How Madeleine Albright used jewelry as a diplomatic tool

Pins and broaches worn by former Secretary Albright are seen at the Mint Museum on Sept. 3, 2012, in Charlotte, N.C.

Brendan Smialowski/AFP via Getty Images     NPR

Madeleine Albright’s brooches

An interesting fact is her impressive collection of pins. In 2009-2010, she exhibited them at the Museum of Arts and Design in New York City. Most of them have no artistic or jewelry value, but attract people as a symbol of a new approach to diplomacy.

Madeleine Albright is naturally straightforward. But, as a diplomat, she could not always express her opinion, communicating with an opponent. Madeleine is a woman who came up with her diplomatic language, “brooch language.” 

In addition to English, Russian, and Czech, Albright spoke French, German, Polish, and Serbo-Croatian.[152] She also understood spoken Slovak.[153]

Albright mentioned her physical fitness and exercise regimen in several interviews. In 2006, she said she was capable of leg pressing 400 pounds (180 kg).[154][155] Albright was listed as one of the fifty best-dressed over 50s by The Guardian in March 2013.[156]

Madeleine Albright: My Life With Pins

Nov 15, 2012  Newfields

Madeleine Albright: My Life With Pins While serving as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and as Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright became known for using jewelry as a tools for diplomacy. Hear her discuss her collection of more than 200 pins, from the gold serpent brooch she wore in response to a poem published by Saddam Hussein’s press, to gifts—like the pin she received from the family of a woman who died as a result of Hurricane Katrina. The program includes an audience Q&A with Secretary Albright moderated by Maxwell Anderson, The Melvin & Bren Simon Director and CEO of IMA. This event took place on November 11, 2010 at the Indianapolis Museum of Art.

Madeleine Albright, first woman to become secretary of state, dies at 84

Mar 23, 2022  PBS NewsHour

From the very heights of government and diplomacy, to fierce advocacy for democracy and refugees, Madeleine Albright set a new and trailblazing standard. The first woman to become secretary of state died Wednesday afternoon in Washington, but leaves an impressive legacy. Nick Schifrin reports and Judy Woodruff speaks with former President Bill Clinton by phone to discuss her life and career. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

Remembering the life and legacy of Madeleine Albright

Mar 23, 2022  PBS NewsHour

Former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who died Wednesday after a battle with cancer, was known by most everyone in Washington, D.C. in the world of politics, statecraft, and journalism. Susan Rice, one of Albright’s longtime friends and one of her successors as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, joins Judy Woodruff to discuss her legacy. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us:

‘Irreplaceable’ | Madeleine Albright’s friends remember her contributions to DC

Mar 23, 2022  WUSA9

Albright instructed students at Georgetown University for 40 years all the while attending and serving local churches in the District. » Subscribe to WUSA9: FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA – Twitter: Facebook: Instagram: NEWS TIPS – Email: » Subscribe to WUSA9: FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA – Twitter: Facebook: Instagram: NEWS TIPS – Email:

Mika On Madeleine Albright: I Will Miss Her Deeply

Mar 24, 2022  MSNBC

Madeleine Albright, the first woman to serve as the U.S. secretary of state, died Wednesday at the age of 84, her family said in a statement. Mika Brzezinski and the Morning Joe panel remember Albright’s life and legacy. » Subscribe to MSNBC: About: MSNBC is the premier destination for in-depth analysis of daily headlines, insightful political commentary and informed perspectives. Reaching more than 95 million households worldwide, MSNBC offers a full schedule of live news coverage, political opinions and award-winning documentary programming — 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit Subscribe to MSNBC Newsletter: Find MSNBC on Facebook: Follow MSNBC on Twitter: Follow MSNBC on Instagram: Mika On Madeleine Albright: I Will Miss Her Deeply

Madeleine Albright Says ‘See Something, Say Something, Do Something’

Apr 10, 2018  The Late Show with Stephen Colbert

Former Sec. of State and ‘Fascism: A Warning’ author Madeleine Albright tells Stephen the warning signs of a strongman. Subscribe To “The Late Show” Channel HERE: For more content from “The Late Show with Stephen Colbert”, click HERE: Watch full episodes of “The Late Show” HERE: Like “The Late Show” on Facebook HERE: Follow “The Late Show” on Twitter HERE: Follow “The Late Show” on Google+ HERE: Follow “The Late Show” on Instagram HERE: Follow “The Late Show” on Tumblr HERE: Watch The Late Show with Stephen Colbert weeknights at 11:35 PM ET/10:35 PM CT. Only on CBS. Get the CBS app for iPhone & iPad! Click HERE: Get new episodes of shows you love across devices the next day, stream live TV, and watch full seasons of CBS fan favorites anytime, anywhere with CBS All Access. Try it free! — The Late Show with Stephen Colbert is the premier late night talk show on CBS, airing at 11:35pm EST, streaming online via CBS All Access, and delivered to the International Space Station on a USB drive taped to a weather balloon. Every night, viewers can expect: Comedy, humor, funny moments, witty interviews, celebrities, famous people, movie stars, bits, humorous celebrities doing bits, funny celebs, big group photos of every star from Hollywood, even the reclusive ones, plus also jokes.

Bill Clinton: Madeleine Albright Represented The Best Of America

Mar 24, 2022  MSNBC

Former President Bill Clinton joins Morning Joe to discuss the life and legacy of first female Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who died at the age of 84. » Subscribe to MSNBC: About: MSNBC is the premier destination for in-depth analysis of daily headlines, insightful political commentary and informed perspectives. Reaching more than 95 million households worldwide, MSNBC offers a full schedule of live news coverage, political opinions and award-winning documentary programming — 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit Subscribe to MSNBC Newsletter: Find MSNBC on Facebook: Follow MSNBC on Twitter: Follow MSNBC on Instagram: Bill Clinton: Madeleine Albright Represented The Best Of America

Hillary Clinton and Madeleine Albright Speak at the Women in Public Service Institute


On Monday, June 11, 2012, the inaugural Women in Public Service Institute opened at Wellesley College. The two-week program for emerging women leaders is part of a global project launched by the U.S. Department of State and women’s colleges of the Seven Sisters—Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Smith, and Wellesley—with a goal to get world leadership from 17.5% female to “50% by 2050.” Speakers included: Former Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright ’59, introduced by Ambassador Michele Sison ’81 U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton ’69, introduced by Wellesley College President H. Kim Bottomly A text transcript of Secretary Clinton’s remarks is available at…. Learn more about the opening ceremonies: Learn more about the Institute:…

Wellesley College, Politics and Prose, GrassRoots Community Network, ASPEN INSTITUTE,

Madeleine Albright, “Fascism: A Warning”

Apr 18, 2018  Politics and Prose

Madeleine Albright discusses her book, “Fascism: A Warning”, at a Politics and Prose event at Sixth and I in Washington, DC on 4/16/18. Presidential Medal of Freedom honoree Madeleine Albright is the first woman ever to serve as U.S. Secretary of State. Over her long career as a diplomat, Albright watched Fascism rise and endure. In Fascism: A Warning, she shows us how its legacy shapes today’s world. Albright believes that the momentum toward democracy that swept the world when the Berlin Wall fell has gone into reverse. Extremists on the right and left are taking power all over the globe, and we must join forces to resist in order to avoid repeating the horrors of the past. In this call to arms, Albright gives us the lessons we should take from the past, the questions we need to ask in the present, and the tools we can use to fight for our future. Albright is in conversation with Jeffrey Goldberg, editor in chief of The Atlantic and a recipient of the National Magazine Award for Reporting… Founded by Carla Cohen and Barbara Meade in 1984, Politics and Prose Bookstore is Washington, D.C.’s premier independent bookstore and cultural hub, a gathering place for people interested in reading and discussing books. Politics and Prose offers superior service, unusual book choices, and a haven for book lovers in the store and online. Visit them on the web at Produced by Tom Warren


The Crisis with Russia – Implications for the U.S. and Europe with Madeleine Albright

Mar 24, 2022  GrassRoots  Community Network

Filmed on 08/08/2014 Also featuring Robert Gates,Condoleezza Rice, and Nicholas Burns. This talk is part of The Aspen Institute- McCloskey Speaker Series. GrassRoots TV is the country’s first and oldest community cable television station. to contribute! Don’t forget to SUBSCRIBE, HIT LIKE and leave a COMMENT to let us know if you enjoyed this video, it is important to us and the community for you to become part of the conversation. Thanks for tuning in! Subscribe for more videos: Facebook:… Twitter: Soundcloud:… Web:

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Ukraine, Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, Painted House in Tsurupinsk, Versus Putin, President of Russia who has Invaded Ukraine

Ukraine, Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, Painted House in Tsurupinsk, Versus Putin, President of Russia who has Invaded Ukraine

Ukraine. Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, she started paint in old age, her painted house is in Tsurupinsk near Kherson. 1928-2004This is Ukraine. Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, she started paint in old age, her painted house is in Tsurupinsk near Kherson. 1928-2004.

Posted by Marina Koldobskava on Facebook, February 25, 2022

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Polina Rayko’s Artwork, Life and Times

Polina Rayko (her original name was Pelaheya Soldatova) was born in April 1928 in the small Ukrainian town of Oleshky. She married Mykola Rayko at the age of 22. Polina at that time had no interest in painting. She led a life typical of a Soviet woman – she worked hard and devoted herself to her family.

The Raykos had few means. They worked at a kolkhoz (a collective farm) and also did work for hire, grew fruits and vegetables in their kitchen garden, and generally tried to do their best. The couple brought up two children, a boy and a girl.

Late in life, Polina met with hard times. In 1994, her daughter Olena died tragically in a road accident and her husband Mykola passed away a year later. Instead of supporting his mother, her son drank heavily and made trouble. Later, he was imprisoned.

To keep from going mad with grief, the woman, to her own surprise, began to paint. She created her first paintings at the age of 69. The walls of her house became her “canvas.” She used the cheapest paints – enamel floor colors. But neither lack of experience nor her use of low-cost art supplies got in the way of her desire to realize herself.

Painting became therapy for Polina Rayko, alleviating her loneliness and allowing her to appreciate herself more. She was sincerely surprised how she found subjects for her frescoes and ways of embodying her thoughts, considering that except for a few times at school, she had never before held a brush in her hands.

She Created Her Own Universe

The self-taught painter made all her frescoes in the same manner, with no free space between them – all her paintings are like one continuous mural. Granny Polina’s subjects are sometimes taken from her own life.

One wall of her living room is covered with life-size portraits of her sisters. All are long-haired with big wings behind their backs. Little angels and white pigeons fly around them in a blossoming magical garden.

On another wall Polina depicts herself in a wedding gown beside her husband. Fantastic flowers and birds of paradise surround the newly married couple.

In a separate portrait of her husband Mykola, he is shown in a boat with a float fishing rod and a bottle of vodka – everything he might need in the other world.

Animals make another vivid subject of her frescoes – her fabulous fish, birds, and butterflies are all over the walls, the ceiling, the stove, the doors.

This self-taught artist learned to render the feeling of movement in her paintings. Entering the house, we seem caught up in a swirl of images flying and circling around us.

Sentiment grows to declare the house of naive painter Polina Rayko a national cultural monument of Ukraine. From Vhoru, a Kherson-based news outlet.

If granny Polina had known that high officials and famous painters would troop through her house to look at her wall paintings, she’d have thought it a dream. It wasn’t for fame when the retired Polina Rayko began to paint on the walls of her house. For over 15 years the painter has been with the saints, but the images she created remain alive and inspire others.

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Comments by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Polina Rayko Versus Vladimir Putin

Mrs. Polina Rayko was a simple working-class person, who went through her life with unfortunate and suffering incidents.  But she overcame problems and discovered that artwork could make her free and happier than in her younger years.  I can imagine how happy she could be to spent the end of her life for more than 15 years using her imagination, and creating artwork that will last for future generations to enjoy.  I admire her work and her ability to share and make others see that one good human being can create a positive atmosphere for the world.

At this moment, Russia has invaded Ukraine, the homeland of Polina Rayko, by the order of one man, Vladimir Putin.  He has already created more than one million refugees so far, as they run away from Russian bombs that destroyed their houses and all the possessions of their lives.  Vladimir Putin came from the poor family.  By any means possible, he has acquired great wealth in the multi-billions of dollars.  He climbed from being KGB officer to become the president of Russia for more than 20 years.  With all this wealth and power, he can do a lot of good things.  Even though he cannot paint like Polina Rayko, he can build museums that cultivate artists to create artwork that Russia and the whole world can admire and enjoy.  Aside from this, he could help the world reduce global warming by using science to discover new inventions to reduce global warming.  This could help prevent the rise of the sea water that may inundate the coastlines of the entire world.  Using his power, he can do many things to make the world better and happier.  But he selects to use his power to subjugate others by sending Russian soldiers to kill and be killed by invading Ukraine, a smaller neighboring country with far less weapons and soldiers than Russia.  Now Vladimir Putin threatens the whole world with nuclear weapon if any country intervenes with his operation.  He is able to make the whole world unhappy and on edge, afraid that we might have a third World War.    

Let us look at these two humans’ lives, Mrs. Polina Rayko, versus Mr. Vladimir Putin.  Who is more peaceful, and who has more value?  The world is troubled by many problems. We need leadership that brings peace and happiness for their own countries and the world.  We need peace and togetherness as one humanity to solve the issue of global warming.  We all will not survive if global temperature is warmer than now.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, March 6, 2022

For more information on Vladimir Putin, please visit the following link:

Putin: The New Tsar | Free BBC Documentary | BBC Select

Premiered Feb 23, 2022  BBC Select

Admired by former President Donald Trump and feared by his rivals, Putin: The New Tsar is an enthralling BBC political documentary on BBC Select that reveals the story of Vladimir Putin’s extraordinary rise to power. From a lowly KGB colonel to Russian President Boris Yeltsin’s right-hand man and ultimately his successor, those from his inner circle, both close friends and bitter enemies, describe his often harsh methods. BBC Select is the new home for documentaries. Available in the U.S and Canada. Find out more and start your free trial: Follow us on social media ?? Facebook: Twitter: Instagram:

#ACA #ACurrentAffair #TracyGrimshaw

The real Vladimir Putin has been revealed | A Current Affair

Feb 27, 2022  A Current Affair

Subscribe here: | Vladimir Putin has ruled Russia with an iron fist for more than 20 years as he began his invasion of Ukraine. An expert of Russian politics at ANU, Dr Leonid Petrov, said he believes the Russian leader is undermining “law-based world order” to replace it with “the law of the jungle”. (Broadcast February 26, 2022) Stream full episodes on 9Now: Follow ACA on Facebook: Follow ACA on Twitter: Follow ACA on Instagram: A Current Affair covers the realms of politics, crime, human rights, science, technology, celebrities and entertainment – all investigated by a dedicated team. A Current Affairs airs weeknights 7.00pm on Channel 9 #ACA #ACurrentAffair #TracyGrimshaw

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Putin’s Way (full documentary) | FRONTLINE  58:18

Mar 1, 2022  FRONTLINE PBS | Official

In this 2015 documentary, FRONTLINE traces Vladimir Putin’s ascent from unemployed spy to modern-day czar, and investigates the accusations of criminality and corruption that have surrounded his reign in Russia. (Aired 2015) This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: In this 2015 film, a coproduction with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, producer Neil Docherty and correspondent Gillian Findlay traced Putin’s career back two decades to his political start in St. Petersburg, where allegations of corruption began almost immediately. Drawing on firsthand accounts from exiled Russian business tycoons, writers and politicians, as well as the exhaustive research of scholar and best-selling “Putin’s Kleptocracy” author Karen Dawisha, the film examined troubling episodes in Putin’s past, from alleged money-laundering activities and ties to organized crime, to a secret personal fortune said to be in the billions. Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App, where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available to watch any time: #Documentary Subscribe on YouTube: Instagram: Twitter: Facebook:

The Putin Files: Peter Baker  2:12:51  

Oct 25, 2017  FRONTLINE PBS | Official

Watch New York Times reporter Peter Baker’s candid, full interview on Vladimir Putin and allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. election – all part of “The Putin Files”, FRONTLINE’s media transparency project. Explore Baker’s full interview and interactive transcript here:… Explore the entire “Putin File” experience here:…

PBS NewsHour Weekend Full Episode, March 5, 2022

Mar 5, 2022  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, March 5, Putin says sanctions are ‘akin to declaration of war,’ the number of Ukrainians leaving the country reaches more than 1.3 million and continues to grow rapidly, and in our signature segment how NYC’s guaranteed income program is helping new mothers find their footing. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

#NBCNews #Russia #Ukraine

Nightly News Full Broadcast – March 5

Mar 5, 2022  NBC News

More than 600,000 children have now been displaced by war, thousands of American volunteers to fight alongside Ukrainians, and sunflowers marking support for Ukraine. » Subscribe to NBC News: » Watch more NBC video: NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features,,, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. Connect with NBC News Online! NBC News App: Breaking News Alerts:… Visit NBCNews.Com: Find NBC News on Facebook: Follow NBC News on Twitter: #NBCNews #Russia #Ukraine

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Februu3aar9y 2l42 o17at 5869:03hi 5PM  ·

“Bombs costing $100,000 from a plane that costs $100,000,000 flying at a cost of $40,000 an hour to kill people living on less than $1 a day.”

“This is the shit they call war.”

1:25 / 3:32

BBC is a British public broadcast service.


#Ukraine #Russia #BBCNews

Who is Vladimir Putin? – BBC News

Feb 26, 2022  BBC News

Who is the Russian President, and what does he want with Ukraine? Vladimir Putin is the President of Russia, and has been the country’s leader for more than 22 years. He grew up in an area which is now St Petersburg. His political career began when he and his family moved to Moscow in 1996, and he quickly became an important political figure. The BBC’s Ros Atkins looks at Putin’s life and his world view – and how they influence the decision he took this week. Please subscribe HERE #Ukraine #Russia #BBCNews


War in Ukraine: Seven days that changed the world – BBC News

Mar 6, 2022  BBC News

From a basement in the centre of Kyiv, BBC correspondent, James Waterhouse, has been reporting on the seismic developments in Ukraine as the Russian bombardment continues. In this special programme, James speaks with colleagues from BBC News across Ukraine and Russia on the extraordinary impact of seven days that have changed the world. Please subscribe HERE #BBCNews

Is Putin’s power ebbing away in Russia’s own back yard? – BBC News

Dec 4, 2020  BBC News

For Russian President Vladimir Putin, it’s not just the coronavirus pandemic that is making 2020 a difficult year. In recent months the Kremlin has faced a whole series of geo-political challenges on its doorstep, including mass protests in Belarus and the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict. So what do these dramatic events mean for Russia’s influence in its own back yard Please subscribe HERE

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President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress, PBS News, The Late Show, The Daily Show, NowThis News, Alice Neel, The Met, and Wikipedia

President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress, PBS News, The Late Show, The Daily Show, NowThis News, Alice Neel, The Met, and Wikipedia

WATCH LIVE: President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress, 4.28.2021  PBS NewsHour 

PBS NewsHour full episode, Apr. 28, 2021, PBS NewsHour 

The More You Joe: Tracking President Biden’s Progress After 100 Days In Office, Apr 30, 2021  The Late Show with Stephen Colbert 

Biden’s Big Speech: Progressive Proposals & Ted Cruz Caught Napping | The Daily Show, Apr 29, 2021  The Daily Show with Trevor Noah 

President Joe Biden and First Lady Jill Biden Tour Virginia School | LIVE

Streamed live 14 hours ago, 5.3.2021  NowThis News

GOP Clash and Biden’s Latest COVID-19 Plans | Washington Week | May 7, 2021, Washington Week PBS 

Toxic waste dump site more than twice the size of Manhattan discovered in Pacific Ocean, Apr 27, 2021  PBS NewsHour 

Health care: America vs. the World, Premiered Apr 21, 2021  PBS NewsHour 

Alice Neel: They Are Their Own Gifts, 1978 | From the Vaults, Dec 18, 2020  The Met 

Wikipedia: Alice Neel

WATCH LIVE: President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress

Streamed live 5 hours ago, 4.28.2021  PBS NewsHour

President Joe Biden will address a joint session of Congress for the first time on April 28. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi extended the invitation to Biden, “to share your vision for addressing the challenges and opportunities of this historic moment.” The speech will come just before Biden’s 100th day in office, and will provide him an opportunity to update the American public on his progress toward fulfilling his promises. It will also give him a chance to make the case for the $2.3 trillion infrastructure package he unveiled earlier this month, which the House is aiming to pass by July 4. Traditionally all members of Congress and guests gather for a joint session in the House, the larger of the two chambers. However, the address is certain to look different this year due to the coronavirus pandemic. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

PBS NewsHour full episode, Apr. 28, 2021

Apr 28, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, what to expect as President Joe Biden addresses Congress and the nation at a critical moment. Then, the Supreme Court hears arguments in a case centered on a high school cheerleader venting her disappointment on social media. And, another police killing of a Black man sparks protests, demands for the release of body camera video, and calls for structural change. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS What to expect from Biden’s joint address, GOP response…? How American Families Plan aims to ‘shore up’ middle class…? Indians suffer, die in the streets amid COVID crisis…? News Wrap: Feds search Rudy Giuliani’s home, office…? Breaking down Biden’s plans to invest in low income families…? Issue of student free speech makes it to the Supreme Court…? How a heavy dependence on police enables use of lethal force…? Madam Speaker: Examining the life and career of Nancy Pelosi…? What going to the moon taught Michael Collins about Earth…? Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

The More You Joe: Tracking President Biden’s Progress After 100 Days In Office

Apr 30, 2021  The Late Show with Stephen Colbert

Stephen takes a look back at the first 100 days of the Biden/Harris administration to find out how many of the President’s campaign promises have been kept. #Colbert? #Comedy? #Monologue?

Biden’s Big Speech: Progressive Proposals & Ted Cruz Caught Napping | The Daily Show


Apr 29, 2021  The Daily Show with Trevor Noah

In his first joint address to Congress, President Biden looks back at his administration’s first 100 days and announces a slew of new progressive policies while Republicans cry socialism and fall asleep. #DailyShow? #TrevorNoah? #Biden? To help One Tree Planted cultivate a healthier climate, protect global biodiversity, restore forests, create jobs and build communities, please give what you can at Subscribe to The Daily Show:…?

