Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia, USA TODAY, and PBS NewsHour

Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia, USA TODAY, and PBS NewsHour

Jan. 6 committee Hearings, Wikipedia

In the aftermath of the January 6 United States Capitol attack, the proposal to form a bicameral commission failed due to a filibuster from Republicans in the Senate.[13] In late May, when it had become apparent that the filibuster would not be overcome, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi indicated that she would appoint a select committee to investigate the events as a fallback option.[14][15][16][17]

On June 30, 2021, the resolution, H.Res.503 – Establishing the Select Committee to Investigate the January 6th Attack on the United States Capitol,[18] passed on the House floor by a vote of 222 to 190, with all Democratic members and two Republican members, Adam Kinzinger and Liz Cheney, voting in favor.[19] Sixteen Republican members did not vote.[20] The resolution empowered Pelosi to appoint eight members to the committee, and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy could appoint five members “in consultation” with the Speaker.[21] Pelosi indicated that she would name a Republican as one of her eight appointees.[22]

On July 1, Pelosi appointed eight members, seven Democrats and one Republican, Liz Cheney (R-WY); Bennie Thompson (D-MS) would serve as committee chair.[23] On July 19, McCarthy announced the five members he would recommend as the minority on the select committee. He recommended that Jim Banks (R-IN) serve as Ranking Member, and minority members be Jim Jordan (R-OH), Rodney Davis (R-IL), Kelly Armstrong (R-ND), and Troy Nehls (R-TX).[24] Banks, Jordan, and Nehls voted to overturn the Electoral College results in Arizona and Pennsylvania. Banks and Jordan had also signed onto the Supreme Court case Texas v. Pennsylvania to invalidate the ballots of voters in four states.[25]

Logo of the committee

On July 21, Thompson stated in an interview that he would investigate Trump as part of the inquiry into Capitol attack.[26] Hours later, Pelosi said in a statement that she had informed McCarthy that she would reject the recommendations of Jordan and Banks, citing concerns for the investigation’s integrity and relevant actions and statements made by the two members. She approved the recommendations of the other three.[27] McCarthy then pulled all of his picks for the committee and stated that he would not appoint anyone on the committee unless all five of his choices were approved.[28][29]

After McCarthy rescinded his recommendations, Pelosi announced on July 25 that she had appointed Adam Kinzinger (R-IL) to the committee.[30][31] Kinzinger was one of the ten House Republicans who voted for Trump’s second impeachment.[32] Pelosi also hired a Republican, former Rep. Denver Riggleman (R-VA), as an outside committee staffer or advisor.[33] Cheney voiced her support and pushed for both of their involvement.[32]

On February 4, 2022, the Republican National Committee voted to censure Cheney and Kinzinger, which it had never before done to any sitting congressional Republican. The resolution formally drops “all support of them as members of the Republican Party”, arguing that they are, through their work on the January 6 House Committee, hurting Republican prospects in the midterm elections.[7][34] Kinzinger had already announced on October 29, 2021, that he would not run for reelection.[35] Cheney lost the primary for her reelection on August 16, 2022.[36]

 Members 117th United States Congress

The commitee’s chair is Bennie Thompson, and the vice chair is Liz Cheney. Seven Democrats sit on the committee, while only two Republicans sit on the committee.

Chair Bennie Thompson

Vice Chair Liz Cheney

Majority Minority
·         Bennie ThompsonChair, Mississippi[37]

·         Zoe Lofgren, California[38]

·         Adam Schiff, California[39]

·         Pete Aguilar, California[40]

·         Stephanie Murphy, Florida[41]

·         Jamie Raskin, Maryland[42]

·         Elaine Luria, Virginia[43]

·         Liz CheneyVice Chair, Wyoming[44]

·         Adam Kinzinger, Illinois[45]

From left, Rep. Pete Aguilar, D-Calif., Rep. Adam Schiff, D-Calif., Rep. Zoe Lofgren, D-Calif., Chairman Bennie Thompson, D-Miss., Vice Chair Liz Cheney, R-Wyo., Rep. Adam Kinzinger, R-Ill., Rep. Jamie Raskin, D-Md., and Rep. Elaine Luria, D-Va., sit on the dais as the House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol continues, Monday, June 13, 2022 on Capitol Hill in Washington.

POOL PHOTO BY JABIN BOTSFORD USA TODAY

In July 2021, Thompson announced the senior staff for the select committee. They included:[46]

David Buckley as staff director. Served as CIA inspector general, and House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence minority staff director

Kristin Amerling as deputy staff director and chief counsel. Served as deputy general counsel at the Transportation Department and chief counsel of multiple congressional committees.

Hope Goins as counsel to the chairman. Served as top advisor to Thompson on homeland security and national security matters.

Candyce Phoenix as senior counsel and senior advisor. Serves as staff director of the House Oversight Subcommittee on Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.

Tim Mulvey as communications director. Served as communications director for the House Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Throughout August 2021, Thompson announced additional staffers for the select committee.[47][48] Those being:

Denver Riggleman, senior technical adviser for the January 6 Committee. He previously served as a Republican congressman from Virginia and was an ex-military intelligence officer.

Riggleman left the committee in April 2022.[49]

Joe Maher as principal deputy general counsel from the Department of Homeland Security

Timothy J. Heaphy was appointed as the committee’s chief investigative counsel.[50][51]

Investigation

The select committee’s work is ongoing. Its investigative teams each focus on a specific area like funding, individuals’ motivations, organizational coalitions, and how Trump may have pressured other politicians.[52] The investigation commenced with public hearings on July 27, 2021, when four police officers testified. As of the end of 2021, it had interviewed more than 300 witnesses and obtained more than 35,000 documents.[53] By May 2022, those totals had surpassed 1,000 witnesses and 125,000 records.[2] Some interviews were recorded.[54] As of the October 13th hearing, the select committee has conducted more than 1,000 depositions and interviews, reviewed hundreds of hours of videos (security camera footage, documentary footage, etc.) as well as hundreds of thousands of pages of documents collected throughout their investigation. .[55] While the investigation is still in progress, the select committee has been very cautious on what they publicly communicate on as it has only communicated some, but not all, of the information it has found.

The select committee has split their multi-pronged investigation into multiple color-coded teams.[56][57][58] The teams consist of:

Green Team, which is tasked with investigating the money trail and whether or not Trump and other Republican allies defrauded their supporters by spreading misinformation regarding the 2020 presidential election, despite knowing the claims were not true.

Gold Team, which is tasked with investigating whether members of Congress participated or assisted in Trump’s attempted to overturn the election. They are also looking into Trump’s pressure campaign on local and state officials as well as on executive departments, like the Department of JusticeDepartment of Homeland SecurityDepartment of Defense, and others to try to keep himself in power.

Purple Team, which is tasked with investigating Domestic violent extremist groups, such as the QAnon movement and the militia groups, the Oath Keepers and the Proud Boys and their involvement with the attack.

Red Team, which is tasked with investigating the planners of the January 6th rally and other “Stop the Steal” organizers and if they knew the rally would intentionally become violent.

Blue Team, which is tasked with understanding the threats leading up to the attack, how intelligence was shared among law enforcement, and their preparations or lack thereof.[59] Additionally, Blue team has access to thousands of documents from more than a dozen agencies that other security reviews did not have.[60]

Ultimately, the select committee’s findings may be used to inform new legislation. For example, in October 2021, committee members were already collaborating to draft a bill that would clarify the procedures for certifying presidential elections.[61] Election certification is governed by the 1887 Electoral Count Act.

The select committee’s findings may also be used in arguments to hold individuals, notably Donald Trump,[2] legally accountable. Possible criminal charges for Trump are obstruction of the electoral certification proceedings, which could carry a maximum sentence of 20 years;[62] “dereliction of duty” in not stopping the riot,[63] especially given testimony from his inner circle who say he was repeatedly advised to stop it;[64] and seditious conspiracy.[65][66][67] Other Republicans could face charges of wire fraud for telling lies in their fundraising efforts.[68][69]

A conviction, in turn, may be used to bar individuals from running for office in the future, as insurrectionists are constitutionally ineligible to hold public office. It is, however, unclear who enforces that.[70][71] In January 2022, lawyers challenged Representative Madison Cawthorn‘s eligibility to run for reelection,[72][73] and, in March 2022, Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene‘s eligibility was similarly challenged.[74] The first elected official to be removed from office for participating in the Capitol attack was Couy Griffin, a county commissioner from New Mexico. A judge removed him from office on September 6, 2022, citing the 14th Amendment and ruling that Griffin had participated in an “insurrection”.[75]

The select committee’s work may also aid the state of Georgia if it decides to prosecute Trump for solicitation of election fraud. On May 2, 2022, Fulton County‘s District Attorney Fani Willis opened a special grand jury to consider criminal charges.[76]

Simultaneous investigations by the Justice Department

Main article: United States Justice Department investigation into attempts to overturn the 2020 presidential election

The DOJ is probing the months-long efforts to falsely declare that the election was rigged, including pressure on the DOJ, the fake-electors scheme, and the events of January 6 itself. Potential charges against Trump include seditious conspiracy and conspiracy to obstruct a government proceeding.[77]

It was long anticipated that the House select committee would formally recommend that the Justice Department bring criminal charges.[78] At this point, however, it may not. Congressional committees typically are supposed to stick to legislative goals.[79] Congress does sometimes recommend criminal charges, but their “recommendation” or “referral” has no legal force in itself,[80] and the Justice Department is already investigating anyway. On September 25, 2022, Representative Schiff said he favored a criminal referral and hoped the committee would be unanimous on this point.[81]

The select committee is sharing certain information with the Justice Department: for example, the committee’s suspicion of witness tampering in Trump’s placing of a phone call to a witness.[82]

However, the committee has not yet fulfilled the Justice Department’s request that it turn over all its interview transcripts. The Justice Department sent a letter on April 20, 2022, asking for transcripts of past and future interviews. Thompson, the committee chair, told reporters he did not intend to give the Justice Department “full access to our product” especially when “we haven’t completed our own work.” Instead, the select committee negotiated for a partial information exchange.[83] On June 15, the Justice Department repeated its request. They gave an example of a problem they had encountered: The trial of the five Proud Boys indicted for seditious conspiracy had been rescheduled for the end of 2022 because the prosecutors and the defendants’ counsel did not want to start the trial without the relevant interview transcripts.[84] On July 12, 2022, the committee announced it was negotiating with the Justice Department about the procedure for information-sharing and that the committee had “started producing information” related to the Justice Department’s request for transcripts. Representative Thompson told CNN that they would likely “establish a procedure to look at some of the material” later in July after the eighth public hearing.[85] In an interview with Nicole Wallace on Deadline: White House, Representative Lofgren stated that the public will get the report at the same time as the DOJ, though the DOJ may receive an unredacted version of the final report.[86]

Information received from Mark Meadows 

Donald Trump and Mark Meadows in 2020

In September 2021, the select committee subpoenaed former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows. Meadows initially cooperated but ultimately did not provide a complete set of requested documents[87] and sued to block the two congressional subpoenas. (Meadows did comply with a different subpoena, also January 6-related, issued by the Justice Department in 2022.)[88] On December 14, 2021, the full House voted to hold Meadows in contempt of Congress,[89] but the Justice Department decided not to criminally charge him.[90] The Justice Department does, however, believe the House subpoena was justified and that Meadows has only “qualified” immunity given that Trump is no longer in office[91][92] (as it argued in a July 15, 2022 amicus brief[93] filed at the request of U.S. District Court Judge Carl J. Nichols, regarding Meadow’s claim of immunity from the congressional subpoena).[94] On October 31, 2022, the judge ruled that the congressional subpoenas were “protected legislative acts” that were “legitimately tied to Congress’s legislative functions’.”[95]

In late 2021, before Meadows stopped cooperating, he provided thousands of emails and text messages.[96][87] that revealed efforts to overturn the election results:

The day after the election, former Texas governor and former Secretary of Energy Rick Perry sent Meadows a proposed strategy for Republican-controlled state legislatures to choose electors and send them directly to the Supreme Court before their states had determined voting results.[97][98]

Fox News host Sean Hannity exchanged text messages with Meadows suggesting that Hannity was aware in advance of Trump’s plans for January 6. The committee wrote to Hannity asking him to voluntarily answer questions.[99][100]

Representative Jim Jordan asked Meadows if Vice President Mike Pence could identify “all the electoral votes that he believes are unconstitutional”.[101]

The day after the riot, one text stated that “We tried everything we could in our objections to the 6 states. I’m sorry nothing worked.”[102][101]

Meadows also participated in a call with a Freedom Caucus group including Rudy Giuliani, Representative Jim Jordan, and Representative Scott Perry during which they planned to encourage Trump supporters to march to the Capitol on January 6.[103]

Meadows also exchanged post-election text messages with Ginni Thomas, the wife of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, in which they expressed support of Trump’s claims of election fraud. On November 5, in the first of 29 text messages, Ginni Thomas sent to Meadows a link to a YouTube video about the election.[104] She emailed Arizona and Wisconsin lawmakers on November 9 to encourage them to choose different electors, exchanged emails with John Eastman, and attended the rally on January 6.[105][106][107]

Some of the communications revealed Trump allies who privately expressed disagreement with the events of January 6 while defending Trump in public:

Donald Trump Jr. pleaded with Meadows during the January 6 riot to convince his father that “it has gone too far and gotten out of hand.”[108]

Similarly, Fox News hosts Brian Kilmeade, Sean Hannity, and Laura Ingraham asked Meadows to persuade Trump to appear on TV and quell the riot.[109]

In mid-2022, CNN spoke to over a dozen people who had texted Meadows that day, and all of them said they believed that Trump should have tried to stop the attack.[110]

One of the most revealing documents provided by Meadows was Trump.[118][113] Politico reported in January 2022 that Bernard Kerik had testified to the committee that Waldron also originated the idea of a PowerPoint presentation[111][112] describing a strategy for overturning the election results. The presentation had been distributed by Phil Waldron, a retired Army colonel (now owning a bar in Texas)[113] who specialized in psychological operations and who later became a Trump campaign associate. A 36-page version appeared to have been created on January 5,[114][111] and Meadows received a version that day.[115][116][117] He eventually provided a 38-page version to the committee.[114] It recommended that Trump declare a national security emergency to delay the January 6 electoral certification, invalidate all ballots cast by machine, and order the military to seize and recount all paper ballots.[115][116] (Meadows claims he personally did not act on this plan.[115]) Waldron was associated with former Trump national security advisor Michael Flynn and other military-intelligence veterans who played key roles in spreading false information to allege the election had been stolen from a military seizure of voting machines, which was included in a draft executive order dated December 16.[119][120] The next month, Politico published emails between Waldron, Flynn, Kerik, Washington attorney Katherine Friess and Texas entrepreneur Russell Ramsland that included another draft executive order dated December 16. That draft was nearly identical to the draft Politico had previously released and embedded metadata indicated it had been created by One America News anchor Christina Bobb. An attorney, Bobb had also been present at the Willard Hotel command center.[121][122]

Obstacles

Release of documents from the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

One of the main challenges to the committee’s investigation was Trump’s use of legal tactics to try to block the release of the White House communication records held at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).[123] He succeeded in delaying the release of the documents for about five months. The committee received the documents on January 20, 2022.[124][125]

Some of the documents had been previously torn up by Trump and taped back together by NARA staff.[126] Trump is said to have routinely shredded and flushed records by his own hand, as well as to have asked staff to place them in burn bags, throughout his presidency.[127][128] Additionally, as the presidential diarist testified to the committee in March 2022, the Oval Office did not send the diarist detailed information about Trump’s daily activities on January 5 and 6, 2021.[129]

Trump’s phone records from the day of the attack, as provided by NARA to the committee, have a gap of seven-and-a-half hours that spans the time when the Capitol was being attacked. It is not that pages were removed from his call logs; rather, no calls during this period were ever logged,[129] suggesting he was using a “burner” cell phone during that time.[130] He is said to have routinely used burner phones during his presidency.[131] The committee had not subpoenaed his personal phone records as of July 2022.[132]

The committee began its request for the NARA records in August 2021.[133][134] Trump asserted executive privilege over the documents.[135] Current president Joe Biden rejected that claim,[136][137] as did a federal judge (who noted that Trump was no longer president),[138] the DC Circuit Court of Appeals,[139] and the U.S. Supreme Court.[140][141] While the request for NARA documents was being litigated, the committee agreed to a Biden administration request that they forgo obtaining certain documents from NARA relating to sensitive national security matters that had no bearing on events of January 6.[142]

Trump warning Republicans not to testify

Another difficulty is that Trump has told Republican leaders not to cooperate with the committee.[143][144][145][146] Messages intended to pressure witnesses may constitute witness tampering, punishable by up to 20 years in prison.[147] While hundreds of people have testified voluntarily,[148] the committee has also had to issue dozens of subpoenas[149] to legally compel certain uncooperative individuals to testify. Some people who were subpoenaed nevertheless refused to testify: Roger Stone and John Eastman pleaded their Fifth Amendment rights, while Steve Bannon and Mark Meadows were found in contempt of Congress. In December 2021, Michael Flynn sued to block a subpoena for his phone records and to delay his testimony, though a federal judge dismissed his suit within a day.[150]

Secret Service, DHS and Pentagon text messages deleted

Soon after the attack on the Capitol, the Secret Service assigned new phones.[151] In February 2021, the office of Department of Homeland Security Inspector General Joseph Cuffari, a Trump appointee, learned that text messages of Secret Service agents had been lost. He considered sending data specialists to attempt to retrieve the messages, but a decision was made against it.[152] In June 2021, DHS asked for text messages from 24 individuals—including the heads for Trump and Pence security, Robert Engel and Tim Giebels—and did not receive them. In October 2021, DHS considered publicizing the Secret Service’s delays.[153][154] On July 26, 2022, Chairman Thompson, in his capacity as Chair of the House Homeland Security Committee, and Carolyn Maloney, Chair of the House Oversight & Reforms Committee, jointly wrote to the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency about Cuffari’s failure to report the lost text messages and asked CIGIE chair Allison Lerner to replace Cuffari with a new Inspector General who could investigate the matter.[155] Additionally, renewed calls to have President Biden dismiss Cuffari have started gaining traction, with Senator Dick Durbin, who chairs the Senate Judiciary Committee requesting Attorney General Garland to investigate the missing text messages. However, as of July 2022, it is unknown if President Biden will fire Cuffari as he made a campaign promise to never fire an inspector general during his tenure as POTUS.

On August 1, 2022, House Homeland Security Chairman Bennie Thompson reiterated calls for Cuffari to step down due to a “lack of transparency” that could be “jeopardizing the integrity” of crucial investigations regarding the missing Secret Service text messages.[156] That same day, an official inside the DHS inspector general’s office told Politico that Cuffari and his staff are “uniquely unqualified to lead an Inspector General’s office, and … The crucial oversight mission of the DHS OIG has been compromised.”[157] Congress also obtained a July 2021 e-mail, from deputy inspector general Thomas Kait, who told senior DHS officials there was no longer a need for any Secret Service phone records or text messages. Efforts to collect communications related to Jan. 6 were therefore shutdown by Kait just six weeks after the internal DHS investigation began. The Guardian wrote that “Taken together, the new revelations appear to show that the chief watchdog for the Secret Service and the DHS took deliberate steps to stop the retrieval of texts it knew were missing, and then sought to hide the fact that it had decided not to pursue that evidence.”[158]

On August 2, 2022, CNN reported that relevant text messages from January 6, 2021, were also deleted from the phones of Trump-appointed officials at the Pentagon, despite the fact that FOIA requests were filed days after the attack on the Capitol.[159][160] The Secret Service was later reported to have been aware of online threats against lawmakers before the attack on the Capitol, according to documents obtained by the House select committee.[161]

Trump funding legal defense of Republicans who might testify against him

Trump’s Save America PAC has paid hundreds of thousands of dollars to lawyers representing over a dozen witnesses called by the committee. It is not illegal to pay someone else’s legal fees, but it raises the question of why Trump would do so and what kind of influence he might have over those people’s testimony.[162] On September 1, 2022, Trump said on a right-wing radio show that he had recently met supporters in his office. He said he was “financially supporting” them, adding: “It’s a disgrace what they’ve done to them.”[163]

The American Conservative Union is providing legal defense funds for some people who resist the committee. The organization says it only assists people who do not cooperate with the committee and who oppose its mission, according to chairman Matt Schlapp.[164]

Republican National Committee (RNC) claiming committee is illegitimate

Though the Republican National Committee has long insisted that the committee is invalid and should not be allowed to investigate, a federal judge found on May 1, 2022, that the committee’s power is legitimate.[165]

Witness not appearing for public hearing

Bill Stepien, Donald Trump’s final campaign manager, cancelled his plans to testify for the second hearing, under subpoena, an hour before it started, due to his wife’s going into labor, resulting in a delay of 45 minutes while the Select Committee scrambled to rearrange its presentation, with Bill Stepien’s lawyer to read a statement for him.[166][167] Instead, they used clips of his deposition.[168]

Public findings

United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack public hearings

2021 public hearings

The House select committee began its investigation with a preliminary public hearing on July 27, 2021, called “The Law Enforcement Experience on January 6th”.[169][170] Capitol and District of Columbia police testified, describing their personal experiences on the day of the attack, and graphic video footage was shown.[171]

2022 public hearings

Part of this section is transcluded from Public hearings of the United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack(edit | history)

In 2022, the Committee held live televised public hearings.[172] The New York Times presented a detailed summary of the eight hearings held in June and July.[173]

During the first hearing on June 9, 2022, the chair and vice-chair (Democrat Bennie Thompson and Republican Liz Cheney, respectively) said that President Donald Trump tried to stay in power even though he lost the 2020 presidential election. Thompson called it a “coup”.[174] Cheney said the hearings would present evidence showing that Trump used a seven-part plan, culminating in the January 6 attack on the Capitol. The committee has been calling live witnesses, most of whom are Republicans, and some are Trump loyalists.[175][176] They testified under oath. The committee is also making extensive use of video from a number of sources, including sworn deposition testimony obtained earlier. During this hearing, the committee shared footage of the attack, discussed involvement of the Proud Boys, and included testimony from a documentary filmmaker and a member of the Capitol Police.

Officer Caroline Edwards and documentary filmmaker Nick Quested before testifying on June 9, 2022, during the opening of the committee hearing to investigate the attack on the Capitol.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

Washington Metropolitan Police Department officer Daniel Hodges, left, and former Washington Metropolitan Police Department officer Michael Fanone arrives as the House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol holds its first public hearing to reveal the findings of a year-long investigation, at the Capitol in Washington, Thursday, June 9, 2022.

SCOTT APPLEWHITE, AP

Sandra Garza, the long-time partner of Capitol Hill Police Officer Brian Sicknick who died shortly after the January 6 riot and U.S. Capitol Police Sgt. Harry Dunn (right) reacts as a video of rioters entering the Capitol plays during the opening of the select committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY 

The second hearing on June 13, 2022, focused on evidence showing that Trump knew he lost and that most of his inner circle knew claims of fraud did not have merit. William Barr testified that Trump had “become detached from reality” because he continued to promote conspiracy theories and pushed the stolen election myth without “interest in what the actual facts were.” [177][178]

Former Attorney General Bill Barr says he made it clear to President Donald Trump that claims of election fraud weren’t true.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The third hearing on June 16, 2022, examined how Trump and others pressured Vice President Mike Pence to selectively discount electoral votes and overturn the election by unconstitutional means, using John Eastman‘s fringe legal theories as justification.[179]

Former Vice President Mike Pence in a video during the opening public hearing of the Jan. 6 committee on June 9, 2022.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

Greg Jacob (left), former counsel to Vice President Mike Pence testifies along with J. Michael Luttig, retired judge for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit and informal advisor to the Vice President during the House select committee to investigate the Jan.6th attack on the Capitol on June 16, 2022.

JARRAD HENDERSON, USA TODAY

A video plays showing an image from Jan. 6, 2021 of a gallows in front of the U.S. Capitol on a large screen during the opening moments of the House select committee to investigate the Jan.6th attack on the Capitol on June 16, 2022.

