Trip To Swansea In My Husband’s Motherland , Wales – Part 8

Photograph and Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

 Ing’s “Peace Comes To You”Poem translated into Welsh By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017

Sent: 09 October 2017 19:38
From: Lewis, Hywel                                                      Subject: poem

Pan fyddwch chi’n mwynhau diferion glaw,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan fyddwch chi’n clywed adar yn canu,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan welwch chi bysgod’n nofio mewn dwr glân,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan fyddwch chi’n clywed plant yn chwerthin,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
A phan fyddwch chi’n hwmian wrth gerdded yn y goedwig

Ddaw heddwch i chi,,
A phan fyddwch chi’n eistedd yn dawel yn gwylio’r haul yn codi a’i osod
Gwrando ar y tonnau’n canu,
Yna ddaw heddwch i chi,
Gadewch i heddwch ddod atoch mewn gwahanol ffyrdd
Gadewch i heddwch fod gyda ni holl.

 Ings comments:
I was very lucky when I went to Swansea, Wales in October 2017. A friend came to visit us with her three daughters and her sister with one daughter. They made us very happy from their visit and all of them read my “Peace Comes to You” poem aloud for me to record their voices. They also wrote their peace comments from my Peace Project “What does Peace mean to you?” on my large Peace Poster. The girls enjoyed drawing artwork and writing their expressions on Peace. I was doubly lucky to have Mr. Hywel Lewis, who works at the Swansea Library, being kind enough to translate my poem “Peace Comes To You” into Welsh. Mr. Lewis also read my poem both in Welsh and in English for me to record. John went to Swansea many times to visit his sister but was unable to find anyone to translate my Peace Poem. John is Welsh, I thought that it is important for me to have a Welsh translation for my Peace Poem. I already have my Peace Poem translated into 28 languages and the Welsh translation added to this number made the total 29. I was so lucky, happy and grateful to receive this help, that I felt much better even though I had bad cold for the entire time of my trip to the UK.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, December 27, 2017

Mr. Hywel Luwis, Swansea Library, Seashore and Ing’s Peace Poem on Friday, October 13, 2017, Swansea, Wales

 

 Mr. Hywel Luwis was preparing to read my Peace Poem which was translated into Welsh by him at Swansea Library on Friday, October 13, 2017, Swansea, Wales.

 

 Display of writing and Posters in Swansea Library

A portrait of Dylan Thomas in the Swansea Library

 

A photo of Swansea Beach in old times in the Swansea Library 

 

I was lucky to catch this beautiful pink sky over Swansea Bay on Wednesday, October 11, 2017

 

 When I look at or think of Swansea beach at the back of the Library I always see the image of Mr. Hywel Luwis smiling, reading my Peace Poem in Welsh and English.

 

Swansea beach at the back of the Swansea Library on Wednesday, October 11, 2017

 

Swansea Library on Wednesday, October 11, 2017

 

Darkness consumes the light outside, but inside the library human minds are alert and consuming  all the knowledge the library provides.

 

 

Walking alone on the beach is not a lonely feeling, hearing the sounds of waves singing, the cool gentle breeze touching the skin, and the fresh air all around, is a time that one will never feel lonely, but comfortable in the arms of nature.

 

The knowledge in the sea is translated into languages for us to understand nature, to preserve it, for future generations to enjoy a healthy environment always.

 

Far away a standing lighthouse monument of old times, remains to guard against unseen dangers.

 

Swansea beach at the back of Swansea Library on Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Ing’s comments:

 A couple of birds enjoy soaring and surfing from the sky, and a human couple enjoys a leisure time walking. It is a beautiful sight to see and to feel.  But humans dump plastic waste, toxic waste and all kind of objects in the the sea killing sea animals and birds that mistake plastic as food. The birds and sea creatures eat this plastic waste and feed it to their babies, most of them will die from indigestion of plastic materials. Humans at present, have to wake up and be concerned about what they are doing. Consciously or subconsciously, they destroy the world with pollutants in the sea, and carbon dioxides from factories and the cars in the air.  This will contribute to human sickness with cancer and other diseases.  I try to encourage peace for mankind, but there is no longer peace in me when I see humans destroying the world, themselves and all living things on earth.     