President Joe Biden and First Lady Jill Biden Tour Virginia School | LIVE

Streamed live 14 hours ago, 5.3.2021  NowThis News

POTUS & FLOTUS VISIT VIRGINIA SCHOOL: President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden are in Yorktown, Virginia, where they are touring Yorktown Elementary School as part of the White House’s Getting America Back on Track tour. » Subscribe to NowThis: » Sign up for our newsletter KnowThis to get the biggest stories of the day delivered straight to your inbox: Biden will likely focus on efforts to reopen schools for in-person learning across America. Under the American Rescue Plan, signed in March, about $125 billion was set aside to help schools implement social distancing measures, afford upgrades to ventilation systems, and fund other efforts to ensure a safe transition to in-person instruction. Biden told NBC News last week that ‘probably all’ schools should be open by fall. For more Biden news and U.S. politics, subscribe to NowThis News. #Biden? #COVID19? #Education? #Politics? #News? #NowThis?

GOP Clash and Biden’s Latest COVID-19 Plans | Washington Week | May 7, 2021

May 7, 2021  Washington Week PBS

House Republicans are poised to purge Rep. Liz Cheney (R-Wyo.) from leadership for speaking out against former President Trump’s election lies. The panel also discussed President Biden’s new COVID-19 vaccine goal and his proposed economic plans. Panel: Dan Balz of The Washington Post, Errin Haines of The 19th, Weijia Jiang of CBS News, Jake Sherman of Punchbowl News Watch the latest full show and Extra here: Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us on Twitter: Like us on Facebook:

Toxic waste dump site more than twice the size of Manhattan discovered in Pacific Ocean

Apr 27, 2021  PBS NewsHour

A massive underwater toxic waste site has long been suspected off the Southern California shore, since industrial companies used the ocean as a dumping ground until 1972. Now marine scientists have identified over 25,000 barrels they believe contain the toxic chemical “DDT” in the Pacific Ocean. Stephanie Sy talks to David Valentine, a UC Santa Barbara professor of microbiology, about the barrels. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

Health care: America vs. the World

Premiered Apr 21, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Millions of Americans have no health insurance and live in fear that one illness could bankrupt them. Even though the U.S. spends far more on health care than other wealthy nations, Americans die of preventable diseases at greater rates. The PBS NewsHour special, “Critical Care: America vs the World,” examines how four other nations achieve universal care for less money, with better outcomes. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

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Alice Neel: They Are Their Own Gifts, 1978 | From the Vaults

Dec 18, 2020  The Met

A self-proclaimed “collector of souls,” the American painter Alice Neel (1900–1984) is known today for her powerful, psychologically rich portraiture. She depicted a wide range of subjects, from her family and friends to prominent critics, artists, activists, and strangers she met on the street. In this rarely seen documentary, Neel’s signature candor and wit are on full display. Providing a brief biographical sketch from her early marriage and the Great Depression through her later years in Spanish Harlem, the film also shows the artist at work on a portrait of Lucille Rhodes, who co-directed with Margaret Murphy. Excerpted from Rhodes and Murphy’s “They Are Their Own Gifts” (1978), a triptych of “film portraits” about women artists that also includes chapters on the poet and activist Muriel Rukeyser as well as the dancer and choreographer Anna Sokolow. Cinematography by the legendary Babette Mangolte. Learn about The Met’s upcoming exhibition on Alice Neel:…? Read a new interview with the filmmakers:…? “They Are Their Own Gifts” is distributed via Women Make Movies:…? As part of The Met’s 150th anniversary in 2020, each month we will release three to four films from the Museum’s extensive moving-image archive, which comprises over 1,500 films, both made and collected by the Museum, from the 1920s onward. This includes rarely seen artist profiles and documentaries, as well as process films about art-making techniques and behind-the-scenes footage of the Museum. New films every week:…? Subscribe for new content from The Met:…? #FromtheVaults? #TheMet? #FilmFridays? #MetFilmArchive?

Alice Neel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the film, see Alice Neel (film).

Alice Neel
Alice Neel portrait in her studio
photographed by Lynn Gilbert (1976)
Born January 28, 1900

Merion Square, Pennsylvania

Died October 13, 1984 (aged 84)

New York City, New York

Nationality American
Known for Painting

Alice Neel (January 28, 1900 – October 13, 1984) was an American visual artist, who was known for her portraits depicting friends, family, lovers, poets, artists, and strangers. Her paintings have an expressionistic use of line and color, psychological acumen, and emotional intensity. Her work depicts women through a female gaze, illustrating them as being consciously aware of the objectification by men and the demoralising effects of the male gaze.[1] Her work contradicts and challenges the traditional and objectified nude depictions of women by her male predecessors.[1] Neel was called “one of the greatest portrait artists of the 20th century” by Barry Walker, curator of modern and contemporary art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, which organized a retrospective of her work in 2010

Dana Gordon by Alice Neel, 1972

For more information, please visit the following link:

Alice Neel portraits and her artworks

Alice Neel

Alice Neel – At How To Preserve & Live

Alice Neel – At The Met

Alice Neel – AWARE

Alice Neel – Estate 068 – MOTHER AND CHILD HAVANA

Alice Neel – Mother and Child Nancy and Olivia – 1982

Alice Neel – Degenerate Madonna-1930

Alice Neel – Painting

Alice Neel – Stephen Shepard – 1978

Alice Neel – Andy Warhol – 1970

 Alice Neel – Cut Glass With Fruit – 1952

Alice Neel – Dominican Boys on 108th Street – 1955

Alice Neel – Elizabeth -1984

Alice Neel – Poster web

Alice Neel – Elenka – 1936

Alice Neel – Geoffrey Hendrick and Brian – 1978

Alice Neel – Harold and Nina Krieger – 1967

Alice Neel – Kenneth Dolittle – 1931

Alice Neel – Loneliness

Alice Neel – Man

Alice Neel – Mary Shoemaker – 1965

Alice Neel – Phyllis Rubin – 1952

Alice Neel – Robert, Helen and Ed – 1932

Alice Neel – Sherry Speeth – 1964

Alice Neel – Synthesis of New York – 1933

Alice Neel – The Family, John Gruen, Jane Wilson and Julia – 1970

Alice Neel – Two Girls in Harlem

Alice Neel – Well Baby Clinic – 1928

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 Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork, Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops, PBS News, and Wikipedia

 Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork, Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops, PBS News, and  Wikipedia

With a history of abuse in American medicine, Black patients struggle for equal access, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

During Black History Month, students reflect on their modern-day heroes, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

In ‘Grief and Grievance,’ Black artists explore aspects of loss in contemporary life, Mar 17, 2021  PBS NewsHour

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb. 24, 2021, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

How the economic relief law narrows the equity gap for farmers of color, Mar 16, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Jacob Lawrence: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork   

With a history of abuse in American medicine, Black patients struggle for equal access

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Black Americans have historically faced discrimination and even abuse by medical professionals, issues that have again come to the forefront during the pandemic. We here from Americans who have directly experienced discrimination, and Yamiche Alcindor speaks with Dr. Vanessa Northington Gamble, a professor of medical humanities at George Washington University, to discuss this painful legacy. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

In a time when statues and monuments around the country are being removed for what they represent, the Shaw Memorial in Boston is receiving attention of a different sort. It is being fully restored, with pride that the monument depicting Black soldiers marching off to battle in the civil war, stands the test of time. Special correspondent Jared Bowen of GBH Boston reports. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

During Black History Month, students reflect on their modern-day heroes

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Black History Month expands students’ understanding of the Black experience in American history. But one teacher in Akron, Ohio wanted her students to see that Black history isn’t something that happened in the past, it happens every single day through each of them. She worked with our Student Reporting Labs program to record these reflections from students. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

In ‘Grief and Grievance,’ Black artists explore aspects of loss in contemporary life

Mar 17, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Even amid the pandemic, some art exhibitions are opening to the public. “Grief and Grievance” at New York’s “New Museum,” a timely examination of race and racism, is one of them. Black artists explore the aspects of loss in the contemporary Black experience and their own roles in telling that story. Jeffrey Brown reports for Race Matters, and CANVAS, our ongoing arts and culture coverage. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb. 24, 2021

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, President Biden continues to push for COVID relief and a minimum wage increase as a Cabinet nominee faces opposition in the Senate, global disparities and uneven distribution of COVID vaccines becomes more visible as the first shipment of doses arrives in Africa, and the pandemic highlights the discrimination African Americans encounter in the health system. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

Black patients struggle for equal access in U.S. medicine…? COVID-19 takes hold in Syrian opposition’s last stronghold…? Boston restores monument to Black civil war troops…? Students reflect on their modern-day heroes…?

How the economic relief law narrows the equity gap for farmers of color

Mar 16, 2021  PBS NewsHour

The COVID relief and economic package is a massive bill that has a far-reaching impact in ways that many Americans don’t know about yet. One provision calls for debt relief for Black farmers, who have long been denied access to government funding. John Boyd, a fourth-generation farmer in Virginia and president of the National Black Farmers Association, joins Lisa Desjardins to discuss. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

Unraveling the mystery of a pioneering American painter’s missing work

Mar 12, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Imagine discovering that a painting on your wall is a long, lost masterpiece. In two recent cases, the story centers on Jacob Lawrence, a pioneering American modernist painter. Lydia Gordon, of the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, is our guide, as part of our arts and culture series. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

Jacob Lawrence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jacob Lawrence
Jacob Lawrence in 1941
Born September 7, 1917

Atlantic City, New Jersey

Died June 9, 2000 (aged 82)

Seattle, Washington

Nationality American
Education Harlem Community Art Center
Known for Paintings portraying African-American life
Notable work Migration Series

Jacob Armstead Lawrence (September 7, 1917 – June 9, 2000) was an American painter known for his portrayal of African-American historical subjects and contemporary life. Lawrence referred to his style as “dynamic cubism“, although by his own account the primary influence was not so much French art as the shapes and colors of Harlem.[1] He brought the African-American experience to life using blacks and browns juxtaposed with vivid colors. He also taught and spent 16 years as a professor at the University of Washington.

Lawrence is among the best-known twentieth-century African-American painters, known for his modernist illustrations of everyday life as well as narratives of African-American history and historical figures. At the age of 23 he gained national recognition with his 60-panel The Migration Series, which depicted the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North. The series was purchased jointly by the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., and the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. Lawrence’s works are in the permanent collections of numerous museums, including the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Whitney MuseumMetropolitan Museum of Art, the Brooklyn MuseumReynolda House Museum of American Art, and the Museum of Northwest Art. His 1947 painting The Builders hangs in the White House.

Early years[edit

Douglass argued against poor Negroes leaving the South

Jacob Lawrence was born September 7, 1917, in Atlantic City, New Jersey, where his parents had migrated from the rural south. They divorced in 1924.[2] His mother put him and his two younger siblings into foster care in Philadelphia. When he was 13, he and his siblings moved to New York City, where he reconnected with his mother in Harlem. Lawrence was introduced to art shortly after that when their mother enrolled him in after-school classes at an arts and crafts settlement house in Harlem, called Utopia Children’s Center, in an effort to keep him busy. The young Lawrence often drew patterns with crayons. In the beginning, he copied the patterns of his mother’s carpets.

Lawrence teaching school children at the Abraham Lincoln School

After dropping out of school at 16, Lawrence worked in a laundromat and a printing plant. He continued with art, attending classes at the Harlem Art Workshop, taught by the noted African-American artist Charles Alston. Alston urged him to attend the Harlem Community Art Center, led by the sculptor Augusta Savage. Savage secured a scholarship to the American Artists School for Lawrence and a paid position with the Works Progress Administration, established during the Great Depression by the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Lawrence continued his studies as well, working with Alston and Henry Bannarn, another Harlem Renaissance artist, in the Alston-Bannarn workshop. He also studied at Harlem Art Workshop in New York in 1937. Harlem provided crucial training for the majority of Black artists in the United States. Lawrence was one of the first artists trained in and by the African-American community in Harlem.[3] Throughout his lengthy artistic career, Lawrence concentrated on exploring the history and struggles of African Americans.

The “hard, bright, brittle” aspects of Harlem during the Great Depression inspired Lawrence as much as the colors, shapes, and patterns inside the homes of its residents. “Even in my mother’s home,” Lawrence told historian Paul Karlstrom, “people of my mother’s generation would decorate their homes in all sorts of color… so you’d think in terms of Matisse.”[4] He used water-based media throughout his career. Lawrence started to gain some notice for his dramatic and lively portrayals of both contemporary scenes of African-American urban life as well as historical events, all of which he depicted in crisp shapes, bright, clear colors, dynamic patterns, and through revealing posture and gestures.[2]

At the very start of his career he developed the approach that made his reputation and remained his touchstone: creating series of paintings that told a story or, less often, depicted many aspects of a subject. His first were biographical accounts of key figures of the African diaspora. He was just 21 years old when his series of 41 paintings of the Haitian general Toussaint L’Ouverture, who led the revolution of the slaves that eventually gained independence, was shown in an exhibit of African-American artists at the Baltimore Museum of Art. This was followed by a series of paintings of the lives of Harriet Tubman (1938–39) and Frederick Douglass (1939–40).

His teacher Charles Alston assesses Lawrence’s work in an essay for an exhibition at the Harlem YMCA 1938:[5]

Having thus far miraculously escaped the imprint of academic ideas and current vogues in art,… he has followed a course of development dictated by his own inner motivations… Working in the very limited medium of flat tempera he achieved a richness and brilliance of color harmonies both remarkable and exciting… Lawrence symbolizes more than anyone I know, the vitality, the seriousness and promise of a new and socially conscious generation of Negro artists.

On July 24, 1941, Lawrence married the painter Gwendolyn Knight, also a student of Savage. She helped prepare the gesso panels for his paintings and contributed to the captions for the paintings in his multi-painting works.[6]

The Migration Series[edit]

Lawrence completed the 60-panel set of narrative paintings entitled Migration of the Negro or And the Migrants Kept Coming,[7] now called the The Migration Series, in 1940–41. The series portrayed the Great Migration, when hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved from the rural South to the urban North after World War I. Because he was working in tempera, which dries rapidly, he planned all the paintings in advance and then applied a single color wherever he was using it across all the scenes to maintain tonal consistency. Only then did he proceed to the next color. The series was exhibited at the Downtown Gallery in Greenwich Village, which made him the first African-American artist represented by a New York gallery. This brought him national recognition.[8] Selections from this series were featured in a 1941 issue of Fortune. The entire series was purchased jointly and divided by the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., which holds the odd-numbered paintings, and New York’s Museum of Modern Art, which holds the even-numbered. His early work involved general depictions of everyday life in Harlem and also a major series dedicated to African-American history (1940–1941).

Another biographical series of twenty-two panels devoted to the abolitionist John Brown followed in 1941-42. When these pairings became too fragile to display, Lawrence, working on commission, recreated the paintings as a portfolio of silkscreen prints in 1977.[9]

In 1943, Howard Devree, writing in The New York Times, thought Lawrence in his next series of thirty images had “even more successfully concentrated his attention on the many-sided life of his people in Harlem”. He called the set “an amazing social document” and wrote: [10]

Lawrence’s color is fittingly vivid for his interpretations. A strong semi-abstract approach aids him in arriving at his basic or archetypal statements. Confronting this work one feels as if vouchsafed an extraordinary elemental experience. Lawrence has grown in his use of rhythm as well as in sheer design and fluency.

World War II[edit]

In October 1943, during the Second World War, Lawrence was drafted into the United States Coast Guard and served as a public affairs specialist with the first racially integrated crew on the USCGC Sea Cloud, under Carlton Skinner.[11] He continued to paint and sketch while in the Coast Guard, documenting the experience of war around the world. He produced 48 paintings during this time, all of which have been lost. He achieved the rank of petty officer third class.

Lost works[edit]

In October and November 1944, MOMA exhibited of all 60 migration panels plus 8 of paintings Lawrence created aboard the Sea Cloud. He posed, still in his uniform, in front of a sign that read: Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series and Works Created in the US Coast Guard”. The Coast Guard sent the eight paintings to exhibits around the United States. In the disorder and personnel changes that came with demobilization at the end of the war they went missing.


In 1945, he was awarded a fellowship in the fine arts by the Guggenheim Foundation.[12] In 1946, Josef Albers recruited Lawrence to join the faculty of the summer art program at Black Mountain College.[13]

Returning to New York, Lawrence continued to paint but grew depressed; in 1949, he checked himself into Hillside Hospital in Queens, where he remained for eleven months. Painting there, he produced his Hospital Series, works that were uncharacteristic of him in their focus of his subjects’ emotional states as an inpatient.

Between 1954 and 1956 Lawrence produced a 30-panel series called “Struggle: From the History of the American People” that depicted historical scenes from 1775 to 1817. The series, originally planned to include sixty panels, includes references to current events like the 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings, and they sometimes explore relatively obscure or neglected aspects of American history, like a woman, Margaret Cochran Corbin, in combat or the wall built by unseen enslaved Blacks that protected the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans.[14] Rather than traditional titles, Lawrence labeled each panel with a quote, either to add an individual voice to his work or inject weighted vocabulary. Patrick Henry’s speech, famous for the phrase “Give me liberty or give me death”, he captioned with a different passage: “Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery.” A panel showing Blacks fighting against the British is captioned with the words of a man who sued for emancipation from slavery in 1773: “We have no property! We have no wives! No children! We have no city! No country!”[15] Three panels (Panels 14, 20 and 29) are lost, and three others were only located in 2017, 2020, and 2021.[16] The fraught politics of the mid-1950s prevented the series from finding a museum purchaser, and the panels had been sold to a private collector who re-sold them as individual works.[17]

The Brooklyn Museum of Art mounted a retrospective exhibition of his work in 1960.[18]


Lawrence illustrated several works for children. Harriet and the Promised Land appeared in 1968 and used the series of paintings that told the story of Harriet Tubman.[19] It was listed as one of the year’s best illustrated books by The New York Times and praised by the Boston Globe: “The author’s artistic talents, sensitivity and insight into the black experience have resulted in a book that actually creates, within the reader, a spiritual experience.” Two similar volumes based on his John Brown and Great Migration series followed.[20] Lawrence created illustrations for a selection of 18 of Aesop’s Fables for Windmill Press in 1970, and the University of Washington Press published the full set of 23 tales in 1998.[21]

Teaching and late works[edit]

Lawrence taught at several schools after his first stint teaching at Black Mountain College, including the New School for Social Research, the Art Students LeaguePratt Institute,[22][23] and the Skowhegan School.[24] He became a visiting artist at the University of Washington in 1970 and was professor of art there from 1971 to 1986.[18] He was graduate advisor there to lithographer and abstract painter James Claussen[25]

Shortly after moving to Washington state, Lawrence did a series of five paintings on the westward journey of African-American pioneer, George Washington Bush. These paintings are now in the collection of the State of Washington History Museum.[26]

He undertook several major commissions in this part of his career. In 1980, he completed Exploration, a 40-foot-long mural made of porcelain on steel, comprising a dozen panels devoted to academic endeavor. It was installed in Howard University’s Blackburn Center. The Washington Post described it as “enormously sophisticated yet wholly unpretentious ” and said:[27]

The colors are competely flat, but because the porcelain is layered, and because Lawrence here and there paints in strong black shawdows, his mural has the look of a rich relief. It is full of visual rhymes. The small scene of John Henry, the steel drivin’ man, in the final panel is echoed by an image of a sculptor in the art scene: He is hammering another spike, for quite different reasons, into a block of stone. This is not art that one tires of, for it is not the sort of work one can read at once.

Lawrence produced another series in 1983, eight screen prints called the Hiroshima Series. Commissioned to provide full-page illustrations for a new edition of a work of his choice, Lawrence chose John Hershey‘s Hiroshima (1946). He depicted in abstract visual language several survivors at the moment of the bombing in the midst of physical and emotional destruction.[7][28]

Lawrence’s painting Theater was commissioned by the University of Washington in 1985 and installed in the main lobby of the Meany Hall for the Performing Arts.[29]

Last years[edit]

The Whitney Museum of American Art produced an exhibition of Lawrence’s entire career in 1974, as did the Seattle Art Museum in 1986.[18]

In 1999, he and his wife established the Jacob and Gwendolyn Lawrence Foundation for the creation, presentation and study of American art, with a particular emphasis on work by African-American artists.[18] It represents their estates[30] and maintains a searchable archive of nearly a thousand images of their work.[31]

Lawrence continued to paint until a few weeks before his death from lung cancer on June 9, 2000, at the age of 82.[18] The New York Times described him as “one of America’s leading modern figurative painters” and “among the most impassioned visual chroniclers of the African-American experience.”[18] Shortly before his death he stated: “…for me, a painting should have three things: universality, clarity and strength. Clarity and strength so that it may be aesthetically good. Universality so that it may be understood by all men.”[32]

A retrospective exhibition of Lawrence’s work, planned before his death, opened at the Phillips Collection in May 2001 and travelled to the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Detroit Institute of Fine Arts, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.[33] The exhibit was meant to coincide with the publication of Jacob Lawrence: Paintings, Drawings, and Murals (1935-1999), A Catalogue Raisonne.[34] His last commissioned public work, the mosaic mural New York in Transit made of Murano glass was installed in October 2001 in the Times Square subway station in New York City.[35][36]

His wife, Gwendolyn Knight, survived him and died in 2005 at the age of 91.[37]


The eighteen institutions that awarded Lawrence honorary degrees include Harvard University, Yale University, Howard University, Amherst College, and New York University.[18]


  • The Seattle Art Museumoffers the Gwendolyn Knight and Jacob Lawrence Fellowship, a $10,000 award to “individuals whose original work reflects the Lawrences’ concern with artistic excellence, education, mentorship and scholarship within the cultural contexts and value systems that informed their work and the work of other artists of color.”[41]
  • The Jacob Lawrence Gallery at the University of Washington School of Art + Art History + Designoffers an annual Jacob Lawrence Legacy Residency.[42]

His work is in the permanent collections of numerous museums, including the British Museum,[43] the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Smithsonian American Art Museum,[44] the Museum of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum, the Phillips Collection, the Brooklyn Museum, the National Gallery of Art[45] and Reynolda House Museum of American Art, the Art Institute Chicago, the Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, the Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, the Minneapolis Institute of Art, the Minnesota Museum of American Art, the Savannah College of Art and Design Museum, the Seattle Art Museum, the Birmingham Museum of Art,[46] the Indianapolis Museum of Art,[47] the University of Michigan Museum of Art,[48] the North Carolina Museum of Art,[49] the Princeton University Art Museum,[50] the Musei Vaticani,[51] the Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science and Engineering,[52] the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,[53] the Saint Louis Art Museum,[54] the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts,[55] the Studio Museum in Harlem,[56] the Philadelphia Museum of Art,[57] the Portland Art Museum,[58] the Hudson River Museum,[59] and The Walker Art Center in Minneapolis.