JARRAD HENDERSON, USA TODAY

The fourth hearing on June 21, 2022, included appearances by election officials from Arizona and Georgia who testified they were pressured to “find votes” for Trump and change results in their jurisdictions. The committee revealed attempts to organize fake slates of alternate electors and established that “Trump had a direct and personal role in this effort.”[180][181]

From left, Rusty Bowers, Brad Raffensperger and Gabriel Sterling testify on June 21, 2022, before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The fifth hearing on June 23, 2022, focused on Trump’s pressure campaign on the Justice Department to rubber stamp his narrative of a stolen election, the insistence on numerous debunked election fraud conspiracy theories, requests to seize voting machines, and Trump’s effort to install Jeffrey Clark as acting attorney general.[182]

From left, Steven Engel, Jeffrey Rosen and Richard Donoghue are sworn in June 23, 2022, before testifying before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

JACK GRUBER/USA TODAY

The exclusive witness of the sixth hearing on June 28, 2022, was Cassidy Hutchinson, top aide to former White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows.[183] Conversations within Trump’s inner circle revealed White House officials knew, days in advance of January 6, that violence was possible. Her testimony showed Trump knew supporters at the Ellipse rally were armed with AR-15s and other weapons and that he wanted less stringent security checks at his speech. Trump planned to join the crowd at the Capitol and became irate when the Secret Service refused his request. Closing the hearing, Rep. Liz Cheney presented evidence that witness tampering may have occurred.[184]

Cassidy Hutchinson, aide to former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows, testifies before the House Select Committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol, Tuesday, June 28, 2022, at the Capitol in Washington. Part of her testimony included an account of Donald Trump allegedly ordering his Secret Service to take him to the Capitol on Jan. 6, trying to grab the steering wheel of his transport vehicle and being stopped by Secret Service agent Robert Engel.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

The seventh hearing on July 12, 2022, showed how Roger Stone and Michael Flynn connected Trump to domestic militias like the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys that helped coordinate the attack.[185][186][187]

A photograph of former National Security Advisor to former President Donald Trump Michael Flynn with Oath Keepers is projected on a large screen during a public hearing of the House committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Stephen Ayres (right) testifies during a public hearing before the House committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol. Ayres was criminally charged for his actions during the Capitol insurrection. Right is Jason Van Tatenhove is a former spokesperson for the Oath Keepers.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

 The eighth hearing on July 21, 2022, presented evidence and details of Trump’s refusal to call off the attack on the Capitol, despite several hours of repeated pleas from numerous officials and insiders. According to The New York Times, this final July hearing focused on evidence and witness testimony that highlighted two significant positions that the select committee wanted to communicate to the American people. First, Rep. Liz Cheney made the case that Trump should never hold office again, asking: “Can a president who is willing to make the choices Donald Trump made during the violence of Jan. 6 ever be trusted with any position of authority in our great nation again?” Secondly, there were urgent calls for legally-binding federal investigations into the actions of the former president and his associates: “If there is no accountability for Jan. 6, for every part of this scheme, I fear that we will not overcome the ongoing threat to our democracy,” Rep. Bennie Thompson said. “There must be stiff consequences for those responsible.”[173]

Matthew Pottinger and Sarah Matthews are sworn in July 21, 2022, before testifying before the committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

Matthew Pottinger Former Deputy National Security Adviser for Trump Administration

Sarah Matthews Former Deputy Press Secretary for Trump Administration

Pat Cipollone Former White House Counsel

Donald J. Trump’s tweet

Cassidy Hutchinson, aide to former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows, testifies before the House Select Committee investigating the attack on the U.S. Capitol 

The ninth hearing on October 13, 2022,[188][189] may be the final hearing, though vice-chair Cheney wants more hearings.[188][189][190][191] The hearing presented video of Roger Stone and evidence that some Trump associates planned to claim victory in the 2020 election regardless of the official results.[192][193] The committee voted unanimously to subpoena Trump for documents and testimony[190][191]

House Speaker Rep. Nancy Pelosi, (R), Ca., appears in video footage during the Oct. 13, 2022 hearing of the committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol in Washington DC.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Rep. Liz Cheney, R-Wyo, makes a motion to subpoena former President Trump during the Oct. 13, 2022 hearing of the committee to investigate the January 6 attack on the United States Capitol in Washington DC.

JACK GRUBER, USA TODAY

Final report

The committee may release an interim report.[194] The committee is expected to hire a writer to help produce its final report, which will be presented in a multimedia format.[195][194] Though it had been expected to release a report before the midterm elections,[196] as of September the committee was looking at “the end of the year” (before the 117th Congress ends).[197][49]

For more information, please visit the following links:

https://www.google.com/search?q=jan.+6+committee+hearings+wikipedia&oq=Jan.+6+Committee+hearings&aqs=chrome.4.0i512l5j69i61l3.6083j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

https://www.usatoday.com/picture-gallery/news/politics/2022/06/10/jan-6-committee-hearings-capitol-riots-photos/7570769001/

 

January 6 United States Capitol attack 

Wikipedia

On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump’s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 9 – 4:25:53

PBS NewsHour 883,270 views Streamed live on Oct 13, 2022

WARNING: This video may include graphic or disturbing depictions of violence. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the Capitol has announced another public hearing. It will be the first public committee event since July, when the last hearing concluded for a summer break. Since then, the committee has continued to compile witness testimony and evidence, according to committee chair Rep. Bennie Thompson, D-Miss. The hearing was originally scheduled for Sept. 28, but was postponed as Hurricane Ian approached landfall in Florida. The committee is now slated to gavel in Oct. 13 at 1:00pm EDT. Join the PBS NewsHour’s digital coverage beginning at 11:30 a.m. EDT with a look back at key moments from the eight public hearings held over the summer and a look ahead to the next. The last committee hearing in July focused on President Donald Trump’s actions on Jan. 6, 2021, as hundreds of his supporters broke into the U.S. Capitol. The hearing guided viewers minute-by-minute through the deadly afternoon, from the end of Trump’s speech encouraging supporters to march to the Capitol to a video he released late that afternoon telling the rioters they were “very special” but they had to go home. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48HH4LVn07g&t=2s

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 8 – 2:56:39

PBS NewsHour 1,280,464 views Streamed live on Jul 21, 2022

WARNING: This video may include strong and disturbing language and images. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its eighth public hearing July 21. The hearing is expected to focus on what then-President Donald Trump was doing during the three plus hours that his supporters were attacking the U.S. Capitol in an effort to stop the certification Joe Biden’s presidential victory on Jan. 6, 2021. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 8 p.m. ET. To preview the hearing, beginning at 7 p.m. ET, the PBS NewsHour will take a look back at the last seven public hearings and Digital Anchor Nicole Ellis will host a conversation looking ahead at what can be expected to come out of the July 21 primetime hearing. The hearing comes after the committee on July 12 focused on the role of far-right extremist groups like the Proud Boys and Oath Keepers ahead of the attack and the role that Trump and his allies played in stoking baseless theories of election fraud ahead of the insurrection. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 7 – 6:46:08

PBS NewsHour  1,601,465 views Streamed live on Jul 12, 2022

WARNING: This video includes strong and disturbing language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its seventh public hearing July 12. It is not yet clear what the focus of the hearing will be about. To preview the hearing, the PBS NewsHour’s Nicole Ellis will speak with NewsHour’s Laura Barrón-López at 12:45 p.m. ET. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET. The hearing comes after the committee on June 28 focused their hearing on the testimony of Cassidy Hutchinson, a senior aide to former Trump chief of staff Mark Meadows, who, in the course of her work for the White House, had firsthand insight into communications between Meadows and former President Donald Trump, including those leading up to the insurrection and in the days afterward. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 6 – 6:37:25

PBS NewsHour 1,450,352 views Streamed live on Jun 28, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House Jan. 6 committee announced an previously unplanned hearing for June 28, promising new evidence and witness testimony. Committee members did not confirm a focus for Tuesday’s hearing, scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET. But it will likely lean heavily on the testimony of Cassidy Hutchinson, a senior aide to former Trump chief of staff Mark Meadows, the NewsHour and other media outlets confirmed. In the course of her work for the White House, Hutchinson had firsthand insight into communications between Meadows and former President Donald Trump, including those leading up to the insurrection and in the days afterward. In the year since its creation, the committee has conducted more than 1,000 interviews, seeking critical information and documents from people witness to, or involved in, the violence that day. Additional hearings are expected in July. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 5 – 4:32:00

Fundraiser

PBS NewsHour  1,082,683 views Streamed live on Jun 23, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its fifth public hearing June 23, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure the Justice Department to help undo the 2020 presidential election. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 3 p.m. ET on Thursday, June 23. The hearing comes after the committee on Tuesday, June 21 laid out evidence on how Trump and his allies pressured election officials in key states, including Georgia and Arizona, to overturn the 2020 presidential election results. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 4 – 4:31:20

PBS NewsHour  1,374,711 views Streamed live on Jun 21, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence and strong language. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its fourth public hearing June 21, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure state legislators and local election officials to change the results of the 2020 presidential election. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET on Tuesday, June 21. The hearing comes after the committee on Thursday, June 16 laid out evidence on how Trump pressured his then- vice president, Mike Pence, to overturn the election, even as the Capitol insurrection was underway. The June 16 hearing played out testimony from several aides and close Trump allies that all testified to the pressure that the president was putting on Pence. The vice president is charged with overseeing the Electoral College vote count — already certified by individual states — in a joint session of Congress following a presidential election– that is what was taking place on Jan. 6, 2021. Pence said on that day that he did not have the constitutional authority to do what the president had asked. Members of the committee said last week they thought they had evidence to indict Trump for seeking to overturn the results of the 2020 election, which they will lay out as part of several public hearings this month. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 3 – 4:21:35

PBS NewsHour  1,424,934 views Streamed live on Jun 16, 2022

Warning: This hearing may include footage of violence. The House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack will hold its third public hearing June 16, focused on former President Donald Trump’s efforts to pressure former Vice President Mike Pence to reject Congress’ official count of Electoral College votes on the day of the attack. The hearing is scheduled to begin at 1 p.m. ET on Thursday, June 16. The vice president is charged with overseeing the Electoral College vote count — already certified by individual states — in a joint session of Congress following a presidential election. Trump called on Pence repeatedly to reject the results confirming President Joe Biden’s win, telling supporters in a rally hours before the attack that “it will be a sad day for the country” if his vice president did not come through. Pence said in a statement after the speech he did not have the constitutional authority to do what the president asked. Some rioters began chanting “hang Mike Pence.” Committee member Rep. Liz Cheney, R-Wyo., said at the start of the hearings that upon hearing this, Trump said “maybe our supporters have the right idea.” The committee postponed a hearing scheduled for June 15 that was meant to focus on Trump’s efforts to replace Attorney General Bill Barr, who did not support his claims of voter fraud after the election. Members of the committee said this week they thought they had evidence to indict Trump for seeking to overturn the results of the 2020 election, which they will lay out as part of several public hearings this month. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jblC2Ooog2U&t=917s

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 2 – 2:46:12

PBS NewsHour  3,537,833 views Streamed live on Jun 13, 2022

Warning: This hearing includes graphic language. The House panel investigating the Jan. 6 insurrection presents more of its findings to the public on Monday, June 13. The hearing, the second of several planned by the Jan. 6 committee in the coming weeks, will focus on former President Donald Trump’s level of involvement leading up to and on the day of the attack on the Capitol. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

WATCH LIVE: Jan. 6 Committee hearings – Day 1 – 3:06:24

PBS NewsHour  3,476,633 views Streamed live on Jun 9, 2022

Warning: This hearing includes footage of violence. The House select committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol will hold its first hearing June 9, offering a glimpse into what it has learned about what led to the insurrection that day and the role of the White House, law enforcement and other officials and agencies before, during and after the attack. The PBS NewsHour’s special coverage of the hearing will begin at 8 p.m. ET. Before the hearing begins, the PBS NewsHour’s Nicole Ellis will take a look at what we’ve learned about the attack since that day, including conversations with Julian Zelizer, a Princeton University professor of history, on the fallout for democracy, and the NewsHour’s Lisa Desjardins, who reported from inside the Capitol as it was attacked and will cover the committee’s hearing. Thursday’s hearing is the first of several the committee, led by Reps. Bennie Thomas, D-Miss., and Liz Cheney R-Wyo., plans to hold this month to lay out key findings. The nine-member panel has interviewed dozens of witnesses, including those within the Secret Service and the White House along with members of law enforcement, Congress and former President Donald Trump’s family. They’ve subpoenaed more than 100 people to testify in the months leading up to the hearings. A select few have also been indicted by the Department of Justice for being in contempt of Congress after refusing to participate. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@pbsnews Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Ing’s comment on Democracy of USA

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRE, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 At present, democracy in the United States of America, is balancing on a tight rope.  At any moment, it can falter and tumble if the extreme right-wing of the Republican party gains control of Congress.   If Republican leader, Keven McCarthy, controls the House of Representatives, and Republican leader Mitch McConnell, takes control of the Senate, the government will return to the extreme right-wing policies of the Trump administration even before the presidential election of 2024.

Former president Trump, worked hand in glove with Mitch McConnell, to stack the Supreme Court with three new replacements, of ultra conservative right-wing judges.  When added to the three conservative Judges already on the court, it has created a dangerous super majority that has already begun to overturn settled law, in favor of right-wing extremist ideology.  It is now impossible for the three remaining liberal judges to prevent these actions from taking place.   

The Conservative court has already used its power support major challenges to settled law brought before the court that involve issues such as civil rights, and abortion rights.  Roe V Wade, has been the law of the land for over fifty years, but has already been gutted.  The conservative Supreme Court majority has removed the rights of women to decide for themselves whether an abortion is an appropriate choice for their circumstance.  Even when a ten years old girl is raped and becomes pregnant, in many states she is obligated to have the child.  In some states, even when the pregnancy will cause harm to a woman, the law forces her to carry her pregnancy to the end of the term.  Where are the rights of women?  Are we retuning to a dark age when women had no rights at all? 

Mr. Trump with assistance from Mitch McConnell also appointed two hundred Conservative Federal Court Judge positions to the bench.  Because of this, states now have the ability to make laws that severely restrict abortion, making is essentially illegal.  In contrast, when Barack Obama was president, he attempted to fill vacancies to the Supreme Court and Federal Courts but could not.  President Obama’s nominees were blocked in every instance by the Republican controlled senate led by Mitch McConnell. 

Just as significate in 2010, during the Obama administration, the Supreme Court, in the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case, upheld the right of corporations to make unlimited political expenditures under the first Amendment.  This allowed corporations to donate as much money as they wish to help Republican politicians, win elections.  In return, these politicians then helped pass laws that favor these corporations.

The right wing of the Republican party, which has now become the majority of that party, continues to attempt passing laws and use any other legal maneuver to strip away the rights of the majority of American citizens.  The Midterm election of 2022 is perhaps the last chance for Democrats along with the few remaining centrist Republicans in Congress, to prevent the rightwing extremists taking full control of the government. 

If the Republicans take control of both houses of Congress in the 2022 election, they will be able to control the vote count in the 2024 election.  This is because they will have elected officials in many states who will be able to decertify the vote count in the presidential election of 2024.

This could mean the end of democracy in America because the vote count will be in the hands of those in power to continue in power.  If this happens, through voting manipulation, Donald Trump is very likely to become President in 2024 and we will live in an Autocrat System with a leader that controls our lives in the same way Putin does in Russia, and Kim Jong-un does in North Korea.  The democratic way of life for US citizens could end, and without democracy in the world’s most powerful nation, it will be under even greater threat throughout the world. 

In our retirement years my husband and I watch with great sadness at what may unfold.  We may suffer mentally and physically for the short time we have left, but future generations may suffer their whole lives under a repressive dictatorship.  Our daughter, our little grandsons, and many other families will have to live without the freedom that earlier generations have known.  I still have hope that sanity will prevail, and the United States of America will not lose our gift of freedom that has helped enlighten so many other nations of this world.

I am not a Democrat, Republican, or member of any political party, but I am for a democratic way of life.  Democracy brings freedom of thought, action, and human rights for every citizen, allowing an opportunity to live peacefully in a healthy world.

Together we can face what will be the inevitable problem of global warming, which affect the lives of all of us.  Many lives will be lost before all the complexities of the issue can be attended, but we must begin now or there will be nothing left on earth to care for.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, November 1, 2022

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Save Democracy in the United State & The World, Prevent Future Insurrections

Save Democracy in the United State & The World, Prevent Future Insurrections

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRES, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 Jan 6 Capitol Riot

11 ALIVE: These are the most striking images from the Jan. 6 Capitol riot

Rioters climbing walls, lawmakers taking cover and the QAnon Shaman. Here are some of the most striking images from the Jan. 6 insurrection.

INSURRECTION

An act or instance of rising in revolt, rebellion, or resistance against civil authority or an established government.

Author: Thais Ackerman

Published: 7:35 PM EST January 5, 2022                                               Updated: 8:35 PM EST January 5, 2022

WASHINGTON D.C., DC — It’s a day that will live on in infamy in American history. 

January, 6 2021 — when rioters stormed the U.S. Capitol, terrorizing lawmakers and vandalizing a meeting place of the nation’s legislature, and symbol of the American people.

It’s now been a year since the breach happened. Here are some of the most striking photos from that day. 

Tensions were high that Wednesday, as a joint session of Congress prepared to gather inside the Capitol to affirm now-President Joe Biden’s victory in the 2020 election. But before they gathered, supporters of former President Donald Trump rallied in Washington.  

“We will never give up. We will never concede,” Trump told the roaring crowd.

Credit: AP

FILE – In this Jan. 6, 2021, file photo, the face of President Donald Trump appears on large screens as supporters participate in a rally in Washington. The House committee investigating the violent Jan. 6 Capitol insurrection, with its latest round of subpoenas in September 2021, may uncover the degree to which former President Donald Trump, his campaign and White House were involved in planning the rally that preceded the riot, which had been billed as a grassroots demonstration. (AP Photo/John Minchillo, File)

Less than an hour after the rally ended, the chaos began. A wave of protestors started swarming the Capitol.  Thousands of people gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. Insurrectionists violently worked to break their way through a police barrier, and successfully did so.

 Credit: AP

FILE – Violent insurrections loyal to President Donald Trump try to break through a police barrier at the Capitol in Washington on Jan. 6, 2021. A revelation about text messages sent by three Fox News personalities to former President Donald Trump’s chief of staff on the day of the Capitol riots raise questions about whether they have lost sight of the ‘news’ aspect of their jobs. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez, File)

Credit: AP

Trump supporters try to break through a police barrier, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, at the Capitol in Washington. As Congress prepared to affirm President-elect Joe Biden’s victory, thousands of people gathered to show their support for President Donald Trump and his claims of election fraud. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)

Things quickly took a turn for the worse. After bulldozing their way through law enforcement, rioters even began climbing the west wall of the Capitol building, gearing up to force their way inside.

Credit: AP

FILE – In this Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021 file photo, supporters of President Donald Trump climb the west wall of the the U.S. Capitol in Washington. The House committee investigating the violent Jan. 6 Capitol insurrection, with its latest round of subpoenas in September 2021, may uncover the degree to which former President Donald Trump, his campaign and White House were involved in planning the rally that preceded the riot, which had been billed as a grassroots demonstration. (AP Photo/Jose Luis Magana, File)

The building now donning the shame of vandalism, with broken windows and doors throughout.

Credit: AP

Windows are cracked and broken by rioters at the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)

A mob sweeps though the hallways, with some individuals clad in armor and equipped with weapons. The images portraying an America at war with itself.

At this point, insurrectionists have taken over the Capitol Building. Jacob Anthony Chansley, notoriously known as the QAnon Shaman, is pictured here alongside other rioters. He later became among one of the 700 people arrested in connection to the Capitol breach.

Credit: AP

Jacob Anthony Chansley, center, with other insurrectionists who supported then-President Donald Trump, are confronted by U.S. Capitol Police in the hallway outside of the Senate chamber in the Capitol, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. Chansley, was among the first group of insurrectionists who entered the hallway outside the Senate chamber. (AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta)

People were forced to take shelter in the House gallery as rioters tried to break into the House Chamber. 

Credit: AP

People shelter in the House gallery as rioters try to break into the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

Credit: AP

Security forces draw their guns as rioters try to break into the House Chamber at the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

The rioters continued for hours until police were finally able to secure the inside of the building and clear the scene. 

Credit: AP

U.S. Capitol Police hold rioters at gun-point near the House Chamber inside the U.S. Capitol on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021, in Washington. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)

Credit: AP

Members of the U.S. Secret Service Counter Assault Team walk through the Rotunda as they and other federal police forces responded as violent protesters loyal to President Donald Trump stormed the U.S. Capitol today, at the Capitol in Washington, Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

Lawmakers were safely escorted out of the building that evening. Even into the next day, and beyond, security forces stood guard outside the building so they could continue their duties in certifying the election.

Credit: AP

Police stand guard after a day of riots at the U.S. Capitol in Washington on Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2021. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)

 For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.11alive.com/article/news/special-reports/capitol-insurrection/most-striking-images-jan-6-insurrection/85-6789a961-48d1-4bed-90aa-a71e2296e125

Department of Justice releases graphic video from Jan. 6 Capitol riot

11Alive Dec 25, 2021

The Department of Justice released a three-hour video from the Jan. 6 attack.

Related Articles

January 6 United States Capitol attack 

Wikipedia: On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump’s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.

WATCH: Rep. Raskin says Trump saw ‘the bloody attack unfold,’ but did not act fast enough on Jan. 6

PBS NewsHour 885,458 views Oct 13, 2022

Rep. Jamie Raskin, D-Md., said former President Donald Trump’s behavior during the Jan. 6 attack was not enough to stop the violence, despite immediate and repeated appeals from those around him. Raskin illustrated Trump’s reported lack of urgency on Oct. 13 as the House committee investigating the Jan. 6 attack presented its findings to the public. Raskin said the committee has evidence that Trump refused calls from close advisors and family to make a public announcement as the violence began. Members of Fox News and Republican Party leaders pleaded with Trump to tell the crowd to go home, Raskin said. New footage shows efforts by congressional leaders attempting to call for law enforcement to step in at the same time crowds broke windows and breached the Capitol on live television. “The president watched the bloody attack unfold on Fox News from his dining room,” Raskin said. “Members of Congress and other government officials stepped into the gigantic leadership void created by the president’s chilling and steady passivity that day.” In the week following Jan. 6, Rep. Kevin McCarthy, R-Calif., publicly stated that Trump “bears responsibility” for the attack and “should have immediately denounced the mob when he saw what was unfolding.” Raskin concluded his remarks by stating that “nothing in law or fact” could justify Trump’s failure to act and that the 14th Amendment “disqualifies from the federal and state office anyone who has sworn an oath to defend the Constitution but betrays it by engaging in insurrection or rebellion.” The committee returned to its public-facing work after nearly three months, having rescheduled the current hearing two weeks ago in light of Hurricane Ian. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

#WashingtonPost #CapitolRiot

Inside the U.S. Capitol at the height of the siege | Visual Forensics

Washington Post  4,304,015 views Jan 16, 2021

At 2:12 p.m. on Jan. 6, supporters of President Trump began climbing through a window they had smashed on the northwest side of the U.S. Capitol. “Go! Go! Go!” someone shouted as the rioters, some in military gear, streamed in. It was the start of the most serious attack on the Capitol since the War of 1812. The mob coursed through the building, enraged that Congress was preparing to make Trump’s electoral defeat official. “Drag them out! … Hang them out!” rioters yelled at one point, as they gathered near the House chamber. Officials in the House and Senate secured the doors of their respective chambers, but lawmakers were soon forced to retreat to undisclosed locations. Five people died on the grounds that day, including a Capitol police officer. In all, more than 50 officers were injured. To reconstruct the pandemonium inside the Capitol, The Washington Post examined text messages, photos and hundreds of videos, some of which were exclusively obtained. By synchronizing the footage and locating some of the camera angles within a digital 3-D model of the building, The Post was able to map the rioters’ movements and assess how close they came to lawmakers — in some cases feet apart or separated only by a handful of vastly outnumbered police officers. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: https://wapo.st/2QOdcqK Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonpost Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/washingtonp... Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpost #WashingtonPost #VisualForensics #CapitolRiot

How Police Tried — and Failed — To Stop Capitol Attackers | Visual Investigations 8:54 mins

The New York Times  2,352,097 views Mar 21, 2021

Get an email as soon as our next Visual Investigation is published: https://nyti.ms/3xhj7dE The Times obtained District of Columbia police radio communications and synchronized them with footage from the scene to show in real time how officers tried and failed to stop the attack on the U.S. Capitol. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/U8Ys7n More from The New York Times Video: http://nytimes.com/video ———- Whether it’s reporting on conflicts abroad and political divisions at home, or covering the latest style trends and scientific developments, New York Times video journalists provide a revealing and unforgettable view of the world. It’s all the news that’s fit to watch.

How the Proud Boys Breached the Capitol | Visual Investigations

The New York Times  125,025 views Jun 18, 2022

A Times investigation of court documents, text messages and hundreds of videos shows how the Proud Boys coordinated to instigate multiple breaches of the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/U8Ys7n More from The New York Times Video: http://nytimes.com/video ———- Whether it’s reporting on conflicts abroad and political divisions at home, or covering the latest style trends and scientific developments, New York Times video journalists provide a revealing and unforgettable view of the world. It’s all the news that’s fit to watch.

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January 6 United State Capital Attack

 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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 Crowd shortly after the breach (top); tear gas deployed against rioters (bottom left); gallows erected by rioters (bottom right).

Public predictions of violence

Signs reading “Stop the Steal” and “Off with their heads”, photographed on the day of the attack

January 6 Trump rally

 Protesters at Washington Union Station on the morning of January 6

Donald Trump’s speech

An image of Trump delivering his rally speech from behind a bulletproof shield was projected onto this screen at the rally

March to the Capitol

 Protestors approaching the Capitol Complex

Members of the Proud Boys in front of the U.S. Supreme Court Building

Bombs discovered near Capitol Complex

This section is an excerpt from Law enforcement response to the January 6 United States Capitol attack § Bombs discovered near Capitol Complex.[edit]

One of two pipe bombs discovered adjacent to the Capitol on January 6, 2021.

FBI Wanted Poster offering up to $100,000 for information leading to the conviction of the individual who placed two pipe bombs[242]

Capitol breach

Trump supporters crowding the steps of the Capitol

Officer Daniel Hodges crushed in doorway

Senate adjourned

C-SPAN broadcast of the Senate going into recess after protesters infiltrate the Capitol

Congressional staffers removed the Electoral College certificates from the Senate floor as it was evacuated.

House recessed

Rioters inside the Senate chamber

On January 6, 2021, following then–U.S. President Donald Trump‘s defeat in the 2020 presidential election, a mob of his supporters attacked the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. They sought to keep Trump in power by preventing a joint session of Congress from counting the electoral college votes to formalize the victory of President-elect Joe Biden. According to the House select committee investigating the incident, the attack was the culmination of a seven-part plan by Trump to overturn the election.[28][29] Five people died either shortly before, during, or following the event: one was shot by Capitol Police, another died of a drug overdose, and three died of natural causes.[22][30] Many people were injured, including 138 police officers. Four officers who responded to the attack died by suicide within seven months.[23] As of July 7, 2022, monetary damages caused by attackers exceed $2.7 million.[31]

Called to action by Trump,[32][33] thousands of his supporters gathered in Washington, D.C., on January 5 and 6 to support his false claim that the 2020 election had been “stolen by emboldened radical-left Democrats”[34][35][36][37] and to demand that Vice President Mike Pence and Congress reject Biden’s victory.[38] Starting at noon on January 6,[39] at a “Save America” rally on the Ellipse, Trump repeated false claims of election irregularities[40] and said, “If you don’t fight like hell, you’re not going to have a country anymore.”[41][42] In his hour-long speech Trump included 22 grammatical variations of the word “fight”.[41][42][43] During and after his speech,[39] thousands of attendees, including many that Trump knew to be armed, walked to the Capitol and hundreds breached police perimeters[44][45] as Congress was beginning the electoral vote count.