Swansea beach at the back of Swansea Library on Wednesday, October 11, 2017

 

 The plants along the pathway to the entrance of the library

 

 

The pathway to the entrance of the Swansea library

 

 

The pathway to the entrance of the Swansea library

 

Swansea Civic Centre is located next to the Swansea Library.

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Trip To Swansea In My Husband’s Motherland , Wales –Part 7

Photograph and Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Ing’s “Peace Comes To You”Poem translated into Welsh By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017

Sent: 09 October 2017 19:38
From: Lewis, Hywel                                                      Subject: poem

Pan fyddwch chi’n mwynhau diferion glaw,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan fyddwch chi’n clywed adar yn canu,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan welwch chi bysgod’n nofio mewn dwr glân,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan fyddwch chi’n clywed plant yn chwerthin,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
A phan fyddwch chi’n hwmian wrth gerdded yn y goedwig

Ddaw heddwch i chi,,
A phan fyddwch chi’n eistedd yn dawel yn gwylio’r haul yn codi a’i osod
Gwrando ar y tonnau’n canu,
Yna ddaw heddwch i chi,
Gadewch i heddwch ddod atoch mewn gwahanol ffyrdd
Gadewch i heddwch fod gyda ni holl.

 Ing’s comments:
I was very lucky when I went to Swansea, Wales in October 2017. A friend came to visit us with her three daughters and her sister with one daughter. They made us very happy from their visit and all of them read my “Peace Comes to You” poem aloud for me to record their voices. They also wrote their peace comments from my Peace Project “What does Peace mean to you?” on my large Peace Poster. The girls enjoyed drawing artwork and writing their expressions on Peace. I was doubly lucky to have Mr. Hywel Lewis, who works at the Swansea Library, being kind enough to translate my poem “Peace Comes To You” into Welsh. Mr. Lewis also read my poem both in Welsh and in English for me to record. John went to Swansea many times to visit his sister but was unable to find anyone to translate my Peace Poem. John is Welsh, I thought that it is important for me to have a Welsh translation for my Peace Poem. I already have my Peace Poem translated into 28 languages and the Welsh translation added to this number made the total 29. I was so lucky, happy and grateful to receive this help, that I felt much better even though I had bad cold for the entire time of my trip to the UK.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, December 27, 2017

 

 Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in English and Welsh translated into Welsh By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017

 Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced Welsh pronunciation: [k?m?rai?, ? ??m?rai?] ( listen)) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. It is spoken natively in Wales, by few in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).[10] Historically, it has also been known in English as “Cambrian”,[11] “Cambric”[12] and “Cymric”.[13]
The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded that 19% of people aged three and over who live in Wales can speak Welsh, a decrease from the 20.8% recorded in 2001. An overall increase in the size of the Welsh population, most of whom are not Welsh speakers, appears to correspond with a fall in the number of Welsh speakers in Wales – from 582,000 in 2001 to 562,000 in 2011. This figure is still a greater number, however, than the 508,000 (18.7%) of people who said that they could speak Welsh in 1991. According to the Welsh Language Use Survey 2013–15, 24% of people aged three and over living in Wales were able to speak Welsh, demonstrating a possible increase in the prevalence of the Welsh language.[14]
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

 

Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in English and Welsh translated into Welsh by Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017 and Swansea Bay, Swansea, Wales, UK