In May 2007, the White House Historical Association purchased Lawrence’s The Builders (1947) at auction for $2.5 million. The painting has hung in the White House Green Room since 2009.[60][61]

See also[edit]

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Lawrence – Seattle



Jacob Lawrence, Panel 10. We crossed the River at McKonkey’s Ferry 9 miles above Trenton . . . the night was excessively severe . . . which the men bore without the least murmur . . . —Tench Tilghman, 27 December 1776, 1954. From Struggle Series, 1954–56
Egg tempera on hardboard
12 × 16 in. (30.5 × 40.6 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
© The Jacob and Gwendolyn Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

LawrenceLetter from Home



 Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork



Lawrence – Hirshhornsiedu

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Scan from color transparency

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Mandatory Credit: Photo by Everett/Shutterstock (10305637a)
Coast Guardsman Jacob Lawrence, with his paintings at the Institute of Modern Art in Boston in 1945. During World War 2, Lawrence served with the first racially integrated crew on the USCGC Sea Cloud, under Carlton Skinner. He continued to paint and sketch while in the Coast Guard.
Historical Collection

Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork

Untitled, 12/11/03, 2:53 PM, 16C, 3450×4776 (600+0), 100%, AIA repro tone, 1/50 s, R58.9, G46.8, B59.3

Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork   Getty Images

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Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and The Swallowtail Butterfly in Ing & John’s Backyard Garden  

Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and The Swallowtail Butterfly in Ing & John’s Backyard Garden  

I love my little garden in our backyard, in Downtown Newark, New Jersey.  I feel calm and peaceful seeing green leaves with beautiful flowers in different shade of color.  The bees are buzzing and dancing around different flowers for the juicy nectar.  I saw some Monarch Butterflies on difference occasions.  On Monday, July 27, 2020 I was very lucky to have a large beautiful Swallowtail butterfly come to visit our garden and enjoy tasting the nectar from our butterfly bush flowers.  I ran in the house to get my camcorder to record for our grandsons.  One grandson is 5 months old and other just turned 5 years old.

Nature always gives us peace and happiness, if we cultivate and take care of it.  Humans are part of nature.  Some who cultivate their behavior and contribute their knowledge and time for the good of society thereby help humanity reach harmony and peace.  Sadly, such a person just passed away. The late Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg was a person that we can be proud to know about. She will always be remembered and we will forever be grateful for her contributions.  

I wish to dedicate my peaceful garden to the late Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, for her lifelong achievements.  May she rest in peace.  We will always keep her in our minds and hearts.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, September 21, 2020

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (/?be?d?r ???nzb??r?/; born Joan Ruth Bader; March 15, 1933 – September 18, 2020),[1] also known by her initials RBG, was an American jurist who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1993 until her death in 2020. She was nominated by President Bill Clinton and was generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court. Ginsburg was the second woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, after Sandra Day O’Connor. During her tenure on the Court, Ginsburg authored notable majority opinions, including United States v. Virginia (1996), Olmstead v. L.C. (1999), and Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc. (2000). Following O’Connor’s retirement in 2006 and until Sonia Sotomayor joined the Court in 2009, she was the only female justice on the Supreme Court. During that time, Ginsburg became more forceful with her dissents, which were noted by legal observers and in popular culture.

Ginsburg was born and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. Her older sister died when she was a baby, and her mother died shortly before Ginsburg graduated from high school. She then earned her bachelor’s degree at Cornell University and became a wife to Martin D. Ginsburg and a mother before starting law school at Harvard, where she was one of the few women in her class. Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School, where she graduated tied for first in her class. Following law school, Ginsburg entered academia. She was a professor at Rutgers Law School and Columbia Law School, teaching civil procedure as one of the few women in her field.

Ginsburg spent a considerable part of her legal career as an advocate for gender equality and women’s rights, winning multiple arguments before the Supreme Court. She advocated as a volunteer attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsels in the 1970s. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, where she served until her appointment to the Supreme Court. Ginsburg received attention in American popular culture for her fiery liberal dissents and refusal to step down. She was playfully dubbed “The Notorious R.B.G.”, a reference to Brooklyn-born rapper The Notorious B.I.G.[2]

 Ginsburg died at her home in Washington, D.C., on September 18, 2020, at the age of 87, from complications of metastatic pancreatic cancer.[3][4]

Early life and education

Joan Ruth Bader was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the second daughter of Celia (née Amster) and Nathan Bader, who lived in the Flatbush neighborhood. Her father was a Jewish emigrant from OdessaRussian Empire, and her mother was born in New York to Austrian Jewish parents.[5][6][7] The Baders’ elder daughter Marylin died of meningitis at age six, when Ruth was 14 months old.[1]:3[8][9] The family called Joan Ruth “Kiki”, a nickname Marylin had given her for being “a kicky baby”.[1]:3[10] When “Kiki” started school, Celia discovered that her daughter’s class had several other girls named Joan, so Celia suggested the teacher call her daughter “Ruth” to avoid confusion.[1]:3 Although not devout, the Bader family belonged to East Midwood Jewish Center, a Conservative synagogue, where Ruth learned tenets of the Jewish faith and gained familiarity with the Hebrew language.[1]:14–15 At age 13, Ruth acted as the “camp rabbi” at a Jewish summer program at Camp Che-Na-Wah in Minerva, New York.[10]

Celia took an active role in her daughter’s education, often taking her to the library.[10] Celia had been a good student in her youth, graduating from high school at age 15, yet she could not further her own education because her family instead chose to send her brother to college. Celia wanted her daughter to get more education, which she thought would allow Ruth to become a high school history teacher.[11] Ruth attended James Madison High School, whose law program later dedicated a courtroom in her honor. Celia struggled with cancer throughout Ruth’s high school years and died the day before Ruth’s high school graduation.[10]

 Bader attended Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, and was a member of Alpha Epsilon Phi.[12] While at Cornell, she met Martin D. Ginsburg at age 17.[11] She graduated from Cornell with a bachelor of arts degree in government on June 23, 1954. She was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and the highest-ranking female student in her graduating class.[12][13] Bader married Ginsburg a month after her graduation from Cornell. She and Martin moved to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, where he was stationed as a Reserve Officers’ Training Corps officer in the Army Reserve after his call-up to active duty.[11][14][13] At age 21, she worked for the Social Security Administration office in Oklahoma, where she was demoted after becoming pregnant with her first child.[9] She gave birth to a daughter in 1955.[9]

In the fall of 1956, Ginsburg enrolled at Harvard Law School, where she was one of only nine women in a class of about 500 men.[15][16] The Dean of Harvard Law reportedly invited all the female law students to dinner at his family home and asked the female law students, including Ginsburg, “Why are you at Harvard Law School, taking the place of a man?”[a][11][17][18] When her husband took a job in New York City, Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School and became the first woman to be on two major law reviews: the Harvard Law Review and Columbia Law Review. In 1959, she earned her law degree at Columbia and tied for first in her class.[10][19]

Early career

At the start of her legal career, Ginsburg encountered difficulty in finding employment.[20][21][22] In 1960, Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter rejected Ginsburg for a clerkship position due to her gender. She was rejected despite a strong recommendation from Albert Martin Sacks, who was a professor and later dean of Harvard Law School.[23][24][b] Columbia law professor Gerald Gunther also pushed for Judge Edmund L. Palmieri of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York to hire Ginsburg as a law clerk, threatening to never recommend another Columbia student to Palmieri if he did not give Ginsburg the opportunity and guaranteeing to provide the judge with a replacement clerk should Ginsburg not succeed.[9][10][25] Later that year, Ginsburg began her clerkship for Judge Palmieri, and she held the position for two years.[9][10]


From 1961 to 1963, Ginsburg was a research associate and then an associate director of the Columbia Law School Project on International Procedure; she learned Swedish to co-author a book with Anders Bruzelius on civil procedure in Sweden.[26][27] Ginsburg conducted extensive research for her book at Lund University in Sweden.[28] Ginsburg’s time in Sweden also influenced her thinking on gender equality. She was inspired when she observed the changes in Sweden, where women were 20 to 25 percent of all law students; one of the judges whom Ginsburg watched for her research was eight months pregnant and still working.[11]

Her first position as a professor was at Rutgers Law School in 1963.[29] The appointment was not without its drawbacks; Ginsburg was informed she would be paid less than her male colleagues because she had a husband with a well-paid job.[22] At the time Ginsburg entered academia, she was one of fewer than 20 female law professors in the United States.[29] She was a professor of law, mainly civil procedure, at Rutgers from 1963 to 1972, receiving tenure from the school in 1969.[30][31]

In 1970, she co-founded the Women’s Rights Law Reporter, the first law journal in the U.S. to focus exclusively on women’s rights.[32] From 1972 to 1980, she taught at Columbia Law School, where she became the first tenured woman and co-authored the first law school casebook on sex discrimination.[31] She also spent a year as a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University from 1977 to 1978.[33]

Ginsburg in 1977, photographed by Lynn Gilbert

Litigation and advocacy

In 1972, Ginsburg co-founded the Women’s Rights Project at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and in 1973, she became the Project’s general counsel.[13] The Women’s Rights Project and related ACLU projects participated in more than three hundred gender discrimination cases by 1974. As the director of the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project, she argued six gender discrimination cases before the Supreme Court between 1973 and 1976, winning five.[23] Rather than asking the court to end all gender discrimination at once, Ginsburg charted a strategic course, taking aim at specific discriminatory statutes and building on each successive victory. She chose plaintiffs carefully, at times picking male plaintiffs to demonstrate that gender discrimination was harmful to both men and women.[23][31] The laws Ginsburg targeted included those that on the surface appeared beneficial to women, but in fact reinforced the notion that women needed to be dependent on men.[23] Her strategic advocacy extended to word choice, favoring the use of “gender” instead of “sex”, after her secretary suggested the word “sex” would serve as a distraction to judges.[31] She attained a reputation as a skilled oral advocate, and her work led directly to the end of gender discrimination in many areas of the law.[34]

Ginsburg volunteered to write the brief for Reed v. Reed404 U.S. 71 (1971), in which the Supreme Court extended the protections of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to women.[31][35][c] In 1972, she argued before the 10th Circuit in Moritz v. Commissioner on behalf of a man who had been denied a caregiver deduction because of his gender. As amicus she argued in Frontiero v. Richardson411 U.S. 677 (1973), which challenged a statute making it more difficult for a female service member (Frontiero) to claim an increased housing allowance for her husband than for a male service member seeking the same allowance for his wife. Ginsburg argued that the statute treated women as inferior, and the Supreme Court ruled 8–1 in Frontiero’s favor.[23] The court again ruled in Ginsburg’s favor in Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld420 U.S. 636 (1975), where Ginsburg represented a widower denied survivor benefits under Social Security, which permitted widows but not widowers to collect special benefits while caring for minor children. She argued that the statute discriminated against male survivors of workers by denying them the same protection as their female counterparts.[37]

Ginsburg filed an amicus brief and sat with counsel at oral argument for Craig v. Boren429 U.S. 190 (1976), which challenged an Oklahoma statute that set different minimum drinking ages for men and women.[23][37] For the first time, the court imposed what is known as intermediate scrutiny on laws discriminating based on gender, a heightened standard of Constitutional review.[23][37][38] Her last case as an attorney before the Supreme Court was in 1978 Duren v. Missouri439 U.S. 357 (1979), which challenged the validity of voluntary jury duty for women, on the ground that participation in jury duty was a citizen’s vital governmental service and therefore should not be optional for women. At the end of Ginsburg’s oral argument, then-Associate Justice William Rehnquist asked Ginsburg, “You won’t settle for putting Susan B. Anthony on the new dollar, then?”[39] Ginsburg said she considered responding, “We won’t settle for tokens,” but instead opted not to answer the question.[39]

 Legal scholars and advocates credit Ginsburg’s body of work with making significant legal advances for women under the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.[31][23] Taken together, Ginsburg’s legal victories discouraged legislatures from treating women and men differently under the law.[31][23][37] She continued to work on the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project until her appointment to the Federal Bench in 1980.[31] Later, colleague Antonin Scalia praised Ginsburg’s skills as an advocate. “She became the leading (and very successful) litigator on behalf of women’s rights—the Thurgood Marshall of that cause, so to speak.” This was a comparison that had first been made by former Solicitor General Erwin Griswold who was also her former professor and dean at Harvard Law School, in a speech given in 1985.[40][41][d]

Ginsburg with President Jimmy Carter in 1980

U.S. Court of Appeals

Ginsburg was nominated by President Jimmy Carter on April 14, 1980, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit vacated by Judge Harold Leventhal after his death.[30] She was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 18, 1980, and received her commission later that day.[30] Her service terminated on August 9, 1993, due to her elevation to the United States Supreme Court.[30][42][43] During her time as a judge on the DC Circuit, Ginsburg often found consensus with her colleagues including conservatives Robert H. Bork and Antonin Scalia.[44][45] Her time on the court earned her a reputation as a “cautious jurist” and a moderate.[46] David S. Tatel replaced her after Ginsburg’s appointment to the Supreme Court.[47]

Chief Justice William Rehnquist swearing in Ginsburg as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, as her husband Martin Ginsburg and President Clinton watch

Supreme Court

Nomination and confirmation

Ginsburg officially accepting the nomination from President Bill Clinton on June 14, 1993

President Bill Clinton nominated Ginsburg as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on June 14, 1993, to fill the seat vacated by retiring Justice Byron White. She was recommended to Clinton by then–U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno,[19] after a suggestion by Utah Republican Senator Orrin Hatch.[48] At the time of her nomination, Ginsburg was viewed as a moderate. Clinton was reportedly looking to increase the court’s diversity, which Ginsburg did as the only Jewish justice since the 1969 resignation of Justice Abe Fortas. She was the second female and the first Jewish female justice of the Supreme Court.[46][49][50] She eventually became the longest-serving Jewish justice.[51] The American Bar Association’s Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary rated Ginsburg as “well qualified”, its highest possible rating for a prospective justice.[52]

During her testimony before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary as part of the confirmation hearings, Ginsburg refused to answer questions about her view on the constitutionality of some issues such as the death penalty as it was an issue she might have to vote on if it came before the court.[53]

At the same time, Ginsburg did answer questions about some potentially controversial issues. For instance, she affirmed her belief in a constitutional right to privacy and explained at some length her personal judicial philosophy and thoughts regarding gender equality.[54]:15–16 Ginsburg was more forthright in discussing her views on topics about which she had previously written.[53] The United States Senate confirmed her by a 96–3 vote on August 3, 1993,[e][30] She received her commission on August 5, 1993[30] and took her judicial oath on August 10, 1993.[56]

Ginsburg’s name was later invoked during the confirmation process of John Roberts. Ginsburg herself was not the first nominee to avoid answering certain specific questions before Congress,[f] and as a young attorney in 1981 Roberts had advised against Supreme Court nominees’ giving specific responses.[57] Nevertheless, some conservative commentators and Senators invoked the phrase “Ginsburg precedent” to defend his demurrers.[52][57] In a September 28, 2005, speech at Wake Forest University, Ginsburg said Roberts’ refusal to answer questions during his Senate confirmation hearings on some cases was “unquestionably right”.[58]

Supreme Court jurisprudence

Ginsburg characterized her performance on the court as a cautious approach to adjudication.[59] She argued in a speech shortly before her nomination to the court that “[m]easured motions seem to me right, in the main, for constitutional as well as common law adjudication. Doctrinal limbs too swiftly shaped, experience teaches, may prove unstable.”[60] Legal scholar Cass Sunstein characterized Ginsburg as a “rational minimalist”, a jurist who seeks to build cautiously on precedent rather than pushing the Constitution towards her own vision.[61]:10–11

 Sandra Day O’ConnorSonia Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Elena Kagan, October 1, 2010. O’Connor is not wearing a robe because she was retired from the court when the picture was taken.

The retirement of Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in 2006 left Ginsburg as the only woman on the court.[62][g] Linda Greenhouse of The New York Times referred to the subsequent 2006–2007 term of the court as “the time when Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg found her voice, and used it”.[64] The term also marked the first time in Ginsburg’s history with the court where she read multiple dissents from the bench, a tactic employed to signal more intense disagreement with the majority.[64]

With the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens, Ginsburg became the senior member of what was sometimes referred to as the court’s “liberal wing”.[31][65][66] When the court split 5–4 along ideological lines and the liberal justices were in the minority, Ginsburg often had the authority to assign authorship of the dissenting opinion because of her seniority.[65][h] Ginsburg was a proponent of the liberal dissenters speaking “with one voice” and, where practicable, presenting a unified approach to which all the dissenting justices can agree.[31][65]

Gender discrimination

Ginsburg authored the court’s opinion in United States v. Virginia518 U.S. 515 (1996), which struck down the Virginia Military Institute‘s (VMI) male-only admissions policy as violating the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. VMI is a prestigious, state-run, military-inspired institution that did not admit women. For Ginsburg, a state actor such as VMI could not use gender to deny women the opportunity to attend VMI with its unique educational methods.[68] Ginsburg emphasized that the government must show an “exceedingly persuasive justification” to use a classification based on sex.[69]

Commissioned portrait of Ginsburg in 2000

Ginsburg dissented in the court’s decision on Ledbetter v. Goodyear550 U.S. 618 (2007), a case where plaintiff Lilly Ledbetter filed a lawsuit against her employer claiming pay discrimination based on her gender under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In a 5–4 decision, the majority interpreted the statute of limitations as starting to run at the time of every pay period, even if a woman did not know she was being paid less than her male colleague until later. Ginsburg found the result absurd, pointing out that women often do not know they are being paid less, and therefore it was unfair to expect them to act at the time of each paycheck. She also called attention to the reluctance women may have in male-dominated fields to making waves by filing lawsuits over small amounts, choosing instead to wait until the disparity accumulates.[70] As part of her dissent, Ginsburg called on Congress to amend Title VII to undo the court’s decision with legislation.[71] Following the election of President Barack Obama in 2008, the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, making it easier for employees to win pay discrimination claims, became law.[72][73] Ginsburg was credited with helping to inspire the law.[71][73]

Abortion rights

Ginsburg discussed her views on abortion and gender equality in a 2009 New York Times interview, in which she said about abortion “[t]he basic thing is that the government has no business making that choice for a woman.”[74] Although Ginsburg consistently supported abortion rights and joined in the court’s opinion striking down Nebraska‘s partial-birth abortion law in Stenberg v. Carhart530 U.S. 914 (2000), on the 40th anniversary of the court’s ruling in Roe v. Wade410 U.S. 113 (1973), she criticized the decision in Roe as terminating a nascent democratic movement to liberalize abortion laws which might have built a more durable consensus in support of abortion rights.[75] Ginsburg was in the minority for Gonzales v. Carhart550 U.S. 124 (2007), a 5–4 decision upholding restrictions on partial birth abortion. In her dissent, Ginsburg opposed the majority’s decision to defer to legislative findings that the procedure was not safe for women. Ginsburg focused her ire on the way Congress reached its findings and with the veracity of the findings.[76] Joining the majority for Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt579 U.S. 15-274 (2016), a case which struck down parts of a 2013 Texas law regulating abortion providers, Ginsburg also authored a short concurring opinion which was even more critical of the legislation at issue.[77] She asserted the legislation was not aimed at protecting women’s health, as Texas had said, but rather to impede women’s access to abortions.[76][77]

Search and seizure

Although Ginsburg did not author the majority opinion, she was credited with influencing her colleagues on the case Safford Unified School District v. Redding557 U.S. 364 (2009).[78] The court ruled that a school went too far in ordering a 13-year-old female student to strip to her bra and underpants so female officials could search for drugs.[78] In an interview published prior to the court’s decision, Ginsburg shared her view that some of her colleagues did not fully appreciate the effect of a strip search on a 13-year-old girl. As she said, “They have never been a 13-year-old girl.”[79] In an 8–1 decision, the court agreed that the school’s search went too far and violated the Fourth Amendment and allowed the student’s lawsuit against the school to go forward. Only Ginsburg and Stevens would have allowed the student to sue individual school officials as well.[78]

In Herring v. United States555 U.S. 135 (2009), Ginsburg dissented from the court’s decision not to suppress evidence due to a police officer’s failure to update a computer system. In contrast to Roberts’ emphasis on suppression as a means to deter police misconduct, Ginsburg took a more robust view on the use of suppression as a remedy for a violation of a defendant’s Fourth Amendment rights. Ginsburg viewed suppression as a way to prevent the government from profiting from mistakes, and therefore as a remedy to preserve judicial integrity and respect civil rights.[80]:308 She also rejected Roberts’ assertion that suppression would not deter mistakes, contending making police pay a high price for mistakes would encourage them to take greater care.[80]:309

International law

Ginsburg advocated the use of foreign law and norms to shape U.S. law in judicial opinions, a view rejected by some of her conservative colleagues. Ginsburg supported using foreign interpretations of law for persuasive value and possible wisdom, not as precedent which the court is bound to follow.[81] Ginsburg expressed the view that consulting international law is a well-ingrained tradition in American law, counting John Henry Wigmore and President John Adams as internationalists.[82] Ginsburg’s own reliance on international law dated back to her time as an attorney; in her first argument before the court, Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971), she cited two German cases.[83] In her concurring opinion in Grutter v. Bollinger539 U.S. 306 (2003), a decision upholding Michigan Law School’s affirmative action admissions policy, Ginsburg noted there was accord between the notion that affirmative action admissions policies would have an end point and agrees with international treaties designed to combat racial and gender-based discrimination.[82]