More than 2,000 rioters entered the building,[46][47][48] many of whom occupied, vandalized, and looted it,[49][50] assaulted Capitol Police officers and reporters, and attempted to locate lawmakers to capture and harm them.[51] A gallows was erected west of the Capitol, and some rioters chanted “Hang Mike Pence” after he rejected false claims by Trump and others that the vice president could overturn the election results.[52] Some vandalized and looted the offices of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D?CA) and other members of Congress.[53] With building security breached, Capitol Police evacuated and locked down both chambers of Congress and several buildings in the Capitol Complex.[54] Rioters occupied the empty Senate chamber while federal law enforcement officers defended the evacuated House floor.[55][56] Pipe bombs were found at each of the Democratic National Committee and Republican National Committee headquarters, and Molotov cocktails were discovered in a vehicle near the Capitol.[57][58]

Trump resisted sending the National Guard to quell the mob.[59] Later that afternoon, in a Twitter video, he reasserted that the election was “fraudulent” but told his supporters to “go home in peace”.[60][61] The Capitol was clear of rioters by mid-evening,[62] and the counting of the electoral votes resumed and was completed in the early morning hours of January 7. Pence declared President-elect Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris victorious. Pressured by his administration, the threat of removal, and many resignations, Trump later committed to an orderly transition of power in a televised statement.[63][64]

A week after the riot, the House of Representatives impeached Trump for incitement of insurrection, making him the only U.S. president to have been impeached twice.[65] In February, after Trump had left office, the Senate voted 57–43 in favor of conviction; because this fell short of a two-thirds majority, requiring 67 votes, he was acquitted for a second time.[66] The House passed a bill to create a bipartisan independent commission to investigate the attack, modeled after the 9/11 Commission,[67] but it was blocked by Republicans in the Senate,[51] so the House approved a select committee with seven Democrats and two Republicans to investigate instead.[68][69] By March 2022, Justice Department investigations of participants in the attack had expanded to include activities of others leading up to the attack.[70]

More than 30 members of anti-government groups, including the Oath KeepersProud Boys, and Three Percenters, were charged with conspiracy for allegedly planning their attacks on the Capitol; ten Oath Keepers and five Proud Boys were charged with seditious conspiracy,[71][72] and one Oath Keeper pled guilty.[73][74] As of January 2022, at least 57 people with roles in the day’s events were running for public office.[75] Although most people charged with crimes relating to the attack had no known affiliation with far-right or extremist groups,[27][76][77] a significant number were linked to extremist groups or conspiratorial movements.[78] By October 2022, 417 individuals charged had pleaded guilty.[79]

During summer 2022, the January 6th committee held eight televised public hearings on the January 6 attack. The ninth hearing was scheduled for September 28, 2022, but delayed due to Hurricane Ian.[80] The ninth hearing was moved to October 13,[81] and ended with a vote to subpoena Trump.[82]

Attempts to overturn the presidential election

Main article: Attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election

Democrat Joe Biden defeated incumbent Republican Donald Trump in the 2020 United States presidential election.[83] Trump and other Republicans attempted to overturn the election, falsely claiming widespread voter fraud.[84]

Trump’s tweet shortly after polls had closed

Within hours after the closing of the polls, while votes were still being tabulated, Trump declared victory, demanding that further counting be halted.[85] He began a campaign to subvert the election, through legal challenges and an extralegal effort. Trump’s lawyers had concluded within ten days after the election that legal challenges to the election results had no factual basis or legal merit.[37] Despite those analyses, he sought to overturn the results by initiating the filing of at least sixty lawsuits, including two brought to the Supreme Court. Those actions sought to nullify election certifications and to void votes that had been cast for Biden. Those challenges were all rejected by the courts for lack of evidence or the absence of legal standing.[84]

Trump then mounted a campaign to pressure Republican governors, secretaries of state, and state legislatures to nullify results by replacing slates of Biden electors with those declared to Trump, or by manufacturing evidence of fraud. He further demanded that lawmakers investigate ostensible election “irregularities” such as by conducting signature matches of mailed-in ballots, disregarding any prior analytic efforts. Trump also personally made inquiries proposing the invocation of martial law to “re-run” or reverse the election[84][86] and the appointment of a special counsel to find instances of fraud, despite conclusions by federal and state officials that such cases were few and isolated or non-existent. Trump ultimately undertook neither step.[84] Trump repeatedly urged Vice President Mike Pence to alter the results and to stop Biden from taking office. None of those actions would have been within Pence’s constitutional powers as vice president and president of the Senate. Trump repeated this call in his rally speech on the morning of January 6.[87]

Some have characterized these attempts to overturn the election as an attempted coup d’état,[88] and an implementation of the big lie.[10] On October 31, 2021, a comprehensive and detailed account of the events before, during, and after the attack was published by The Washington Post.[89]

Planning

Congress was scheduled to meet jointly on January 6 to certify the winner of the Electoral College vote, typically a ceremonial affair.[90][91] In December, Congressman Mo Brooks (R-AL) organized three White House meetings between Trump, Republican lawmakers, and others. Attendees included Trump, Vice President Pence, representatives Jody Hice (R-GA), Jim Jordan (R-OH), and Andy Biggs (R-AZ), representative-elect Marjorie Taylor Greene (R-GA), and members of the Trump legal team.[92] The purpose of the meetings was to strategize about how Congress could overturn the election results on January 6.[93]

On December 18, four days after the Electoral College voted, Trump called for supporters to attend a rally before the January 6 Congressional vote count to continue his challenge to the validity of several states’ election results. Trump tweeted, “Big protest in D.C. on January 6th. Be there, will be wild!”[12][94] The “March to Save America” and rally that preceded the riots at the Capitol were initially organized by Women for America First, a 501(c)(4) organization chaired by Amy Kremer, co-founder of Women for Trump.[95] On January 1, 2021, they obtained a permit with an estimated attendance of 5,000 for a first amendment rally “March for Trump”.[96] In late 2020 and early 2021, Kremer organized and spoke at a series of events across the country as part of a bus tour to encourage attendance at the January 6 rally and support Trump’s efforts to overturn the election result.[97] Women for America First invited its supporters to join a caravan of vehicles traveling to the event. Event management was carried out by Event Strategies, a company founded by Tim Unes, who worked for Trump’s 2016 presidential campaign.[95]

On January 2, Trump retweeted a post by Kremer promoting the January 6 rally, adding that he would be there. From that point, although Kremer still held the permit, planning essentially passed to the White House.[97] Trump discussed the speaking lineup and the music to be played at the event. Although the initial plan for the rally called for people to remain at the Ellipse until the counting of electoral slates was complete, the White House said they should march to the Capitol, as Trump repeatedly urged during his speech.[37]

For several weeks before the event, there were over one million mentions of storming the capitol on social media, including calls for violence against Congress, Pence, and police. This was done on “alt-tech” platforms[a] such as news aggregator website Patriots.win,[b] chat app Telegram and microblogging websites Gab and Parler,[c] as well as on mainstream social media platforms, such as TikTok.[105] Many of the posters planned for violence before the event; some discussed how to avoid police on the streets, which tools to bring to help pry open doors, and how to smuggle weapons into the city.[104] They discussed their perceived need to attack the police.[103][106][107] Following clashes with Washington, D.C. police during protests on December 12, 2020, the Proud Boys and other far-right groups turned against supporting law enforcement.[108] At least one group, Stop the Steal, posted on December 23, 2020, its plans to occupy the Capitol with promises to “escalate” if opposed by police.[105] Multiple sites graphically and explicitly discussed “war”, physically taking charge at the event, and killing politicians, even soliciting opinions about which politician should be hanged first, with a GIF of a noose.[103] Joan Donovan, research director at Harvard‘s Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, said that key figures in the Unite the Right rally and the Gamergate online harassment campaign worked to raise online fury ahead of the attack.[109] Facebook and Twitter have also been cited as playing a role in the fomenting of the Capitol attack.[110]

On the January 4, 2021, edition of Real America’s Voice’s The War Room (podcast), Steve Bannon, while discussing the planning for the upcoming events and speech by Trump on January 6 at The Ellipse, said: “Live from our nation’s capital, you’re in the field headquarters of one of the small divisions of the bloodless coup.”[111][112]

January 6 Trump rally

The “Save America” rally (or “March to Save America”, promoted as a “Save America March”)[199] took place on January 6 in the Ellipse within the National Mall just south of the White House. The permit granted to Women for America First showed their first amendment rally “March for Trump” with speeches running from 9:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., and an additional hour for the conclusion of the rally and dispersal of participants.[96]

Trump supporters gathered on the Ellipse to hear speeches from Trump, Rudy Giuliani, and others, such as Chapman University School of Law professor John C. Eastman, who spoke, at least in part, based on his memorandums, which have been described as an instruction manual for a coup d’état.[200][201] In a court filing in February, a member of the Oath Keepers claimed she had acted as “security” at the rally, and was provided with a “VIP pass to the rally where she met with Secret Service agents”. The U.S. Secret Service denied that any private citizens had coordinated with it to provide security on January 6.[202] On February 22, she changed her story and said she interacted with the Secret Service only as she passed through the security check before the rally.[203]

Mo Brooks (R-AL) was a featured speaker at the rally and spoke around 9 a.m., where he said, “Today is the day American patriots start taking down names and kicking ass”. And later, “Are you willing to do what it takes to fight for America? Louder! Will you fight for America?”[204][205]

Representative Madison Cawthorn (R–NC) said, “This crowd has some fight”.[206] Amy Kremer told attendees, “it is up to you and I to save this Republic” and called on them to “keep up the fight”.[97] Trump’s sons, Donald Jr. and Eric, along with Eric’s wife Lara Trump, also spoke, naming and verbally attacking Republican congressmen and senators who were not supporting the effort to challenge the Electoral College vote, and promising to campaign against them in future primary elections.[207] Donald Jr. said of Republican lawmakers, “If you’re gonna be the zero and not the hero, we’re coming for you”.[208][209]

Rudy Giuliani repeated conspiracy theories that voting machines used in the election were “crooked” and at 10:50 called for “trial by combat“.[210][211] Eastman asserted that balloting machines contained “secret folders” that altered voting results.[212][f] At 10:58, a Proud Boys contingent left the rally and marched toward the Capitol Building.[39]

 Criminal charges

Main article: Criminal proceedings in the January 6 United States Capitol attack

Interim United States Attorney Michael R. Sherwin holds a press conference on criminal charges related to the events at the Capitol

By February 1, 228 people from 39 states and DC had been charged with federal and/or DC offences.[469] By April 23, 439 people had been charged.[470] By early September, there were over 600 federal defendants, 10% of whom had pled guilty,[471] and hundreds more arrests expected to come.[472] By October 13, there were over 630 federal defendants and 100 guilty pleas, with BuzzFeed publishing a searchable table of the plea deals.[473] On January 6, 2022, exactly one year following the attack, over 725 people had been charged for their involvement; as of March 2022, 778 have already been charged in relation to the attack.[474]

Most defendants face “two class-B misdemeanor counts for demonstrating in the Capitol and disorderly conduct, and two class-A misdemeanor counts for being in a restricted building and disruptive activity,” according to BuzzFeed, and therefore most plea deals address those misdemeanors. Some defendants have been additionally charged with felonies.[475] The median prison sentence, for those convicted thus far, is 45 days, with those who committed violence facing longer incarceration periods. Other punishments include home detention, fines, probation, and community service.[474] On January 13, 2022, 10 members of the Oath Keepers, including founder Stewart Rhodes, were arrested and charged with seditious conspiracy.[71]

By March 2022, Justice Department investigations of participants in the attack had expanded to include activities of others leading up to the attack. A federal grand jury was empaneled that issued at least one subpoena seeking records about people who organized, spoke at, or provided security at Trump rallies, as well as information about members of the executive and legislative branches who may have taken part in planning or executing the rallies, or attempted to “obstruct, influence, impede or delay” the certification of the election.[476][70]

On June 17, 2022, after the January 6 Committee had held three hearings, Trump told a Faith and Freedom Coalition conference that he might run again for president and if elected he would “very very seriously” consider pardoning all those who stormed the Capitol. Reporting on Trump’s speech, NBC News reported that Trump expressed no regrets about January 6 and “doubled down” on his unfounded claims about the election.[477] On September 1, 2022, Trump similarly pledged to “very, very strongly” consider “full pardons with an apology” if reelected.[478]

International reactions

These paragraphs are an excerpt from International reactions to the January 6 United States Capitol attack.[edit]

More than seventy countries and international organizations expressed their concerns over the attack and condemned the violence, with some specifically condemning President Donald Trump‘s own role in inciting the attack.[506][507] Foreign leaders, diplomats, politicians, and institutions expressed shock, outrage, and condemnation of the events.[508][509] Multiple world leaders made a call for peace, describing the riots as “an attack on democracy”.[510] The leaders of some countries, including BrazilPoland and Hungary, declined to condemn the situation, and described it as an internal U.S. affair.[511]

As early as January 2021, a few European security officials described the events as an attempted coup.[512]

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_6_United_States_Capitol_attack

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(UPDATE) United States of Conspiracy (full documentary) | FRONTLINE 58:18 mins

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How trafficking in conspiracy theories went from the fringes of U.S. politics into the White House. This is an update of the 2020 FRONTLINE documentary, “United States of Conspiracy.” An investigation of the alliance among conspiracy theorist Alex Jones, longtime Trump associate Roger Stone and the president — and their role in the battle over truth and lies. This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: http://www.pbs.org/donate As the coronavirus pandemic continues, America reckons with racism and the 2020 election looms, “United States of Conspiracy” investigates how Jones and InfoWars, Stone, and Trump helped to lay the foundation for conspiracy theories to take center stage in America’s national conversation, how the idea of truth itself became part of America’s divide, and what it means for the future of our democracy. #ConspiracyTheories #USPolitics #Documentaries Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available for you to watch any time: https://to.pbs.org/FLVideoApp Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/1BycsJW Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frontlinepbs Twitter: https://twitter.com/frontlinepbs Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frontline Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Major funding for FRONTLINE is provided by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Ford Foundation. Additional funding is provided by the Abrams Foundation; Park Foundation; the Heising-Simons Foundation; the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation; and Koo and Patricia Yuen.

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Following the aftermath of the Jan. 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol, “American Reckoning – A PBS NewsHour Special Report” looks at the economic and racial history that led to a political divide between Americans, the impact of President Donald Trump’s rhetoric throughout his presidency and the next steps for the nation to heal from the recent attack on American democracy. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

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The Jan. 6 insurrection, 1 year later | PBS NewsHour presents 2:51:34

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A new episode of CBS Reports’ Reverb series reveals that as Christian nationalism attracts followers, traditional pastors fear for their faith and the country. Evangelical Christians are a powerful political force, but an extreme faction has divided the community. In the half-hour documentary, An (Un)Civil War: The Evangelical Divide, we hear from pastors on both sides and ask what this battle means for their faith and the future of American democracy. Watch more documentaries and CBS News Specials that take a deep dive into the key issues driving the national and global conversation here: https://www.cbsnews.com/cbs/reports/ CBS News Streaming Network is the premier 24/7 anchored streaming news service from CBS News and Stations. It’s your destination for breaking news, live events, original storytelling and programs from CBS News and Stations’ top anchors and correspondents working locally, nationally and around the globe. Subscribe to the CBS News YouTube channel:    / cbsnews?   Watch CBS News: http://cbsn.ws/1PlLpZ7c? Download the CBS News app: http://cbsn.ws/1Xb1WC8? Follow CBS News on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/cbsnews/? Like CBS News on Facebook: http://facebook.com/cbsnews? Follow CBS News on Twitter: http://twitter.com/cbsnews? Subscribe to our newsletters: http://cbsn.ws/1RqHw7T? Try Paramount+ free: https://bit.ly/2OiW1kZ For video licensing inquiries, contact: licensing@veritone.com

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Inside The Pro-QAnon, Pro-Trump, Christian Nationalist Roadshow To ‘Save America’ 19:10 mins

MSNBC 290,141 views Oct 25, 2022

Trump allies are leading a pro-QAnon Christian Nationalist roadshow where conspiracy theories and shady prophecies come together to fight the left and “save America.” HuffPost reporter Christopher Mathias and political historian Nicole Hemmer join Mehdi to discuss. » Subscribe to MSNBC: http://on.msnbc.com/SubscribeTomsnbc Follow the MSNBC Midterms Elections guide to the important races across the United States as Americans prepare to cast their votes. Countdown to the Midterms: https://on.msnbc.com/3KlULq8 Follow MSNBC Show Blogs MaddowBlog: https://www.msnbc.com/maddowblog ReidOut Blog: https://www.msnbc.com/reidoutblog MSNBC delivers breaking news, in-depth analysis of politics headlines, as well as commentary and informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, The Beat with Ari Melber, Deadline: White House, The ReidOut, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and Alex Wagner who brings her breadth of reporting experience to MSNBC primetime. Watch “Alex Wagner Tonight” Tuesday through Friday at 9pm Eastern. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit msnbc.com: http://on.msnbc.com/Readmsnbc Subscribe to the MSNBC Daily Newsletter: MSNBC.com/NewslettersYouTube Find MSNBC on Facebook: http://on.msnbc.com/Likemsnbc Follow MSNBC on Twitter: http://on.msnbc.com/Followmsnbc Follow MSNBC on Instagram: http://on.msnbc.com/Instamsnbc #msnbc #trump #christiannationalism

“Fear” inside the Trump White House 26:47 mins

Washington Week PBS 89,485 views Sep 14, 2018

Veteran journalist and author Bob Woodward’s latest book, “Fear: Trump in the White House,” depicts a White House in chaos, and an embattled president at odds with his own advisers. Moderator Robert Costa talks with Woodward about his search for truth, his hundreds of hours of recorded interviews with witnesses and participants in the Trump administration, and why he thinks America should wake up to the president’s behavior.

Inside Donald Trump’s 18 recorded interviews with Bob Woodward for his book “Rage” 13:27

60 Minutes  925,901 views Sep 17, 2020

In taped conversations with a Washington Post journalist, President Trump said he wanted to downplay the severity of the coronavirus. And the recordings reveal the President’s view on how close the United States came to nuclear war with North Korea. Scott Pelley reports. Subscribe to the 60 Minutes Channel HERE: http://bit.ly/1S7CLRu Watch Full Episodes of 60 Minutes HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1Qkjo1F Get more 60 Minutes from 60 Minutes: Overtime HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1KG3sdr Relive past episodes and interviews with 60 Minutes Rewind HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1PlZiGI Follow 60 Minutes on Instagram HERE: http://bit.ly/23Xv8Ry Like 60 Minutes on Facebook HERE: http://on.fb.me/1Xb1Dao Follow 60 Minutes on Twitter HERE: http://bit.ly/1KxUsqX Get the latest news and best in original reporting from CBS News delivered to your inbox. Subscribe to newsletters HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1RqHw7T Get your news on the go! Download CBS News mobile apps HERE: http://cbsn.ws/1Xb1WC8 Get new episodes of shows you love across devices the next day, stream local news live, and watch full seasons of CBS fan favorites anytime, anywhere with CBS All Access. Try it free! http://bit.ly/1OQA29B — 60 Minutes, the most successful American television broadcast in history, began its 52nd season in September. Offering hard-hitting investigative reports, interviews, feature segments and profiles of people in the news, the broadcast began in 1968 is still a hit in 2020. 60 Minutes makes Nielsen’s weekly Top 10 nearly every week and was the #1 weekly television broadcast three times last season. The program still averages more than 10 million viewers, more than double the audience of its nearest network news magazine competitor. The average audience for a 60 Minutes broadcast is 150% higher than those of the network morning news programs; the audience dwarfs the number of viewers drawn by the most popular cable news programs. About a million more people listen to the 60 Minutes radio simulcast in several major cities and on its companion podcast. Tens of thousands each week experience 60 Minutes online. The broadcast’s segments can be watched at 60Minutes.com and on the CBS All Access app. Its webcast, 60MinutesOvertime.com, offers content originally produced for the web, including behind-the-scenes video about the production of 60 Minutes stories and timely archival segments. 60 Minutes has won every major broadcast award. Its 25 Peabody and 150 Emmy awards are the most won by any single news program. It has also won 20 duPont-Columbia University journalism awards. Other distinguished journalism honors won multiple times include the George Polk, RTDNA Edward R. Murrow, Investigative Reporters and Editors, RFK Journalism, Sigma Delta Chi and Gerald Loeb awards. 60 Minutes premiered on CBS September 24, 1968. Bill Owens is the program’s executive producer. The correspondents and contributors of 60 Minutes are Sharyn Alfonsi, Anderson Cooper, John Dickerson, Norah O’Donnell, Scott Pelley, Lesley Stahl, Bill Whitaker and L. Jon Wertheim.

Peril with Robert Costa 1:00:12

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Commonwealth Club of California 249,790 views Oct 20, 2021

The transition from President Donald J. Trump to President Joseph R. Biden Jr. is one of the most tumultuous periods in recent American history. Robert Costa and his co-author Bob Woodward have taken on the task of documenting the transition in a never-before-seen way in their new book, Peril. With material ranging from secret orders to transcripts of phone conversations from the Trump and Biden White House, the 2020 campaign, and more, Peril is the story about changes, a first inside look into Biden’s presidency, and the unique challenges that face the new administration. Join Costa he as analyzes this intense period in history as well as the overall landscape of American politics in 2021. NOTES OCTOBER 7, 2021 SPEAKERS Robert Costa National Political Reporter, The Washington Post; Co-Author, Peril In Conversation with Scott Shafer Senior Editor, KQED’s Politics and Government Desk; Twitter @scottshafer ?SUBSCRIBE for more VIDEOS:    / commonwealthclub   ? UPCOMING EVENTS: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/events ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… ? DONATE NOW: https://support.commonwealthclub.org/… ??? Watch & Listen https://www.commonwealthclub.org/watc… CWC Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thecommonwea… CWC Instagram https://www.instagram.com/cwclub/ CWC Twitter https://twitter.com/cwclub The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 400 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Hillary Clinton in 2010. Along the way, Martin Luther King, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton have all given landmark speeches at the Club.

Woodward: Trump Does Not Understand The Responsibilities Of The President

MSNBC 580,926 views Oct 26, 2022

The Washington Post’s Bob Woodward joins Morning Joe to discuss interviews contained in his audio book ‘The Trump Tapes’. » Subscribe to MSNBC: http://on.msnbc.com/SubscribeTomsnbc Follow the MSNBC Midterms Elections guide to the important races across the United States as Americans prepare to cast their votes. Countdown to the Midterms: https://on.msnbc.com/3KlULq8 Follow MSNBC Show Blogs MaddowBlog: https://www.msnbc.com/maddowblog ReidOut Blog: https://www.msnbc.com/reidoutblog MSNBC delivers breaking news, in-depth analysis of politics headlines, as well as commentary and informed perspectives. Find video clips and segments from The Rachel Maddow Show, Morning Joe, The Beat with Ari Melber, Deadline: White House, The ReidOut, All In, Last Word, 11th Hour, and Alex Wagner who brings her breadth of reporting experience to MSNBC primetime. Watch “Alex Wagner Tonight” Tuesday through Friday at 9pm Eastern. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit msnbc.com: http://on.msnbc.com/Readmsnbc Subscribe to the MSNBC Daily Newsletter: MSNBC.com/NewslettersYouTube Find MSNBC on Facebook: http://on.msnbc.com/Likemsnbc Follow MSNBC on Twitter: http://on.msnbc.com/Followmsnbc Follow MSNBC on Instagram: http://on.msnbc.com/Instamsnbc Woodward: Trump Does Not Understand The Responsibilities Of The President

Bob Woodward on ‘The Trump Tapes’ we haven’t heard (Full Stream 10/31) 32:48 mins

Washington Post Live 11,822 views Streamed live 15 hours ago, 10.31,2022

Bob Woodward, associate editor at The Washington Post, is bucking tradition and releasing the audio recordings of one of his most famous interviewees. On Monday, Oct. 31 at 11:30 a.m. ET, The Post’s Leigh Ann Caldwell speaks with the legendary journalist about his new audiobook, “The Trump Tapes,” his warning about the former president and his assessment of the state of American democracy heading into the midterms. Washington Post Live is the newsroom’s live journalism platform, featuring interviews with top-level government officials, business leaders, cultural influencers and emerging voices on the most pressing issues driving the news cycle nationally and across the globe. From one-on-one, newsmaker interviews to in-depth multi-segment programs, Washington Post Live brings The Post’s newsroom to life on stage. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: https://wapo.st/2QOdcqK Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonpost Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/washingtonp… Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpost/

SAN FRANCISCO

Carol Leonnig and Philip Rucker: Inside Donald J. Trump’s Catastrophic Final Year 57:01 mins

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Commonwealth Club of California  209,585 views Streamed live on Jul 26, 2021

The year 2020 brought with it a nation riddled with grief as the United States descended into a raging pandemic, steep economic downfall, and unsettling political instability. As half a million perished and millions were left jobless from coronavirus, what was really going on inside the White House? And who was influencing Donald Trump as he refused to concede power after an election he had clearly lost? Washington Post reporters Carol Leonnig and Philip Rucker answer these questions for the American people in I Alone Can Fix It, a gripping exposé of an administration sabotaging its own country. Their sources were in the room as Trump and the key players around him—doctors, generals, senior advisors and family members—continued to prioritize the interests of the president over that of the country. These witnesses saw firsthand Trump’s desire to deploy military force against protests in the wake of George Floyd’s death. They saw his refusal to take coronavirus seriously, even to the point of allowing himself and those around him to be infected. They, along with the rest of the world, saw him spur on what would become the January 6 storming of the U.S. Capitol building. With unparalleled access, Rucker and Leonnig delve into exactly who they say enabled—and who foiled—the president as he desperately held onto his fleeting presidency in his final year in office. Join us as Leonnig and Rucker reveal the inner workings of the 2020 Trump White House. NOTES Leonnig photo by Marvin Joseph; Rucker photo by Melina Mara. SPEAKERS Carol Leonnig Investigative Reporter, The Washington Post; Co-author, I Alone Can Fix It: Donald J. Trump’s Catastrophic Final Year; Twitter @CarolLeonnig (Participating Virtually) Philip Rucker White House Bureau Chief, The Washington Post; Co-author, I Alone Can Fix It: Donald J. Trump’s Catastrophic Final Year; Twitter @PhilipRucker (Participating Virtually) In Conversation with Yamiche Alcindor Host, “Washington Week,” PBS; Twitter @Yamiche (Participating Virtually) ?SUBSCRIBE for more VIDEOS: https://www.youtube.com/user/commonwe… ? UPCOMING EVENTS: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/events ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… ? DONATE NOW: https://support.commonwealthclub.org/… ??? Watch & Listen https://www.commonwealthclub.org/watc… CWC Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thecommonwea… CWC Instagram https://www.instagram.com/cwclub/ CWC Twitter https://twitter.com/cwclub The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 400 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Hillary Clinton in 2010. Along the way, Martin Luther King, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton have all given landmark speeches at the Club.