“Welsh orthography: Welsh is written in a Latin alphabet traditionally consisting of 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs treated as single letters for collation:
a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y
In contrast to English practice, “w” and “y” are considered vowel letters in Welsh along with “a”, “e”, “i”, “o” and “u”.
The letter “j” is used in many everyday words borrowed from English, like jam, jôc “joke” and garej “garage”. The letters “k”, “q”, “v”, “x”, and “z” are used in some technical terms, like kilogram, volt and zero, but in all cases can be, and often are, replaced by Welsh letters: cilogram, folt and sero.[75] The letter “k” was in common use until the sixteenth century, but was dropped at the time of the publication of the New Testament in Welsh, as William Salesbury explained: “C for K, because the printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth”. This change was not popular at the time.[76]
The most common diacritic is the circumflex, which disambiguates long vowels, most often in the case of homographs, where the vowel is short in one word and long in the other: e.g. man “place” vs mân “fine”, “small”.
Morphology
Main articles: Colloquial Welsh morphology and Literary Welsh morphology
Welsh morphology has much in common with that of the other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use of initial consonant mutations and of so-called “conjugated prepositions” (prepositions that fuse with the personal pronouns that are their object). Welsh nouns belong to one of two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, but they are not inflected for case. Welsh has a variety of different endings and other methods to indicate the plural, and two endings to indicate the singular of some nouns. In spoken Welsh, verbal features are indicated primarily by the use of auxiliary verbs rather than by the inflection of the main verb. In literary Welsh, on the other hand, inflection of the main verb is usual.”

For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

 

Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in Welsh translated into Welsh
By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017,  Swansea Bay, Swansea, Wales, UK

“Welsh numerals
The traditional counting system used in the Welsh language is vigesimal, i.e. it is based on twenties, as in standard French numbers 70 (soixante-dix, literally “sixty-ten”) to 99 (quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, literally “four score nineteen”). Welsh numbers from 11 to 14 are “x on ten” (e.g. un ar ddeg: 11), 16 to 19 are “x on fifteen” (e.g. un ar bymtheg: 16), though 18 is deunaw, “two nines”; numbers from 21 to 39 are “1–19 on twenty”, 40 is deugain “two twenties”, 60 is trigain “three twenties”, etc. This form continues to be used, especially by older people, and it is obligatory in certain circumstances (such as telling the time, and in ordinal numbers).[77]
There is also a decimal counting system, which has become relatively widely used, though less so in giving the time, ages, and dates (it features no ordinal numbers). This system is in especially common use in schools due to its simplicity, and in Patagonian Welsh. Whereas 39 in the vigesimal system is pedwar ar bymtheg ar hugain (“four on fifteen on twenty”) or even deugain namyn un (“two score minus one”), in the decimal system it is tri deg naw (“three tens nine”).
Although there is only one word for “one” (un), it triggers the soft mutation (treiglad meddal) of feminine nouns, where possible, other than those beginning with “ll” or “rh”. There are separate masculine and feminine forms of the numbers “two” (dau and dwy), “three” (tri and tair) and “four” (pedwar and pedair), which must agree with the grammatical gender of the objects being counted. The objects being counted appear in the singular, not plural form.”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

Adelaide Dupont’s comments:
#welsh is a very #peaceful #language.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts: +Adelaide Dupont Thank you for your comment
Have A Wonderful New Year

Adelaide Dupont: +Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts I appreciate your #newyear #wishes!

 

Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem translated into Welsh
By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017 and “The Flag of Wales”

“The Flag of Wales (Y Ddraig Goch) incorporates the red dragon, a popular symbol of Wales and the Welsh people, along with the Tudor colours of green and white. It was used by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, after which it was carried in state to St. Paul’s Cathedral. The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal arms to signify their Welsh descent. It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in 1959. Since the British Union Flag does not have any Welsh representation, the Flag of Wales has become very popular.”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_people

 

 Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in English and Swansea Bay, Swansea, Wales, UK