Portrait of Ginsburg, c.? 2006

Other activities

At his request, Ginsburg administered the oath of office to Vice President Al Gore for a second term during the second inauguration of Bill Clinton on January 20, 1997.[84] She was the third woman to administer an inaugural oath of office.[85] Ginsburg is believed to have been the first Supreme Court justice to officiate at a same-sex wedding, performing the August 31, 2013, ceremony of Kennedy Center President Michael Kaiser and John Roberts, a government economist.[86] Earlier that summer, the court had bolstered same-sex marriage rights in two separate cases.[87][88] Ginsburg believed the issue being settled led same-sex couples to ask her to officiate as there was no longer the fear of compromising rulings on the issue.[87]

The Supreme Court bar formerly inscribed its certificates “in the year of our Lord”, which some Orthodox Jews opposed, and asked Ginsburg to object to. She did so, and due to her objection, Supreme Court bar members have since been given other choices of how to inscribe the year on their certificates.[89]

Despite their ideological differences, Ginsburg considered Scalia her closest colleague on the court. The two justices often dined together and attended the opera.[90] In addition to befriending modern composers, including Tobias Picker,[91][92] in her spare time, Ginsburg appeared in several operas in non-speaking supernumerary roles such as Die Fledermaus (2003) and Ariadne auf Naxos (1994 and 2009 with Scalia),[93] and spoke lines penned by herself in The Daughter of the Regiment (2016).[94]

In January 2012, Ginsburg went to Egypt for four days of discussions with judges, law school faculty, law school students, and legal experts.[95][96] In an interview with Al Hayat TV, she said the first requirement of a new constitution should be that it would “safeguard basic fundamental human rights like our First Amendment“. Asked if Egypt should model its new constitution on those of other nations, she said Egypt should be “aided by all Constitution-writing that has gone on since the end of World War II”, and cited the United States Constitution and Constitution of South Africa as documents she might look to if drafting a new constitution. She said the U.S. was fortunate to have a constitution authored by “very wise” men but said that in the 1780s, no women were able to participate directly in the process, and slavery still existed in the U.S.[97]

During three separate interviews in July 2016, Ginsburg criticized presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, telling The New York Times and the Associated Press that she did not want to think about the possibility of a Trump presidency. She joked that she might consider moving to New Zealand.[98][99] She later apologized for commenting on the presumptive Republican nominee, calling her remarks “ill advised”.[100]

Ginsburg speaking at a naturalization ceremony at the National Archives in 2018

Ginsburg’s first book, My Own Words published by Simon & Schuster, was released October 4, 2016.[101] The book debuted on The New York Times Best Seller List for hardcover nonfiction at No. 12.[102] While promoting her book in October 2016 during an interview with Katie Couric, Ginsburg responded to a question about Colin Kaepernick choosing not to stand for the national anthem at sporting events by calling the protest “really dumb”. She later apologized for her criticism calling her earlier comments “inappropriately dismissive and harsh” and noting she had not been familiar with the incident and should have declined to respond to the question.[103][104][105]

In 2018, Ginsburg expressed her support for the #MeToo movement, which encourages women to speak up about their experiences with sexual harassment.[106] She told an audience, “It’s about time. For so long women were silent, thinking there was nothing you could do about it, but now the law is on the side of women, or men, who encounter harassment and that’s a good thing.”[106] She also reflected on her own experiences with gender discrimination and sexual harassment, including a time when a chemistry professor at Cornell unsuccessfully attempted to trade her exam answers for sex.[106]

 Martin and Ruth Ginsburg at a White House event, 2009

Personal life

A few days after Bader graduated from Cornell, she married Martin D. Ginsburg, who later became an internationally prominent tax attorney practicing at Weil, Gotshal & Manges. Upon her accession to the D.C. Circuit, the couple moved from New York to Washington, D.C., where her husband became professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center. Their daughter, Jane C. Ginsburg (b. 1955), is a professor at Columbia Law School. Their son, James Steven Ginsburg (b. 1965), is the founder and president of Cedille Records, a classical music recording company based in Chicago, Illinois. Ginsburg was a grandmother of four.[107]

Ginsburg with her husband Martin and their daughter Jane in 1958 copyright AP

After the birth of their daughter, Ginsburg’s husband was diagnosed with testicular cancer. During this period, Ginsburg attended class and took notes for both of them, typing her husband’s dictated papers and caring for their daughter and her sick husband—all while making the Harvard Law Review. They celebrated their 56th wedding anniversary on June 23, 2010. Martin Ginsburg died of complications from metastatic cancer on June 27, 2010.[108] They spoke publicly of being in a shared earning/shared parenting marriage including in a speech Martin Ginsburg wrote and had intended to give before his death that Ruth Bader Ginsburg delivered posthumously.[109]

Ginsburg poses for the camera while holding hands with her grandchildren Clara and Paul Spera in 1993.  Behind her are, from left, son-in-law George Spera, daughter Jane Ginsburg, husband Martin and son James Ginsburg (copyright Doug Mills/AP)

Bader was a non-observant Jew.[110] In March 2015, Ginsburg and Rabbi Lauren Holtzblatt released “The Heroic and Visionary Women of Passover”, an essay highlighting the roles of five key women in the saga: “These women had a vision leading out of the darkness shrouding their world. They were women of action, prepared to defy authority to make their vision a reality bathed in the light of the day.”[111] In addition, she decorated her chambers with an artist’s rendering of the Hebrew phrase from Deuteronomy, “Zedek, zedek, tirdof,” (“Justice, justice shall you pursue”) as a reminder of her heritage and professional responsibility.[112]

Bader was a non-observant Jew.[110] In March 2015, Ginsburg and Rabbi Lauren Holtzblatt released “The Heroic and Visionary Women of Passover”, an essay highlighting the roles of five key women in the saga: “These women had a vision leading out of the darkness shrouding their world. They were women of action, prepared to defy authority to make their vision a reality bathed in the light of the day.”[111] In addition, she decorated her chambers with an artist’s rendering of the Hebrew phrase from Deuteronomy, “Zedek, zedek, tirdof,” (“Justice, justice shall you pursue”) as a reminder of her heritage and professional responsibility.[112]

Ginsburg had a collection of lace jabots from around the world.[113][114] She said in 2014 she had a particular jabot she wore when issuing her dissents (black with gold embroidery and faceted stones) as well as another she wore when issuing majority opinions (crocheted yellow and cream with crystals), which was a gift from her law clerks.[113][114] Her favorite jabot (woven with white beads) was from Cape Town, South Africa.[113]


In 1999, Ginsburg was diagnosed with colon cancer, the first of five[115] bouts of cancer. She underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. During the process, she did not miss a day on the bench.[116] Ginsburg was physically weakened by the cancer treatment, and she began working with a personal trainer. Bryant Johnson, a former Army reservist attached to the Special Forces, trained Ginsburg twice weekly in the justices-only gym at the Supreme Court.[117][118] Ginsburg saw her physical fitness improve after her first bout with cancer; she was able to complete 20 push-ups in a session before her 80th birthday.[117][119]

Nearly a decade after her first bout with cancer, Ginsburg again underwent surgery on February 5, 2009, this time for pancreatic cancer.[120][121] Ginsburg had a tumor that was discovered at an early stage.[120] She was released from a New York City hospital on February 13 and returned to the bench when the Supreme Court went back into session on February 23, 2009.[122][123][124] After experiencing discomfort while exercising in the Supreme Court gym in November 2014, she had a stent placed in her right coronary artery.[125][126]

Ginsburg’s next hospitalization helped her detect another round of cancer.[127] On November 8, 2018, Ginsburg fell in her office at the Supreme Court, fracturing three ribs, for which she was hospitalized.[128] An outpouring of public support followed.[129][130] Although the day after her fall, Ginsburg’s nephew revealed she had already returned to official judicial work after a day of observation,[131] a CT scan of her ribs following her November 8 fall showed cancerous nodules in her lungs.[127] On December 21, Ginsburg underwent a left-lung lobectomy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to remove the nodules.[127] For the first time since joining the Court more than 25 years earlier, Ginsburg missed oral argument on January 7, 2019, while she recuperated.[132] She returned to the Supreme Court on February 15 to participate in a private conference with other justices in her first appearance at the court since her cancer surgery in December 2018.[133]

Months later in August 2019, the Supreme Court announced that Ginsburg had recently completed three weeks of focused radiation treatment to ablate a tumor found in her pancreas over the summer.[134] By January 2020, Ginsburg was cancer-free. By February 2020, Ginsberg was not cancer free but it was not released to the public. [135] However, by May 2020, Ginsburg was once again receiving treatment for a recurrence of cancer.[136] She reiterated her position that she “would remain a member of the court as long as I can do the job full steam”, adding that she remained fully able to do so.[137][138]

Longevity in the court

When John Paul Stevens retired in 2010, Ginsburg became the oldest justice on the court at age 77.[139] Despite rumors that she would retire because of advancing age, poor health, and the death of her husband,[140][141] she denied she was planning to step down. In an August 2010 interview, Ginsburg said her work on the court was helping her cope with the death of her husband.[139] She also expressed a wish to emulate Justice Louis Brandeis‘ service of nearly 23 years, which she achieved in April 2016.[139][142] She stated she had a new “model” to emulate in former colleague Justice John Paul Stevens, who retired at age 90 after nearly 35 years on the bench.[142]

During the presidency of Barack Obama, some progressive attorneys and activists called for Ginsburg to retire so Obama could appoint a like-minded successor,[143][144][145] particularly while the Democratic Party held control of the U.S. Senate.[146] They mentioned Ginsburg’s age and past health issues as factors making her longevity uncertain.[144] Ginsburg rejected these pleas.[65] She affirmed her wish to remain a justice as long as she was mentally sharp enough to perform her duties.[65] Moreover, Ginsburg opined that the political climate would prevent Obama from appointing a jurist like herself.[147] At the time of her death in September 2020, Ginsburg was, at age 87, the fourth-oldest serving U.S. Supreme Court Justice in the history of the country.[148]

Candles left on the steps of the Supreme Court following the death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Ginsburg died from complications of pancreatic cancer on September 18, 2020, at age 87.[149][150][4] One day before her death, Ginsburg was honored on Constitution Day and was awarded the 2020 Liberty Medal by the National Constitution Center.[151] It was reported that she will be interred in Arlington National Cemetery next to her husband Martin D. Ginsburg.[152][153]


Main article: 2020 United States Supreme Court vacancy

Ginsburg’s death created a vacancy on the Supeme Court in a presidential election year.[154] Days before her death, Ginsburg dictated in a statement through her granddaughter Clara Spera, “My most fervent wish is that I will not be replaced until a new president is installed.”[155] Four years earlier, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell refused to allow the Senate to consider President Obama’s nominee to replace Justice Scalia, citing the Thurmond rule, an inconsistently applied practice which posits that the senate will not confirm a Supreme Court nominee during a presidential election year except under certain circumstances.[156]

Ginsburg receiving the LBJ Liberty & Justice for All Award from Lynda Johnson Robb and Luci Baines Johnson at the Library of Congress in January 2020


In 2002, Ginsburg was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.[157] Ginsburg was named one of 100 Most Powerful Women (2009),[158] one of Glamour magazine’s Women of the Year 2012,[159] and one of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people (2015).[160] She was awarded honorary Doctor of Laws degrees by Willamette University (2009),[161] Princeton University (2010),[162] and Harvard University (2011).[163]

In 2009, Ginsberg received a Lifetime Achievement Award from Scribes–The American Society of Legal Writers.[164]

In 2013, a painting featuring the four female justices to have served as justices on the Supreme Court (Ginsburg, Sandra Day O’ConnorSonia Sotomayor, and Elena Kagan) was unveiled at the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.[165][166]

Researchers at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History gave a species of praying mantis the name Ilomantis ginsburgae after Ginsburg. The name was given because the neck plate of the Ilomantis ginsburgae bears a resemblance to a jabot, which Ginsburg was known for wearing. Moreover, the new species was identified based upon the female insect’s genitalia instead of based upon the male of the species. The researchers noted that the name was a nod to Ginsburg’s fight for gender equality.[167][168]

Ginsburg was the recipient of the 2019 $1 million Berggruen Prize for Philosophy and Culture.[169] Awarded annually, the Berggruen Institute stated it recognizes “thinkers whose ideas have profoundly shaped human self-understanding and advancement in a rapidly changing world”,[170] noting Ginsburg as “a lifelong trailblazer for human rights and gender equality”.[171] Ginsburg received numerous awards including the LBJ Foundation’s Liberty & Justice for All Award, the World Peace and Liberty Award from international legal groups, and a lifetime achievement award from Diane von Furstenberg‘s foundation all in 2020 alone.[172]

The Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles created an exhibition focusing on Ginsburg’s life and career exhibition in 2019 called Notorious RBG: The Life and Times of Ruth Bader Ginsburg.[173][174]

A poster depicting Ginsburg as “the Notorious R.B.G.” in the likeness of American rapper The Notorious B.I.G., 2018

In popular culture

Ginsburg has been referred to as a “pop culture icon”.[175][176][177] Ginsburg’s profile began to rise after O’Connor’s retirement in 2006 left Ginsburg as the only serving female justice. Her increasingly fiery dissents, particularly in Shelby County v. Holder570 U.S. 2 (2013), led to the creation of the Notorious R.B.G. Tumblr and Internet meme comparing the justice to rapper The Notorious B.I.G.[178] The creator of the Notorious R.B.G. Tumblr, then-law student Shana Knizhnik, teamed up with MSNBC reporter Irin Carmon to turn the blog into a book titled Notorious RBG: The Life and Times of Ruth Bader Ginsburg.[179] Released in October 2015, the book became a New York Times bestseller.[180] In 2015, Ginsburg and Scalia, known for their shared love of opera, were fictionalized in Scalia v. Ginsburg, an opera by Derrick Wang.[181]

Additionally, Ginsburg’s pop culture appeal has inspired nail art, Halloween costumes, a bobblehead doll, tattoos, t-shirts, coffee mugs, and a children’s coloring book among other things.[179][182][183][184] She appears in both a comic opera and a workout book.[184] Musician Jonathan Mann also made a song using part of her Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. dissent.[185] Ginsburg admitted to having a “large supply” of Notorious R.B.G. t-shirts, which she distributed as gifts.[186]

Since 2015, Kate McKinnon has portrayed Ginsburg on Saturday Night Live.[187] McKinnon has repeatedly reprised the role, including during a Weekend Update sketch that aired from the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland.[188][189] The segments typically feature McKinnon (as Ginsburg) lobbing insults she calls “Ginsburns” and doing a celebratory dance.[190][191] Filmmakers Betsy West and Julie Cohen created a documentary about Ginsburg, titled RBG, for CNN Films, which premiered at the 2018 Sundance Film Festival.[192][25] In the film Deadpool 2 (2018), a photo of her is shown as Deadpool considers her for his X-Force, a team of superheroes.[193] Another film, On the Basis of Sex, focusing on Ginsburg’s career struggles fighting for equal rights, was released later in 2018; its screenplay was named to the Black List of best unproduced screenplays of 2014.[194] English actress Felicity Jones portrays Ginsburg in the film, with Armie Hammer as her husband Marty.[195] Ginsburg herself has a cameo in the film.[196] The seventh season of the sitcom New Girl features a three-year-old character named Ruth Bader Schmidt, named after Ginsburg.[197] A Lego mini-figurine of Ginsburg is shown within a brief segment of The Lego Movie 2. Ginsburg gave her blessing for the cameo, as well as to have the mini-figurine produced as part of the Lego toy sets following the film’s release in February 2019.[198] Also in 2019, Samuel Adams released a limited-edition beer called When There Are Nine, referring to Ginsburg’s well-known reply to the question about when there would be enough women on the Supreme Court.[199]

Chief Justice John G Roberts, front center, poses in 2018 with, back row from left, Neil Gorsuch, Sonia Sotomayor, Elena Kagan, Brett M Kavanaugh and, front raw from left, Stephen Breyer, Clarence Thomas, Ginsburg and Samuel Alito copyright Jim Lo Scalzo/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock


Ginsburg with Senators Daniel Moynihan (left) and Joe Biden in 1993

Although they were on opposite sides of the ideological spectrum, Justice Antonin Scalia (left) and Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg had a professional respect for each other and a personal bond. Nina Totenberg, joined by intern Anthony Palmer, joined the two at a 2015 event.

Image from Nina Totenberg

PBS NewsHour Weekend Full Episode September 19, 2020

Sep 19, 2020  PBS NewsHour

 On this edition for Saturday, September 19, remembering Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg who died due to complications from Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer on Friday — and the political battle her election-year vacancy brings. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

Ruth Bader Ginsburg Swearing-In (1993)

Jul 8, 2016  clintonlibrary42

This is video footage of Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg being sworn in as Associate Supreme Court Justice. This footage is official public record produced by the White House Television (WHTV) crew, provided by the Clinton Presidential Library. Date: August 10, 1993 Location: East Room. White House. Washington, DC Access Restriction(s): unrestricted Use Restrictions(s): unrestricted Camera: White House Television (WHTV) / Main Local Identifiers: MT01028 This material is public domain, as it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. Any usage must receive the credit “Courtesy; William J. Clinton Presidential Library,” and no exclusive rights or permissions are granted for usage.

Announcement of Ginsburg as Supreme Court Justice Nominee

Apr 23, 2012  clintonlibrary42

This is video footage of President Clinton announcing the Ruth Bader Ginsburg as Supreme Court Justice nominee. This footage is official public record produced by the White House Television (WHTV) crew, provided by the Clinton Presidential Library. Date: June 14, 1993 Location: Rose Garden. White House. Washington, DC ARC Identifier: 6037153 Access Restriction(s): unrestricted Use Restrictions(s): unrestricted Camera: White House Television (WHTV) / Main Local Identifiers: MT00790 This material is public domain, as it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. Any usage must receive the credit “Courtesy; William J. Clinton Presidential Library,” and no exclusive rights or permissions are granted for usage.

Thanks to Wikipedia for the above information

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NBC Nightly News: With Lester Holt at 6:30 p.m. ET, & Harris Make First Appearance As Running Mates, Kamala Harris Makes History On 2020 Democratic Ticket, Aug 12, 2020 

ABC News: Biden, Harris make 1st appearance together as presidential ticket | WNT  Aug 12, 2020 

Wikipedia:  Kamala Harris Joe Biden Selects Kalama Harris as His Running Mate. BY CAROLINE HALLEMANN

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Watch “NBC Nightly News With Lester Holt” at 6:30 p.m. ET / 5:30 p.m. CT (or check your local listings). 00:00 Intro 01:27 Biden & Harris Make First Appearance As Running Mates 04:44 Kamala Harris Makes History On 2020 Democratic Ticket 08:27 Trump Sharpens Attacks Against Kamala Harris 10:54 Nearly 1,200 Students, Staff Quarantined In Georgia County 11:19 Growing Number Of students Forced To Quarantine 11:52 Study: Coronavirus Can Travel Indoors Up To 16 Feet 12:09 Stated Face Difficult Decisions On Reopening Schools 12:55 Train Derailment Leaves At Least Three Dead 13:40 Remote Learning Struggles For Students Learning English 15:16 Student With Special Need Face Online Learning Challenges » Subscribe to NBC News: » Watch more NBC video:

Biden, Harris make 1st appearance together as presidential ticket | WNT

Aug 12, 2020  ABC News

Former Vice President Joe Biden and Sen. Kamala Harris appeared together Wednesday afternoon in Wilmington, Delaware. WATCH THE FULL EPISODE OF ‘WORLD NEWS TONIGHT’: WATCH OTHER FULL EPISODES OF WORLD NEWS TONIGHT:… WATCH WORLD NEWS TONIGHT ON HULU: #WorldNewsTonight #JoeBiden #KamalaHarris

Kamala Harris

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kamala Harris

Harris in 2017
United States senator
Assumed office
January 3, 2017Serving with Dianne Feinstein
Preceded by Barbara Boxer
32nd Attorney General of California
In office
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2017


Personal details
Born Kamala Devi Harris

October 20, 1964 (age 55)
OaklandCaliforniaUnited States

Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Douglas Emhoff



m. 2014)

Children 2 stepchildren
Parents Donald J. Harris
Shyamala Gopalan
Relatives Maya Harris (sister)
Meena Harris (niece)
P.V. Gopalan (grandfather)
Education Howard University (BA)
University of California, Hastings (JD)
Website Campaign website

District Attorney of San Francisco

Attorney General of California

U.S. Senator from California

2020 presidential campaign

2020 vice presidential campaign

·         2003 campaign for District Attorney

Harris in 2004 with California Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi, who later twice became Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

  • Harris in 2004 with California
  • District Attorney of San Francisco (2004–2011)
  • Public safety
  • Felony conviction rate
  • Harris as San Francisco District Attorney
  • Harris inherited a 50% felony conviction rate from Hallinan when she took over in 2004. During her tenure, the felony conviction rate rose to 53% in 2005, to 66% in 2006, the highest in a decade.[51]The felony conviction rate continued to rise, reaching 76% in 2009.[52] Convictions of drug dealers increased from 56% in 2003, to 74% in 2006.[52]
  • Harris was re-elected in 2007 when she ran unopposed.[53]
  • Non-violent crimes
  • In summer 2005, Harris created a unit to tackle environmental crimes.[54]Harris filed charges against the Alameda Publishing Corporation, and two men hired by the company’s previous owner, for dumping hazardous printing ink in San Francisco’s Bayview Fifty-gallon buckets of hazardous ink were left overturned and leaking. The corporation and its publishers were charged with unlawful disposal and transportation of hazardous waste and with depositing of hazardous substances on a road.[55][56] The two men subsequently pleaded guilty, and were sentenced to probation.[56]
  • Violent crimes
  • In the early 2000s, the City and County of San Franciscomurder rate per capita drastically outpaced the national average. Within the first six months of taking office, Harris cleared 27 of 74 backlogged homicide cases by settling 14 by plea bargain and taking 11 to trial; with 9 convictions and 2 hung juries, she attained an 81% success rate. She took 49 violent crime cases to trial and secured 36 convictions, for an 84% success rate.[63] From 2004 to 2006, Harris achieved an 87% conviction rate for homicides and a 90% conviction rate for all felony gun violations.[64]
  • Kamala Harris created a special Hate Crimes Unit, focusing on hate crimesagainst LGBT children and teens in schools.[74] In early 2006, Gwen Araujo, a 17-year-old American Latina transgender teenager, was murdered by two men who later used the “gay panic defense” before being convicted of second-degree murder. Harris, alongside Araujo’s mother Sylvia Guerrero, convened a two-day conference of at least 200 prosecutors and law enforcement officials nationwide to discuss strategies to counter such legal defenses.[75] Harris subsequently supported A.B. 1160, the Gwen Araujo Justice for Victims Act, advocating that California’s penal code include jury instructions to ignore bias, sympathy, prejudice, or public opinion in making their decision, also making mandatory for district attorney’s offices in California to educate prosecutors about panic strategies and how to prevent bias from affecting trial outcomes.[76] In September 2006, California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed A.B. 1160 into law; the law put California on record as declaring it contrary to public policy for defendants to be acquitted or convicted of a lesser included offense on the basis of appeals to “societal bias”.[76][77]
  • In August 2007, state assemblyman Mark Lenointroduced legislation to ban gun shows at the Cow Palace, joined by Harris, Police Chief Heather Fong, and Mayor Gavin Newsom. City leaders contended the shows were directly contributing to the proliferation of illegal guns and spiking homicide rates in San Francisco: Mayor Newsom earlier that month signed into law local legislation banning gun shows on city and county property. Leno alleged that merchants drove through the public housing developments nearby and illegally sold weapons to residents.[78] While the bill would stall, local opposition to the shows continued until the Cow Palace Board of Directors in 2019 voted to approve a statement banning all future gun shows.[79]
  • Reform efforts
  • Recidivism and re-entry initiative
  • Death penalty

Attorney General of California (2011–2017)

2010 election

Main article: 2010 California Attorney General election

Official Attorney General portrait

On November 12, 2008, Harris announced her candidacy for California attorney general. Both of California’s senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, House speaker Nancy PelosiUnited Farm Workers cofounder Dolores Huerta, and Mayor of Los Angeles Antonio Villaraigosa all endorsed her during the primary.[99] In the June 8, 2010 primary, she was nominated with 33.6% of the vote, defeating Alberto Torrico and Chris Kelly.[100]

Significant cases and policies

Anti-truancy efforts

Visiting Peterson Middle School in 2010

In 2011, Harris urged criminal penalties for parents of truant children as she did as District Attorney of San Francisco, allowing the court to defer judgment if the parent agreed to a mediation period to get their child back in school. Critics charged that local prosecutors implementing her directives were overzealous in their enforcement and that Harris’s policy adversely affected some families.[105] In 2013, Harris issued a report titled “In School + On Track”, which found that more than 250,000 elementary school students in the state were “chronically absent” and that the statewide truancy rate for elementary students in the 2012–2013 school year was nearly 30 percent, at a cost of nearly $1.4 billion to school districts, since funding is based on attendance rates.[106]

Visiting Peterson Middle School in 2010

Law enforcement accountability

Criminal justice reform

Launch of Division of Recidivism Reduction and Re-Entry

Sentencing and prison inmate retention

Death penalty

Consumer protection

Fraud, waste, and abuse

Harris meets foreclosure victims in 2011.