Peter Baker and Susan Glasser: The Donald Trump White House Years 58:38 mins

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Commonwealth Club of California  103,199 views Sep 21, 2022

From its chaotic beginning to the violent finale, the Trump presidency was filled with moments ranging from the unthinkable to the deadly serious. That has continued until these past several weeks, and the man at the center of all of this could announce he is running for president again. That makes understanding his presidency even more important today. Veteran journalists Peter Baker and Susan Glasser chart the ambitious and lasting history of the Trump presidency, drawing on unprecedented access to key players from President Trump himself to cabinet officers, military generals, and more. Based on these exclusive interviews, Baker and Glasser reveal moments both tense and comical, from how close the United States got to nuclear war with North Korea to whether Trump asked Japan’s prime minister to nominate him for a Nobel Prize. They also explore the moral choices confronting those around Trump—how they justified working for him and where they drew their lines. Join us as Peter Baker and Susan Glasser return to the Club to discuss Donald Trump’s presidency and what a second term could mean for the country. Baker and Glasser photography by Doug Mills. September 20, 2020 Speakers Peter Baker Chief White House Correspondent, The New York Times; Co-author, The Divider: Trump in the White House, 2017-2021; Twitter @peterbakernyt Susan Glasser Staff Writer, The New Yorker; Co-author, The Divider: Trump in the White House, 2017-2021; Twitter @sbg1 In Conversation with Adam Lashinsky Journalist; Author; Twitter @adamlashinsky ?Join our Email List! https://www.commonwealthclub.org/email ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 500 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Anthony Fauci in 2020. In addition to the videos? shared here, the Club reaches millions of listeners through its podcast? and weekly national radio program?.

David Cay Johnston: The Big Cheat 1:05:08 mins

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Commonwealth Club of California

655,467 views Dec 16, 2021

The Trump family is one of the most talked about families in the United States. Donald Trump’s presidency elevated that and helped put them on an international stage that brought the family to the forefront of the world. Over the last half decade, journalist and Pulitzer Prize winner David Cay Johnston has provided the American people with fascinating insight into the financial world of one of America’s most influential families. Johnston talks about the financial life of the Trump Family in his new piece of work, The Big Cheat: How Donald Trump Fleeced America and Enriched Himself and His Family. This new book details the aspects of the Trump family’s finances during the four years Donald Trump spent in office, leaving no details out, to give you the complete picture. Join us as David Cay Johnston offers an inside look into the financial world of the Trump family. NOTES David Cay Johnston photo by Bonk Johnston. DECEMBER 9, 2021 SPEAKERS David Cay Johnston Co-Founder, DCReport.org; Author, The Big Cheat: How Donald Trump Fleeced America and Enriched Himself and His Family; Twitter @DavidCayJ In Conversation with Mitch Jeserich Host, “Letters and Politics,” KPFA Radio ? BECOME a MEMBER: https://www.commonwealthclub.org/memb… The Commonwealth Club of California is the nation’s oldest and largest public affairs forum ?, bringing together its 20,000 members for more than 500 annual events on topics ranging across politics, culture, society and the economy. Founded in 1903 in San Francisco California ?, The Commonwealth Club has played host to a diverse and distinctive array of speakers, from Teddy Roosevelt in 1911 to Anthony Fauci in 2020. In addition to the videos? shared here, the Club reaches millions of listeners through its podcast? and weekly national radio program?.

Jonathan Karl | Betrayal: The Final Act of the Trump Show 1:05:57

Author Events  360,185 views Nov 22, 2021

Recorded November 22, 2021 In conversation with Tamala Edwards, anchor, 6ABC Action News morning edition Jonathan Karl is the author of Front Row at the Trump Show, an instant New York Times bestseller that peered behind the scenes into President Trump and his allies’ unprecedented actions. The chief White House correspondent and chief Washington correspondent for ABC News, Karl has written extensively about Trump’s presidency., Karl has also covered some of D.C.’s most important beats, including four presidential administrations, Capitol Hill, the Pentagon, and the State Department. He was the president of the White House Correspondents’ Association from 2019 to 2020 and has earned the Walter Cronkite Award for National Individual Achievement, an Emmy Award, and the Everett McKinley Dirksen Award, the highest honor for Congressional reporting. In Betrayal, Karl recounts the chaotic events that followed the 2020 presidential election and the former president’s stunning downfall.

Tony Schwartz: The Truth About Trump | Oxford Union Q&A

OxfordUnion 4,125,276 views Nov 4, 2016

SUBSCRIBE for more speakers ? http://is.gd/OxfordUnion Oxford Union on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/theoxfordunion Oxford Union on Twitter: @OxfordUnion Website: http://www.oxford-union.org/ Announcing his candidacy for the Republican nomination back in June 2015, Donald Trump stated “We need a leader that wrote ‘The Art of the Deal’ “. Tony Schwartz was the ghostwriter of the book Trump calls ‘his proudest achievement’. Schwartz has been vocal about his regrets in working on the piece, but, having worked intimately with Trump, provides a fascinating perspective into the personality and idiosyncrasies of the Republican nominee ABOUT THE OXFORD UNION SOCIETY: The Oxford Union is the world’s most prestigious debating society, with an unparalleled reputation for bringing international guests and speakers to Oxford. Since 1823, the Union has been promoting debate and discussion not just in Oxford University, but across the globe.

Ing’s comment on Democracy of USA

WHEN WE LOSE THE DEMOCRATIC WAY OF LIVE ——-

NO FREEDOM, NO EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL,

ONLY BILLIONAIRE, AUTOCRACY,

SLAVE WORKERS  AND HOMELESSNESS REMAIN

 At present, democracy in the United States of America, is balancing on a tight rope.  At any moment, it can falter and tumble if the extreme right-wing of the Republican party gains control of Congress.   If Republican leader, Keven McCarthy, controls the House of Representatives, and Republican leader Mitch McConnell, takes control of the Senate, the government will return to the extreme right-wing policies of the Trump administration even before the presidential election of 2024.

Former president Trump, worked hand in glove with Mitch McConnell, to stack the Supreme Court with three new replacements, of ultra conservative right-wing judges.  When added to the three conservative Judges already on the court, it has created a dangerous super majority that has already begun to overturn settled law, in favor of right-wing extremist ideology.  It is now impossible for the three remaining liberal judges to prevent these actions from taking place.   

The Conservative court has already used its power support major challenges to settled law brought before the court that involve issues such as civil rights, and abortion rights.  Roe V Wade, has been the law of the land for over fifty years, but has already been gutted.  The conservative Supreme Court majority has removed the rights of women to decide for themselves whether an abortion is an appropriate choice for their circumstance.  Even when a ten years old girl is raped and becomes pregnant, in many states she is obligated to have the child.  In some states, even when the pregnancy will cause harm to a woman, the law forces her to carry her pregnancy to the end of the term.  Where are the rights of women?  Are we retuning to a dark age when women had no rights at all? 

Mr. Trump with assistance from Mitch McConnell also appointed two hundred Conservative Federal Court Judge positions to the bench.  Because of this, states now have the ability to make laws that severely restrict abortion, making is essentially illegal.  In contrast, when Barack Obama was president, he attempted to fill vacancies to the Supreme Court and Federal Courts but could not.  President Obama’s nominees were blocked in every instance by the Republican controlled senate led by Mitch McConnell. 

Just as significate in 2010, during the Obama administration, the Supreme Court, in the Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission case, upheld the right of corporations to make unlimited political expenditures under the first Amendment.  This allowed corporations to donate as much money as they wish to help Republican politicians, win elections.  In return, these politicians then helped pass laws that favor these corporations.

The right wing of the Republican party, which has now become the majority of that party, continues to attempt passing laws and use any other legal maneuver to strip away the rights of the majority of American citizens.  The Midterm election of 2022 is perhaps the last chance for Democrats along with the few remaining centrist Republicans in Congress, to prevent the rightwing extremists taking full control of the government. 

If the Republicans take control of both houses of Congress in the 2022 election, they will be able to control the vote count in the 2024 election.  This is because they will have elected officials in many states who will be able to decertify the vote count in the presidential election of 2024.

This could mean the end of democracy in America because the vote count will be in the hands of those in power to continue in power.  If this happens, through voting manipulation, Donald Trump is very likely to become President in 2024 and we will live in an Autocrat System with a leader that controls our lives in the same way Putin does in Russia, and Kim Jong-un does in North Korea.  The democratic way of life for US citizens could end, and without democracy in the world’s most powerful nation, it will be under even greater threat throughout the world. 

In our retirement years my husband and I watch with great sadness at what may unfold.  We may suffer mentally and physically for the short time we have left, but future generations may suffer their whole lives under a repressive dictatorship.  Our daughter, our little grandsons, and many other families will have to live without the freedom that earlier generations have known.  I still have hope that sanity will prevail, and the United States of America will not lose our gift of freedom that has helped enlighten so many other nations of this world.

I am not a Democrat, Republican, or member of any political party, but I am for a democratic way of life.  Democracy brings freedom of thought, action, and human rights for every citizen, allowing an opportunity to live peacefully in a healthy world.

Together we can face what will be the inevitable problem of global warming, which affect the lives of all of us.  Many lives will be lost before all the complexities of the issue can be attended, but we must begin now or there will be nothing left on earth to care for.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, November 1, 2022

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Remembering Madeleine Albright, First Woman to Become Secretary of State of U.S.A. Part 1

Remembering Madeleine Albright, First Woman to Become Secretary of State of U.S.A. Part 1

Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright[1] (born Marie Jana Korbelová; May 15, 1937 – March 23, 2022)[2][3] was an American diplomat and political scientist who served as the 64th United States secretary of state in the Clinton administration from 1997 to 2001. A member of the Democratic Party, Albright was the first woman to hold the post.[4]

Albright immigrated with her family to the United States in 1948 from Communist Czechoslovakia. Her father, diplomat Josef Korbel, settled the family in Denver, Colorado, and she became a U.S. citizen in 1957.[5][6] Albright graduated from Wellesley College in 1959 and earned a PhD from Columbia University in 1975, writing her thesis on the Prague Spring.[7] She worked as an aide to Senator Edmund Muskie before taking a position under Zbigniew Brzezinski on the National Security Council. She served in that position until 1981, when President Jimmy Carter left office.[8]

After leaving the National Security Council, Albright joined the academic faculty of Georgetown University and advised Democratic candidates regarding foreign policy. After Bill Clinton‘s victory in the 1992 presidential election, Albright helped assemble his National Security Council.

Vice President Al Gore swears in Madeleine Albright as the nation’s first female secretary of state on Jan. 23, 1997.                  Diana Walker—Getty Images

President Clinton appointed her United States ambassador to the United Nations from 1993 to 1997, a position she held until elevation as secretary of state. Secretary Albright served in that capacity until Clinton left office in 2001.

Albright served as chair of the Albright Stonebridge Group, a consulting firm, and was the Michael and Virginia Mortara Endowed Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service.[9] 

Albright received the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama at the White House on May 29, 2012.                                                                 Alex Wong/Getty Images  

She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. president Barack Obama in May 2012.[10] Albright served on the board of the Council on Foreign Relations.[11]

Madeleine Albright in childhood

Early life and career

Albright was born Marie Jana Korbelová in 1937 in the Smíchov district of PragueCzechoslovakia.[12] Her parents were Josef Korbel, a Czech diplomat, and Anna Korbel (née Spieglová).[13] At the time of Albright’s birth, Czechoslovakia had been independent for less than 20 years, having gained independence from Austria-Hungary after World War I. Her father was a supporter of Tomáš Masaryk and Edvard Beneš.[14] Marie Jana had a younger sister Katherine[15] and a younger brother John (these versions of their names are Anglicized).[16]

When Marie Jana was born, her father was serving as a press-attaché at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Belgrade. The signing of the Munich Agreement in September 1938—and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitler‘s troops—forced the family into exile because of their links with Beneš.[17]

Josef and Anna converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1941.[13] Marie Jana and her siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith.[18][19] In 1997, Albright said her parents never told her or her two siblings about their Jewish ancestry and heritage.[18]

The family moved to Britain in May 1939. Here her father worked for Beneš’s Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Her family first lived on Kensington Park Road in Notting Hill, London—where they endured the worst of the Blitz—but later moved to Beaconsfield, then Walton-on-Thames, on the outskirts of London.[20] They kept a large metal table in the house, which was intended to shelter the family from the recurring threat of German air raids.[21] While in England, Marie Jana was one of the children shown in a documentary film designed to promote sympathy for war refugees in London.[22]

After the defeat of the Nazis in the European theatre of World War II and the collapse of Nazi Germany and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Korbel family returned to Prague.[18] Korbel was appointed as press attaché at Czechoslovakian Embassy in Yugoslavia, and the family moved to Belgrade—then part of Yugoslavia—which was governed by the Communist Party. Korbel was concerned his daughter would be exposed to Marxism in a Yugoslav school, and so she was taught privately by a governess before being sent to the Prealpina Institut pour Jeunes Filles finishing school in Chexbres, on Lake Geneva in Switzerland.[23] She learned to speak French while in Switzerland and changed her name from Marie Jana to Madeleine.[24]

The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over the government in 1948, with support from the Soviet Union. As an opponent of communism, Korbel was forced to resign from his position.[25] He later obtained a position on a United Nations delegation to Kashmir. He sent his family to the United States, by way of London, to wait for him when he arrived to deliver his report to the UN Headquarters, then located in Lake Success, New York.[25]        

Madeleine Albright in her youth    en.24smi.org

Madeleine Korbel spent her teen years in Denver and in 1955 graduated from the Kent Denver School in Cherry Hills Village, a suburb of Denver. She founded the school’s international relations club and was its first president.[32] She attended Wellesley College, in Wellesley, Massachusetts, on a full scholarship, majoring in political science, and graduated in 1959.[33] The topic of her senior thesis was Zden?k Fierlinger, a former Czechoslovakian prime minister.[34] She became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1957, and joined the College Democrats of America.[35]

Madeleine Albright with her husband

While home in Denver from Wellesley, Korbel worked as an intern for The Denver Post. There she met Joseph Albright. He was the nephew of Alicia Patterson, owner of Newsday and wife of philanthropist Harry Frank Guggenheim.[36] Korbel converted to the Episcopal Church at the time of her marriage.[18][19] The couple were married in Wellesley in 1959, shortly after her graduation.[33] They lived in Rolla, Missouri, while Joseph completed his military service at nearby Fort Leonard Wood. During this time, Albright worked at The Rolla Daily News.[37]

The couple moved to Joseph’s hometown of Chicago, Illinois, in January 1960. Joseph worked at the Chicago Sun-Times as a journalist, and Albright worked as a picture editor for Encyclopædia Britannica.[38] The following year, Joseph Albright began work at Newsday in New York City, and the couple moved to Garden City on Long Island.[39] 

Madeleine Albright with her children

That year, she gave birth to twin daughters, Alice Patterson Albright and Anne Korbel Albright. The twins were born six weeks premature and required a long hospital stay. As a distraction, Albright began Russian language classes at Hofstra University in the Village of Hempstead nearby.[39]

In 1962, the family moved to Washington, D.C., where they lived in Georgetown. Albright studied international relations and continued in Russian at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, a division of Johns Hopkins University in the capital.[40]

Joseph’s aunt Alicia Patterson died in 1963 and the Albrights returned to Long Island with the notion of Joseph taking over the family newspaper business.[41] Albright gave birth to another daughter, Katharine Medill Albright, in 1967. She continued her studies at Columbia University’s Department of Public Law and Government.[42] (It was later renamed as the political science department, and is located within the School of International and Public Affairs.) She earned a certificate in Russian, an M.A. and a PhD, writing her master’s thesis on the Soviet diplomatic corps and her doctoral dissertation on the role of journalists in the Prague Spring of 1968.[43] She also took a graduate course given by Zbigniew Brzezinski, who later became her boss at the U.S. National Security Council.[44]

Wikipedia

Joseph was a reporter for the Chicago Sun-Times. He became famous in 1961 after publishing a report on the scandalous meeting of Richard Nixon with his supporters (Joseph hid in the hotel bathroom and recorded the conversation). In 1970, the couple sold all News Day shares for $ 37.5 million.

After 23 years of marriage, on January 31, 1983, the couple divorced. After the divorce, Madeleine got a three-storied house in Georgetown, a wealthy suburb of Washington, and a farm in Virginia, as well as a large part of his fortune.                             en.24smi.org

Madeleine Albright with Newspaper Staff at Wellesley College ca. 1958.

 Brooks Kraft LLC/Sygma/Getty Images         Time

Madeleine Albright began her political career early

Madeleine Albright was invited to work in the White House after the 1976 U.S. presidential election of Jimmy Carter. Madeleine’s former professor at Columbia University, Zbigniew Brzezinski, became National Security Adviser and recruited his student to work in the West Wing as the National Security Council’s congressional liaison.

As a Democratic Party activist, in 1984 she became a foreign policy advisor, working with Vice-Presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro when Walter Mondale ran for president. After that, she headed the Center for National Policy, which was created to strengthen the Democratic Party. At that time, Albright managed to broaden contacts and in 1988 became a foreign policy advisor, briefing Presidential candidate Michael Dukakis.

During the presidential debate of Dukakis and his adversary George W. Bush in Washington, Madeleine Albright met Bill Clinton, the then-governor of Arkansas. In 1989, she advised Clinton to join the Council on Foreign Relations (an influential U.S. non-governmental organization), which Clinton did not forget. After becoming president, he appointed Madeleine Albright U.S. Permanent Representative to the U.N.    en.24smi.org

United Kingdom Ambassador to the United Nations, Sir David Hannay, and US Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright vote during a Security Council meeting in New York to allow Iraq to export a limited amount of oil to cover the cost of humanitarian supplies for its population on April 14, 1995.  TIME

Timothy Clary—AFP/Getty Images

While working at the U.N. as the United States representative, she played a key role when Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic joined NATO. She is known for her involvement in the use of force during the conflict in the Balkans. Many people blame her for the mass killing of Serbs in Kosovo and call her the “executioner of Serbia.”

Madeleine Albright as U.S. Secretary of State

When Clinton began his second term in January 1997, following his re-election, he required a new Secretary of State, as incumbent Warren Christopher was retiring.[66] The top level of the Clinton administration was divided into two camps on selecting the new foreign policy. Outgoing Chief of Staff Leon Panetta favored Albright, but a separate faction argued, “anybody but Albright”, with Sam Nunn as its first choice. Albright orchestrated a campaign on her own behalf that proved successful.[67] When Albright took office as the 64th U.S. Secretary of State on January 23, 1997, she became the first female U.S. Secretary of State and the highest-ranking woman in the history of the U.S. government at the time of her appointment.[68] Not being a natural-born citizen of the U.S., she was not eligible as a U.S. presidential successor.[69]

Wikipedia

President Bill Clinton with Secretary of State Madeleine Albright in 1999.Cynthia Johnson / Getty Images file      

Madeleine Albright has often sharply criticized the foreign policy of Russia, in particular, President Vladimir Putin:

“He is smart, but a truly evil man. A KGB officer, who wants to keep everything under control and believes that everyone conspires against Russia. It is not true. Putin had bad cards, but they were played well. At least, in the short-term. I think his goal is to undermine and split the E.U. He wants to drive NATO from his sphere of influence.”

President Bill Clinton confers with Albright before delivering the final statement at the Middle East Summit in the Egyptian resort town of Sharm el-Sheik, Egypt, on October 17, 2000 [File: Jerome Delay/AP Photo]      

When The Washington Post reported on Albright’s Jewish heritage shortly after she had become Secretary of State in 1997, Albright said that the report was a “major surprise”.[149] Albright said that she did not learn until age 59[150] that both her parents were born and raised in Jewish families. As many as a dozen of her relatives in Czechoslovakia—including three of her grandparents—had been murdered in the Holocaust.[18][19][151]

(Al Jazeera)

In the lead-up to the Iraq war in 2003, Albright said the invasion was justified, based on allegations that Baghdad possessed weapons of mass destruction. But she argued that the country did not pose an immediate threat to the US and called for keeping focus on defeating al-Qaeda.

She would later come out forcefully against the war. “Iraq is going to go down in history as the greatest disaster in American foreign policy,” she told Al Jazeera in a 2007 interview.

During efforts to press North Korea to end its nuclear weapons programme, which were eventually unsuccessful, Albright travelled to Pyongyang in 2000 to meet North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, becoming the highest-ranking US official to visit the country.

While hailed in some circles as a feminist icon, critics have criticised Albright’s support for US wars and sanctions.

“Madeline Albright was one of my earliest lessons in the bankruptcy of identity politics. It doesn’t matter if you are the first anything if your politics perpetuate the status quo of racial violence, imperial war making, and capitalist extraction/exploitation,” Palestinian-American author and activist Noura Erakat wrote on Twitter on Wednesday.

State Department spokesperson Ned Price called Albright a “trailblazer” on Wednesday.

“The impact that she has had on this building is felt every single day and just about every single corridor,” Price told reporters.

Nancy Pelosi, the speaker of the US House of Representatives, eulogised Albright as a “towering champion for peace, diplomacy and democracy”.

“Her historic tenure as our nation’s first woman to serve as our top diplomat paved the way for generations of women to serve at the highest levels of our government and represent America abroad,” Pelosi said.          (Al Jazeera)

Former President Barack Obama said in a statement, “Madeleine Albright helped bring peace to the Balkans, paved the way for progress in some of the most unstable corners of the world, and was a champion for democratic values. And as an immigrant herself, she brought a unique and important perspective to her trailblazing career.”

Obama also recounted an interaction he said Albright had with an Ethiopian man at a naturalization ceremony.

Obama said the “man came up to Madeleine and said, ‘Only in America could a refugee from Africa meet the Secretary of State.’ She replied, ‘Only in America could a refugee from Central Europe become Secretary of State.'”   ABC News

Madeleine Albright, 1st female secretary of state, dead at 84

Madeleine Albright’s family said the former secretary of state died Wednesday from cancer.

Alex Wong/Getty Images, FILE   ABC News

Albright died from cancer in Washington, D.C., on March 23, 2022, at the age of 84.[157][158][159] Many political figures paid tribute to her, including presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama and Joe Biden, and former British prime minister Tony Blair.[120]

US President Joe Biden paid tribute to Albright, saying she was a “force for goodness, grace, and decency – and for freedom”. 

 Diana Walker/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images

Georgetown Univiversity professor Madeleine Albright, foreign policy adviser to presiden…Read More   ABC News

U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. Madeleine Albright testifies before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the Peace Powers Act and the National Security Revitalization Act in 1995.

Joyce Naltchayan/AFP via Getty Images

Albright proved adept at making complicated foreign policy accessible to the public.     NPR

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright displays the instruments of accession that brought Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic into NATO.

Cliff Schiappa/AFP via Getty Images

As secretary of state, Albright promoted the eastward expansion of NATO and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.     NPR

Douglas Graham/Congressional Quarterly/Getty Images

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright at the Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearin…Read More ABC News

Madeleine Albright and Representative Barbara Mikulski greet each other at the commemorative ceremony of the NATO Summit in Washington on April 23, 1999. 

Stephen Jaffe—AFP/Getty Images          TIME

Secretary of State Madeleine Albright being interviewed by John F. Kennedy Jr. for George Magazine, 1998.

 David Hume Kennerly—Getty Images  TIME

Albright with Benjamin Netanyahu (left) and Yasser Arafat at the Wye River Memorandum, 1998  Wikipedia

https://web.archive.org/web/20041108024912/http://telaviv.usembassy.gov/publish/peace/october98/photo2.html

With NATO officers during NATO Ceremony of Accession of New Members, 1999 Wikipedia

BasilioC – Own work

Madeleine Albright at the World Economic Forum Wikipedia

https://www.flickr.com/photos/worldeconomicforum/3273672687/

Albright holds a bat before throwing out the first pitch before the game between the Kansas City Royals and the Baltimore Orioles during opening day at Camden Yards in 2002.

Ted Mathias/AFP via Getty Images   NPR

Albright remained an active professor at Georgetown University, training the next generation of diplomats.       

Madeleine Albright, seen here in 2009, served as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and secretary of state.

Spencer Platt/Getty Images             NPR

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry greets Albright, February 6, 2013 Wikipedia

https://www.flickr.com/photos/statephotos/8451009047/sizes/o/in/photostream/

Madeleine Albright, photographed in her sitting room, opposite her office in Washington, D.C., on Sept. 12, 2016.

Luisa Dörr for TIME

Bob Schieffer and Madeleine Albright at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2017 Wikipedia

from Austin – DIG14155-46

BOOKS    NPR

Madeleine Albright’s teaching continues — through these books  

BOOKS  NPR

How Madeleine Albright used jewelry as a diplomatic tool

Pins and broaches worn by former Secretary Albright are seen at the Mint Museum on Sept. 3, 2012, in Charlotte, N.C.

Brendan Smialowski/AFP via Getty Images     NPR

Madeleine Albright’s brooches

An interesting fact is her impressive collection of pins. In 2009-2010, she exhibited them at the Museum of Arts and Design in New York City. Most of them have no artistic or jewelry value, but attract people as a symbol of a new approach to diplomacy.