Welsh syntax
The canonical word order in Welsh is verb–subject–object.
Colloquial Welsh inclines very strongly towards the use of auxiliaries with its verbs, as in English. The present tense is constructed with bod (“to be”) as an auxiliary verb, with the main verb appearing as a verbnoun (used in a way loosely equivalent to an infinitive) after the particle yn:
Mae Siân yn mynd i Lanelli
Siân is going to Llanelli.
There, mae is a third-person singular present indicative form of bod, and mynd is the verbnoun meaning “to go”. The imperfect is constructed in a similar manner, as are the periphrastic forms of the future and conditional tenses.
In the preterite, future and conditional mood tenses, there are inflected forms of all verbs, which are used in the written language. However, speech now more commonly uses the verbnoun together with an inflected form of gwneud (“do”), so “I went” can be Mi es i or Mi wnes i fynd (“I did go”). Mi is an example of a preverbal particle; such particles are common in Welsh.
Welsh lacks separate pronouns for constructing subordinate clauses; instead, special verb forms or relative pronouns that appear identical to some preverbal particles are used.
Possessives as direct objects of verbnouns
The Welsh for “I like Rhodri” is Dw i’n hoffi Rhodri (word for word, “am I [the] liking [of] Rhodri”), with Rhodri in a possessive relationship with hoffi. With personal pronouns, the possessive form of the personal pronoun is used, as in “I like him”: Dw i’n ei hoffi, literally, “am I his liking” – “I like you” is Dw i’n dy hoffi (“am I your liking”).
Pronoun doubling
In colloquial Welsh, possessive pronouns, whether they are used to mean “my”, “your”, etc. or to indicate the direct object of a verbnoun, are commonly reinforced by the use of the corresponding personal pronoun after the noun or verbnoun: ei d? e “his house” (literally “his house of him”), Dw i’n dy hoffi di “I like you” (“I am [engaged in the action of] your liking of you”), etc. It should be noted that the “reinforcement” (or, simply, “redoubling”) adds no emphasis in the colloquial register. While the possessive pronoun alone may be used, especially in more formal registers, as shown above, it is considered incorrect to use only the personal pronoun. Such usage is nevertheless sometimes heard in very colloquial speech, mainly among young speakers: Ble ‘dyn ni’n mynd? T? ti neu d? fi? (“Where are we going? Your house or my house?”).
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

 

Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem translated into Welsh
By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017 and Swansea Bay at the back of Swansea Library, Swansea, Wales, UK
Photograph and Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Swansea Bay (Welsh: Bae Abertawe) is a bay on the southern coast of Wales. The River Neath, River Tawe, River Afan, River Kenfig and Clyne River flow into the bay. Swansea Bay and the upper reaches of the Bristol Channel experience a large tidal range. The shipping ports in Swansea Bay are Swansea Docks, Port Talbot Docks and Briton Ferry wharfs.
Each stretch of beach within the bay has its own individual name:
·Aberavon Beach
·Baglan Bay
·Jersey Marine Beach
·Swansea Beach
·Mumbles Beach
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

 

 “The 1588 Welsh Bible: The Bible translations into Welsh helped maintain the use of Welsh in daily life. The New Testament was translated by William Salesbury in 1567 followed by the complete Bible by William Morgan in 1588.

The Welsh language arguably originated from the Britons at the end of the 6th century. Prior to this, three distinct languages were spoken by the Britons during the 5th and 6th centuries: Latin, Irish, and British. According to T. M. Charles-Edwards, the emergence of Welsh as a distinct language occurred towards the end of this period.[17] The emergence of Welsh was not instantaneous and clearly identifiable. Instead, the shift occurred over a long period of time, with some historians claiming that it happened as late as the 9th century. Kenneth H. Jackson proposed a more general time period for the emergence, specifically after the Battle of Dyrham, a military battle between the West Saxons and the Britons in 577 AD.[18]
Four periods are identified in the history of Welsh, with rather indistinct boundaries: Primitve Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh. The period immediately following the language’s emergence is sometimes referred to as Primitive Welsh,[19] followed by the Old Welsh period – which is generally considered to stretch from the beginning of the 9th century to sometime during the 12th century.[19] The Middle Welsh period is considered to have lasted from then until the 14th century, when the Modern Welsh period began, which in turn is divided into Early and Late Modern Welsh.
The name Welsh originated as an exonym given to its speakers by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning “foreign speech” (see Walha)[citation needed], and the native term for the language is Cymraeg, meaning “British”.”