In 2011, Harris announced the creation of the Mortgage Fraud Strike Force in the wake of the 2010 United States foreclosure crisis.[127] That same year, Harris obtained two of the largest recoveries in the history of California’s False Claims Act – $241 million from Quest Diagnostics and then $323 million from the SCAN healthcare network – over excess state Medi-Cal and federal Medicare payments.[128][129]

Privacy rights

LGBTQ rights

Opposing Prop 8

Public safety

Environmental protection

Attorney General Kamala Harris tours oil spill cleanup efforts.

Law enforcement

AG Harris touring the Fresno Regional DNA Laboratory

Sex crimes

In 2011, Harris obtained a guilty plea and a four-year prison sentence from a stalker who used Facebook and social engineering techniques to illegally access the private photographs of women whose social media accounts he hijacked.

Transnational criminal organizations

AG Harris announces the arrest of 101 gang members in Los Banos, California.

Obama appointment speculation

Kamala Harris with U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder

During Obama’s presidency, Harris was mentioned as a possible nominee for U.S. attorney general.[216] Harris publicly stated she was not interested in the job.[217]

After the death of Supreme Court justice Antonin Scalia in 2016, Harris was speculated to be his replacement as an associate justice of the Supreme Court.[218] However, as her campaign had already begun, Harris publicly stated she was only interested in running for the U.S. Senate and did not wish to be considered.[219]

U.S. Senate (2017–present)

2016 election

Main article: 2016 United States Senate election in California

Senate campaign logo, 2016

Harris at the Sorek Desalination Plant in Israe


Harris in Selma, 2018


Harris at SF Pride Parade 2019


Harris with Congressional Black Caucus women

Presidential campaign

Main article: Kamala Harris 2020 presidential campaign

Harris formally announcing her run for the Democratic nomination for president, January 27, 2019

Logo for Harris’ presidential campaign

On December 3, 2019, Harris withdrew from seeking the 2020 Democratic nomination, citing a shortage of funds.[295] In March 2020, Harris endorsed Joe Biden for president.[296]

Vice presidential campaign

Main articles: Joe Biden 2020 presidential campaign and 2020 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

Campaign logo for the Biden–Harris ticket

Awards and honors

Harris at Howard University in 2017

Honorary degrees

Harris gave the commencement address at the Howard ceremony.[312]

Personal life

Harris is married to attorney Douglas Emhoff, who was at one time partner-in-charge at Venable LLP‘s Los Angeles office.[321] They married on August 22, 2014, in Santa Barbara, California.[322] Harris is stepmother to Emhoff’s two children from his previous marriage.[323] As of August 2019, Harris and her husband had an estimated net worth of $5.8 million.[324] She is a member of Third Baptist Church of San Francisco, a congregation of the American Baptist Churches USA.[325][326][327]

Harris’s sister Maya Harris was an MSNBC political analyst, her brother-in-law Tony West is general counsel of Uber and a former United States Department of Justice senior official,[328] and her niece Meena Harris is the founder of the Phenomenal Women Action Campaign.


Harris has written two non-fiction books and one children’s book.[329][330]

For more information please visit the following link: Wikipedia:  Kamala_Harris

Joe Biden Selects Kalama Harris as His Running Mate

“I’ve decided that Kamala Harris is the best person to help me take this fight to Donald Trump and Mike Pence and then to lead this nation starting in January 2021,” Joe Biden said Tuesday.


AUG 11, 2020

Joe Biden and Kamala Harris speak after the Democratic Presidential Debate at Texas Southern University on September 12, 2019 in Houston.


Back in March, Joe Biden pledged that should he get the Democratic nomination, a woman would be his running mate. When asked during the debate in D.C., “How will your cabinet ensure the best advice on issues that affect women’s physical and financial health?” Biden committed to putting a woman on his ticket.

“If I’m elected president, my cabinet, my administration will look like the country, and I commit that I will, in fact, pick a woman to be vice president,” Biden says in the video above. “There are a number of women who are qualified to be president tomorrow. I would pick a woman to be my vice president.”

Bernie Sanders later dropped out of the race, leaving Biden as the presumptive Democratic nominee, but one question remained: who would he choose as his VP?

Today, we finally have an answer. This afternoon, the Biden camp confirmed that he has selected California senator Kamala Harris to be his running mate.

“I’ve decided that Kamala Harris is the best person to help me take this fight to Donald Trump and Mike Pence and then to lead this nation starting in January 2021,” Biden said Tuesday.

Harris, one of Biden’s former sparring partners, has been on a short list of VP contenders for weeks now. She made a name for herself during the debates, and while she doesn’t directly help Biden flip a swing state, having a person of color on the ticket is a key issue for many Democratic voters.

Last August, Biden said he was open to choosing a person of color as his running mate, suggesting it might be his preference. “Whomever I pick, preferably it will be someone who was of color and/or a different gender, but I’m not making that commitment until I know that the person I’m dealing with I can completely and thoroughly trust as authentic and on the same page [as me],” he said.

Below, a few of the other women who were thought to have been in the running for Biden’s VP.

For more information please visit the following link:

Kamala Harris: Some throwback photos from her childhood

Updated: August 12, 2020 10:31:26 pm

In a major breakthrough for Indian-Americans in US politics, Joe Biden has picked Senator Kamala Harris as his running mate to woo the Black voters and the influential Indian diaspora who could play a key role in his bid to defeat Donald Trump in the presidential election. In pic: Iris Finegan holds her great granddaughter, Kamala Harris, in Jamaica. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

This December 25, 1968 photo shows Kamala Harris with her sister, Maya, on Christmas. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

Kamala Harris as a child at her mother’s lab in Berkeley, California. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

This September 1966 photo provided by the Kamala Harris campaign shows her during a family visit to the Harlem neighborhood of New York. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

This November 1982 photo shows Kamala Harris, right, with Gwen Whitfield at an anti-apartheid protest during her freshman year at Howard University in Washington. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

In this April 1965 photo provided by the Kamala Harris campaign, Donald Harris holds his daughter, Kamala. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

In this undated photo provided by the Kamala Harris campaign in April 2019, Shyamala Gopalan Harris, 25, holds her baby, Kamala. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

Born to a Jamaican father and Indian mother, she often speaks of her deep bond with her late mother, whom she has called her single biggest influence. In pic: Kamala Harris with her mother, Shyamala, at a Chinese New Year parade in 2007. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

On Tuesday, Biden tapped California Sen. Kamala Harris to be his running mate, making her the first Black woman to serve on a major party presidential ticket. The Biden campaign has said it plans a rollout that blends the historic nature of Harris’ selection with the realities of the 2020 campaign and the gravity of the nation’s circumstances. (AP

For more information please visit the following link:

Who Is Kamala Harris’s Husband, Douglas Emhoff?

The entertainment lawyer just might be the sweetest political spouse on Twitter


AUG 11, 2020

He’s an entertainment lawyer.

California senator Kamala Harris has been with her husband Douglas Emhoff since 2013.


Though he was born in Brooklyn, New York, California has arguably had the biggest impact on Emhoff’s life. Hhe graduated from the University of Southern California’s Gould School of Law, and met and married his wife on the left coast, and it’s where he now works as a partner at DLA Piper Law Firm.

According to the company’s profile of him, Emhoff, “Represents large domestic and international corporations and some of today’s highest profile individuals and influencers in complex business, real estate and intellectual property litigation disputes.”

One such dispute, according to The Hollywood Reporter, had Emhoff representing the ad agency TBWA in an early 2000s lawsuit over the rights to the chihuahua featured in Taco Bell’s “Yo Quiero Taco Bell” ads.

The 54-year-old now reportedly splits his time between California and D.C., as well as traveling with his wife to help with her campaign. “With all this other stuff that’s happening in my life right now, it’s great to have [my practice,] because it’s something that I love and I’m good at,” he told THR.

For more information please visit the following link:

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Black Lives  Matter, PBS News, USA TODAY, CNN, MSNBC, The Young Turks, DW News, Brian Tyler Cohen,  ET Canada,  The Daily Show, The New York Times, TED Talks and Wikipedia

PBS News:  July 2 -5, 2020, #WashWeekPBS Full Episode: President Trump’s Declaration of Grievance, Washington Week,  The #WashWeekPBS Bookshelf: “Team of Five: The Presidents Club in the Age of Trump”,  Why a ‘feverish’ Arctic will affect everyone on the globe, Opioids, Inc. (full film) | FRONTLINE – FRONTLINE PBS | Official, and Name Your Favorite Firework!

USA TODAY: John Bolton on his new book “The Room Where it Happened” – FULL INTERVIEW

CNN: US setting records as Covid-19 cases soar, Trump disregards public health warnings for speech at Mt. Rushmore, Stelter: Trump’s Mt. Rushmore speech won’t make sense to most people, GOP governor: The numbers are glaring warning signs,

 MSNBC: Watch Rachel Maddow Highlights: July 1, ‘Trump Is A Threat To Our Nation’: Hundreds Of Ex-Staffers Under George W. Bush Endorse Biden, Speaker Pelosi: ‘The President Himself Is A Hoax’ | Stephanie Ruhle, Cal Perry On The Scene In South Dakota Prior To The Arrival Of President Trump | All In, Epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch on the Risks Americans Face with Reopening | All In, Elijah McClain’s ‘Greatest Crime Was Walking Home While Being Black’ | Stephanie Ruhle, and From Breonna Taylor To Elijah McClain, Rev. Al Sharpton Clues In On Cases Of Police Brutality

 The Young Turks: District Attorney: No Injuries To Elijah McClain

 DW News: Trump’s Mt. Rushmore 4th of July speech: Protesters want to ‘wipe out our history’

 Brian Tyler Cohen:  Top Trump official goes OFF THE DEEP END on national TV over COVID outbreak

 CBS News: Photos show officers reenacting chokehold on Elijah McClain

 ET Canada: Celebs React To ‘Justice For Elijah McClain’

 The Daily Show with Trevor Noah: Jordan Klepper vs. Trump Supporters

 The New York Times: Our Weekend Briefing, July 4, 2020 bRemy Tumin and David Scull

TED Talks: Katherine Eban A dose of realit about generic drugs and Rebecca Onie What if our health care system kept us healthy

Wikipedia: The History of America’s Independence Day

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode July 5, 2020

Jul 5, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Sunday, July 5, Fourth of July weekend sees a spike in COVID-19 cases, Jeff Greenfield on President Trump’s campaign strategy, opioid overdose is a hidden epidemic during the pandemic, and, ‘superspreaders:’ what they are and how they’re worsening the spread of COVID, according to scientists researching the disease. Hari Sreenivasan reports from Florida. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode July 4, 2020

Jul 4, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, July 4, Americans celebrate the holiday weekend amid a surge in COVID-19 cases and Black Lives Matter protests, criticism against Chicago police’s holiday weekend security plan, and an Israeli-Palestinian orchestra celebrates 20 years of intercultural harmony. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from Florida. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour full episode, July 3, 2020


Jul 3, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, the U.S. tops 50,000 new coronavirus infections for the second consecutive day as the Fourth of July weekend approaches. Plus: Hong Kong reels from China’s free speech crackdown, advertisers pressure Facebook to further regulate its content, a potential new name for the Washington, D.C., football team, Brooks and Capehart, a COVID-19 children’s book and in memoriam. Support your local PBS station here: WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS News Wrap: Khashoggi trial in absentia begins in Istanbul… Cities struggle to keep residents compliant as virus surges… Why this pro-democracy Hong Kong activist fled his home… Will advertiser boycott force Facebook to change policy?… A tipping point for Washington, D.C., football team’s name… David Brooks and Jonathan Capehart on coronavirus failures… A book that teaches children ‘Why We Stay Home’… In memory of 5 more U.S. victims of the coronavirus… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us:

PBS NewsHour full episode, July 2, 2020


Jul 2, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, the U.S. sees a record 50,000 new COVID-19 cases in a day as infections rise in 40 states. Plus: Nurturing the U.S. economy without fueling the pandemic, Hong Kong’s crackdown continues, President Trump’s rhetoric on race, a new twist in the Jeffrey Epstein sex abuse saga, a family textile business adapts to change and a Brief But Spectacular take on empowering community. Support your local PBS station here: WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS News Wrap: U.S. sees record 50,000 new virus cases in a day… Paul Romer on halting the pandemic to save the U.S. economy… What China’s Hong Kong crackdown says about Xi Jinping… Is Trump’s strategy of stoking racial tensions succeeding?… How voters view Trump’s handling of racial unrest, COVID-19… Ghislaine Maxwell’s arrest yields new twist in Epstein saga… How the pandemic is reshaping American manufacturing… A Chicago electrical worker on empowering her community… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

John Bolton on his new book “The Room Where it Happened” – FULL INTERVIEW | USA TODAY

Premiered Jun 26, 2020


John Bolton, the former national security adviser to President Donald Trump, talks with USA TODAY’s Washington Bureau chief Susan Page about his new book, “The Room Where It Happened.” RELATED: Watch Trump’s campaign rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma Bolton has gained national attention for his criticism of Donald Trump after spending nearly a year and half as the president’s top adviser on national security. Bolton continues his criticism and recounts for USA TODAY some instances in which he questioned Trump’s acumen, intelligence and dedication to issues of national security. Susan Page asks Bolton about the impeachment efforts led by House Democratic Party leadership, to which Bolton responds that he would have convicted Trump on Ukraine. But Bolton is not interested in supporting Joe Biden, or any other Democratic candidates in 2020. He plans to write-in a conservative of his own choosing. » Subscribe to USA TODAY: » Watch more on this and other topics from USA TODAY: » USA TODAY delivers current local and national news, sports, entertainment, finance, technology, and more through award-winning journalism, photos, videos and VR. #johnbolton #theroomwhereithappened #usatoday

#WashWeekPBS Full Episode: President Trump’s Declaration of Grievance

Jul 3, 2020  Washington Week

President Trump is speaking Friday night at Mount Rushmore, ahead of Independence Day.

The visit captures this president at this moment: turning to symbols from the past and rallying his base as his campaign faces mounting challenges. The panel also discussed reporting from multiple news organizations that Russia offered bounties to the Taliban to kill American and coalition troops in Afghanistan. Panel: Ayesha Rascoe of NPR, Weijia Jiang of CBS News, Peter Baker of The New York Times and Jonathan Swan of AXIOS

The #WashWeekPBS Bookshelf: “Team of Five: The Presidents Club in the Age of Trump”

Jul 3, 2020

Washington Week

On the Washington Week Extra, presidential historian Kate Andersen Brower discusses her newest book Team of Five: The President’s Club in the Age of Trump.

US setting records as Covid-19 cases soar

Jul 5, 2020  CNN

CNN’s Phil Mattingly looks into the latest numbers of the coronavirus pandemic as case counts continue to rise throughout the nation. #CNN #News

Watch Rachel Maddow Highlights: July 1 | MSNBC

Jul 2, 2020  MSNBC

Watch the top news stories and highlights from The Rachel Maddow Show, airing weeknights at 9 p.m. on MSNBC. » Subscribe to MSNBC: MSNBC delivers breaking news and in-depth analysis of the headlines, as well as informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and more. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit Subscribe to MSNBC Newsletter: Find MSNBC on Facebook: Follow MSNBC on Twitter: Follow MSNBC on Instagram: Watch Rachel Maddow Highlights: July 1 | MSNBC

Trump disregards public health warnings for speech at Mt. Rushmore

Jul 3, 2020  CNN

President Donald Trump will soon speak at Mt. Rushmore where masks are optional, and the crowd will not be social distancing. #CNN #News

Why a ‘feverish’ Arctic will affect everyone on the globe

Jun 25, 2020  PBS NewsHour

A historic heat wave is occurring in the Arctic, already the fastest-warming place on Earth due to the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases. Dr. Merritt Turetsky, director of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado Boulder, has studied the Arctic for decades. She joins William Brangham to discuss causes and consequences of the Arctic’s rising temperatures. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us:

Opioids, Inc. (full film) | FRONTLINE

Jun 18, 2020  FRONTLINE PBS | Official

Pushing opioids. Bribing doctors. Making millions. FRONTLINE and the Financial Times investigate how Insys Therapeutics profited from a fentanyl-based painkiller up to 100 times stronger than morphine — and how some Wall Street investors looked the other way. This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: “Opioids, Inc.” tells the inside story of how Insys profited from Subsys, a fast-acting fentanyl-based spray that’s been linked to hundreds of deaths. Tactics included targeting high-prescribing doctors and nurse practitioners known as “whales,” misleading insurers, and holding contests for the sales team: the higher the prescription doses they got doctors to write, the larger the cash prize — despite the dangers to patients. But as the documentary traces in unprecedented detail, the scheme fell apart: With federal prosecutors using anti-racketeering laws designed to fight organized crime, Insys became the first pharmaceutical company to have its CEOsentenced to prison timein federal courtin connection with the opioid crisis. #Opioids #OpioidCrisis #WallStreet Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available for you to watch any time:

‘Trump Is A Threat To Our Nation’: Hundreds Of Ex-Staffers Under George W. Bush Endorse Biden

Jul 4, 2020  MSNBC

Kristopher Purcell, a member of 43 Alumni for Biden, explains why hundreds of Republican ex-staffers under George W. Bush are coming together to endorse Joe Biden and says, “Donald Trump is a threat to our nation.”» Subscribe to MSNBC: MSNBC delivers breaking news, in-depth analysis of politics headlines, as well as commentary and informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, Meet the Press Daily, The Beat with Ari Melber, Deadline: White House with Nicolle Wallace, Hardball, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and more. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit Subscribe to MSNBC Newsletter: http://… Find MSNBC on Facebook: Follow MSNBC on Twitter: Follow MSNBC on Instagram: ‘Trump Is A Threat To Our Nation’: Hundreds Of Ex-Staffers Under George W. Bush Endorse Biden

Stelter: Trump’s Mt. Rushmore speech won’t make sense to most people

Jul 4, 2020  CNN

President Donald Trump used the backdrop of Mount Rushmore the night before the Fourth of July to deliver a speech to his base. CNN’s Brian Stelter examines the message of his speech. #CNN #News

GOP governor: The numbers are glaring warning signs

Jul 4, 2020  CNN

Experts are urging caution as Americans gather to celebrate the 4th of July. CNN’s Polo Sandoval reports. #CNN #News

Trump’s Mt. Rushmore 4th of July speech: Protesters want to ‘wipe out our history’

Jul 4, 2020  DW News

US President Donald Trump has kicked off Independence Day celebrations at an event in South Dakota. Fireworks lit up the sky over the Mount Rushmore monument which, in a controversial move, Trump chose as the venue for this year’s festivities. In a divisive speech, he criticized recent protests against racial injustice as “a merciless campaign to wipe out our history.” Trump made little reference to the coronavirus pandemic, though his speech came on a day the US saw another record rise in cases, with more than 57,000 new infections. Subscribe:… For more news go to: Follow DW on social media: ?Facebook:… ?Twitter: ?Instagram: Für Videos in deutscher Sprache besuchen Sie:… #Coronavirus #Trump #MountRushmore

Cal Perry On The Scene In South Dakota Prior To The Arrival Of President Trump | All In | MSNBC

Jul 3, 2020  MSNBC

MSNBC Correspondent Cal Perry is on the ground in South Dakota amidst protests for President Trump’s visit to mark the Fourth of July. Aired on 7/3/2020. » Subscribe to MSNBC: MSNBC delivers breaking news, in-depth analysis of politics headlines, as well as commentary and informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, Meet the Press Daily, The Beat with Ari Melber, Deadline: White House with Nicolle Wallace, Hardball, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and more. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit Subscribe to MSNBC Newsletter:

Epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch on the Risks Americans Face with Reopening | All In | MSNBC

Jul 3, 2020   MSNBC

As coronavirus cases continue to grow across the country, Harvard epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch discusses the risks of reopening and trajectory of the spread. Aired on 7/3/2020. » Subscribe to MSNBC: MSNBC delivers breaking news, in-depth analysis of politics headlines, as well as commentary and informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, Meet the Press Daily, The Beat with Ari Melber, Deadline: White House with Nicolle Wallace, Hardball, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and more.