Madeleine Albright is naturally straightforward. But, as a diplomat, she could not always express her opinion, communicating with an opponent. Madeleine is a woman who came up with her diplomatic language, “brooch language.” en.24smi.org 

In addition to English, Russian, and Czech, Albright spoke French, German, Polish, and Serbo-Croatian.[152] She also understood spoken Slovak.[153]

Albright mentioned her physical fitness and exercise regimen in several interviews. In 2006, she said she was capable of leg pressing 400 pounds (180 kg).[154][155] Albright was listed as one of the fifty best-dressed over 50s by The Guardian in March 2013.[156]

Madeleine Albright: My Life With Pins

Nov 15, 2012  Newfields

Madeleine Albright: My Life With Pins While serving as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and as Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright became known for using jewelry as a tools for diplomacy. Hear her discuss her collection of more than 200 pins, from the gold serpent brooch she wore in response to a poem published by Saddam Hussein’s press, to gifts—like the pin she received from the family of a woman who died as a result of Hurricane Katrina. The program includes an audience Q&A with Secretary Albright moderated by Maxwell Anderson, The Melvin & Bren Simon Director and CEO of IMA. This event took place on November 11, 2010 at the Indianapolis Museum of Art.

Madeleine Albright, first woman to become secretary of state, dies at 84

Mar 23, 2022  PBS NewsHour

From the very heights of government and diplomacy, to fierce advocacy for democracy and refugees, Madeleine Albright set a new and trailblazing standard. The first woman to become secretary of state died Wednesday afternoon in Washington, but leaves an impressive legacy. Nick Schifrin reports and Judy Woodruff speaks with former President Bill Clinton by phone to discuss her life and career. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

Remembering the life and legacy of Madeleine Albright

Mar 23, 2022  PBS NewsHour

Former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who died Wednesday after a battle with cancer, was known by most everyone in Washington, D.C. in the world of politics, statecraft, and journalism. Susan Rice, one of Albright’s longtime friends and one of her successors as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, joins Judy Woodruff to discuss her legacy. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us:

‘Irreplaceable’ | Madeleine Albright’s friends remember her contributions to DC

Mar 23, 2022  WUSA9

Albright instructed students at Georgetown University for 40 years all the while attending and serving local churches in the District. » Subscribe to WUSA9: https://bit.ly/2lO8e2F FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA – Twitter: https://twitter.com/wusa9 Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/wusa9 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/wusa9 NEWS TIPS – Email: newstips@wusa9.com » Subscribe to WUSA9: https://bit.ly/2lO8e2F FOLLOW US ON SOCIAL MEDIA – Twitter: https://twitter.com/wusa9 Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/wusa9 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/wusa9 NEWS TIPS – Email: newstips@wusa9.com

Mika On Madeleine Albright: I Will Miss Her Deeply

Mar 24, 2022  MSNBC

Madeleine Albright, the first woman to serve as the U.S. secretary of state, died Wednesday at the age of 84, her family said in a statement. Mika Brzezinski and the Morning Joe panel remember Albright’s life and legacy. » Subscribe to MSNBC: http://on.msnbc.com/SubscribeTomsnbc About: MSNBC is the premier destination for in-depth analysis of daily headlines, insightful political commentary and informed perspectives. Reaching more than 95 million households worldwide, MSNBC offers a full schedule of live news coverage, political opinions and award-winning documentary programming — 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit msnbc.com: http://on.msnbc.com/Readmsnbc Subscribe to MSNBC Newsletter: MSNBC.com/NewslettersYouTube Find MSNBC on Facebook: http://on.msnbc.com/Likemsnbc Follow MSNBC on Twitter: http://on.msnbc.com/Followmsnbc Follow MSNBC on Instagram: http://on.msnbc.com/Instamsnbc Mika On Madeleine Albright: I Will Miss Her Deeply

Madeleine Albright Says ‘See Something, Say Something, Do Something’

Apr 10, 2018  The Late Show with Stephen Colbert

Former Sec. of State and ‘Fascism: A Warning’ author Madeleine Albright tells Stephen the warning signs of a strongman. Subscribe To “The Late Show” Channel HERE: http://bit.ly/ColbertYouTube For more content from “The Late Show with Stephen Colbert”, click HERE: http://bit.ly/1AKISnR Watch full episodes of “The Late Show” HERE: http://bit.ly/1Puei40 Like “The Late Show” on Facebook HERE: http://on.fb.me/1df139Y Follow “The Late Show” on Twitter HERE: http://bit.ly/1dMzZzG Follow “The Late Show” on Google+ HERE: http://bit.ly/1JlGgzw Follow “The Late Show” on Instagram HERE: http://bit.ly/29wfREj Follow “The Late Show” on Tumblr HERE: http://bit.ly/29DVvtR Watch The Late Show with Stephen Colbert weeknights at 11:35 PM ET/10:35 PM CT. Only on CBS. Get the CBS app for iPhone & iPad! Click HERE: http://bit.ly/12rLxge Get new episodes of shows you love across devices the next day, stream live TV, and watch full seasons of CBS fan favorites anytime, anywhere with CBS All Access. Try it free! http://bit.ly/1OQA29B — The Late Show with Stephen Colbert is the premier late night talk show on CBS, airing at 11:35pm EST, streaming online via CBS All Access, and delivered to the International Space Station on a USB drive taped to a weather balloon. Every night, viewers can expect: Comedy, humor, funny moments, witty interviews, celebrities, famous people, movie stars, bits, humorous celebrities doing bits, funny celebs, big group photos of every star from Hollywood, even the reclusive ones, plus also jokes.

Bill Clinton: Madeleine Albright Represented The Best Of America

Mar 24, 2022  MSNBC

Former President Bill Clinton joins Morning Joe to discuss the life and legacy of first female Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, who died at the age of 84. » Subscribe to MSNBC: http://on.msnbc.com/SubscribeTomsnbc About: MSNBC is the premier destination for in-depth analysis of daily headlines, insightful political commentary and informed perspectives. Reaching more than 95 million households worldwide, MSNBC offers a full schedule of live news coverage, political opinions and award-winning documentary programming — 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Connect with MSNBC Online Visit msnbc.com: http://on.msnbc.com/Readmsnbc Subscribe to MSNBC Newsletter: MSNBC.com/NewslettersYouTube Find MSNBC on Facebook: http://on.msnbc.com/Likemsnbc Follow MSNBC on Twitter: http://on.msnbc.com/Followmsnbc Follow MSNBC on Instagram: http://on.msnbc.com/Instamsnbc Bill Clinton: Madeleine Albright Represented The Best Of America

Hillary Clinton and Madeleine Albright Speak at the Women in Public Service Institute

WellesleyCollege

On Monday, June 11, 2012, the inaugural Women in Public Service Institute opened at Wellesley College. The two-week program for emerging women leaders is part of a global project launched by the U.S. Department of State and women’s colleges of the Seven Sisters—Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Smith, and Wellesley—with a goal to get world leadership from 17.5% female to “50% by 2050.” Speakers included: Former Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright ’59, introduced by Ambassador Michele Sison ’81 U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton ’69, introduced by Wellesley College President H. Kim Bottomly A text transcript of Secretary Clinton’s remarks is available at http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/201…. Learn more about the opening ceremonies: http://new.wellesley.edu/news/wps Learn more about the Institute: http://womeninpublicservice.org/insti…

Wellesley College, Politics and Prose, GrassRoots Community Network, ASPEN INSTITUTE,

Madeleine Albright, “Fascism: A Warning”

Apr 18, 2018  Politics and Prose

Madeleine Albright discusses her book, “Fascism: A Warning”, at a Politics and Prose event at Sixth and I in Washington, DC on 4/16/18. Presidential Medal of Freedom honoree Madeleine Albright is the first woman ever to serve as U.S. Secretary of State. Over her long career as a diplomat, Albright watched Fascism rise and endure. In Fascism: A Warning, she shows us how its legacy shapes today’s world. Albright believes that the momentum toward democracy that swept the world when the Berlin Wall fell has gone into reverse. Extremists on the right and left are taking power all over the globe, and we must join forces to resist in order to avoid repeating the horrors of the past. In this call to arms, Albright gives us the lessons we should take from the past, the questions we need to ask in the present, and the tools we can use to fight for our future. Albright is in conversation with Jeffrey Goldberg, editor in chief of The Atlantic and a recipient of the National Magazine Award for Reporting https://www.politics-prose.com/book/9… Founded by Carla Cohen and Barbara Meade in 1984, Politics and Prose Bookstore is Washington, D.C.’s premier independent bookstore and cultural hub, a gathering place for people interested in reading and discussing books. Politics and Prose offers superior service, unusual book choices, and a haven for book lovers in the store and online. Visit them on the web at http://www.politics-prose.com/ Produced by Tom Warren

ASPEN INSTITUTE

The Crisis with Russia – Implications for the U.S. and Europe with Madeleine Albright

Mar 24, 2022  GrassRoots  Community Network

Filmed on 08/08/2014 Also featuring Robert Gates,Condoleezza Rice, and Nicholas Burns. This talk is part of The Aspen Institute- McCloskey Speaker Series. GrassRoots TV is the country’s first and oldest community cable television station. https://bit.ly/GRTVContribute to contribute! Don’t forget to SUBSCRIBE, HIT LIKE and leave a COMMENT to let us know if you enjoyed this video, it is important to us and the community for you to become part of the conversation. Thanks for tuning in! Subscribe for more videos: https://bit.ly/2Ycpi4P Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/GrassRootsCo… Twitter: https://twitter.com/grassrootstv Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/grassroots-com… Web: http://www.grassrootstv.org/

For more information, please visit the following links:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madeleine_Albright

https://en.24smi.org/celebrity/101620-madeleine-albright.html

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/3/23/madeleine-albright-former-u-s-secretary-of-state-dies-at-84

https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/madeleine-albright-1st-female-secretary-state-dead-84/story?id=83627652

https://time.com/5505054/madeleine-albright-dies/

https://www.npr.org/2022/03/24/1075929885/madeleine-albright-trailblazing-diplomat-and-mentor-dies-at-84

https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/madeleine-albright-first-female-secretary-state-dies-84-rcna21247

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Ukraine, Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, Painted House in Tsurupinsk, Versus Putin, President of Russia who has Invaded Ukraine

Ukraine, Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, Painted House in Tsurupinsk, Versus Putin, President of Russia who has Invaded Ukraine

Ukraine. Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, she started paint in old age, her painted house is in Tsurupinsk near Kherson. 1928-2004This is Ukraine. Artist Polina Rayko, farmer, she started paint in old age, her painted house is in Tsurupinsk near Kherson. 1928-2004.

Posted by Marina Koldobskava on Facebook, February 25, 2022

Marina Koldobskaya

4tFShe5hboriuuta0tr0y a125s1 at 3i:39 ciAM  ·

Polina Rayko’s Artwork, Life and Times

Polina Rayko (her original name was Pelaheya Soldatova) was born in April 1928 in the small Ukrainian town of Oleshky. She married Mykola Rayko at the age of 22. Polina at that time had no interest in painting. She led a life typical of a Soviet woman – she worked hard and devoted herself to her family.

The Raykos had few means. They worked at a kolkhoz (a collective farm) and also did work for hire, grew fruits and vegetables in their kitchen garden, and generally tried to do their best. The couple brought up two children, a boy and a girl.

Late in life, Polina met with hard times. In 1994, her daughter Olena died tragically in a road accident and her husband Mykola passed away a year later. Instead of supporting his mother, her son drank heavily and made trouble. Later, he was imprisoned.

To keep from going mad with grief, the woman, to her own surprise, began to paint. She created her first paintings at the age of 69. The walls of her house became her “canvas.” She used the cheapest paints – enamel floor colors. But neither lack of experience nor her use of low-cost art supplies got in the way of her desire to realize herself.

Painting became therapy for Polina Rayko, alleviating her loneliness and allowing her to appreciate herself more. She was sincerely surprised how she found subjects for her frescoes and ways of embodying her thoughts, considering that except for a few times at school, she had never before held a brush in her hands.

She Created Her Own Universe

The self-taught painter made all her frescoes in the same manner, with no free space between them – all her paintings are like one continuous mural. Granny Polina’s subjects are sometimes taken from her own life.

One wall of her living room is covered with life-size portraits of her sisters. All are long-haired with big wings behind their backs. Little angels and white pigeons fly around them in a blossoming magical garden.

On another wall Polina depicts herself in a wedding gown beside her husband. Fantastic flowers and birds of paradise surround the newly married couple.

In a separate portrait of her husband Mykola, he is shown in a boat with a float fishing rod and a bottle of vodka – everything he might need in the other world.

Animals make another vivid subject of her frescoes – her fabulous fish, birds, and butterflies are all over the walls, the ceiling, the stove, the doors.

This self-taught artist learned to render the feeling of movement in her paintings. Entering the house, we seem caught up in a swirl of images flying and circling around us.

Sentiment grows to declare the house of naive painter Polina Rayko a national cultural monument of Ukraine. From Vhoru, a Kherson-based news outlet.

If granny Polina had known that high officials and famous painters would troop through her house to look at her wall paintings, she’d have thought it a dream. It wasn’t for fame when the retired Polina Rayko began to paint on the walls of her house. For over 15 years the painter has been with the saints, but the images she created remain alive and inspire others.

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://tol.org/client/article/paradise-within-four-walls.html

Comments by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Polina Rayko Versus Vladimir Putin

Mrs. Polina Rayko was a simple working-class person, who went through her life with unfortunate and suffering incidents.  But she overcame problems and discovered that artwork could make her free and happier than in her younger years.  I can imagine how happy she could be to spent the end of her life for more than 15 years using her imagination, and creating artwork that will last for future generations to enjoy.  I admire her work and her ability to share and make others see that one good human being can create a positive atmosphere for the world.

At this moment, Russia has invaded Ukraine, the homeland of Polina Rayko, by the order of one man, Vladimir Putin.  He has already created more than one million refugees so far, as they run away from Russian bombs that destroyed their houses and all the possessions of their lives.  Vladimir Putin came from the poor family.  By any means possible, he has acquired great wealth in the multi-billions of dollars.  He climbed from being KGB officer to become the president of Russia for more than 20 years.  With all this wealth and power, he can do a lot of good things.  Even though he cannot paint like Polina Rayko, he can build museums that cultivate artists to create artwork that Russia and the whole world can admire and enjoy.  Aside from this, he could help the world reduce global warming by using science to discover new inventions to reduce global warming.  This could help prevent the rise of the sea water that may inundate the coastlines of the entire world.  Using his power, he can do many things to make the world better and happier.  But he selects to use his power to subjugate others by sending Russian soldiers to kill and be killed by invading Ukraine, a smaller neighboring country with far less weapons and soldiers than Russia.  Now Vladimir Putin threatens the whole world with nuclear weapon if any country intervenes with his operation.  He is able to make the whole world unhappy and on edge, afraid that we might have a third World War.    

Let us look at these two humans’ lives, Mrs. Polina Rayko, versus Mr. Vladimir Putin.  Who is more peaceful, and who has more value?  The world is troubled by many problems. We need leadership that brings peace and happiness for their own countries and the world.  We need peace and togetherness as one humanity to solve the issue of global warming.  We all will not survive if global temperature is warmer than now.  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, March 6, 2022

For more information on Vladimir Putin, please visit the following link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Putin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGNABUESkJ0

Putin: The New Tsar | Free BBC Documentary | BBC Select

Premiered Feb 23, 2022  BBC Select

Admired by former President Donald Trump and feared by his rivals, Putin: The New Tsar is an enthralling BBC political documentary on BBC Select that reveals the story of Vladimir Putin’s extraordinary rise to power. From a lowly KGB colonel to Russian President Boris Yeltsin’s right-hand man and ultimately his successor, those from his inner circle, both close friends and bitter enemies, describe his often harsh methods. BBC Select is the new home for documentaries. Available in the U.S and Canada. Find out more and start your free trial: https://bit.ly/3kwM3bU Follow us on social media ?? Facebook: https://bit.ly/37UXpBn Twitter: https://bit.ly/3dSUqxc Instagram: https://bit.ly/3uEVieL

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The real Vladimir Putin has been revealed | A Current Affair

Feb 27, 2022  A Current Affair

Subscribe here: http://9Soci.al/v6PJ50GjSKI | Vladimir Putin has ruled Russia with an iron fist for more than 20 years as he began his invasion of Ukraine. An expert of Russian politics at ANU, Dr Leonid Petrov, said he believes the Russian leader is undermining “law-based world order” to replace it with “the law of the jungle”. (Broadcast February 26, 2022) Stream full episodes on 9Now: https://9now.app.link/5Kxzlq5dX6 Follow ACA on Facebook: http://facebook.com/ACurrentAffair9 Follow ACA on Twitter: http://twitter.com/ACurrentAffair9 Follow ACA on Instagram: http://instagram.com/ACurrentAffair9 A Current Affair covers the realms of politics, crime, human rights, science, technology, celebrities and entertainment – all investigated by a dedicated team. A Current Affairs airs weeknights 7.00pm on Channel 9 #ACA #ACurrentAffair #TracyGrimshaw

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Putin’s Way (full documentary) | FRONTLINE  58:18

Mar 1, 2022  FRONTLINE PBS | Official

In this 2015 documentary, FRONTLINE traces Vladimir Putin’s ascent from unemployed spy to modern-day czar, and investigates the accusations of criminality and corruption that have surrounded his reign in Russia. (Aired 2015) This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: http://www.pbs.org/donate?. In this 2015 film, a coproduction with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, producer Neil Docherty and correspondent Gillian Findlay traced Putin’s career back two decades to his political start in St. Petersburg, where allegations of corruption began almost immediately. Drawing on firsthand accounts from exiled Russian business tycoons, writers and politicians, as well as the exhaustive research of scholar and best-selling “Putin’s Kleptocracy” author Karen Dawisha, the film examined troubling episodes in Putin’s past, from alleged money-laundering activities and ties to organized crime, to a secret personal fortune said to be in the billions. Love FRONTLINE? Find us on the PBS Video App, where there are more than 300 FRONTLINE documentaries available to watch any time: https://to.pbs.org/FLVideoApp? #Documentary Subscribe on YouTube: http://bit.ly/1BycsJW? Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/frontlinepbs? Twitter: https://twitter.com/frontlinepbs? Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frontline

The Putin Files: Peter Baker  2:12:51  

Oct 25, 2017  FRONTLINE PBS | Official

Watch New York Times reporter Peter Baker’s candid, full interview on Vladimir Putin and allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. election – all part of “The Putin Files”, FRONTLINE’s media transparency project. Explore Baker’s full interview and interactive transcript here: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/in… Explore the entire “Putin File” experience here: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/int…

PBS NewsHour Weekend Full Episode, March 5, 2022

Mar 5, 2022  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, March 5, Putin says sanctions are ‘akin to declaration of war,’ the number of Ukrainians leaving the country reaches more than 1.3 million and continues to grow rapidly, and in our signature segment how NYC’s guaranteed income program is helping new mothers find their footing. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

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Nightly News Full Broadcast – March 5

Mar 5, 2022  NBC News

More than 600,000 children have now been displaced by war, thousands of American volunteers to fight alongside Ukrainians, and sunflowers marking support for Ukraine. » Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC » Watch more NBC video: http://bit.ly/MoreNBCNews NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. Connect with NBC News Online! NBC News App: https://smart.link/5d0cd9df61b80 Breaking News Alerts: https://link.nbcnews.com/join/5cj/bre… Visit NBCNews.Com: http://nbcnews.to/ReadNBC Find NBC News on Facebook: http://nbcnews.to/LikeNBC Follow NBC News on Twitter: http://nbcnews.to/FollowNBC #NBCNews #Russia #Ukraine

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“Bombs costing $100,000 from a plane that costs $100,000,000 flying at a cost of $40,000 an hour to kill people living on less than $1 a day.”

“This is the shit they call war.”

1:25 / 3:32

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Who is Vladimir Putin? – BBC News

Feb 26, 2022  BBC News

Who is the Russian President, and what does he want with Ukraine? Vladimir Putin is the President of Russia, and has been the country’s leader for more than 22 years. He grew up in an area which is now St Petersburg. His political career began when he and his family moved to Moscow in 1996, and he quickly became an important political figure. The BBC’s Ros Atkins looks at Putin’s life and his world view – and how they influence the decision he took this week. Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog #Ukraine #Russia #BBCNews

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War in Ukraine: Seven days that changed the world – BBC News

Mar 6, 2022  BBC News

From a basement in the centre of Kyiv, BBC correspondent, James Waterhouse, has been reporting on the seismic developments in Ukraine as the Russian bombardment continues. In this special programme, James speaks with colleagues from BBC News across Ukraine and Russia on the extraordinary impact of seven days that have changed the world. Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog #BBCNews

Is Putin’s power ebbing away in Russia’s own back yard? – BBC News

Dec 4, 2020  BBC News

For Russian President Vladimir Putin, it’s not just the coronavirus pandemic that is making 2020 a difficult year. In recent months the Kremlin has faced a whole series of geo-political challenges on its doorstep, including mass protests in Belarus and the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict. So what do these dramatic events mean for Russia’s influence in its own back yard Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog

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President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress, PBS News, The Late Show, The Daily Show, NowThis News, Alice Neel, The Met, and Wikipedia

President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress, PBS News, The Late Show, The Daily Show, NowThis News, Alice Neel, The Met, and Wikipedia

WATCH LIVE: President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress, 4.28.2021  PBS NewsHour 

PBS NewsHour full episode, Apr. 28, 2021, PBS NewsHour 

The More You Joe: Tracking President Biden’s Progress After 100 Days In Office, Apr 30, 2021  The Late Show with Stephen Colbert 

Biden’s Big Speech: Progressive Proposals & Ted Cruz Caught Napping | The Daily Show, Apr 29, 2021  The Daily Show with Trevor Noah 

President Joe Biden and First Lady Jill Biden Tour Virginia School | LIVE

Streamed live 14 hours ago, 5.3.2021  NowThis News

GOP Clash and Biden’s Latest COVID-19 Plans | Washington Week | May 7, 2021, Washington Week PBS 

Toxic waste dump site more than twice the size of Manhattan discovered in Pacific Ocean, Apr 27, 2021  PBS NewsHour 

Health care: America vs. the World, Premiered Apr 21, 2021  PBS NewsHour 

Alice Neel: They Are Their Own Gifts, 1978 | From the Vaults, Dec 18, 2020  The Met 

Wikipedia: Alice Neel

WATCH LIVE: President Joe Biden’s address to a joint session of Congress

Streamed live 5 hours ago, 4.28.2021  PBS NewsHour

President Joe Biden will address a joint session of Congress for the first time on April 28. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi extended the invitation to Biden, “to share your vision for addressing the challenges and opportunities of this historic moment.” The speech will come just before Biden’s 100th day in office, and will provide him an opportunity to update the American public on his progress toward fulfilling his promises. It will also give him a chance to make the case for the $2.3 trillion infrastructure package he unveiled earlier this month, which the House is aiming to pass by July 4. Traditionally all members of Congress and guests gather for a joint session in the House, the larger of the two chambers. However, the address is certain to look different this year due to the coronavirus pandemic. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6? Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour? Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour? Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour? Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts? Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe?

PBS NewsHour full episode, Apr. 28, 2021

Apr 28, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, what to expect as President Joe Biden addresses Congress and the nation at a critical moment. Then, the Supreme Court hears arguments in a case centered on a high school cheerleader venting her disappointment on social media. And, another police killing of a Black man sparks protests, demands for the release of body camera video, and calls for structural change. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS What to expect from Biden’s joint address, GOP response https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3fii…? How American Families Plan aims to ‘shore up’ middle class https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCPr_…? Indians suffer, die in the streets amid COVID crisis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZ1rx…? News Wrap: Feds search Rudy Giuliani’s home, office https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScwdQ…? Breaking down Biden’s plans to invest in low income families https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ithuW…? Issue of student free speech makes it to the Supreme Court https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CI2T…? How a heavy dependence on police enables use of lethal force https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xd4Zx…? Madam Speaker: Examining the life and career of Nancy Pelosi https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8sGB…? What going to the moon taught Michael Collins about Earth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gs2Pd…? Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6? Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour? Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour? Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour? Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts? Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe?

The More You Joe: Tracking President Biden’s Progress After 100 Days In Office

Apr 30, 2021  The Late Show with Stephen Colbert

Stephen takes a look back at the first 100 days of the Biden/Harris administration to find out how many of the President’s campaign promises have been kept. #Colbert? #Comedy? #Monologue?

Biden’s Big Speech: Progressive Proposals & Ted Cruz Caught Napping | The Daily Show

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Apr 29, 2021  The Daily Show with Trevor Noah

In his first joint address to Congress, President Biden looks back at his administration’s first 100 days and announces a slew of new progressive policies while Republicans cry socialism and fall asleep. #DailyShow? #TrevorNoah? #Biden? To help One Tree Planted cultivate a healthier climate, protect global biodiversity, restore forests, create jobs and build communities, please give what you can at https://dailyshow.com/OneTreePlanted? Subscribe to The Daily Show: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwWh…?

President Joe Biden and First Lady Jill Biden Tour Virginia School | LIVE

Streamed live 14 hours ago, 5.3.2021  NowThis News

POTUS & FLOTUS VISIT VIRGINIA SCHOOL: President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden are in Yorktown, Virginia, where they are touring Yorktown Elementary School as part of the White House’s Getting America Back on Track tour. » Subscribe to NowThis: http://go.nowth.is/News_Subscribe? » Sign up for our newsletter KnowThis to get the biggest stories of the day delivered straight to your inbox: https://go.nowth.is/KnowThis? Biden will likely focus on efforts to reopen schools for in-person learning across America. Under the American Rescue Plan, signed in March, about $125 billion was set aside to help schools implement social distancing measures, afford upgrades to ventilation systems, and fund other efforts to ensure a safe transition to in-person instruction. Biden told NBC News last week that ‘probably all’ schools should be open by fall. For more Biden news and U.S. politics, subscribe to NowThis News. #Biden? #COVID19? #Education? #Politics? #News? #NowThis?