Top Trump official goes OFF THE DEEP END on national TV over COVID outbreak

Jul 3, 2020  Brian Tyler Cohen

BREAKING: A top Trump official just went off the deep end on national TV over the COVID outbreak. Demand White House officials stop wasting time defending Trump’s lies, sign here ? Subscribe for more and follow me here: PODCAST: (or search for “No Lie with Brian Tyler Cohen” on your preferred podcast platform) TWITTER: INSTAGRAM:… FACEBOOK: PATREON: Please sign up for updates on my new projects below: Sources:…………

Photos show officers reenacting chokehold on Elijah McClain

Jul 3, 2020  CBS News

Several officers in Aurora, Colorado, have been fired over a photo that reenacted a chokehold their colleagues used on Elijah McClain, who died in police custody in 2019.

Celebs React To ‘Justice For Elijah McClain’

Jun 25, 2020  ET Canada

During “ET Canada Live”, Roz Weston, Graeme O’Neil and guest co-host Elamin Abdelmahmoud discuss the “Justice For Elijah McClain” call for action and the celeb reaction from Ellen DeGeneres and Klay Thompson. SUBSCRIBE to our channel:…

Elijah McClain’s ‘Greatest Crime Was Walking Home While Being Black’ | Stephanie Ruhle | MSNBC

Jun 26, 2020  MSNBC

Colorado’s governor has appointed a special prosecutor to investigate the death of Elijah McClain- 10 months after he died after an interaction with police. His family’s attorney Mari Newman joins Stephanie Ruhle to discuss the latest. Aired on 06/26/2020. » Subscribe to MSNBC:

District Attorney: No Injuries To Elijah McClain

Jun 26, 2020  The Young Turks

Colorado will investigate the death of Elijah McClain. Cenk Uygur and Ana Kasparian discuss on The Young Turks. Keep Hope (and TYT) Alive: Read more here:… “The Colorado governor has reopened the investigation into the death of Elijah McClain, who died after being placed in a chokehold by cops and being sedated with ketamine. Governor Jared Polis announced Thursday he has ordered prosecutors to reopen the inquiry into the black unarmed 23-year-old’s death after being ‘moved’ by speaking to the victim’s mother. He said the state ‘owe[s] it to his family to take this step’ and warned that charges could be brought against the officers involved – after the Colorado District Attorney earlier defended his decision not to charge the cops.” Hosts: Cenk Uygur, Ana Kasparian Cast: Cenk Uygur, Ana Kasparian

From Breonna Taylor To Elijah McClain, Rev. Al Sharpton Clues In On Cases Of Police Brutality

Jun 28, 2020  MSNBC

In this moment of protest, Rev. Al Sharpton gives an update on the individual cases that have sparked the new civil rights movement. » Subscribe to MSNBC: About: MSNBC is the premiere destination for in-depth analysis of daily headlines, insightful political commentary and informed perspectives. Reaching more than 95 million households worldwide, MSNBC offers a full schedule of live news coverage, political opinions and award-winning documentary programming — 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Jordan Klepper vs. Trump Supporters | The Daily Show

Jul 4, 2020  The Daily Show with Trevor Noah

What’s better than Jordan Klepper at a Trump rally? Here’s a compilation of his greatest hits: #TheDailyShow #JordanKlepper #TrevorNoah Subscribe to The Daily Show:… Follow The Daily Show: Twitter: Facebook: Instagram: Watch full episodes of The Daily Show for free:… Follow Comedy Central: Twitter: Facebook: Instagram: About The Daily Show: Trevor Noah and The Daily Show correspondents tackle the biggest stories in news, politics and pop culture. The Daily Show with Trevor Noah airs weeknights at 11/10c on Comedy Central.

The New York Times <> Our Weekend Briefing,

July 4, 2020

By Remy Tumin and David Scull


Good morning, and happy Independence Day.
We tend to pause at the end of December to recognize and reflect on the year’s most memorable moments. But six months into 2020, it feels as if we’ve already lived decades. And we still have a presidential election to get through.
The first three months of the year seem a distant memory, or as your Weekend Briefing writer likes to refer to it, “a time ago.” Here’s a recap of 2020 so far with some help from Times reporters and editors.

Abedin Taherkenareh/EPA, via Shutterstock
1. We started 2020 nearly going to war with Iran. Perhaps we should have taken that as a hint of the tumultuous year ahead.
Iran’s top security and intelligence commander was killed on Jan. 2 in a drone strike at Baghdad International Airport that President Trump authorized. Maj. Gen. Qassim Suleimani was the architect of nearly every significant operation by Iranian intelligence and military forces over the past two decades, claiming the lives of hundreds of Americans in Iraq.
General Suleimani’s killing propelled the U.S. to the precipice of war with Iran and plunged the world into seven days of roiling uncertainty. Online searches for “will there be a draft?” soared.
Earlier this week, Iran issued an arrest warrant for Mr. Trump and 35 others it says were involved in the general’s killing. Interpol, an international police organization, said it would not step in. — Remy
Doug Mills/The New York Times
2. Less than a week into the new year, John Bolton announced that he would be willing to testify in the Senate impeachment trial of President Trump.
It was a tantalizing prospect. Mr. Bolton, the former national security adviser, above in 2019, was privy to the inner workings of the White House. He was said to be deeply troubled by Mr. Trump’s efforts to pressure Ukraine, and had even written a memoir that, when it was finally released months later, divulged, as promised, much of the inside story.
The possibility of his testimony — and of an outcome that wasn’t a party-line acquittal — hung over the trial for weeks. But Republicans, who had endured countless hours of damaging testimony during the House investigation, had no interest in changing the rules of the trial to allow new witnesses.
The Senate voted against hearing from Mr. Bolton, and days later voted to acquit Mr. Trump. — Tom Wright-Piersanti, Briefings editor
Jordan Gale for The New York Times
3. From the beginning, it was always Joe Biden.
Sure, his chances of winning the Democratic presidential nomination looked shaky after devastating early defeats in Iowa, New Hampshire and Nevada. But his staunch support among Black voters powered a comeback in South Carolina. The one-two-three punch of support from Pete Buttigieg, Amy Klobuchar and Beto O’Rourke led to blowout victories on Super Tuesday, effectively spelling the beginning of the end of the competition.
Still, a primary field more than two dozen strong was nothing if not historic. The most women ever to run for president. The biggest age gap. The most racially diverse field. The first openly gay major presidential candidate.
But after three years of President Trump, Democratic voters proved themselves to be tired of the unprecedented. In 2020, the pragmatic outweighed the possible. — Lisa Lerer, political reporter
Tolga Akmen/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
4. It was the breakup heard around the world.
Prince Harry and Meghan delivered a jarring blow to Britain’s royal family when they announced on Jan. 8 that they would “step back” from their official duties. It was an extraordinary retreat by the couple, who had grown increasingly isolated within the House of Windsor since their wedding in 2018.
The couple did not originally have the queen’s approval for their plan to become part-time royals, and went rogue to get ahead of a leak. A deal with Buckingham Palace, which included giving up their royal titles, became official on March 31. Above, their last royal appearance.
They now live in Los Angeles with their son, Archie. — Remy
Jenna Schoenefeld for The New York Times
5. Kobe Bryant’s death in a helicopter crash plunged the N.B.A. — and seemingly much of the world — into a state of mourning that persists among the many fans and fellow athletes who idolized him.
The former Los Angeles Lakers star, 41, and his 13-year-old daughter, Gianna, were among nine people who died in the Jan. 26 accident, which occurred in foggy conditions on a hillside outside of Los Angeles.
Public memorials sprang up overnight, including one in the plaza outside Staples Center, the arena where Bryant had crafted so many singular moments for the Lakers over the course of his 20-year career. — Scott Cacciola, N.B.A. reporter

Brittainy Newman/The New York Times
6. A landmark #MeToo victory.
On March 11, Harvey Weinstein, the glorified producer who for years dominated Hollywood, was sentenced to 23 years in prison for sex crimes, effectively putting the 67-year-old behind bars for the rest of his life.
His sentencing capped a sharp downfall for the once-powerful media mogul that started in October 2017 when several women openly accused him of sexual assault and harassment, and fundamentally altered the perception of sex crimes and power dynamics. — Alisha Haridasani Gupta, gender reporter
Victor Moriyama for The New York Times
7. It first appeared in The Times on Jan. 6 as a “mysterious, pneumonialike illness” that had sickened a few dozen people in Wuhan, China.
Days later, Chinese researchers identified the source as a coronavirus. Two weeks later, the virus was on the front page of The Times as China scrambled to contain the contagion.
Then, time seemed to accelerate. Once-in-a-generation events began erupting one after the next.
Professional sports leagues around the world suspended seasons. Stocks plunged and a bear market emerged after 11 years in bull territory. The World Health Organization declared the virus a global pandemic. President Trump cut off travel from Europe.
And that was just March 11.
More than 10.9 million people have been sickened worldwide and more than half a million have died. Above, gravediggers in São Paulo, Brazil. In the U.S., the country hit hardest by the virus, a surge in new cases shows that the outbreak is spiraling out of control. And from what we can tell, the virus will most likely be with us for some time. — Jonathan Wolfe, Briefings writer
The New York Times
8. A pandemic does strange things to the economy.
The sharp, sudden drop in activity has produced one of the deepest recessions in history, and also perhaps the shortest. Indeed, it may already be over: The upswing in May and June, measured against the depths of March and April, make a range of economic indicators look as if they are soaring.
But compared with a year earlier, those same numbers reveal an economy that remains deep in a hole, with millions of jobs destroyed and billions in sales lost. The damage done will take a long time to repair, and reopenings that have been paused or rolled back may make things worse. — Jason Karaian, DealBook editor

9. Everything from work to theater moved online.
Sex work and sex content make an intriguing leading indicator about where both work and entertainment consumption are going.
This year we saw that our unhappy surprise always-at-home culture made opportunities of all kinds, for the kind of professional streaming sex performers pictured above, amateur dancers and entrepreneurs alike.
That will trickle down! Contributing strongly to that? More and more time spent online, the vast majority of that in apps. If you’re not watching TikTok and Instagram and listening to podcasts in the ways that we used to watch CBS and read Condé Nast magazines, the world is leaving you behind, sir or madam! (Fair, that may be a good choice.) — Choire Sicha, Styles editor
Diana Zeyneb Alhindawi for The New York Times
10. Which brings us to the current national unrest.
On Memorial Day, a graphic video captured the police killing of a Black man suspected of using a counterfeit $20 bill. What followed may be the largest movement in U.S. history.
George Floyd died after a white officer knelt on Mr. Floyd’s neck for more than eight minutes, ignoring his pleas of “I can’t breathe.” The phrase has been a part of scores of deaths in police custody, but this time, national outrage crested over the use of deadly police restraints and the treatment of African-Americans, sparking a deep examination of the country’s racist past and present.
It manifested in Black Lives Matter protests around the world, including the one above in New York City, with chants of Mr. Floyd’s name along with Breonna TaylorAhmaud ArberyRayshard Brooks and more; in corporate companies confronting enduring forms of racial discrimination; in the removal of statues and Confederate flags; and in police reform.
“A truly great country does not ignore or excuse its sins. It confronts them and then works to make them right,” Nikole Hannah-Jones wrote in The Times Magazine in her case for reparations. “If we are to be redeemed, if we are to live up to the magnificent ideals upon which we were founded, we must do what is just.”
If you’re celebrating this weekend, stay safe. You can find the full text of the Declaration of Independence here.
Did a friend forward you the briefing? You can sign up here.
What did you like? What do you want to see here? Let us know at
Browse our full range of Times newsletters here.

Investigative journalist Katherine Eban set out to report on a seemingly straightforward question: Are generic drugs really identical to their brand-name counterparts? The answer sparked a decade of interviews, meetings with whistleblowers, on-the-ground reporting across four continents and digging into confidential FDA documents. In this alarming talk, she takes us inside overseas manufacturing plants and exposes the fraud behind many low-cost generic medicines.

This video was produced by TEDMED. TED’s editors featured it among our daily selections on the home page.


Katherine Eban · Investigative journalist

Katherine Eban’s articles on pharmaceutical counterfeiting, gun trafficking and coercive interrogations by the CIA have won international attention.


Bottle of Lies: The Inside Story of the Generic Drug Boom

Katherine Eban

Ecco/HarperCollins (2020)

Dangerous Doses: A True Story of Cops, Counterfeiters, and the Contamination of America’s Drug Supply

Katherine Eban

Mariner Books (2006)

Rebecca Onie asks audacious questions: What if waiting rooms were a place to improve daily health care? What if doctors could prescribe food, housing and heat in the winter? At TEDMED she describes Health Leads, an organization that does just that — and does it by building a volunteer base as elite and dedicated as a college sports team.

This video was produced by TEDMED. TED’s editors featured it among our daily selections on the home page.


Rebecca Onie · Health innovator

Rebecca Onie is a nationally recognized leader in the intersection of social determinants, population health and health care delivery


Progress amidst large shifts in the US healthcare system

More funding and increased interest in addressing patients’ nonmedical needs has helped Rebecca Onie’s organization expand. Read more at the TEDMED blog.

More at ?


Join the movement for better healthcare with Health Leads.

Learn more ?

The History of America’s Independence Day and Name Your Favorite Firework!

 Photo of the “original Rough draught” of the Declaration of Independence courtesy of the Library of Congress.

“Taxation without representation!” was the battle cry in America’s 13 Colonies, which were forced to pay taxes to England’s King George III despite having no representation in the British Parliament. As dissatisfaction grew, British troops were sent in to quell the early movement toward rebellion. Repeated attempts by the Colonists to resolve the crisis without military conflict proved fruitless.

On June 11, 1776, the Colonies’ Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and formed a committee whose express purpose was drafting a document that would formally sever their ties with Great Britain. The committee included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. Jefferson, who was considered the strongest and most eloquent writer, crafted the original draft document (as seen above). A total of 86 changes were made to his draft and the Continental Congress officially adopted the final version on July 4, 1776.

The following day, copies of the Declaration of Independence were distributed, and on July 6, The Pennsylvania Evening Post became the first newspaper to print the extraordinary document. The Declaration of Independence has since become our nation’s most cherished symbol of liberty.

Bonfires and Illuminations

On July 8, 1776, the first public readings of the Declaration were held in Philadelphia’s Independence Square to the ringing of bells and band music. One year later, on July 4, 1777, Philadelphia marked Independence Day by adjourning Congress and celebrating with bonfires, bells and fireworks.

The custom eventually spread to other towns, both large and small, where the day was marked with processions, oratory, picnics, contests, games, military displays and fireworks. Observations throughout the nation became even more common at the end of the War of 1812 with Great Britain.

In June of 1826, Thomas Jefferson sent a letter to Roger C. Weightman, declining an invitation to come to Washington, D.C. to help celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. It was the last letter that Jefferson, who was gravely ill, ever wrote. In it, Jefferson says of the document:

“May it be to the world, what I believe it will be … the signal of arousing men to burst the chains … and to assume the blessings and security of self-government. That form, which we have substituted, restores the free right to the unbounded exercise of reason and freedom of opinion. All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. …For ourselves, let the annual return of this day forever refresh our recollections of these rights, and an undiminished devotion to them.”

– Thomas Jefferson
June 24, 1826 Monticello

Congress established Independence Day as a holiday in 1870, and in 1938 Congress reaffirmed it as a paid holiday for federal employees. Today, communities across the nation mark this major midsummer holiday with parades, firework displays, picnics and performances of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and marches by John Philip Sousa.

Name Your Favorite Firework!

Each year A Capitol Fourth strives to bring you the best fireworks display of any July Fourth celebration. But, did you know there are more than a dozen different types of aerial fireworks? Here are 10 examples of the pyrotechnics that you might see at this year’s celebration.

Independence Day celebrations on The Mall in Washington on July 4, 2008.


The most common type of firework, the peony shell is characterized by a spherical break of colored stars that burn without generating a trail of sparks, or tail effect.

Independence Day celebrations on The Mall in Washington on July 4, 2008.


Similar to a peony, a chrysanthemum has a spherical break of colored stars, though its stars leave behind a trail of sparks.

Independence Day celebrations on The Mall in Washington on July 4, 2008.


The willow resembles a chrysanthemum, but with long burning silver or gold stars that produce a soft, dome-shaped weeping willow-like effect.


As a type of peony or chrysanthemum, a diadem has a cluster of stationary stars at its center.


This shell contains a few large comet stars, which in bursting create large tendrils that give it the appearance of a palm tree.

Independence Day celebrations on The Mall in Washington on July 4, 2008.


A crossette produces stars that each break apart into four smaller stars, creating a crisscross effect.


The horsetail shell is identifiable by its break, which resembles a short tail.

Independence Day celebrations on The Mall in Washington on July 4, 2008.


A ring shell emits stars in a halo-like shape. Smiley faces, stars and other such identifiable shapes are common variants.

Roman Candle

A Roman candle is a long cylinder that can discharge either a single large star or a series of them between short intervals.

Photo courtesy of Matt Buck via Wikimedia Commons.


With a fuse that sets off a variety of effects in succession, a cake is essentially many Roman candles fused together. Cakes vary widely in size, though some can contain over 1,000 shots.

Photo courtesy of KSDigital via Wikimedia Commons.

Go to the top

PBS News, BBC News, Scientific American, TED Talks, Google, Wikipedia, Simon Kids, Abolitionist, Biography, Thisiscolossal, and Dezeen

PBS News: February 14 – 20, 2020

BBC News: How mattresses could solve hunger 

Scientific American: The month was our planet’s warmest ever recorded without an El Niño being present

TED Talks: Debbie  Millman How Symbols and brands shape our humanity?, Rayma Suprani dictators hate political cartoons so I keep drawing them#t-87937 and Patrick Chappatte A free world needs satire

Google, Wikipedia, Simon Kids , Abolitionist – Mini Bio: Susan B. Anthony

Biography: Grant Wood

Thisiscolossal: 50,000-Square-Foot Garden Populates New Workspace, Making It the Densest Urban Forest in Los Angeles and Food Artworks by Tatiana Shkondina & Sasha Tivanov

Dezeen: Second Home Hollywood – Architecture

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb 20, 2020

Feb 20, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, Trump associate Roger Stone is sentenced to 40 months in prison after a public drama involving commentary from President Trump. Plus: 2020 Democrats engage in a fiery Las Vegas debate, analyzing the 2020 Democratic race, Venezuela’s political dynamics a year after Juan Guaido tried to seize power, California’s homelessness problem and saving for retirement after job loss. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS Stone sentenced to 40 months in prison after DOJ drama… News Wrap: Germany reels from deadly shooting rampage… Bloomberg takes criticism at Democrats’ Las Vegas debate… 3 political experts on 2020 Democrats’ Las Vegas debate… A year after Guaido’s rise, Venezuelans wait for change… Can California solve its major problem with homelessness?… When older workers are laid off and can’t afford to retire… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb 19, 2020

Feb 19, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, six Democratic rivals face off in Las Vegas ahead of the Nevada caucuses. Also: A look at the billionaire businessman shaking up the presidential race, the world-wide spread of novel coronavirus, inhuman conditions grow bleaker in a Greek migrant camp, the melting block of ice threatening the world’s sea level and author Kevin Wilson on his new novel. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS News Wrap: Pentagon official resigns in impeachment fallout… What to watch as Democrats’ Nevada competition ramps up… What Bloomberg’s record means for his White House bid… People may be catching novel coronavirus without symptoms… Children yearn for peace in hellish Greek refugee camp… Visiting the ‘doomsday glacier’ that’s melting away… This novel makes fun of your child’s meltdown… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb 17, 2020

Feb 17, 2020

PBS NewsHour

Monday on the NewsHour, hundreds of American passengers are evacuated from cruise ships stranded by novel coronavirus in Asia. Plus: 2020 Democrats prepare for the Nevada caucuses, Politics Monday with Amy Walter and Tamara Keith, a migrant crisis builds on the Greek island of Lesbos, a book about presidential authors and the moment comedians Steve Martin and Martin Short became friends. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Snapchat: @pbsnews Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

Category  News & Politics

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode February 16, 2020

Feb 16, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Sunday, February 16, the 2020 Democratic presidential candidates turn to Nevada as early voting takes place ahead of the upcoming caucuses, a look back at the historic Baldwin-Buckley race debate and how it is still resonating, and in Arizona an experimental program is being used to battle a decades-long drought. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode February 15, 2020

Feb 15, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, February 15, new cases of the coronavirus decrease in China, early voting begins in Nevada’s caucuses, the intersection of politics and architecture in North Macedonia, the Trump administration plans to ramp up enforcement in sanctuary cities, and a vital tuna industry struggles to stay afloat amid a perfect storm of obstacles. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb 14, 2020

Feb 14, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, conflict looms over the Justice Department, as President Trump continues to tweet about pending cases. Plus: The U.S. reaches an agreement with the Taliban to wind down the war in Afghanistan, 2020 Democrats head south and west, political analysis with Mark Shields and Michael Gerson, consequences of Trump’s asylum policies and why young Brits are playing the cello. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS 2 former DOJ officials on Trump, Barr and the rule of law… News Wrap: Army says Vindman won’t be investigated… U.S., Taliban agree on short-term plan to pave way for peace… Nevada, South Carolina offer next tests for 2020 Democrats… Mark Shields and Michael Gerson on NH primary, Trump v. DOJ… What’s happening to asylum seekers forced to wait in Mexico… A 20-year-old classical cellist inspires other youth to play… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

How mattresses could solve hunger 

BBC News

Syrian refugees at Zaatari camp in Jordan and scientists from the University of Sheffield are working together to create a way to grow healthy, fresh food with nothing but water and old mattress foam.