GOP Clash and Biden’s Latest COVID-19 Plans | Washington Week | May 7, 2021

May 7, 2021  Washington Week PBS

House Republicans are poised to purge Rep. Liz Cheney (R-Wyo.) from leadership for speaking out against former President Trump’s election lies. The panel also discussed President Biden’s new COVID-19 vaccine goal and his proposed economic plans. Panel: Dan Balz of The Washington Post, Errin Haines of The 19th, Weijia Jiang of CBS News, Jake Sherman of Punchbowl News Watch the latest full show and Extra here: https://pbs.org/washingtonweek? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2ZEPJNs? Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonweek? Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonweek

Toxic waste dump site more than twice the size of Manhattan discovered in Pacific Ocean

Apr 27, 2021  PBS NewsHour

A massive underwater toxic waste site has long been suspected off the Southern California shore, since industrial companies used the ocean as a dumping ground until 1972. Now marine scientists have identified over 25,000 barrels they believe contain the toxic chemical “DDT” in the Pacific Ocean. Stephanie Sy talks to David Valentine, a UC Santa Barbara professor of microbiology, about the barrels. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6?

Health care: America vs. the World

Premiered Apr 21, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Millions of Americans have no health insurance and live in fear that one illness could bankrupt them. Even though the U.S. spends far more on health care than other wealthy nations, Americans die of preventable diseases at greater rates. The PBS NewsHour special, “Critical Care: America vs the World,” examines how four other nations achieve universal care for less money, with better outcomes. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6? Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour? Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour? Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour? Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts? Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe

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Alice Neel: They Are Their Own Gifts, 1978 | From the Vaults

Dec 18, 2020  The Met

A self-proclaimed “collector of souls,” the American painter Alice Neel (1900–1984) is known today for her powerful, psychologically rich portraiture. She depicted a wide range of subjects, from her family and friends to prominent critics, artists, activists, and strangers she met on the street. In this rarely seen documentary, Neel’s signature candor and wit are on full display. Providing a brief biographical sketch from her early marriage and the Great Depression through her later years in Spanish Harlem, the film also shows the artist at work on a portrait of Lucille Rhodes, who co-directed with Margaret Murphy. Excerpted from Rhodes and Murphy’s “They Are Their Own Gifts” (1978), a triptych of “film portraits” about women artists that also includes chapters on the poet and activist Muriel Rukeyser as well as the dancer and choreographer Anna Sokolow. Cinematography by the legendary Babette Mangolte. Learn about The Met’s upcoming exhibition on Alice Neel: https://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions…? Read a new interview with the filmmakers: https://www.metmuseum.org/blogs/now-a…? “They Are Their Own Gifts” is distributed via Women Make Movies: https://www.wmm.com/catalog/film/they…? As part of The Met’s 150th anniversary in 2020, each month we will release three to four films from the Museum’s extensive moving-image archive, which comprises over 1,500 films, both made and collected by the Museum, from the 1920s onward. This includes rarely seen artist profiles and documentaries, as well as process films about art-making techniques and behind-the-scenes footage of the Museum. New films every week: https://www.metmuseum.org/150/from-th…? Subscribe for new content from The Met: https://www.youtube.com/user/metmuseu…? #FromtheVaults? #TheMet? #FilmFridays? #MetFilmArchive?

Alice Neel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the film, see Alice Neel (film).

Alice Neel
Alice Neel portrait in her studio
photographed by Lynn Gilbert (1976)
Born January 28, 1900

Merion Square, Pennsylvania

Died October 13, 1984 (aged 84)

New York City, New York

Nationality American
Known for Painting

Alice Neel (January 28, 1900 – October 13, 1984) was an American visual artist, who was known for her portraits depicting friends, family, lovers, poets, artists, and strangers. Her paintings have an expressionistic use of line and color, psychological acumen, and emotional intensity. Her work depicts women through a female gaze, illustrating them as being consciously aware of the objectification by men and the demoralising effects of the male gaze.[1] Her work contradicts and challenges the traditional and objectified nude depictions of women by her male predecessors.[1] Neel was called “one of the greatest portrait artists of the 20th century” by Barry Walker, curator of modern and contemporary art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, which organized a retrospective of her work in 2010

Dana Gordon by Alice Neel, 1972

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_Neel

Alice Neel portraits and her artworks

Alice Neel

Alice Neel – At How To Preserve & Live

Alice Neel – At The Met

Alice Neel – AWARE

Alice Neel – Estate 068 – MOTHER AND CHILD HAVANA

Alice Neel – Mother and Child Nancy and Olivia – 1982

Alice Neel – Degenerate Madonna-1930

Alice Neel – Painting

Alice Neel – Stephen Shepard – 1978

Alice Neel – Andy Warhol – 1970

 Alice Neel – Cut Glass With Fruit – 1952

Alice Neel – Dominican Boys on 108th Street – 1955

Alice Neel – Elizabeth -1984

Alice Neel – Poster web

Alice Neel – Elenka – 1936

Alice Neel – Geoffrey Hendrick and Brian – 1978

Alice Neel – Harold and Nina Krieger – 1967

Alice Neel – Kenneth Dolittle – 1931

Alice Neel – Loneliness

Alice Neel – Man

Alice Neel – Mary Shoemaker – 1965

Alice Neel – Phyllis Rubin – 1952

Alice Neel – Robert, Helen and Ed – 1932

Alice Neel – Sherry Speeth – 1964

Alice Neel – Synthesis of New York – 1933

Alice Neel – The Family, John Gruen, Jane Wilson and Julia – 1970

Alice Neel – Two Girls in Harlem

Alice Neel – Well Baby Clinic – 1928

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 Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork, Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops, PBS News, and Wikipedia

 Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork, Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops, PBS News, and  Wikipedia

With a history of abuse in American medicine, Black patients struggle for equal access, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

During Black History Month, students reflect on their modern-day heroes, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

In ‘Grief and Grievance,’ Black artists explore aspects of loss in contemporary life, Mar 17, 2021  PBS NewsHour

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb. 24, 2021, Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

How the economic relief law narrows the equity gap for farmers of color, Mar 16, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Jacob Lawrence: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork   

With a history of abuse in American medicine, Black patients struggle for equal access

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Black Americans have historically faced discrimination and even abuse by medical professionals, issues that have again come to the forefront during the pandemic. We here from Americans who have directly experienced discrimination, and Yamiche Alcindor speaks with Dr. Vanessa Northington Gamble, a professor of medical humanities at George Washington University, to discuss this painful legacy. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6?

Boston restores monument to Black Civil War troops

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

In a time when statues and monuments around the country are being removed for what they represent, the Shaw Memorial in Boston is receiving attention of a different sort. It is being fully restored, with pride that the monument depicting Black soldiers marching off to battle in the civil war, stands the test of time. Special correspondent Jared Bowen of GBH Boston reports. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

During Black History Month, students reflect on their modern-day heroes

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Black History Month expands students’ understanding of the Black experience in American history. But one teacher in Akron, Ohio wanted her students to see that Black history isn’t something that happened in the past, it happens every single day through each of them. She worked with our Student Reporting Labs program to record these reflections from students. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6? Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour? Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour? Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour? Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts? Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe?

In ‘Grief and Grievance,’ Black artists explore aspects of loss in contemporary life

Mar 17, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Even amid the pandemic, some art exhibitions are opening to the public. “Grief and Grievance” at New York’s “New Museum,” a timely examination of race and racism, is one of them. Black artists explore the aspects of loss in the contemporary Black experience and their own roles in telling that story. Jeffrey Brown reports for Race Matters, and CANVAS, our ongoing arts and culture coverage. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6?

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb. 24, 2021

Feb 24, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, President Biden continues to push for COVID relief and a minimum wage increase as a Cabinet nominee faces opposition in the Senate, global disparities and uneven distribution of COVID vaccines becomes more visible as the first shipment of doses arrives in Africa, and the pandemic highlights the discrimination African Americans encounter in the health system. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6? Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour? Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour? Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour? Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts? Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe?

Black patients struggle for equal access in U.S. medicine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ye4Es…? COVID-19 takes hold in Syrian opposition’s last stronghold  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDcb0…? Boston restores monument to Black civil war troops https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I766u…? Students reflect on their modern-day heroes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igSzP…?

How the economic relief law narrows the equity gap for farmers of color

Mar 16, 2021  PBS NewsHour

The COVID relief and economic package is a massive bill that has a far-reaching impact in ways that many Americans don’t know about yet. One provision calls for debt relief for Black farmers, who have long been denied access to government funding. John Boyd, a fourth-generation farmer in Virginia and president of the National Black Farmers Association, joins Lisa Desjardins to discuss. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6? Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour? Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour? Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour? Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts? Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe?

Unraveling the mystery of a pioneering American painter’s missing work

Mar 12, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Imagine discovering that a painting on your wall is a long, lost masterpiece. In two recent cases, the story centers on Jacob Lawrence, a pioneering American modernist painter. Lydia Gordon, of the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, is our guide, as part of our arts and culture series. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Lawrence

Jacob Lawrence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Jacob Lawrence
Jacob Lawrence in 1941
Born September 7, 1917

Atlantic City, New Jersey

Died June 9, 2000 (aged 82)

Seattle, Washington

Nationality American
Education Harlem Community Art Center
Known for Paintings portraying African-American life
Notable work Migration Series

Jacob Armstead Lawrence (September 7, 1917 – June 9, 2000) was an American painter known for his portrayal of African-American historical subjects and contemporary life. Lawrence referred to his style as “dynamic cubism“, although by his own account the primary influence was not so much French art as the shapes and colors of Harlem.[1] He brought the African-American experience to life using blacks and browns juxtaposed with vivid colors. He also taught and spent 16 years as a professor at the University of Washington.

Lawrence is among the best-known twentieth-century African-American painters, known for his modernist illustrations of everyday life as well as narratives of African-American history and historical figures. At the age of 23 he gained national recognition with his 60-panel The Migration Series, which depicted the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North. The series was purchased jointly by the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., and the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. Lawrence’s works are in the permanent collections of numerous museums, including the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Whitney MuseumMetropolitan Museum of Art, the Brooklyn MuseumReynolda House Museum of American Art, and the Museum of Northwest Art. His 1947 painting The Builders hangs in the White House.

Early years[edit

Douglass argued against poor Negroes leaving the South

Jacob Lawrence was born September 7, 1917, in Atlantic City, New Jersey, where his parents had migrated from the rural south. They divorced in 1924.[2] His mother put him and his two younger siblings into foster care in Philadelphia. When he was 13, he and his siblings moved to New York City, where he reconnected with his mother in Harlem. Lawrence was introduced to art shortly after that when their mother enrolled him in after-school classes at an arts and crafts settlement house in Harlem, called Utopia Children’s Center, in an effort to keep him busy. The young Lawrence often drew patterns with crayons. In the beginning, he copied the patterns of his mother’s carpets.

Lawrence teaching school children at the Abraham Lincoln School

After dropping out of school at 16, Lawrence worked in a laundromat and a printing plant. He continued with art, attending classes at the Harlem Art Workshop, taught by the noted African-American artist Charles Alston. Alston urged him to attend the Harlem Community Art Center, led by the sculptor Augusta Savage. Savage secured a scholarship to the American Artists School for Lawrence and a paid position with the Works Progress Administration, established during the Great Depression by the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Lawrence continued his studies as well, working with Alston and Henry Bannarn, another Harlem Renaissance artist, in the Alston-Bannarn workshop. He also studied at Harlem Art Workshop in New York in 1937. Harlem provided crucial training for the majority of Black artists in the United States. Lawrence was one of the first artists trained in and by the African-American community in Harlem.[3] Throughout his lengthy artistic career, Lawrence concentrated on exploring the history and struggles of African Americans.

The “hard, bright, brittle” aspects of Harlem during the Great Depression inspired Lawrence as much as the colors, shapes, and patterns inside the homes of its residents. “Even in my mother’s home,” Lawrence told historian Paul Karlstrom, “people of my mother’s generation would decorate their homes in all sorts of color… so you’d think in terms of Matisse.”[4] He used water-based media throughout his career. Lawrence started to gain some notice for his dramatic and lively portrayals of both contemporary scenes of African-American urban life as well as historical events, all of which he depicted in crisp shapes, bright, clear colors, dynamic patterns, and through revealing posture and gestures.[2]

At the very start of his career he developed the approach that made his reputation and remained his touchstone: creating series of paintings that told a story or, less often, depicted many aspects of a subject. His first were biographical accounts of key figures of the African diaspora. He was just 21 years old when his series of 41 paintings of the Haitian general Toussaint L’Ouverture, who led the revolution of the slaves that eventually gained independence, was shown in an exhibit of African-American artists at the Baltimore Museum of Art. This was followed by a series of paintings of the lives of Harriet Tubman (1938–39) and Frederick Douglass (1939–40).

His teacher Charles Alston assesses Lawrence’s work in an essay for an exhibition at the Harlem YMCA 1938:[5]

Having thus far miraculously escaped the imprint of academic ideas and current vogues in art,… he has followed a course of development dictated by his own inner motivations… Working in the very limited medium of flat tempera he achieved a richness and brilliance of color harmonies both remarkable and exciting… Lawrence symbolizes more than anyone I know, the vitality, the seriousness and promise of a new and socially conscious generation of Negro artists.

On July 24, 1941, Lawrence married the painter Gwendolyn Knight, also a student of Savage. She helped prepare the gesso panels for his paintings and contributed to the captions for the paintings in his multi-painting works.[6]

The Migration Series[edit]

Lawrence completed the 60-panel set of narrative paintings entitled Migration of the Negro or And the Migrants Kept Coming,[7] now called the The Migration Series, in 1940–41. The series portrayed the Great Migration, when hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved from the rural South to the urban North after World War I. Because he was working in tempera, which dries rapidly, he planned all the paintings in advance and then applied a single color wherever he was using it across all the scenes to maintain tonal consistency. Only then did he proceed to the next color. The series was exhibited at the Downtown Gallery in Greenwich Village, which made him the first African-American artist represented by a New York gallery. This brought him national recognition.[8] Selections from this series were featured in a 1941 issue of Fortune. The entire series was purchased jointly and divided by the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., which holds the odd-numbered paintings, and New York’s Museum of Modern Art, which holds the even-numbered. His early work involved general depictions of everyday life in Harlem and also a major series dedicated to African-American history (1940–1941).

Another biographical series of twenty-two panels devoted to the abolitionist John Brown followed in 1941-42. When these pairings became too fragile to display, Lawrence, working on commission, recreated the paintings as a portfolio of silkscreen prints in 1977.[9]

In 1943, Howard Devree, writing in The New York Times, thought Lawrence in his next series of thirty images had “even more successfully concentrated his attention on the many-sided life of his people in Harlem”. He called the set “an amazing social document” and wrote: [10]

Lawrence’s color is fittingly vivid for his interpretations. A strong semi-abstract approach aids him in arriving at his basic or archetypal statements. Confronting this work one feels as if vouchsafed an extraordinary elemental experience. Lawrence has grown in his use of rhythm as well as in sheer design and fluency.

World War II[edit]

In October 1943, during the Second World War, Lawrence was drafted into the United States Coast Guard and served as a public affairs specialist with the first racially integrated crew on the USCGC Sea Cloud, under Carlton Skinner.[11] He continued to paint and sketch while in the Coast Guard, documenting the experience of war around the world. He produced 48 paintings during this time, all of which have been lost. He achieved the rank of petty officer third class.

Lost works[edit]

In October and November 1944, MOMA exhibited of all 60 migration panels plus 8 of paintings Lawrence created aboard the Sea Cloud. He posed, still in his uniform, in front of a sign that read: Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series and Works Created in the US Coast Guard”. The Coast Guard sent the eight paintings to exhibits around the United States. In the disorder and personnel changes that came with demobilization at the end of the war they went missing.

Post-war[edit]

In 1945, he was awarded a fellowship in the fine arts by the Guggenheim Foundation.[12] In 1946, Josef Albers recruited Lawrence to join the faculty of the summer art program at Black Mountain College.[13]

Returning to New York, Lawrence continued to paint but grew depressed; in 1949, he checked himself into Hillside Hospital in Queens, where he remained for eleven months. Painting there, he produced his Hospital Series, works that were uncharacteristic of him in their focus of his subjects’ emotional states as an inpatient.

Between 1954 and 1956 Lawrence produced a 30-panel series called “Struggle: From the History of the American People” that depicted historical scenes from 1775 to 1817. The series, originally planned to include sixty panels, includes references to current events like the 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings, and they sometimes explore relatively obscure or neglected aspects of American history, like a woman, Margaret Cochran Corbin, in combat or the wall built by unseen enslaved Blacks that protected the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans.[14] Rather than traditional titles, Lawrence labeled each panel with a quote, either to add an individual voice to his work or inject weighted vocabulary. Patrick Henry’s speech, famous for the phrase “Give me liberty or give me death”, he captioned with a different passage: “Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery.” A panel showing Blacks fighting against the British is captioned with the words of a man who sued for emancipation from slavery in 1773: “We have no property! We have no wives! No children! We have no city! No country!”[15] Three panels (Panels 14, 20 and 29) are lost, and three others were only located in 2017, 2020, and 2021.[16] The fraught politics of the mid-1950s prevented the series from finding a museum purchaser, and the panels had been sold to a private collector who re-sold them as individual works.[17]

The Brooklyn Museum of Art mounted a retrospective exhibition of his work in 1960.[18]

Publications[edit]

Lawrence illustrated several works for children. Harriet and the Promised Land appeared in 1968 and used the series of paintings that told the story of Harriet Tubman.[19] It was listed as one of the year’s best illustrated books by The New York Times and praised by the Boston Globe: “The author’s artistic talents, sensitivity and insight into the black experience have resulted in a book that actually creates, within the reader, a spiritual experience.” Two similar volumes based on his John Brown and Great Migration series followed.[20] Lawrence created illustrations for a selection of 18 of Aesop’s Fables for Windmill Press in 1970, and the University of Washington Press published the full set of 23 tales in 1998.[21]

Teaching and late works[edit]

Lawrence taught at several schools after his first stint teaching at Black Mountain College, including the New School for Social Research, the Art Students LeaguePratt Institute,[22][23] and the Skowhegan School.[24] He became a visiting artist at the University of Washington in 1970 and was professor of art there from 1971 to 1986.[18] He was graduate advisor there to lithographer and abstract painter James Claussen[25]

Shortly after moving to Washington state, Lawrence did a series of five paintings on the westward journey of African-American pioneer, George Washington Bush. These paintings are now in the collection of the State of Washington History Museum.[26]

He undertook several major commissions in this part of his career. In 1980, he completed Exploration, a 40-foot-long mural made of porcelain on steel, comprising a dozen panels devoted to academic endeavor. It was installed in Howard University’s Blackburn Center. The Washington Post described it as “enormously sophisticated yet wholly unpretentious ” and said:[27]

The colors are competely flat, but because the porcelain is layered, and because Lawrence here and there paints in strong black shawdows, his mural has the look of a rich relief. It is full of visual rhymes. The small scene of John Henry, the steel drivin’ man, in the final panel is echoed by an image of a sculptor in the art scene: He is hammering another spike, for quite different reasons, into a block of stone. This is not art that one tires of, for it is not the sort of work one can read at once.

Lawrence produced another series in 1983, eight screen prints called the Hiroshima Series. Commissioned to provide full-page illustrations for a new edition of a work of his choice, Lawrence chose John Hershey‘s Hiroshima (1946). He depicted in abstract visual language several survivors at the moment of the bombing in the midst of physical and emotional destruction.[7][28]

Lawrence’s painting Theater was commissioned by the University of Washington in 1985 and installed in the main lobby of the Meany Hall for the Performing Arts.[29]

Last years[edit]

The Whitney Museum of American Art produced an exhibition of Lawrence’s entire career in 1974, as did the Seattle Art Museum in 1986.[18]

In 1999, he and his wife established the Jacob and Gwendolyn Lawrence Foundation for the creation, presentation and study of American art, with a particular emphasis on work by African-American artists.[18] It represents their estates[30] and maintains a searchable archive of nearly a thousand images of their work.[31]

Lawrence continued to paint until a few weeks before his death from lung cancer on June 9, 2000, at the age of 82.[18] The New York Times described him as “one of America’s leading modern figurative painters” and “among the most impassioned visual chroniclers of the African-American experience.”[18] Shortly before his death he stated: “…for me, a painting should have three things: universality, clarity and strength. Clarity and strength so that it may be aesthetically good. Universality so that it may be understood by all men.”[32]

A retrospective exhibition of Lawrence’s work, planned before his death, opened at the Phillips Collection in May 2001 and travelled to the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Detroit Institute of Fine Arts, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.[33] The exhibit was meant to coincide with the publication of Jacob Lawrence: Paintings, Drawings, and Murals (1935-1999), A Catalogue Raisonne.[34] His last commissioned public work, the mosaic mural New York in Transit made of Murano glass was installed in October 2001 in the Times Square subway station in New York City.[35][36]

His wife, Gwendolyn Knight, survived him and died in 2005 at the age of 91.[37]

Recognition[edit]

The eighteen institutions that awarded Lawrence honorary degrees include Harvard University, Yale University, Howard University, Amherst College, and New York University.[18]

Legacy[edit]

  • The Seattle Art Museumoffers the Gwendolyn Knight and Jacob Lawrence Fellowship, a $10,000 award to “individuals whose original work reflects the Lawrences’ concern with artistic excellence, education, mentorship and scholarship within the cultural contexts and value systems that informed their work and the work of other artists of color.”[41]
  • The Jacob Lawrence Gallery at the University of Washington School of Art + Art History + Designoffers an annual Jacob Lawrence Legacy Residency.[42]

His work is in the permanent collections of numerous museums, including the British Museum,[43] the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Smithsonian American Art Museum,[44] the Museum of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum, the Phillips Collection, the Brooklyn Museum, the National Gallery of Art[45] and Reynolda House Museum of American Art, the Art Institute Chicago, the Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, the Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, the Minneapolis Institute of Art, the Minnesota Museum of American Art, the Savannah College of Art and Design Museum, the Seattle Art Museum, the Birmingham Museum of Art,[46] the Indianapolis Museum of Art,[47] the University of Michigan Museum of Art,[48] the North Carolina Museum of Art,[49] the Princeton University Art Museum,[50] the Musei Vaticani,[51] the Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science and Engineering,[52] the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,[53] the Saint Louis Art Museum,[54] the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts,[55] the Studio Museum in Harlem,[56] the Philadelphia Museum of Art,[57] the Portland Art Museum,[58] the Hudson River Museum,[59] and The Walker Art Center in Minneapolis.

In May 2007, the White House Historical Association purchased Lawrence’s The Builders (1947) at auction for $2.5 million. The painting has hung in the White House Green Room since 2009.[60][61]

See also[edit]

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Lawrence – Seattle

LawrenceKimmelman

LawrenceWilkerson

Jacob Lawrence, Panel 10. We crossed the River at McKonkey’s Ferry 9 miles above Trenton . . . the night was excessively severe . . . which the men bore without the least murmur . . . —Tench Tilghman, 27 December 1776, 1954. From Struggle Series, 1954–56
Egg tempera on hardboard
12 × 16 in. (30.5 × 40.6 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
© The Jacob and Gwendolyn Lawrence Foundation, Seattle / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

LawrenceLetter from Home

LawrenceShadow

LawrenceCarnegie

 Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

LawrenceDreams

LawrenceBrownstones

Lawrence – Hirshhornsiedu

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Scan from color transparency

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork

Mandatory Credit: Photo by Everett/Shutterstock (10305637a)
Coast Guardsman Jacob Lawrence, with his paintings at the Institute of Modern Art in Boston in 1945. During World War 2, Lawrence served with the first racially integrated crew on the USCGC Sea Cloud, under Carlton Skinner. He continued to paint and sketch while in the Coast Guard.
Historical Collection

Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork

Untitled, 12/11/03, 2:53 PM, 16C, 3450×4776 (600+0), 100%, AIA repro tone, 1/50 s, R58.9, G46.8, B59.3

Jacob Lawrence and his Artwork

Jacob Lawrence’s Artwork   Getty Images

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Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and The Swallowtail Butterfly in Ing & John’s Backyard Garden  

Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and The Swallowtail Butterfly in Ing & John’s Backyard Garden  

I love my little garden in our backyard, in Downtown Newark, New Jersey.  I feel calm and peaceful seeing green leaves with beautiful flowers in different shade of color.  The bees are buzzing and dancing around different flowers for the juicy nectar.  I saw some Monarch Butterflies on difference occasions.  On Monday, July 27, 2020 I was very lucky to have a large beautiful Swallowtail butterfly come to visit our garden and enjoy tasting the nectar from our butterfly bush flowers.  I ran in the house to get my camcorder to record for our grandsons.  One grandson is 5 months old and other just turned 5 years old.

Nature always gives us peace and happiness, if we cultivate and take care of it.  Humans are part of nature.  Some who cultivate their behavior and contribute their knowledge and time for the good of society thereby help humanity reach harmony and peace.  Sadly, such a person just passed away. The late Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg was a person that we can be proud to know about. She will always be remembered and we will forever be grateful for her contributions.  

I wish to dedicate my peaceful garden to the late Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, for her lifelong achievements.  May she rest in peace.  We will always keep her in our minds and hearts.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, September 21, 2020

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (/?be?d?r ???nzb??r?/; born Joan Ruth Bader; March 15, 1933 – September 18, 2020),[1] also known by her initials RBG, was an American jurist who served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1993 until her death in 2020. She was nominated by President Bill Clinton and was generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court. Ginsburg was the second woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, after Sandra Day O’Connor. During her tenure on the Court, Ginsburg authored notable majority opinions, including United States v. Virginia (1996), Olmstead v. L.C. (1999), and Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc. (2000). Following O’Connor’s retirement in 2006 and until Sonia Sotomayor joined the Court in 2009, she was the only female justice on the Supreme Court. During that time, Ginsburg became more forceful with her dissents, which were noted by legal observers and in popular culture.

Ginsburg was born and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. Her older sister died when she was a baby, and her mother died shortly before Ginsburg graduated from high school. She then earned her bachelor’s degree at Cornell University and became a wife to Martin D. Ginsburg and a mother before starting law school at Harvard, where she was one of the few women in her class. Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School, where she graduated tied for first in her class. Following law school, Ginsburg entered academia. She was a professor at Rutgers Law School and Columbia Law School, teaching civil procedure as one of the few women in her field.