These ‘recycled gardens’ use the mattresses in place of the soil, which solves two problems in one: It reuses the mountain of plastic mattresses that have piled up in the camp and it allows everyone to grow fresh food in a crowded, desert environment.

Victoria Gill has been to the camp in Jordan to see how it’s working.

Produced by Vanessa Clarke. Filmed and edited by Stephen Fildes.

12 Feb 2020

January 2020: Earth’s Warmest January on Record

The month was our planet’s warmest ever recorded without an El Niño being present

      By Jeff Masters on February 13, 2020

January 2020: Earth's Warmest January on Record

Fire and Rescue personnel run to move their truck as a bushfire burns on December 19, 2019 near Sydney, Australia. Fires in Australia were the most expensive weather-related disaster so far in 2020, with damages estimated in the billions by insurance broker Aon. Credit: David Gray Getty Images

January 2020 was the planet’s warmest January since record keeping began in 1880, said NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) on Thursday. Global ocean temperatures during January 2020 were the second warmest on record, and global land temperatures were the warmest on record. Global satellite-measured temperatures in January 2020 for the lowest 8 km of the atmosphere were the warmest or second warmest in the 42-year record, according to the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH) and RSS, respectively.

January 2020 had the fourth highest departure of temperature from average of any month since 1880. Only March 2016, February 2016 and December 2015 had a greater temperature departure. Impressively, the warmth of January 2020 came without an El Niño event being present. Furthermore, we are also near the nadir of one of the least active solar cycles in the past century–a time when it is more difficult to set global heat records, due to the reduced amount of solar energy Earth receives. Thus, the remarkable warmth of January 2020 is a strong reminder that human-caused global warming is the primary driver of our warming climate.

Departure of temperature from average

Figure 1. Departure of temperature from average for January 2020, the warmest January for the globe since record keeping began in 1880. Record warm January surface temperatures were present across parts of Scandinavia, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the central and western Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and Central and South America. No land or ocean areas had record cold January temperatures. Credit: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).


Two billion-dollar weather-related disaster hit the Earth last month, according to the January 2020 Catastrophe Report from insurance broker Aon:

U.S. severe weather outbreak: A powerful winter storm over central and eastern sections of the U.S. from January 10 – 12 killed 12 and did $1.2 billion in damage. The storm brought a multi-day severe weather outbreak to parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky and Georgia, with 79 confirmed tornadoes.

Australia wildfires: Intense heat and drought over much of Australia in January caused destructive wildfires blamed for billions of dollars in damages. The combined death toll for the 2019/20 Australia bushfire season stands at 34, with more than 5,900 homes and other structures destroyed. Guardian Australia has launched the first of six very impressive immersive multimedia features on climate change, reported through the experiences of people living through it in Australia. The first episode–on bushfires–is best viewed on a large screen (not mobile) with the sound on.


NOAA’s February 13 monthly discussion of the state of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) stated that neutral ENSO conditions existed, with neither an El Niño nor a La Niña event in progress. Over the past month, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the benchmark Niño3.4 region of the eastern tropical Pacific, though warmer than average, have been below the 0.5°C above-average threshold need to be considered El Niño conditions.

Forecasters at NOAA and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) are calling for a roughly 60% chance of neutral conditions continuing through Northern Hemisphere spring, and a 50% chance of continuing through summer. They put the odds of an El Niño event during the August-September-October peak of the hurricane season at 23%, and the odds of a La Niña event during that period at 33%.

Departure of temperature from average

Figure 2. Departure of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the benchmark Niño 3.4 region (in the equatorial Pacific) ending on February 13, 2020. Over the past month, SSTs were about 0.3°C above average, falling short of the 0.5°C above-average threshold need to be considered El Niño conditions. Credit: Levi Cowan,


Arctic sea ice extent during January 2020 was tied for eighth lowest in the 41-year satellite record, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The ice extent was higher than seen in recent years thanks to a strongly positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), which kept cold air bottled up in the Arctic. Antarctic sea ice extent in January 2020 was the tenth lowest on record.


Hottest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: 42.0°C (107.6°F) at Vicente Guerrero, Mexico, 21 January
Coldest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: -66.0°C (-86.8°F) at Geo Summit, Greenland, 3 January (dubious data)
Hottest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: 48.9°C (120.0°F) at Penrith, Australia, 4 January
Coldest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: -47.4°C (-53.3°F) at Concordia, Antarctica, 31 January

 (Courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera.)


Among global stations with a period of record of at least 40 years, 28 set new all-time heat records in January, and 3 set all-time cold records:

Canberra (Australia) max. 44.0°C, 4 January
Newcastle (Australia) max. 44.9°C, 4 January    
Katoomba (Australia) max. 39.8°C, 4 January   
Parramatta (Australia) max. 47.0°C, 4 January  
Bankstown (Australia) max. 47.0 °C, 4 January  
Taralga (Australia) max. 40.5°C, 4 January
Goulburn Airport (Australia) max. 42.0°C, 4 January  
Albury (Australia) max. 46.1°C, 4 January
Burrinjuck Dam (Australia) max. 45.0°C, 4 January  
Grenfell (Australia) max. 44.0°C, 4 January
Young (Australia) max. 44.9°C, 4 January  
Gundagai (Australia) max. 45.2°C, 4 January  
Cootamundra (Australia) max. 45.0°C, 4 January  
Temora (Australia) max. 46.4°C, 4 January
Narrandera (Australia) max. 47.4°C, 4 January  
Griffith (Australia) max. 47.2°C, 4 January
Calama (Chile) max. 31.2 °C, 12 January
Fraserburg (South Africa) max. 42.4°C, 16 January
Pofadder (South Africa) max. 43.0°C, 16 January
Willowmore (South Africa) max. 42.2°C, 16 January
Beaufort West (South Africa) max. 44.5°C, 16 January
Saint Raphael-Cargados Islands (Mauritius) max. 35.6°C, 9 January
Honiara Downtown (Solomon Islands) max. 35.4°C, 3 January
Veguitas (Cuba) min. 7.0 °C, 23 January
Pinares de Mayari (Cuba) min. 6.5°C, 23 January
Conakry Airport (Guinea) max. 38.0°C, 24 January
Kalewa (Myanmar) min. 6.6°C, 26 January
Cabramurra (Australia) max. 34.0°C, 31 January
Hobart Airport (Australia) max. 41.4°C, 31 January
Maydena (Australia) max. 38.2°C, 31 January
Gisborne (New Zealand) max. 38.2°C, 31 January

No all-time national heat or cold records have been set thus far in 2020.

(Courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera.)


As of February 13, 13 national monthly all-time heat records have been beaten or tied in 2020:

January (10): Norway, South Korea, Angola, Congo Brazzaville, Dominica, Mexico, Indonesia, Guinea Bissau, Gambia, Sao Tome and Principe

February (3): Spain, Antarctica, Azerbaijan

No monthly national cold records have been beaten or tied in 2020.

(Courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera.)


Highest minimum temperature ever recorded the Northern Hemisphere in January: 29.1°C (84.4°F) at Bonriki, Kiribati, 17 January.

Highest maximum temperature ever recorded in North America in January: 42.0°C (107.6°F) at Vicente Guerrero, Mexico, 21 January.

Highest temperature ever recorded in continental Antarctica and highest February temperature ever recorded in Antarctica plus the surrounding islands: 18.4°C (65.1°F) at Base Esperanza, 6 February.

(Courtesy of Maximiliano Herrera.)

The views expressed are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

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Jeff Masters

Jeff Masters worked as a hurricane scientist with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990. After a near-fatal flight into category 5 Hurricane Hugo, he left the Hurricane Hunters to pursue a safer passion–a 1997 Ph.D. in air pollution meteorology from the University of Michigan. In 1995, he co-founded the Weather Underground, and served as its chief meteorologist until the company was sold to the Weather Company in 2012. Since 2005, his Wunderblog (now called Category 6) has been one of the Internet’s most popular sources of extreme weather and climate change information, and he is one of the most widely quoted experts in the field. He can be reached at

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This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.


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TEDWomen 2019 | December 2019

“A political cartoon is a barometer of freedom,” says Rayma Suprani, who was exiled from her native Venezuela for publishing work critical of the government. “That’s why dictators hate cartoonists.” In a talk illustrated with highlights from a career spent railing against totalitarianism, Suprani explores how cartoons hold a mirror to society and reveal hidden truths — and discusses why she keeps drawing even when it comes at a high personal cost. (In Spanish with consecutive English translation)

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.


Rayma Suprani · Political cartoonist

An award-winning satirist, Venezuelan cartoonist Rayma Suprani’s life’s work is speaking truth to power — even when being outspoken comes at a steep price.

Check out more of Rayma Suprani’s political cartoons and graphic work.


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TEDWomen 2019 | December 2019

We need humor like we need the air we breathe, says editorial cartoonist Patrick Chappatte. In a talk illustrated with highlights from a career spent skewering everything from dictators and ideologues to selfies and social media mobs, Chappatte makes a resounding, often hilarious case for the necessity of satire. “Political cartoons were born with democracy, and they are challenged when freedom is,” he says.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.


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With simple lines and pointed jokes that skewer injustice, Patrick Chappatte’s editorial cartoons view the tragic, the farcical and the absurd through a lens of unfettered humor.

Susan B. Anthony

American women’s rights activist

Susan B. Anthony was an American social reformer and women’s rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women’s suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to social equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. Wikipedia

BornFebruary 15, 1820, Adams, MA

DiedMarch 13, 1906, Rochester, NY

Full nameSusan Brownell Anthony

SiblingsMary Stafford AnthonyDaniel Read AnthonyMORE


Men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less.

I declare to you that woman must not depend upon the protection of man, but must be taught to protect herself, and there I take my stand.

Independence is happiness.

Susan B. Anthony – Abolitionist | Mini Bio | BIO

Oct 17, 2012  Biography

Susan Brownell Anthony (February 15, 1820 to March 13, 1906), better known as Susan B. Anthony, was an American writer, lecturer and abolitionist who was a leading figure in the women’s voting rights movement. Raised in a Quaker household, Anthony went on to work as a teacher. She later partnered with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and would eventually lead the National American Woman Suffrage Association. #Biography Subscribe for more Biography: Delve deeper into Biography on our site: Follow Biography for more surprising stories from fascinating lives: Facebook – Instagram – Twitter – captures the most gripping, surprising, and fascinating stories about famous people: The biggest break. The defining opportunity. The most shattering failure. The unexpected connection. The decision that changed everything. With over 7,000 biographies and daily features that highlight newsworthy and compelling points-of-view, we are the digital source for true stories about people that matter. Susan B. Anthony – Abolitionist | Mini Bio | BIO…

Rating  No mature content   Category  Entertainment

Susan B. Anthony, Fighter for Women’s Rights!

Mar 9, 2017 Simon Kids

Susan B. Anthony knew from a young age that women deserved the same rights as men, especially the right to vote! Read along as Susan strives for equality through delivering speeches, handing in a new declaration to Congress and even getting arrested! Come #readalong with us in SUSAN B. ANTHONY, FIGHTER FOR WOMEN’S RIGHTS by Deborah Hopkinson! To find more great Ready-to-Read books visit .


WRITTEN BY: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

LAST UPDATED: Feb 9, 2020 See Article History

Grant Wood, (born February 13, 1891, near Anamosa, Iowa, U.S.—died February 12, 1942, Iowa City, Iowa), American painter who was one of the major exponents of Midwestern Regionalism, a movement that flourished in the United States during the 1930s.

Wood was trained as a craftsman and designer as well as a painter. After spending a year (1923) at the Académie Julian in Paris, he returned to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where in 1927 he was commissioned to do a stained-glass window. Knowing little about stained glass, he went to Germany to seek craftsmen to assist him. While there he was deeply influenced by the sharply detailed paintings of various German and Flemish masters of the 16th century. Wood subsequently abandoned his Impressionist style and began to paint in the sharply detailed, realistic manner by which he is now known.

A portrait of his mother in this style, Woman with Plants (1929), did not attract attention, but in 1930 his American Gothic caused a sensation when it was exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago. The hard, cold realism of this painting and the honest, direct, earthy quality of its subject were unusual in American art. The work ostensibly portrays a farmer and his daughter—modelled for Wood by his dentist, B.H. McKeeby, and Wood’s sister, Nan—in front of their farmhouse. As a telling portrait of the sober and hardworking rural dwellers of the Midwest, the painting has become one of the best-known icons of American art.

American Gothic, oil on beaverboard by Grant Wood, 1930; in the Art Institute of Chicago.

American Gothic, oil on beaverboard by Grant Wood, 1930; in the Art Institute of Chicago.SuperStock

The meaning of American Gothic has been subjected to scrutiny since Wood painted it. Was it meant to be an homage to the strong values in the Midwest or was it a satire? Is it a husband and wife or a father and daughter? Wood’s own statements on its meaning were wishy-washy, leading to further ambiguity and debate. Open to so much interpretation, the American Gothic trope lent itself to countless parodies in popular culture as well as in the political arena, in advertisements, in television shows such as The Simpsons, in albums, in comic books, on magazine covers, and by Jim Henson’s Muppets.

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Wood became one of the leading figures of the Regionalist movement.

Daughters of Revolution

Painting by Grant Wood

Daughters of Revolution is a painting by American artist Grant Wood; he claimed it as his only satire. Wikipedia

ArtistGrant Wood





Dimensions50.8 cm × 101.4 cm (20.0 in × 39.9 in)

Another well-known painting by him is Daughters of Revolution (1932), a satirical portrait of three unattractive old women who appear smugly satisfied with their American Revolutionary ancestry. In 1934 Wood was made assistant professor of fine arts at the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Among his other principal works are several paintings illustrating episodes from American history and a series of Midwestern rural landscapes that communicate a strong sense of American ambience by means of a skillful simplification of form.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Naomi Blumberg, Assistant Editor.

LEARN MORE in these related Britannica articles:

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Stained glass window designed by Grant Wood in the Veterans Memorial Building, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.  Clarknova

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Grant Wood American Gothic Paintings,  Art…

From 1920 to 1928 he made four trips to Europe, where he studied many styles of painting, especially impressionism and post- impressionism. Influenced by the work of Jan Van Eyck. From 1924 to 1935 he lived in the loft of a carriage house that he turned into his personal studio Wood helped found the Stone City Art Colony near his hometown to help artists get through the Great Depression. He became a great proponent of regionalism in the arts.

50,000-Square-Foot Garden Populates New Workspace, Making It the Densest Urban Forest in Los Angeles


Designed by Spanish architects SelgasCano, a Los Angeles workspace has popped up in a formerly empty parking lot in Hollywood. The recently opened SecondHome Hollywood boasts a 50,000-square-foot garden of 6,500 trees and plants and 700 tons of soil and vegetation. It is Los Angeles’s densest urban forest and is also home to 112 native species.

The Hollywood location, which is the first in the United States, contains sixty yellow-roofed office pods. It also encompasses the Anne Banning Community House, a ’60s building designed by prominent architect Paul Williams who is known for defining much of Los Angeles’s architectural aesthetic throughout the 20th century. (via Jeroen Apers)

Second Home Hollywood | Architecture | Dezeen

•Dec 4, 2019  Dezeen

Second Home Hollywood, the first US location from the British co-working company, is revealed in this captioned video produced by Dezeen for Second Home. Spanish architecture practice SelgasCano transformed a former Hollywood parking-lot into a sprawling co-working complex that will house 250 companies. It has previously worked with Second Home to create other spaces in London and Lisbon. In Los Angeles, the architects filled the site with sixty oval-shaped office pods of varying sizes, which are topped with bright-yellow rooftops that resemble a cluster of lily pads when seen from above. The site has been populated with more than 6,500 plants and trees from 112 species native to Los Angeles, in order to create a tranquil working environment for members. The site also incorporates the former Anne Banning Community House, a historic 1960s building which SelgasCano renovated to accommodate 30 additional office spaces for Second Home members. Read more on Dezeen: WATCH NEXT: Watch our talk with Thomas Heatherwick from Second Home LA – Subscribe to our YouTube channel for the latest architecture and design movies: Like Dezeen on Facebook: Follow Dezeen on Twitter: Follow us on Instagram: Check out our Pinterest:

Category  Entertainment

Food Artworks by Tatiana Shkondina & Sasha Tivanov

Published Oct 3, 2017

Food stylist Tatiana Shkondina and photographer Sasha Tivanov worked in collaboration to produce incredible food artworks inspired by famous paintings.

More food art via Behance

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How We Need To Take Care Of Our Oceans and Coral Reefs

Wikipedia: Coral Reef

TED Talks: Laura Robinson – Mysterious ocean floor,

Kristen Marhaver – Re growing baby corals to rebuild reefs, David Gallo –   Shows underwater astonishments and Margaret Wertheim – Crochets the coral reef

Gallery: Rebekah Barnett What happens when you mix math, coral and crochet? It’s mind-blowing

Biodiversity of a coral reef

A Blue Starfish (Linckia laevigata) resting on hard Acropora and Porites corals (one can also see Anthiinae fish and crinoids). Lighthouse, Ribbon Reefs, Great Barrier Reef.

Copyright (c) 2004 Richard Ling

Coral reef  Marine habitats

A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals. Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps held together by calcium carbonate. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, whose polyps cluster in groups.

Coral belongs to the class Anthozoa in the animal phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones and jellyfish. Unlike sea anemones, corals secrete hard carbonate exoskeletons that support and protect the coral. Most reefs grow best in warm, shallow, clear, sunny and agitated water.

Often called “rainforests of the sea”, shallow coral reefs form some of Earth’s most diverse ecosystems. They occupy less than 0.1% of the world’s ocean area, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for at least 25% of all marine species,[1][2][3][4] including fish, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms, sponges, tunicates and other cnidarians.[5] Coral reefs flourish in ocean waters that provide few nutrients. They are most commonly found at shallow depths in tropical waters, but deep water and cold water coral reefs exist on smaller scales in other areas.

Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services for tourism, fisheries and shoreline protection. The annual global economic value of coral reefs is estimated between US$30–375 billion[6][7] and 9.9 trillion USD.[8] Coral reefs are fragile, partly because they are sensitive to water conditions. They are under threat from excess nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), rising temperatures, oceanic acidification, overfishing (e.g., from blast fishing, cyanide fishing, spearfishing on scuba), sunscreen use,[9] and harmful land-use practices, including runoff and seeps (e.g., from injection wells and cesspools).[10][11][12]


Close up of polyps arrayed on a coral, waving their tentacles. There can be thousands of polyps on a single coral branch.

pakmat – [1]

Coral detail

Diagram of a coral polyp anatomy.

NOAA – NOAA website

Anatomy of a coral polyp.

When alive, corals are colonies of small animals embedded in calcium carbonate shells. Coral heads consist of accumulations of individual animals called polyps, arranged in diverse shapes.[57] Polyps are usually tiny, but they can range in size from a pinhead to 12 inches (30 cm) across.

Reef-building or hermatypic corals live only in the photic zone (above 50 m), the depth to which sufficient sunlight penetrates the water.

Table coral.

Yumi Yasutake, NOAA –

Table coral of genus Acropora (Acroporidae) at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Typical shapes for coral species are named by their resemblance to terrestrial objects such as wrinkled brains, cabbages, table tops, antlers, wire strands and pillars. These shapes can depend on the life history of the coral, like light exposure and wave action,[64] and events such as breakages.[65]


Corals reproduce both sexually and asexually. An individual polyp uses both reproductive modes within its lifetime. Corals reproduce sexually by either internal or external fertilization. The reproductive cells are found on the mesenteries, membranes that radiate inward from the layer of tissue that lines the stomach cavity. Some mature adult corals are hermaphroditic; others are exclusively male or female. A few species change sex as they grow.

Internally fertilized eggs develop in the polyp for a period ranging from days to weeks. Subsequent development produces a tiny larva, known as a planula. Externally fertilized eggs develop during synchronized spawning. Polyps across a reef simultaneously release eggs and sperm into the water en masse. Spawn disperse over a large area. The timing of spawning depends on time of year, water temperature, and tidal and lunar cycles. Spawning is most successful given little variation between high and low tide. The less water movement, the better the chance for fertilization. Ideal timing occurs in the spring. Release of eggs or planula usually occurs at night, and is sometimes in phase with the lunar cycle (three to six days after a full moon). The period from release to settlement lasts only a few days, but some planulae can survive afloat for several weeks. They are vulnerable to predation and environmental conditions. The lucky few planulae that successfully attach to substrate then compete for food and space.[citation needed]

Other reef builders

Corals are the most prodigious reef-builders. However many other organisms living in the reef community contribute skeletal calcium carbonate in the same manner as corals. These include coralline algae and some sponges.[66] Reefs are always built by the combined efforts of these different phyla, with different organisms leading reef-building in different geological periods.[citation needed]

Coralline algae

Corraline algae Lithothamnion sp.

Philippe Bourjon – The uploader on Wikimedia Commons received this from the author/copyright holder.

Une algue corallinale Lithothamnion sp. à la Réunion.

Coralline algae are important contributors to reef structure. Although their mineral deposition-rates are much slower than corals, they are more tolerant of rough wave-action, and so help to create a protective crust over those parts of the reef subjected to the greatest forces by waves, such as the reef front facing the open ocean. They also strengthen the reef structure by depositing limestone in sheets over the reef surface.[citation needed]


Deep-water cloud sponge

Deep-water cloud sponge

Caption:Aphrocallistes vastus. Cloud sponges are found down around 100′ in areas with little or no current. They are very fragile, as they are made out of tiny glass crystals (hydrated silica dioxide).