Ginsburg spent a considerable part of her legal career as an advocate for gender equality and women’s rights, winning multiple arguments before the Supreme Court. She advocated as a volunteer attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsels in the 1970s. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, where she served until her appointment to the Supreme Court. Ginsburg received attention in American popular culture for her fiery liberal dissents and refusal to step down. She was playfully dubbed “The Notorious R.B.G.”, a reference to Brooklyn-born rapper The Notorious B.I.G.[2]

 Ginsburg died at her home in Washington, D.C., on September 18, 2020, at the age of 87, from complications of metastatic pancreatic cancer.[3][4]

Early life and education

Joan Ruth Bader was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the second daughter of Celia (née Amster) and Nathan Bader, who lived in the Flatbush neighborhood. Her father was a Jewish emigrant from OdessaRussian Empire, and her mother was born in New York to Austrian Jewish parents.[5][6][7] The Baders’ elder daughter Marylin died of meningitis at age six, when Ruth was 14 months old.[1]:3[8][9] The family called Joan Ruth “Kiki”, a nickname Marylin had given her for being “a kicky baby”.[1]:3[10] When “Kiki” started school, Celia discovered that her daughter’s class had several other girls named Joan, so Celia suggested the teacher call her daughter “Ruth” to avoid confusion.[1]:3 Although not devout, the Bader family belonged to East Midwood Jewish Center, a Conservative synagogue, where Ruth learned tenets of the Jewish faith and gained familiarity with the Hebrew language.[1]:14–15 At age 13, Ruth acted as the “camp rabbi” at a Jewish summer program at Camp Che-Na-Wah in Minerva, New York.[10]

Celia took an active role in her daughter’s education, often taking her to the library.[10] Celia had been a good student in her youth, graduating from high school at age 15, yet she could not further her own education because her family instead chose to send her brother to college. Celia wanted her daughter to get more education, which she thought would allow Ruth to become a high school history teacher.[11] Ruth attended James Madison High School, whose law program later dedicated a courtroom in her honor. Celia struggled with cancer throughout Ruth’s high school years and died the day before Ruth’s high school graduation.[10]

 Bader attended Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, and was a member of Alpha Epsilon Phi.[12] While at Cornell, she met Martin D. Ginsburg at age 17.[11] She graduated from Cornell with a bachelor of arts degree in government on June 23, 1954. She was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and the highest-ranking female student in her graduating class.[12][13] Bader married Ginsburg a month after her graduation from Cornell. She and Martin moved to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, where he was stationed as a Reserve Officers’ Training Corps officer in the Army Reserve after his call-up to active duty.[11][14][13] At age 21, she worked for the Social Security Administration office in Oklahoma, where she was demoted after becoming pregnant with her first child.[9] She gave birth to a daughter in 1955.[9]

In the fall of 1956, Ginsburg enrolled at Harvard Law School, where she was one of only nine women in a class of about 500 men.[15][16] The Dean of Harvard Law reportedly invited all the female law students to dinner at his family home and asked the female law students, including Ginsburg, “Why are you at Harvard Law School, taking the place of a man?”[a][11][17][18] When her husband took a job in New York City, Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School and became the first woman to be on two major law reviews: the Harvard Law Review and Columbia Law Review. In 1959, she earned her law degree at Columbia and tied for first in her class.[10][19]

Early career

At the start of her legal career, Ginsburg encountered difficulty in finding employment.[20][21][22] In 1960, Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter rejected Ginsburg for a clerkship position due to her gender. She was rejected despite a strong recommendation from Albert Martin Sacks, who was a professor and later dean of Harvard Law School.[23][24][b] Columbia law professor Gerald Gunther also pushed for Judge Edmund L. Palmieri of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York to hire Ginsburg as a law clerk, threatening to never recommend another Columbia student to Palmieri if he did not give Ginsburg the opportunity and guaranteeing to provide the judge with a replacement clerk should Ginsburg not succeed.[9][10][25] Later that year, Ginsburg began her clerkship for Judge Palmieri, and she held the position for two years.[9][10]

Academia

From 1961 to 1963, Ginsburg was a research associate and then an associate director of the Columbia Law School Project on International Procedure; she learned Swedish to co-author a book with Anders Bruzelius on civil procedure in Sweden.[26][27] Ginsburg conducted extensive research for her book at Lund University in Sweden.[28] Ginsburg’s time in Sweden also influenced her thinking on gender equality. She was inspired when she observed the changes in Sweden, where women were 20 to 25 percent of all law students; one of the judges whom Ginsburg watched for her research was eight months pregnant and still working.[11]

Her first position as a professor was at Rutgers Law School in 1963.[29] The appointment was not without its drawbacks; Ginsburg was informed she would be paid less than her male colleagues because she had a husband with a well-paid job.[22] At the time Ginsburg entered academia, she was one of fewer than 20 female law professors in the United States.[29] She was a professor of law, mainly civil procedure, at Rutgers from 1963 to 1972, receiving tenure from the school in 1969.[30][31]

In 1970, she co-founded the Women’s Rights Law Reporter, the first law journal in the U.S. to focus exclusively on women’s rights.[32] From 1972 to 1980, she taught at Columbia Law School, where she became the first tenured woman and co-authored the first law school casebook on sex discrimination.[31] She also spent a year as a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University from 1977 to 1978.[33]

Ginsburg in 1977, photographed by Lynn Gilbert

Litigation and advocacy

In 1972, Ginsburg co-founded the Women’s Rights Project at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and in 1973, she became the Project’s general counsel.[13] The Women’s Rights Project and related ACLU projects participated in more than three hundred gender discrimination cases by 1974. As the director of the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project, she argued six gender discrimination cases before the Supreme Court between 1973 and 1976, winning five.[23] Rather than asking the court to end all gender discrimination at once, Ginsburg charted a strategic course, taking aim at specific discriminatory statutes and building on each successive victory. She chose plaintiffs carefully, at times picking male plaintiffs to demonstrate that gender discrimination was harmful to both men and women.[23][31] The laws Ginsburg targeted included those that on the surface appeared beneficial to women, but in fact reinforced the notion that women needed to be dependent on men.[23] Her strategic advocacy extended to word choice, favoring the use of “gender” instead of “sex”, after her secretary suggested the word “sex” would serve as a distraction to judges.[31] She attained a reputation as a skilled oral advocate, and her work led directly to the end of gender discrimination in many areas of the law.[34]

Ginsburg volunteered to write the brief for Reed v. Reed404 U.S. 71 (1971), in which the Supreme Court extended the protections of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to women.[31][35][c] In 1972, she argued before the 10th Circuit in Moritz v. Commissioner on behalf of a man who had been denied a caregiver deduction because of his gender. As amicus she argued in Frontiero v. Richardson411 U.S. 677 (1973), which challenged a statute making it more difficult for a female service member (Frontiero) to claim an increased housing allowance for her husband than for a male service member seeking the same allowance for his wife. Ginsburg argued that the statute treated women as inferior, and the Supreme Court ruled 8–1 in Frontiero’s favor.[23] The court again ruled in Ginsburg’s favor in Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld420 U.S. 636 (1975), where Ginsburg represented a widower denied survivor benefits under Social Security, which permitted widows but not widowers to collect special benefits while caring for minor children. She argued that the statute discriminated against male survivors of workers by denying them the same protection as their female counterparts.[37]

Ginsburg filed an amicus brief and sat with counsel at oral argument for Craig v. Boren429 U.S. 190 (1976), which challenged an Oklahoma statute that set different minimum drinking ages for men and women.[23][37] For the first time, the court imposed what is known as intermediate scrutiny on laws discriminating based on gender, a heightened standard of Constitutional review.[23][37][38] Her last case as an attorney before the Supreme Court was in 1978 Duren v. Missouri439 U.S. 357 (1979), which challenged the validity of voluntary jury duty for women, on the ground that participation in jury duty was a citizen’s vital governmental service and therefore should not be optional for women. At the end of Ginsburg’s oral argument, then-Associate Justice William Rehnquist asked Ginsburg, “You won’t settle for putting Susan B. Anthony on the new dollar, then?”[39] Ginsburg said she considered responding, “We won’t settle for tokens,” but instead opted not to answer the question.[39]

 Legal scholars and advocates credit Ginsburg’s body of work with making significant legal advances for women under the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution.[31][23] Taken together, Ginsburg’s legal victories discouraged legislatures from treating women and men differently under the law.[31][23][37] She continued to work on the ACLU’s Women’s Rights Project until her appointment to the Federal Bench in 1980.[31] Later, colleague Antonin Scalia praised Ginsburg’s skills as an advocate. “She became the leading (and very successful) litigator on behalf of women’s rights—the Thurgood Marshall of that cause, so to speak.” This was a comparison that had first been made by former Solicitor General Erwin Griswold who was also her former professor and dean at Harvard Law School, in a speech given in 1985.[40][41][d]

Ginsburg with President Jimmy Carter in 1980

U.S. Court of Appeals

Ginsburg was nominated by President Jimmy Carter on April 14, 1980, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit vacated by Judge Harold Leventhal after his death.[30] She was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 18, 1980, and received her commission later that day.[30] Her service terminated on August 9, 1993, due to her elevation to the United States Supreme Court.[30][42][43] During her time as a judge on the DC Circuit, Ginsburg often found consensus with her colleagues including conservatives Robert H. Bork and Antonin Scalia.[44][45] Her time on the court earned her a reputation as a “cautious jurist” and a moderate.[46] David S. Tatel replaced her after Ginsburg’s appointment to the Supreme Court.[47]

Chief Justice William Rehnquist swearing in Ginsburg as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, as her husband Martin Ginsburg and President Clinton watch

Supreme Court

Nomination and confirmation

Ginsburg officially accepting the nomination from President Bill Clinton on June 14, 1993

President Bill Clinton nominated Ginsburg as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on June 14, 1993, to fill the seat vacated by retiring Justice Byron White. She was recommended to Clinton by then–U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno,[19] after a suggestion by Utah Republican Senator Orrin Hatch.[48] At the time of her nomination, Ginsburg was viewed as a moderate. Clinton was reportedly looking to increase the court’s diversity, which Ginsburg did as the only Jewish justice since the 1969 resignation of Justice Abe Fortas. She was the second female and the first Jewish female justice of the Supreme Court.[46][49][50] She eventually became the longest-serving Jewish justice.[51] The American Bar Association’s Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary rated Ginsburg as “well qualified”, its highest possible rating for a prospective justice.[52]

During her testimony before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary as part of the confirmation hearings, Ginsburg refused to answer questions about her view on the constitutionality of some issues such as the death penalty as it was an issue she might have to vote on if it came before the court.[53]

At the same time, Ginsburg did answer questions about some potentially controversial issues. For instance, she affirmed her belief in a constitutional right to privacy and explained at some length her personal judicial philosophy and thoughts regarding gender equality.[54]:15–16 Ginsburg was more forthright in discussing her views on topics about which she had previously written.[53] The United States Senate confirmed her by a 96–3 vote on August 3, 1993,[e][30] She received her commission on August 5, 1993[30] and took her judicial oath on August 10, 1993.[56]

Ginsburg’s name was later invoked during the confirmation process of John Roberts. Ginsburg herself was not the first nominee to avoid answering certain specific questions before Congress,[f] and as a young attorney in 1981 Roberts had advised against Supreme Court nominees’ giving specific responses.[57] Nevertheless, some conservative commentators and Senators invoked the phrase “Ginsburg precedent” to defend his demurrers.[52][57] In a September 28, 2005, speech at Wake Forest University, Ginsburg said Roberts’ refusal to answer questions during his Senate confirmation hearings on some cases was “unquestionably right”.[58]

Supreme Court jurisprudence

Ginsburg characterized her performance on the court as a cautious approach to adjudication.[59] She argued in a speech shortly before her nomination to the court that “[m]easured motions seem to me right, in the main, for constitutional as well as common law adjudication. Doctrinal limbs too swiftly shaped, experience teaches, may prove unstable.”[60] Legal scholar Cass Sunstein characterized Ginsburg as a “rational minimalist”, a jurist who seeks to build cautiously on precedent rather than pushing the Constitution towards her own vision.[61]:10–11

 Sandra Day O’ConnorSonia Sotomayor, Ginsburg, and Elena Kagan, October 1, 2010. O’Connor is not wearing a robe because she was retired from the court when the picture was taken.

The retirement of Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in 2006 left Ginsburg as the only woman on the court.[62][g] Linda Greenhouse of The New York Times referred to the subsequent 2006–2007 term of the court as “the time when Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg found her voice, and used it”.[64] The term also marked the first time in Ginsburg’s history with the court where she read multiple dissents from the bench, a tactic employed to signal more intense disagreement with the majority.[64]

With the retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens, Ginsburg became the senior member of what was sometimes referred to as the court’s “liberal wing”.[31][65][66] When the court split 5–4 along ideological lines and the liberal justices were in the minority, Ginsburg often had the authority to assign authorship of the dissenting opinion because of her seniority.[65][h] Ginsburg was a proponent of the liberal dissenters speaking “with one voice” and, where practicable, presenting a unified approach to which all the dissenting justices can agree.[31][65]

Gender discrimination

Ginsburg authored the court’s opinion in United States v. Virginia518 U.S. 515 (1996), which struck down the Virginia Military Institute‘s (VMI) male-only admissions policy as violating the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. VMI is a prestigious, state-run, military-inspired institution that did not admit women. For Ginsburg, a state actor such as VMI could not use gender to deny women the opportunity to attend VMI with its unique educational methods.[68] Ginsburg emphasized that the government must show an “exceedingly persuasive justification” to use a classification based on sex.[69]

Commissioned portrait of Ginsburg in 2000

Ginsburg dissented in the court’s decision on Ledbetter v. Goodyear550 U.S. 618 (2007), a case where plaintiff Lilly Ledbetter filed a lawsuit against her employer claiming pay discrimination based on her gender under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In a 5–4 decision, the majority interpreted the statute of limitations as starting to run at the time of every pay period, even if a woman did not know she was being paid less than her male colleague until later. Ginsburg found the result absurd, pointing out that women often do not know they are being paid less, and therefore it was unfair to expect them to act at the time of each paycheck. She also called attention to the reluctance women may have in male-dominated fields to making waves by filing lawsuits over small amounts, choosing instead to wait until the disparity accumulates.[70] As part of her dissent, Ginsburg called on Congress to amend Title VII to undo the court’s decision with legislation.[71] Following the election of President Barack Obama in 2008, the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, making it easier for employees to win pay discrimination claims, became law.[72][73] Ginsburg was credited with helping to inspire the law.[71][73]

Abortion rights

Ginsburg discussed her views on abortion and gender equality in a 2009 New York Times interview, in which she said about abortion “[t]he basic thing is that the government has no business making that choice for a woman.”[74] Although Ginsburg consistently supported abortion rights and joined in the court’s opinion striking down Nebraska‘s partial-birth abortion law in Stenberg v. Carhart530 U.S. 914 (2000), on the 40th anniversary of the court’s ruling in Roe v. Wade410 U.S. 113 (1973), she criticized the decision in Roe as terminating a nascent democratic movement to liberalize abortion laws which might have built a more durable consensus in support of abortion rights.[75] Ginsburg was in the minority for Gonzales v. Carhart550 U.S. 124 (2007), a 5–4 decision upholding restrictions on partial birth abortion. In her dissent, Ginsburg opposed the majority’s decision to defer to legislative findings that the procedure was not safe for women. Ginsburg focused her ire on the way Congress reached its findings and with the veracity of the findings.[76] Joining the majority for Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt579 U.S. 15-274 (2016), a case which struck down parts of a 2013 Texas law regulating abortion providers, Ginsburg also authored a short concurring opinion which was even more critical of the legislation at issue.[77] She asserted the legislation was not aimed at protecting women’s health, as Texas had said, but rather to impede women’s access to abortions.[76][77]

Search and seizure

Although Ginsburg did not author the majority opinion, she was credited with influencing her colleagues on the case Safford Unified School District v. Redding557 U.S. 364 (2009).[78] The court ruled that a school went too far in ordering a 13-year-old female student to strip to her bra and underpants so female officials could search for drugs.[78] In an interview published prior to the court’s decision, Ginsburg shared her view that some of her colleagues did not fully appreciate the effect of a strip search on a 13-year-old girl. As she said, “They have never been a 13-year-old girl.”[79] In an 8–1 decision, the court agreed that the school’s search went too far and violated the Fourth Amendment and allowed the student’s lawsuit against the school to go forward. Only Ginsburg and Stevens would have allowed the student to sue individual school officials as well.[78]

In Herring v. United States555 U.S. 135 (2009), Ginsburg dissented from the court’s decision not to suppress evidence due to a police officer’s failure to update a computer system. In contrast to Roberts’ emphasis on suppression as a means to deter police misconduct, Ginsburg took a more robust view on the use of suppression as a remedy for a violation of a defendant’s Fourth Amendment rights. Ginsburg viewed suppression as a way to prevent the government from profiting from mistakes, and therefore as a remedy to preserve judicial integrity and respect civil rights.[80]:308 She also rejected Roberts’ assertion that suppression would not deter mistakes, contending making police pay a high price for mistakes would encourage them to take greater care.[80]:309

International law

Ginsburg advocated the use of foreign law and norms to shape U.S. law in judicial opinions, a view rejected by some of her conservative colleagues. Ginsburg supported using foreign interpretations of law for persuasive value and possible wisdom, not as precedent which the court is bound to follow.[81] Ginsburg expressed the view that consulting international law is a well-ingrained tradition in American law, counting John Henry Wigmore and President John Adams as internationalists.[82] Ginsburg’s own reliance on international law dated back to her time as an attorney; in her first argument before the court, Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 71 (1971), she cited two German cases.[83] In her concurring opinion in Grutter v. Bollinger539 U.S. 306 (2003), a decision upholding Michigan Law School’s affirmative action admissions policy, Ginsburg noted there was accord between the notion that affirmative action admissions policies would have an end point and agrees with international treaties designed to combat racial and gender-based discrimination.[82]

Portrait of Ginsburg, c.? 2006

Other activities

At his request, Ginsburg administered the oath of office to Vice President Al Gore for a second term during the second inauguration of Bill Clinton on January 20, 1997.[84] She was the third woman to administer an inaugural oath of office.[85] Ginsburg is believed to have been the first Supreme Court justice to officiate at a same-sex wedding, performing the August 31, 2013, ceremony of Kennedy Center President Michael Kaiser and John Roberts, a government economist.[86] Earlier that summer, the court had bolstered same-sex marriage rights in two separate cases.[87][88] Ginsburg believed the issue being settled led same-sex couples to ask her to officiate as there was no longer the fear of compromising rulings on the issue.[87]

The Supreme Court bar formerly inscribed its certificates “in the year of our Lord”, which some Orthodox Jews opposed, and asked Ginsburg to object to. She did so, and due to her objection, Supreme Court bar members have since been given other choices of how to inscribe the year on their certificates.[89]

Despite their ideological differences, Ginsburg considered Scalia her closest colleague on the court. The two justices often dined together and attended the opera.[90] In addition to befriending modern composers, including Tobias Picker,[91][92] in her spare time, Ginsburg appeared in several operas in non-speaking supernumerary roles such as Die Fledermaus (2003) and Ariadne auf Naxos (1994 and 2009 with Scalia),[93] and spoke lines penned by herself in The Daughter of the Regiment (2016).[94]

In January 2012, Ginsburg went to Egypt for four days of discussions with judges, law school faculty, law school students, and legal experts.[95][96] In an interview with Al Hayat TV, she said the first requirement of a new constitution should be that it would “safeguard basic fundamental human rights like our First Amendment“. Asked if Egypt should model its new constitution on those of other nations, she said Egypt should be “aided by all Constitution-writing that has gone on since the end of World War II”, and cited the United States Constitution and Constitution of South Africa as documents she might look to if drafting a new constitution. She said the U.S. was fortunate to have a constitution authored by “very wise” men but said that in the 1780s, no women were able to participate directly in the process, and slavery still existed in the U.S.[97]

During three separate interviews in July 2016, Ginsburg criticized presumptive Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, telling The New York Times and the Associated Press that she did not want to think about the possibility of a Trump presidency. She joked that she might consider moving to New Zealand.[98][99] She later apologized for commenting on the presumptive Republican nominee, calling her remarks “ill advised”.[100]

Ginsburg speaking at a naturalization ceremony at the National Archives in 2018

Ginsburg’s first book, My Own Words published by Simon & Schuster, was released October 4, 2016.[101] The book debuted on The New York Times Best Seller List for hardcover nonfiction at No. 12.[102] While promoting her book in October 2016 during an interview with Katie Couric, Ginsburg responded to a question about Colin Kaepernick choosing not to stand for the national anthem at sporting events by calling the protest “really dumb”. She later apologized for her criticism calling her earlier comments “inappropriately dismissive and harsh” and noting she had not been familiar with the incident and should have declined to respond to the question.[103][104][105]

In 2018, Ginsburg expressed her support for the #MeToo movement, which encourages women to speak up about their experiences with sexual harassment.[106] She told an audience, “It’s about time. For so long women were silent, thinking there was nothing you could do about it, but now the law is on the side of women, or men, who encounter harassment and that’s a good thing.”[106] She also reflected on her own experiences with gender discrimination and sexual harassment, including a time when a chemistry professor at Cornell unsuccessfully attempted to trade her exam answers for sex.[106]

 Martin and Ruth Ginsburg at a White House event, 2009

Personal life

A few days after Bader graduated from Cornell, she married Martin D. Ginsburg, who later became an internationally prominent tax attorney practicing at Weil, Gotshal & Manges. Upon her accession to the D.C. Circuit, the couple moved from New York to Washington, D.C., where her husband became professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center. Their daughter, Jane C. Ginsburg (b. 1955), is a professor at Columbia Law School. Their son, James Steven Ginsburg (b. 1965), is the founder and president of Cedille Records, a classical music recording company based in Chicago, Illinois. Ginsburg was a grandmother of four.[107]

Ginsburg with her husband Martin and their daughter Jane in 1958 copyright AP

After the birth of their daughter, Ginsburg’s husband was diagnosed with testicular cancer. During this period, Ginsburg attended class and took notes for both of them, typing her husband’s dictated papers and caring for their daughter and her sick husband—all while making the Harvard Law Review. They celebrated their 56th wedding anniversary on June 23, 2010. Martin Ginsburg died of complications from metastatic cancer on June 27, 2010.[108] They spoke publicly of being in a shared earning/shared parenting marriage including in a speech Martin Ginsburg wrote and had intended to give before his death that Ruth Bader Ginsburg delivered posthumously.[109]

Ginsburg poses for the camera while holding hands with her grandchildren Clara and Paul Spera in 1993.  Behind her are, from left, son-in-law George Spera, daughter Jane Ginsburg, husband Martin and son James Ginsburg (copyright Doug Mills/AP)

Bader was a non-observant Jew.[110] In March 2015, Ginsburg and Rabbi Lauren Holtzblatt released “The Heroic and Visionary Women of Passover”, an essay highlighting the roles of five key women in the saga: “These women had a vision leading out of the darkness shrouding their world. They were women of action, prepared to defy authority to make their vision a reality bathed in the light of the day.”[111] In addition, she decorated her chambers with an artist’s rendering of the Hebrew phrase from Deuteronomy, “Zedek, zedek, tirdof,” (“Justice, justice shall you pursue”) as a reminder of her heritage and professional responsibility.[112]

Bader was a non-observant Jew.[110] In March 2015, Ginsburg and Rabbi Lauren Holtzblatt released “The Heroic and Visionary Women of Passover”, an essay highlighting the roles of five key women in the saga: “These women had a vision leading out of the darkness shrouding their world. They were women of action, prepared to defy authority to make their vision a reality bathed in the light of the day.”[111] In addition, she decorated her chambers with an artist’s rendering of the Hebrew phrase from Deuteronomy, “Zedek, zedek, tirdof,” (“Justice, justice shall you pursue”) as a reminder of her heritage and professional responsibility.[112]

Ginsburg had a collection of lace jabots from around the world.[113][114] She said in 2014 she had a particular jabot she wore when issuing her dissents (black with gold embroidery and faceted stones) as well as another she wore when issuing majority opinions (crocheted yellow and cream with crystals), which was a gift from her law clerks.[113][114] Her favorite jabot (woven with white beads) was from Cape Town, South Africa.[113]

Health

In 1999, Ginsburg was diagnosed with colon cancer, the first of five[115] bouts of cancer. She underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. During the process, she did not miss a day on the bench.[116] Ginsburg was physically weakened by the cancer treatment, and she began working with a personal trainer. Bryant Johnson, a former Army reservist attached to the Special Forces, trained Ginsburg twice weekly in the justices-only gym at the Supreme Court.[117][118] Ginsburg saw her physical fitness improve after her first bout with cancer; she was able to complete 20 push-ups in a session before her 80th birthday.[117][119]

Nearly a decade after her first bout with cancer, Ginsburg again underwent surgery on February 5, 2009, this time for pancreatic cancer.[120][121] Ginsburg had a tumor that was discovered at an early stage.[120] She was released from a New York City hospital on February 13 and returned to the bench when the Supreme Court went back into session on February 23, 2009.[122][123][124] After experiencing discomfort while exercising in the Supreme Court gym in November 2014, she had a stent placed in her right coronary artery.[125][126]

Ginsburg’s next hospitalization helped her detect another round of cancer.[127] On November 8, 2018, Ginsburg fell in her office at the Supreme Court, fracturing three ribs, for which she was hospitalized.[128] An outpouring of public support followed.[129][130] Although the day after her fall, Ginsburg’s nephew revealed she had already returned to official judicial work after a day of observation,[131] a CT scan of her ribs following her November 8 fall showed cancerous nodules in her lungs.[127] On December 21, Ginsburg underwent a left-lung lobectomy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to remove the nodules.[127] For the first time since joining the Court more than 25 years earlier, Ginsburg missed oral argument on January 7, 2019, while she recuperated.[132] She returned to the Supreme Court on February 15 to participate in a private conference with other justices in her first appearance at the court since her cancer surgery in December 2018.[133]

Months later in August 2019, the Supreme Court announced that Ginsburg had recently completed three weeks of focused radiation treatment to ablate a tumor found in her pancreas over the summer.[134] By January 2020, Ginsburg was cancer-free. By February 2020, Ginsberg was not cancer free but it was not released to the public. [135] However, by May 2020, Ginsburg was once again receiving treatment for a recurrence of cancer.[136] She reiterated her position that she “would remain a member of the court as long as I can do the job full steam”, adding that she remained fully able to do so.[137][138]

Longevity in the court

When John Paul Stevens retired in 2010, Ginsburg became the oldest justice on the court at age 77.[139] Despite rumors that she would retire because of advancing age, poor health, and the death of her husband,[140][141] she denied she was planning to step down. In an August 2010 interview, Ginsburg said her work on the court was helping her cope with the death of her husband.[139] She also expressed a wish to emulate Justice Louis Brandeis‘ service of nearly 23 years, which she achieved in April 2016.[139][142] She stated she had a new “model” to emulate in former colleague Justice John Paul Stevens, who retired at age 90 after nearly 35 years on the bench.[142]

During the presidency of Barack Obama, some progressive attorneys and activists called for Ginsburg to retire so Obama could appoint a like-minded successor,[143][144][145] particularly while the Democratic Party held control of the U.S. Senate.[146] They mentioned Ginsburg’s age and past health issues as factors making her longevity uncertain.[144] Ginsburg rejected these pleas.[65] She affirmed her wish to remain a justice as long as she was mentally sharp enough to perform her duties.[65] Moreover, Ginsburg opined that the political climate would prevent Obama from appointing a jurist like herself.[147] At the time of her death in September 2020, Ginsburg was, at age 87, the fourth-oldest serving U.S. Supreme Court Justice in the history of the country.[148]

Candles left on the steps of the Supreme Court following the death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Ginsburg died from complications of pancreatic cancer on September 18, 2020, at age 87.[149][150][4] One day before her death, Ginsburg was honored on Constitution Day and was awarded the 2020 Liberty Medal by the National Constitution Center.[151] It was reported that she will be interred in Arlington National Cemetery next to her husband Martin D. Ginsburg.[152][153]

Succession

Main article: 2020 United States Supreme Court vacancy

Ginsburg’s death created a vacancy on the Supeme Court in a presidential election year.[154] Days before her death, Ginsburg dictated in a statement through her granddaughter Clara Spera, “My most fervent wish is that I will not be replaced until a new president is installed.”[155] Four years earlier, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell refused to allow the Senate to consider President Obama’s nominee to replace Justice Scalia, citing the Thurmond rule, an inconsistently applied practice which posits that the senate will not confirm a Supreme Court nominee during a presidential election year except under certain circumstances.[156]

Ginsburg receiving the LBJ Liberty & Justice for All Award from Lynda Johnson Robb and Luci Baines Johnson at the Library of Congress in January 2020

Recognition

In 2002, Ginsburg was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.[157] Ginsburg was named one of 100 Most Powerful Women (2009),[158] one of Glamour magazine’s Women of the Year 2012,[159] and one of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people (2015).[160] She was awarded honorary Doctor of Laws degrees by Willamette University (2009),[161] Princeton University (2010),[162] and Harvard University (2011).[163]

In 2009, Ginsberg received a Lifetime Achievement Award from Scribes–The American Society of Legal Writers.[164]

In 2013, a painting featuring the four female justices to have served as justices on the Supreme Court (Ginsburg, Sandra Day O’ConnorSonia Sotomayor, and Elena Kagan) was unveiled at the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.[165][166]

Researchers at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History gave a species of praying mantis the name Ilomantis ginsburgae after Ginsburg. The name was given because the neck plate of the Ilomantis ginsburgae bears a resemblance to a jabot, which Ginsburg was known for wearing. Moreover, the new species was identified based upon the female insect’s genitalia instead of based upon the male of the species. The researchers noted that the name was a nod to Ginsburg’s fight for gender equality.[167][168]

Ginsburg was the recipient of the 2019 $1 million Berggruen Prize for Philosophy and Culture.[169] Awarded annually, the Berggruen Institute stated it recognizes “thinkers whose ideas have profoundly shaped human self-understanding and advancement in a rapidly changing world”,[170] noting Ginsburg as “a lifelong trailblazer for human rights and gender equality”.[171] Ginsburg received numerous awards including the LBJ Foundation’s Liberty & Justice for All Award, the World Peace and Liberty Award from international legal groups, and a lifetime achievement award from Diane von Furstenberg‘s foundation all in 2020 alone.[172]

The Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles created an exhibition focusing on Ginsburg’s life and career exhibition in 2019 called Notorious RBG: The Life and Times of Ruth Bader Ginsburg.[173][174]

A poster depicting Ginsburg as “the Notorious R.B.G.” in the likeness of American rapper The Notorious B.I.G., 2018

In popular culture

Ginsburg has been referred to as a “pop culture icon”.[175][176][177] Ginsburg’s profile began to rise after O’Connor’s retirement in 2006 left Ginsburg as the only serving female justice. Her increasingly fiery dissents, particularly in Shelby County v. Holder570 U.S. 2 (2013), led to the creation of the Notorious R.B.G. Tumblr and Internet meme comparing the justice to rapper The Notorious B.I.G.[178] The creator of the Notorious R.B.G. Tumblr, then-law student Shana Knizhnik, teamed up with MSNBC reporter Irin Carmon to turn the blog into a book titled Notorious RBG: The Life and Times of Ruth Bader Ginsburg.[179] Released in October 2015, the book became a New York Times bestseller.[180] In 2015, Ginsburg and Scalia, known for their shared love of opera, were fictionalized in Scalia v. Ginsburg, an opera by Derrick Wang.[181]

Additionally, Ginsburg’s pop culture appeal has inspired nail art, Halloween costumes, a bobblehead doll, tattoos, t-shirts, coffee mugs, and a children’s coloring book among other things.[179][182][183][184] She appears in both a comic opera and a workout book.[184] Musician Jonathan Mann also made a song using part of her Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. dissent.[185] Ginsburg admitted to having a “large supply” of Notorious R.B.G. t-shirts, which she distributed as gifts.[186]

Since 2015, Kate McKinnon has portrayed Ginsburg on Saturday Night Live.[187] McKinnon has repeatedly reprised the role, including during a Weekend Update sketch that aired from the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland.[188][189] The segments typically feature McKinnon (as Ginsburg) lobbing insults she calls “Ginsburns” and doing a celebratory dance.[190][191] Filmmakers Betsy West and Julie Cohen created a documentary about Ginsburg, titled RBG, for CNN Films, which premiered at the 2018 Sundance Film Festival.[192][25] In the film Deadpool 2 (2018), a photo of her is shown as Deadpool considers her for his X-Force, a team of superheroes.[193] Another film, On the Basis of Sex, focusing on Ginsburg’s career struggles fighting for equal rights, was released later in 2018; its screenplay was named to the Black List of best unproduced screenplays of 2014.[194] English actress Felicity Jones portrays Ginsburg in the film, with Armie Hammer as her husband Marty.[195] Ginsburg herself has a cameo in the film.[196] The seventh season of the sitcom New Girl features a three-year-old character named Ruth Bader Schmidt, named after Ginsburg.[197] A Lego mini-figurine of Ginsburg is shown within a brief segment of The Lego Movie 2. Ginsburg gave her blessing for the cameo, as well as to have the mini-figurine produced as part of the Lego toy sets following the film’s release in February 2019.[198] Also in 2019, Samuel Adams released a limited-edition beer called When There Are Nine, referring to Ginsburg’s well-known reply to the question about when there would be enough women on the Supreme Court.[199]

Chief Justice John G Roberts, front center, poses in 2018 with, back row from left, Neil Gorsuch, Sonia Sotomayor, Elena Kagan, Brett M Kavanaugh and, front raw from left, Stephen Breyer, Clarence Thomas, Ginsburg and Samuel Alito copyright Jim Lo Scalzo/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock

Image copyright THE WASHINGTON POST/GETTY

Ginsburg with Senators Daniel Moynihan (left) and Joe Biden in 1993

Although they were on opposite sides of the ideological spectrum, Justice Antonin Scalia (left) and Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg had a professional respect for each other and a personal bond. Nina Totenberg, joined by intern Anthony Palmer, joined the two at a 2015 event.

Image from Nina Totenberg

PBS NewsHour Weekend Full Episode September 19, 2020

Sep 19, 2020  PBS NewsHour

 On this edition for Saturday, September 19, remembering Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg who died due to complications from Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer on Friday — and the political battle her election-year vacancy brings. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Ruth Bader Ginsburg Swearing-In (1993)

Jul 8, 2016  clintonlibrary42

This is video footage of Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg being sworn in as Associate Supreme Court Justice. This footage is official public record produced by the White House Television (WHTV) crew, provided by the Clinton Presidential Library. Date: August 10, 1993 Location: East Room. White House. Washington, DC Access Restriction(s): unrestricted Use Restrictions(s): unrestricted Camera: White House Television (WHTV) / Main Local Identifiers: MT01028 This material is public domain, as it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. Any usage must receive the credit “Courtesy; William J. Clinton Presidential Library,” and no exclusive rights or permissions are granted for usage.

Announcement of Ginsburg as Supreme Court Justice Nominee

Apr 23, 2012  clintonlibrary42

This is video footage of President Clinton announcing the Ruth Bader Ginsburg as Supreme Court Justice nominee. This footage is official public record produced by the White House Television (WHTV) crew, provided by the Clinton Presidential Library. Date: June 14, 1993 Location: Rose Garden. White House. Washington, DC ARC Identifier: 6037153 http://www.archives.gov/research/search/ Access Restriction(s): unrestricted Use Restrictions(s): unrestricted Camera: White House Television (WHTV) / Main Local Identifiers: MT00790 This material is public domain, as it is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. Any usage must receive the credit “Courtesy; William J. Clinton Presidential Library,” and no exclusive rights or permissions are granted for usage.

Thanks to Wikipedia for the above information

For more information please view the following link:

httphttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburgs://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg

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Biden and Harris make 1st appearance as running mates in Delaware, Aug 12, 2020 – PBS News, NBC News, ABC News, Wikipedia, and Town & Country

PBS News: WATCH LIVE – Biden and Harris make 1st appearance as running mates in Delaware, Aug 12, 2020 

NBC Nightly News: With Lester Holt at 6:30 p.m. ET, & Harris Make First Appearance As Running Mates, Kamala Harris Makes History On 2020 Democratic Ticket, Aug 12, 2020 

ABC News: Biden, Harris make 1st appearance together as presidential ticket | WNT  Aug 12, 2020 

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townandcountrymag.com: Joe Biden Selects Kalama Harris as His Running Mate. BY CAROLINE HALLEMANN

Indian Express: Kamala Harris – Some throwback photos from her childhood

Town & Country: Who Is Kamala Harris’s Husband, Douglas Emhoff? BY LAUREN HUBBARD

WATCH LIVE: Biden and Harris make 1st appearance as running mates in Delaware

Streamed live 5 hours ago  PBS NewsHour

Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Watch “NBC Nightly News With Lester Holt” at 6:30 p.m. ET / 5:30 p.m. CT (or check your local listings). 00:00 Intro 01:27 Biden & Harris Make First Appearance As Running Mates 04:44 Kamala Harris Makes History On 2020 Democratic Ticket 08:27 Trump Sharpens Attacks Against Kamala Harris 10:54 Nearly 1,200 Students, Staff Quarantined In Georgia County 11:19 Growing Number Of students Forced To Quarantine 11:52 Study: Coronavirus Can Travel Indoors Up To 16 Feet 12:09 Stated Face Difficult Decisions On Reopening Schools 12:55 Train Derailment Leaves At Least Three Dead 13:40 Remote Learning Struggles For Students Learning English 15:16 Student With Special Need Face Online Learning Challenges » Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC » Watch more NBC video: http://bit.ly/MoreNBCNews

Biden, Harris make 1st appearance together as presidential ticket | WNT

Aug 12, 2020  ABC News

Former Vice President Joe Biden and Sen. Kamala Harris appeared together Wednesday afternoon in Wilmington, Delaware. WATCH THE FULL EPISODE OF ‘WORLD NEWS TONIGHT’: https://bit.ly/2DUFC15 WATCH OTHER FULL EPISODES OF WORLD NEWS TONIGHT: http://abc.go.com/shows/world-news-to… WATCH WORLD NEWS TONIGHT ON HULU: https://hulu.tv/33iKepm #WorldNewsTonight #JoeBiden #KamalaHarris

Kamala Harris

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kamala Harris

Harris in 2017
United States senator
from 
California
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 3, 2017Serving with Dianne Feinstein
Preceded by Barbara Boxer
32nd Attorney General of California
In office
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2017

 

Personal details
Born Kamala Devi Harris

October 20, 1964 (age 55)
OaklandCaliforniaUnited States

Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Douglas Emhoff

 

(

m. 2014)

Children 2 stepchildren
Parents Donald J. Harris
Shyamala Gopalan
Relatives Maya Harris (sister)
Meena Harris (niece)
P.V. Gopalan (grandfather)
Education Howard University (BA)
University of California, Hastings (JD)
Signature
Website Campaign website

District Attorney of San Francisco

Attorney General of California

U.S. Senator from California

2020 presidential campaign

2020 vice presidential campaign

·         2003 campaign for District Attorney

Harris in 2004 with California Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi, who later twice became Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives

  • Harris in 2004 with California
  • District Attorney of San Francisco (2004–2011)
  • Public safety
  • Felony conviction rate
  • Harris as San Francisco District Attorney
  • Harris inherited a 50% felony conviction rate from Hallinan when she took over in 2004. During her tenure, the felony conviction rate rose to 53% in 2005, to 66% in 2006, the highest in a decade.[51]The felony conviction rate continued to rise, reaching 76% in 2009.[52] Convictions of drug dealers increased from 56% in 2003, to 74% in 2006.[52]
  • Harris was re-elected in 2007 when she ran unopposed.[53]
  • Non-violent crimes
  • In summer 2005, Harris created a unit to tackle environmental crimes.[54]Harris filed charges against the Alameda Publishing Corporation, and two men hired by the company’s previous owner, for dumping hazardous printing ink in San Francisco’s Bayview Fifty-gallon buckets of hazardous ink were left overturned and leaking. The corporation and its publishers were charged with unlawful disposal and transportation of hazardous waste and with depositing of hazardous substances on a road.[55][56] The two men subsequently pleaded guilty, and were sentenced to probation.[56]
  • Violent crimes
  • In the early 2000s, the City and County of San Franciscomurder rate per capita drastically outpaced the national average. Within the first six months of taking office, Harris cleared 27 of 74 backlogged homicide cases by settling 14 by plea bargain and taking 11 to trial; with 9 convictions and 2 hung juries, she attained an 81% success rate. She took 49 violent crime cases to trial and secured 36 convictions, for an 84% success rate.[63] From 2004 to 2006, Harris achieved an 87% conviction rate for homicides and a 90% conviction rate for all felony gun violations.[64]
  • Kamala Harris created a special Hate Crimes Unit, focusing on hate crimesagainst LGBT children and teens in schools.[74] In early 2006, Gwen Araujo, a 17-year-old American Latina transgender teenager, was murdered by two men who later used the “gay panic defense” before being convicted of second-degree murder. Harris, alongside Araujo’s mother Sylvia Guerrero, convened a two-day conference of at least 200 prosecutors and law enforcement officials nationwide to discuss strategies to counter such legal defenses.[75] Harris subsequently supported A.B. 1160, the Gwen Araujo Justice for Victims Act, advocating that California’s penal code include jury instructions to ignore bias, sympathy, prejudice, or public opinion in making their decision, also making mandatory for district attorney’s offices in California to educate prosecutors about panic strategies and how to prevent bias from affecting trial outcomes.[76] In September 2006, California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed A.B. 1160 into law; the law put California on record as declaring it contrary to public policy for defendants to be acquitted or convicted of a lesser included offense on the basis of appeals to “societal bias”.[76][77]
  • In August 2007, state assemblyman Mark Lenointroduced legislation to ban gun shows at the Cow Palace, joined by Harris, Police Chief Heather Fong, and Mayor Gavin Newsom. City leaders contended the shows were directly contributing to the proliferation of illegal guns and spiking homicide rates in San Francisco: Mayor Newsom earlier that month signed into law local legislation banning gun shows on city and county property. Leno alleged that merchants drove through the public housing developments nearby and illegally sold weapons to residents.[78] While the bill would stall, local opposition to the shows continued until the Cow Palace Board of Directors in 2019 voted to approve a statement banning all future gun shows.[79]
  • Reform efforts
  • Recidivism and re-entry initiative
  • Death penalty

Attorney General of California (2011–2017)

2010 election

Main article: 2010 California Attorney General election

Official Attorney General portrait

On November 12, 2008, Harris announced her candidacy for California attorney general. Both of California’s senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, House speaker Nancy PelosiUnited Farm Workers cofounder Dolores Huerta, and Mayor of Los Angeles Antonio Villaraigosa all endorsed her during the primary.[99] In the June 8, 2010 primary, she was nominated with 33.6% of the vote, defeating Alberto Torrico and Chris Kelly.[100]

Significant cases and policies

Anti-truancy efforts

Visiting Peterson Middle School in 2010

In 2011, Harris urged criminal penalties for parents of truant children as she did as District Attorney of San Francisco, allowing the court to defer judgment if the parent agreed to a mediation period to get their child back in school. Critics charged that local prosecutors implementing her directives were overzealous in their enforcement and that Harris’s policy adversely affected some families.[105] In 2013, Harris issued a report titled “In School + On Track”, which found that more than 250,000 elementary school students in the state were “chronically absent” and that the statewide truancy rate for elementary students in the 2012–2013 school year was nearly 30 percent, at a cost of nearly $1.4 billion to school districts, since funding is based on attendance rates.[106]

Visiting Peterson Middle School in 2010

Law enforcement accountability

Criminal justice reform

Launch of Division of Recidivism Reduction and Re-Entry

Sentencing and prison inmate retention

Death penalty

Consumer protection

Fraud, waste, and abuse

Harris meets foreclosure victims in 2011.

In 2011, Harris announced the creation of the Mortgage Fraud Strike Force in the wake of the 2010 United States foreclosure crisis.[127] That same year, Harris obtained two of the largest recoveries in the history of California’s False Claims Act – $241 million from Quest Diagnostics and then $323 million from the SCAN healthcare network – over excess state Medi-Cal and federal Medicare payments.[128][129]

Privacy rights

LGBTQ rights

Opposing Prop 8

Public safety

Environmental protection

Attorney General Kamala Harris tours oil spill cleanup efforts.

Law enforcement

AG Harris touring the Fresno Regional DNA Laboratory

Sex crimes

In 2011, Harris obtained a guilty plea and a four-year prison sentence from a stalker who used Facebook and social engineering techniques to illegally access the private photographs of women whose social media accounts he hijacked.

Transnational criminal organizations

AG Harris announces the arrest of 101 gang members in Los Banos, California.

Obama appointment speculation

Kamala Harris with U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder

During Obama’s presidency, Harris was mentioned as a possible nominee for U.S. attorney general.[216] Harris publicly stated she was not interested in the job.[217]

After the death of Supreme Court justice Antonin Scalia in 2016, Harris was speculated to be his replacement as an associate justice of the Supreme Court.[218] However, as her campaign had already begun, Harris publicly stated she was only interested in running for the U.S. Senate and did not wish to be considered.[219]

U.S. Senate (2017–present)

2016 election

Main article: 2016 United States Senate election in California

Senate campaign logo, 2016

Harris at the Sorek Desalination Plant in Israe

2018

Harris in Selma, 2018

2019

Harris at SF Pride Parade 2019

2020

Harris with Congressional Black Caucus women

Presidential campaign

Main article: Kamala Harris 2020 presidential campaign

Harris formally announcing her run for the Democratic nomination for president, January 27, 2019

Logo for Harris’ presidential campaign

On December 3, 2019, Harris withdrew from seeking the 2020 Democratic nomination, citing a shortage of funds.[295] In March 2020, Harris endorsed Joe Biden for president.[296]

Vice presidential campaign

Main articles: Joe Biden 2020 presidential campaign and 2020 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

Campaign logo for the Biden–Harris ticket

Awards and honors

Harris at Howard University in 2017

Honorary degrees

Harris gave the commencement address at the Howard ceremony.[312]

Personal life

Harris is married to attorney Douglas Emhoff, who was at one time partner-in-charge at Venable LLP‘s Los Angeles office.[321] They married on August 22, 2014, in Santa Barbara, California.[322] Harris is stepmother to Emhoff’s two children from his previous marriage.[323] As of August 2019, Harris and her husband had an estimated net worth of $5.8 million.[324] She is a member of Third Baptist Church of San Francisco, a congregation of the American Baptist Churches USA.[325][326][327]

Harris’s sister Maya Harris was an MSNBC political analyst, her brother-in-law Tony West is general counsel of Uber and a former United States Department of Justice senior official,[328] and her niece Meena Harris is the founder of the Phenomenal Women Action Campaign.

Publications

Harris has written two non-fiction books and one children’s book.[329][330]

For more information please visit the following link: Wikipedia:  Kamala_Harris

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamala_Harris

Joe Biden Selects Kalama Harris as His Running Mate

“I’ve decided that Kamala Harris is the best person to help me take this fight to Donald Trump and Mike Pence and then to lead this nation starting in January 2021,” Joe Biden said Tuesday.

BY CAROLINE HALLEMANN

AUG 11, 2020

Joe Biden and Kamala Harris speak after the Democratic Presidential Debate at Texas Southern University on September 12, 2019 in Houston.

WIN MCNAMEEGETTY IMAGES

Back in March, Joe Biden pledged that should he get the Democratic nomination, a woman would be his running mate. When asked during the debate in D.C., “How will your cabinet ensure the best advice on issues that affect women’s physical and financial health?” Biden committed to putting a woman on his ticket.

“If I’m elected president, my cabinet, my administration will look like the country, and I commit that I will, in fact, pick a woman to be vice president,” Biden says in the video above. “There are a number of women who are qualified to be president tomorrow. I would pick a woman to be my vice president.”

Bernie Sanders later dropped out of the race, leaving Biden as the presumptive Democratic nominee, but one question remained: who would he choose as his VP?

Today, we finally have an answer. This afternoon, the Biden camp confirmed that he has selected California senator Kamala Harris to be his running mate.

“I’ve decided that Kamala Harris is the best person to help me take this fight to Donald Trump and Mike Pence and then to lead this nation starting in January 2021,” Biden said Tuesday.

Harris, one of Biden’s former sparring partners, has been on a short list of VP contenders for weeks now. She made a name for herself during the debates, and while she doesn’t directly help Biden flip a swing state, having a person of color on the ticket is a key issue for many Democratic voters.

Last August, Biden said he was open to choosing a person of color as his running mate, suggesting it might be his preference. “Whomever I pick, preferably it will be someone who was of color and/or a different gender, but I’m not making that commitment until I know that the person I’m dealing with I can completely and thoroughly trust as authentic and on the same page [as me],” he said.

Below, a few of the other women who were thought to have been in the running for Biden’s VP.

For more information please visit the following link:

https://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/politics/a31788718/joe-biden-vp-candidate-predictions/

Kamala Harris: Some throwback photos from her childhood

Updated: August 12, 2020 10:31:26 pm

In a major breakthrough for Indian-Americans in US politics, Joe Biden has picked Senator Kamala Harris as his running mate to woo the Black voters and the influential Indian diaspora who could play a key role in his bid to defeat Donald Trump in the presidential election. In pic: Iris Finegan holds her great granddaughter, Kamala Harris, in Jamaica. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

This December 25, 1968 photo shows Kamala Harris with her sister, Maya, on Christmas. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

Kamala Harris as a child at her mother’s lab in Berkeley, California. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

This September 1966 photo provided by the Kamala Harris campaign shows her during a family visit to the Harlem neighborhood of New York. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

This November 1982 photo shows Kamala Harris, right, with Gwen Whitfield at an anti-apartheid protest during her freshman year at Howard University in Washington. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

In this April 1965 photo provided by the Kamala Harris campaign, Donald Harris holds his daughter, Kamala. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

In this undated photo provided by the Kamala Harris campaign in April 2019, Shyamala Gopalan Harris, 25, holds her baby, Kamala. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

Born to a Jamaican father and Indian mother, she often speaks of her deep bond with her late mother, whom she has called her single biggest influence. In pic: Kamala Harris with her mother, Shyamala, at a Chinese New Year parade in 2007. (Kamala Harris campaign via AP)

On Tuesday, Biden tapped California Sen. Kamala Harris to be his running mate, making her the first Black woman to serve on a major party presidential ticket. The Biden campaign has said it plans a rollout that blends the historic nature of Harris’ selection with the realities of the 2020 campaign and the gravity of the nation’s circumstances. (AP

For more information please visit the following link:

https://indianexpress.com/photos/world-news/kamala-harris-photos-childhood-6552110/

Who Is Kamala Harris’s Husband, Douglas Emhoff?

The entertainment lawyer just might be the sweetest political spouse on Twitter

BY LAUREN HUBBARD

AUG 11, 2020

He’s an entertainment lawyer.

California senator Kamala Harris has been with her husband Douglas Emhoff since 2013.

DAVID LIVINGSTONGETTY IMAGES

Though he was born in Brooklyn, New York, California has arguably had the biggest impact on Emhoff’s life. Hhe graduated from the University of Southern California’s Gould School of Law, and met and married his wife on the left coast, and it’s where he now works as a partner at DLA Piper Law Firm.

According to the company’s profile of him, Emhoff, “Represents large domestic and international corporations and some of today’s highest profile individuals and influencers in complex business, real estate and intellectual property litigation disputes.”

One such dispute, according to The Hollywood Reporter, had Emhoff representing the ad agency TBWA in an early 2000s lawsuit over the rights to the chihuahua featured in Taco Bell’s “Yo Quiero Taco Bell” ads.

The 54-year-old now reportedly splits his time between California and D.C., as well as traveling with his wife to help with her campaign. “With all this other stuff that’s happening in my life right now, it’s great to have [my practice,] because it’s something that I love and I’m good at,” he told THR.

For more information please visit the following link:

https://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/politics/a27256864/kamala-harris-husband-douglas-emhoff-facts/

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