Sclerosponge” is the descriptive name for all Porifera that build reefs. In the early Cambrian period, Archaeocyatha sponges were the world’s first reef-building organisms, and sponges were the only reef-builders until the Ordovician. Sclerosponges still assist corals building modern reefs, but like coralline algae are much slower-growing than corals and their contribution is (usually) minor.[citation needed]

In the northern Pacific Ocean cloud sponges still create deep-water mineral-structures without corals, although the structures are not recognizable from the surface like tropical reefs. They are the only extant organisms known to build reef-like structures in cold water.[citation needed]

Gallery of reef-building corals and their reef-building assistants

Brain coral

Staghorn Coral (Acropora cervicornis), possibly affected by White-Band disease, at Red Beryl

Staghorn coral

Adona9 at the English Wikipedia

Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis)

Spiral wire coral

Spiral wire coral

Nhobgood Nick Hobgood – Own work

Cirripathes sp. Spiral wire coral – Black coral

Pillar coral

Mushroom coral

Brocken Inaglory – Own work

Plate coral (Fungia sp.). The picture was taken in Papua New Guinea

Maze coral

Nhobgood Nick Hobgood – Own work

English: Meandrina meandrites (Maze Coral

Black coral

Aaron from Washington, DC, United States – black coral

it’s white underwater, but turns black when dried. used for jewelry

Fluorescent coral[67]

Daderot – Own work

Exhibit in the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey County, California, USA

Corraline algae Mesophyllum sp.

Philippe Bourjon – The uploader on Wikimedia Commons received this from the author/copyright holder.

Une algue coralline du genre Mesophyllum à la Réunion.

Encrusting corraline algae

Philippe Bourjon – Don de l’auteur

Une algue encroûtante de la famille des Corallinaceae à la Réunion.

coralline algae Corallina officinalis

Gabriele Kothe-Heinrich – Own work

Corallina officinalis L., herbarium sheet. Collected 1985-09-10, Heligoland (Germany)

Coral reefs often depend on surrounding habitats, such as seagrass meadows and mangrove forests, for nutrients. Seagrass and mangroves supply dead plants and animals that are rich in nitrogen and serve to feed fish and animals from the reef by supplying wood and vegetation. Reefs, in turn, protect mangroves and seagrass from waves and produce sediment in which the mangroves and seagrass can root.[49]


Tube sponges attracting cardinal fishesglassfishes and wrasses

Nhobgood Nick Hobgood – Own work

Callyspongia sp. (Tube sponge) attracting cardinal fishes, golden sweepers and wrasses.

Over 4,000 species of fish inhabit coral reefs.

Fascinating Universe – Own work

Coral Reef

C Organisms can cover every square inch of a coral reef.

Photo courtesy of Terry Hughes. – Beyond Neutrality—Ecology Finds Its Niche. Gewin V, PLoS Biology Vol. 4/8/2006, e278 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040278

Diverse Coral Reef Systems Serve As Ideal Experiments for Niche and Neutral Theories. Organisms cover every square inch of coral reef, which led many to believe that their limited potential to partition resources into niches would make them a prime example of neutral dynamics. In fact, species diversity was more variable than would be assumed by neutral theory.

oral reefs form some of the world’s most productive ecosystems, providing complex and varied marine habitats that support a wide range of other organisms.[103][104] Fringing reefs just below low tide level have a mutually beneficial relationship with mangrove forests at high tide level and sea grass meadows in between: the reefs protect the mangroves and seagrass from strong currents and waves that would damage them or erode the sediments in which they are rooted, while the mangroves and sea grass protect the coral from large influxes of silt, fresh water and pollutants. This level of variety in the environment benefits many coral reef animals, which, for example, may feed in the sea grass and use the reefs for protection or breeding.[105]


Island with fringing reef off YapMicronesia[134]

Mr. Ben Mieremet, Senior Advisor OSD, NOAA – Taken from

Portion of a Pacific atoll (Yap) showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon.

See also: Environmental issues with coral reefs and Coral bleaching

Coral reefs are dying around the world.[134] In particular, runoff, pollution, overfishing, blast fishing, disease, invasive species, overuse by humans and coral mining and the digging of canals and access into islands and bays are localized threats to coral ecosystems. Broader threats are sea temperature rise, sea level rise and ocean acidification, all associated with greenhouse gas emissions.[135] Other threats include the ocean’s role as a carbon dioxide sink, atmospheric changes, ultraviolet light, ocean acidification, viruses, impacts of dust storms carrying agents to far-flung reefs, and algal blooms.

Air pollution can stunt the growth of coral reefs; including coal-burning and volcanic eruptions.[136] Pollutants, such as Tributyltin, a biocide released into water from anti-fouling paint can be toxic to corals.


A diversity of corals

Toby Hudson – Own work

A variety of corals form an outcrop on Flynn Reef, part of the Great Barrier Reef near Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are designated areas that provide various kinds of protection to ocean and/or estuarine areas. They are intended to promote responsible fishery management and habitat protection. MPAs can encompass both social and biological objectives, including reef restoration, aesthetics, biodiversity and economic benefits.

For more information please visit the following link:

Hundreds of meters below the surface of the ocean, Laura Robinson probes the steep slopes of massive undersea mountains. She’s on the hunt for thousand-year-old corals that she can test in a nuclear reactor to discover how the ocean changes over time. By studying the history of the earth, Robinson hopes to find clues of what might happen in the future.

This talk was presented to a local audience at TEDxBrussels, an independent event. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

About the speaker

Laura Robinson · Ocean scientist

Dr. Laura Robinson’s scientific mission is to document and understand the processes that govern climate.

About TEDx

TEDx was created in the spirit of TED’s mission, “ideas worth spreading.” It supports independent organizers who want to create a TED-like event in their own community.

Find a TEDx event near you ?


TEDxBrussels | December 2014

Kristen Marhaver studies corals, tiny creatures the size of a poppyseed that, over hundreds of slow years, create beautiful, life-sustaining ocean structures hundreds of miles long. As she admits, it’s easy to get sad about the state of coral reefs; they’re in the news lately because of how quickly they’re bleaching, dying and turning to slime. But the good news is that we’re learning more and more about these amazing marine invertebrates — including how to help them (and help them help us). This biologist and TED Senior Fellow offers a glimpse into the wonderful and mysterious lives of these hard-working and fragile creatures.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Kristen Marhaver · Coral reef biologist

TED Senior Fellow Kristen Marhaver is a marine biologist studying the ecology, behavior and reproduction of reef corals.

More Resources

Further reading

Mission Blue II

Learn more about the TED-at-sea hosted by TED Prize winner Sylvia Earle.

More at ?

Under the sea

Watch more TED Talks about the wonder of our oceans — and the threats facing them.

More at ?


Mission Blue II | October 2015

David Gallo shows jaw-dropping footage of amazing sea creatures, including a color-shifting cuttlefish, a perfectly camouflaged octopus, and a Times Square’s worth of neon light displays from fish who live in the blackest depths of the ocean. This short talk celebrates the pioneering work of ocean explorers like Edith Widder and Roger Hanlon.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

David Gallo · Oceanographer

A pioneer in ocean exploration, David Gallo is an enthusiastic ambassador between the sea and those of us on dry land.

TED2007 | March 2007

Margaret Wertheim leads a project to re-create the creatures of the coral reefs using a crochet technique invented by a mathematician — celebrating the amazements of the reef, and deep-diving into the hyperbolic geometry underlying coral creation.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Margaret Wertheim · Figurer

By masterminding a project to model a coral reef armed only with crochet hooks, Margaret Wertheim hopes to bring some of the most complicated mathematical models embodied in our universe into the minds (and hands) of the masses.

Margaret Wertheim

By masterminding a project to model a coral reef armed only with crochet hooks, Margaret Wertheim hopes to bring some of the most complicated mathematical models embodied in our universe into the minds (and hands) of the masses.

Why you should listen

Snowflakes, fractals, the patterns on a leaf — there’s beauty to be found at the intersection of nature and physics, beauty and math. Science writer Margaret Wertheim (along with her twin sister, Christine) founded the Institute for Figuring to advance the aesthetic appreciation of scientific concepts, from the natural physics of snowflakes and fractals to human constructs such as Islamic mosaics, string figures and weaving.

The IFF’s latest project is perhaps its most beguilingly strange — a coral reef constructed entirely by crochet hook, a project that takes advantage of the happy congruence between the mathematical phenomena modeled perfectly by the creatures of the reef,  and repetitive tasks such as crocheting — which, as it turns out, is perfectly adapted to model hyperbolic space. It is easy to sink into the kaleidoscopic, dripping beauty of the yarn-modeled reef, but the aim of the reef project is twofold: to draw attention to distressed coral reefs around the world, dying in droves from changing ocean saline levels, overfishing, and a myriad of threats; and to display a flavor of math that was previously almost impossible to picture. By modeling these complex equations in physical space, this technique can help mathematicians see patterns and make breakthroughs.

Wertheim is now working on a book about maverick scientist James Carter.

What others say

“Margaret Wertheim might technically fall under the oh-so-banal title of a science communicator. But this fiery Australian native has roamed far beyond the standard definition of one who just talks about science.” — Kristin Abkemeier, Inkling Magazine

Gallery: Rebekah BarnettWhat happens when you mix math, coral and crochet? It’s mind-blowing

Gallery: What happens when you mix math, coral and crochet? It’s mind-blowing

Jan 31, 2017 / Rebekah Barnett

How two Australian sisters channeled their love of STEM and coral reefs into the most glorious participatory art project.

“We’re used to thinking about math as something you have to learn through textbooks and equations,” says science writer Margaret Wertheim. But through their Institute for Figuring, she and her sister, Christine, have made it their mission to help people see math and science differently by finding hands-on ways to engage them with abstract concepts. Among their efforts: the mesmerizing Crochet Coral Reef. Why crochet and coral? Many reef organisms are living examples of a complicated form of geometry, and crocheting their shapes allows people to work with geometric principles in a tactile way.

Started in 2007, the Wertheims’ reef grew out of the Australian sisters’ many interests: their passion for math and science; shared fondness for crochet; love of their country’s Great Barrier Reef and desire to highlight global warming’s impact on coral reefs and oceans in general. Today the Crochet Coral Reef is made up of thousands of handcrafted corals and reef organisms — created by a network of contributors — that Margaret and Christine, an artist and professor, have curated into displays that have been exhibited worldwide. Here, Margaret Wertheim shares some of the amazing organisms created for their project and shows how their crocheted reef has grown and evolved over the years.

Photo: Institute For Figuring.

Math like you’ve never seen it before

Many reef organisms, like nudibranches, sponges and kelps, possess structures that embody a head-scratching form of geometry called hyperbolic geometry. Hyperbolic geometry was discovered in the 19th century, revolutionizing the field of mathematics and eventually paving the way for Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Yet physical and durable hyperbolic models that would allow people to explore hyperbolic geometry in a tactile way did not exist until 1997 when Dr. Daina Taimina, a mathematician at Cornell, realized forms could be made using crochet. To create this 18-inch-long hyperbolic shape, artist Siew Chu Kerk followed Taimina’s formula pretty exactly, says Wertheim, “which is crochet n stitches, increase one and then repeat that ad infinitum.”

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

They’re more than hyperbolic 

The Wertheim sisters first called their project the Hyperbolic Crochet Coral Reef, but they quickly realized that in order to capture the full beauty of this special ecosystem, they’d need to include organisms that lacked hyperbolic features. Some reef creatures have only a few hyperbolic parts (and some display no hyperbolic geometry at all).  For example, the curlicues at the end of this octopus-like creature’s tentacles and its center are hyperbolic shapes, Wertheim says, but other elements of this organism, like the long parts of the tentacles, are not. Helen Bernasconi, an early contributor to the project and a rug weaver by trade, sheared, spun and dyed wool from her own sheep to make this piece.

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

Bringing art into the equation

While this delightful pastel creation, made by Vonda N. McIntyre, is a crocheted replica of fingerling coral, not all contributors hew so closely to reality. This was a deliberate artistic choice on the part of the Wertheim sisters. “Just as a painter is painting a landscape and doesn’t want to produce a photocopy of it, we want to be like Van Gogh, Cézanne or Monet,” says Wertheim. “We’re trying to look at the world and produce a beautiful aesthetic version.”

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

A branching network of makers

This kelp piece shows the technical skill of Ildiko Szabo, a theater costume designer and another of the project’s earliest contributors. After she and Christine came up with the idea of such a reef, Wertheim recalls, “I put something up on [the Institute of Figuring’s] website saying: Is there anyone else who’d like to join us in this quixotic project at the intersection of handicraft, mathematics and environmentalism?” To their surprise and delight, they began receiving crocheted objects in the mail from people they’d never met. Years later, Szabo remains one of the reef’s 40 to 50 core contributors. Altogether, nearly 100 people — whose ranks include sci-fi writers and computer programmers — are behind the roughly 10,000 pieces that make up the reef.

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

Small pieces, major work

Rebecca Peapples created this beaded piece (which is attached to the center of the white star in the next photo) using a traditional beading stitch called the herringbone. While only around three inches in length, Wertheim estimates that Peapples spent around 10 to 15 hours to produce it (pieces in the reef range in size from a few inches to a few feet). The white star, about the size of a human hand, probably took up to 30 hours to make; some pieces have taken hundreds of hours. “One reason why I think the reef is powerful is because everybody can tell when they walk in the door there has been a huge commitment of time,” she says.

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

The delicate fusion of craft and science

This piece, knitted by Anita Bruce using a fine coated wire, was her attempt at using handicraft to mimic the evolutionary process. Bruce began with a simple shape, like the thin pods sticking out from the angles of the star, and then let a random number generator determine how to continue to create the shape. This Darwinian echo is something that Wertheim sees across the Crochet Coral Reef as a whole. “Every


starts by learning how to do a simple hyperbolic structure,” she explains, a shape she compares to a simple cell. But just like evolution, crocheters go from the simple to ever-more complicated structures.

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

Our future is plastic

In addition to warming ocean temperatures, another major threat facing marine ecosystems is plastic. After starting the reef, the Wertheim sisters learned about the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and they responded with the Toxic Reef, a collection of organisms — like this jellyfish — that were crocheted or knitted out of plastic. Learning about the garbage patch also inspired the Wertheims to keep all of their domestic plastic trash for four years, accumulating a total of 440 pounds. They contained this trash in a net, and it’s now displayed as part of the reef under the name “The Midden.” Common reactions from visitors are amazement and disgust. To the latter group, Wertheim says, “If you don’t like it, think about it — the yarn reefs represent the natural beauty of nature that’s rapidly disappearing, and the plastic represents the future of what humanity is creating.” This jellyfish was crocheted from plastic bin-liners by Wertheim.

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

Death’s white beauty

These stunning pale pieces were made by Evelyn Hardin, which Ann, another Wertheim sister, organized into a long grove. While the monochromatic grove is enchanting to look at, it illustrates a deadly ocean phenomenon: coral bleaching. When corals become stressed by factors like acidification and rising temperatures, they expel the symbiotic zooxanthellae algae that gives them their bright color and turn bone-white. The algae also help provide food for corals, so without them, they become more and more vulnerable and can die. The Wertheim sisters have curated two reefs, the Bleached Reef and the Bleached Bone Reef, to spotlight this increasingly urgent problem (in November, scientists announced the largest coral die-off in the Great Barrier Reef ever recorded). Should coral reefs perish altogether, Wertheim believes the crocheted reef would stand as an extraordinary testament to the beauty of the reefs — and an extraordinary indictment of humanity for destroying them. “It would become like a museum artifact of yet another thing that humans, with our inability to limit ourselves, have wiped off the face of the Earth,” she says.

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

A playful, pastel reef

While the Crochet Coral Reef conveys serious messages about the degradation of the marine ecosystem, the sisters also want the reef to be playful and engaging. One example: these tube worms, crafted by Szabo in a vibrant mix of pastels and neons. The sisters hope to raise awareness about climate change through positive means rather than messages of doom and gloom. Upon seeing their reef, Wertheim says, “people’s first reaction is usually to laugh, and we want that.” That playful spirit helps bring visitors and crocheters into a conversation “about these very difficult, destructive processes going on where reefs are in danger of being wiped out.”

Photo: Institute for Figuring.

The power of the people

Besides the reefs curated by the sisters, their project has expanded to encompass dozens of community reefs in 40 cities around the world from Oslo to Adelaide, from Fukuoka to San Antonio. They are in a number of different of places, including the Smithsonian in Washington, DC, prisons, and homes for the disabled. This collection of organisms, all created by Dagnija Griezne, is just one section of a Latvian community reef, a project spearheaded by artist Tija Viksna. Women from all over the country contributed, as well as more than 600 schoolchildren. One common thread that links all the reefs in the project — whether it’s the Wertheims’ curated displays or the community reefs — has been their collective nature. “You get an artwork that’s much, much greater than any individual artist could’ve achieved by themselves,” says Wertheim. Students, faculty and staff at the University of California Santa Cruz are crafting the latest community reef, and these human-made ecosystems keep spreading. “We never quite know who’s going to do it next,” adds Wertheim.

All photos are from the Crochet Coral Reef project by Margaret and Christine Wertheim and the Institute for Figuring. To learn more about exhibitions, satellite reefs and contributors, go to

About the author

Rebekah Barnett is the community speaker coordinator at TED, and knows a good flag when she sees one.

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The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences from 1969 – 2019

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences from 1969 – 2019

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, informally known as The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, is an award for outstanding contributions mainly to the … Wikipedia

Established: 1968

Reward: 9 million SEK (2017)

Presented by: Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Category of: Nobel Prize

People also search for: Nobel Prize in Chemistry, MORE

Currently held by: Paul Romer, William Nordhaus (2018)

Duflo, Banerjee and Kremer Win 2019 Nobel Economics Prize

Oct 14, 2019  Bloomberg Markets and Finance

Oct.14 — Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Michael Kremer of Harvard University were awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in Economics “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.” Randall Kroszner, Chicago Booth School of Business deputy dean and former Federal Reserve governor, reacts to the announcement on “Bloomberg Surveillance.”

Category  News & Politics

Esther Duflo: “Hopefully, it’s onward and forward from now on.”

Oct 14, 2019  Nobel Prize

Esther Duflo reflects on the relative lack of women working in the field of economics and how to adapt the profession to attract a wider sphere of people. In this conversation with Adam Smith, recorded just after the public announcement of the 2019 Prize in Economic Sciences to her, her husband Abhijit Banerjee, and Michael Kramer, she also discusses the way that local experiments can often uncover general principles that can be applied to problems of poverty worldwide.

Category   Education

Economics Won By Trio Tackling Global Poverty

Forbes: Camilo Maldonado Senior Contributor

French economist Esther Duflo gives a press conference at the Reconquista Hotel in Oviedo on October 22, 2015, in the eve of the Princess of Asturias awards ceremony. Duflo is part of the trio that has been awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in Economics.  AFP/Getty Images

The 2019 Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to economists Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer for their pioneering work alleviating global poverty. The winners were announced on Monday morning.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said the winners “considerably improved our ability to fight global poverty. In just two decades, their new experiment-based approach has transformed development economics, which is now a flourishing field of research”.

Duflo is the second woman and the youngest person to ever receive the prestigious award in the field of economics. The trio will evenly split the 9 million Swedish Krona prize ($916,474 USD).

“As a direct result of one of their studies, more than five million Indian children have benefitted from effective programs of remedial tutoring in schools. Another example is the heavy subsidies for preventive healthcare that have been introduced in many countries,” said the Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Today In: Money

Poor people are supposed to be either completely desperate or lazy or entrepreneurial but people don’t – we don’t try to … understand the deep root and interconnected root of poverty.

Esther Duflo

Their work, which tackles one of humanities most pressing issues, is based on the idea that to battle poverty, the issues should be broken down into smaller pieces and studied via small field experiments to answer precise questions within the communities who are most affected.


“The essence of our research is to make sure that the fight against poverty is based on scientific evidence,” Duflo said. “Often the poor are reduced to caricatures, and often even people that try to help them often do not actually understand what are the deep root of the problems that are addressing the poor,” she added.

“Poor people are supposed to be either completely desperate or lazy or entrepreneurial but people don’t we don’t try to … understand the deep root and interconnected root of poverty,” said Duflo.

Even with all of the work focusing on reducing global poverty, it is still the most pressing issue for humanity. According to the Swedish Academy, five million children under the age of five still die annually from diseases or ailments that could be treated with inexpensive medical treatments. In total, more than 1.3 billion people live in extreme poverty. That is, they subsist on less than $1.25 per day. In total, 1 billion children worldwide are living in poverty. Here in the U.S., income inequality is growing.

While many of their field studies have taken place in developing parts of the world, their work is helping Americans as well. According to the Center for Poverty Research at the University of California, Davis, “the official poverty rate is 12.3 percent, based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2017 estimates. That year, an estimated 39.7 million Americans lived in poverty according to the official measure.”

Asked by the Nobel Prize committee how it feels to be the second woman to win the Nobel Prize in Economics, Duflo responded, “We are at a time when we are starting to realize in the profession that the way we conduct each other privately and publicly, is not conducive all the time to a very good environment for women. Showing that it is possible for a women to succeed, and to be recognized for success, I hope will inspire many many other women to continue working, and many many other men to give them the respect they deserve, like every single human being.”

Banerjee, born in Mumbai, India earned a Ph.D. in 1988 from Harvard University and is the Ford Foundation International Professor of Economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Duflo, born in Paris, France earned a Ph.D. in 1999 from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is the Abdul Latif Jameel Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kremer, born in the U.S.A., earned a Ph.D. in 1992 from Harvard University, and is the Gates Professor of Developing Societies at Harvard University.

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The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an award funded by Sveriges Riksbank and is annually awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to researchers in the field of economic sciences.[1] The first prize was awarded in 1969 to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen.[2] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[3] In 1969, Frisch and Tinbergen were given a combined 375,000 SEK, which is equivalent to 2,871,041 SEK in December 2007. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel’s death.[4]

As of the awarding of the 2019 prize, 51 Nobel Memorial Prizes in Economic Sciences have been given to 84 individuals.[5] Up to 2007, nine awards had been given for contributions to the field of macroeconomics, more than any other category.[6] As of October 2018, the institution with the most affiliated laureates in economic sciences is the University of Chicago, which has 32 affiliated laureates.[7]

List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics 1969 – 2019

Year Laureate Country Rationale Ph.D. alma mater Institution(most significant tenure/at time of receipt)

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