For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

 

Swansea Bay (1840)
Bartlett, William Henry, 1809-1854, artist. Armytage, James Charles, d. 1897, engraver. – This image is available from the National Library of Wales You can view this image in its original context on the NLW Catalogue
Abstract: A view of showing Swansea bay and a town. Ships are sailing in the sea and a lighthouse can be seen in the background.
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

 

Bilingual road markings near Cardiff Airport. In Welsh-speaking areas, the Welsh signage appears first. Photograph by Adrian Pingstone
The Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 gave the Welsh language official status in Wales,[15] making it the only language that is de jure official in any part of the United Kingdom, with English being de facto official. Thus, official documents and procedures require Welsh and English to be given equality in the conduct of the proceedings of the National Assembly for Wales.[16]
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

 

Trilingual (Spanish, Welsh and English) sign in Argentina

Gastón Cuello - Own work

Sign at former Gaiman Station of the Central Chubut Railway

Sign promoting the learning of Welsh: Alan Fryer

Defnyddiwch eich Cymraeg – Use your Welsh. Detail of 488575

Origins

See also: Celtic languages § Classification

Welsh evolved from Common Brittonic, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Celtic Britons. Classified as Insular Celtic, the British language probably arrived in Britain during the Bronze Age or Iron Age and was probably spoken throughout the island south of the Firth of Forth.[20] During the Early Middle Ages the British language began to fragment due to increased dialect differentiation, thus evolving into Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. It is not clear when Welsh became distinct.[18][21][22]

Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around 550, and labelled the period between then and about 800 “Primitive Welsh”.[18] This Primitive Welsh may have been spoken in both Wales and the Hen Ogledd (“Old North”) – the Brittonic-speaking areas of what is now northern England and southern Scotland - and therefore may have been the ancestor of Cumbric as well as Welsh. Jackson, however, believed that the two varieties were already distinct by that time.[18] The earliest Welsh poetry – that attributed to the Cynfeirdd or “Early Poets” – is generally considered to date to the Primitive Welsh period. However, much of this poetry was supposedly composed in the Hen Ogledd, raising further questions about the dating of the material and language in which it was originally composed.[18] This discretion stems from the fact that Cumbric was widely believed to have been the language used in Hen Ogledd. An 8th century inscription in Tywyn shows the language already dropping inflections in the declension of nouns.[23]

Janet Davies proposed that the origins of Welsh language were much less definite; in The Welsh Language: A History, she proposes that Welsh may have been around even earlier than 600 AD. This is evidenced by the dropping of final syllables from Brittonic: *bardos ”poet” became bardd, and *abona ”river” became afon.[21] Though both Davies and Jackson cite minor changes in syllable structure and sounds as evidence for the creation of Old Welsh, Davies suggests it may be more appropriate to refer to this derivative language as Lingua Brittanica rather than characterizing it as a new language altogether.

Sculpture of Owain Glynd?r, the last native Welsh person to hold the title Prince of Wales

Primitive Welsh

The argued dates for the period of “Primitive Welsh” are widely debated, with some historians’ suggestions differing by hundreds of years.

Old Welsh

The next main period is Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg, 9th to 11th centuries); poetry from both Wales and Scotland has been preserved in this form of the language. As Germanic and Gaelic colonisation of Britain proceeded, the Brittonic speakers in Wales were split off from those in northern England, speaking Cumbric, and those in the southwest, speaking what would become Cornish, and so the languages diverged. Both the works of Aneirin (Canu Aneirin, c. 600) and the Book of Taliesin (Canu Taliesin) were during this era.

Middle Welsh

Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period. This is the language of nearly all surviving early manuscripts of the Mabinogion, although the tales themselves are certainly much older. It is also the language of the existing Welsh law manuscripts. Middle Welsh is reasonably intelligible to a modern-day Welsh speaker.

The famous cleric Gerald of Wales tells, in his Descriptio Cambriae, a story of King Henry II of England. During one of the King’s many raids in the 12th century, Henry asked an old man of Pencader, Carmarthenshire whether the Welsh people could resist his army. The old man replied:

It can never be destroyed through the wrath of man, unless the wrath of God shall concur. Nor do I think that any other nation than this of Wales, nor any other language, whatever may hereafter come to pass, shall in the day of reckoning before the Supreme Judge, answer for this corner of the Earth.[24]

Modern Welsh

Modern Welsh is subdivided within itself into Early Modern and Late Modern Welsh.Early Modern Welsh ran from the 15th century through to the end of the 16th century, and the Late Modern Welsh period roughly dates from the 16th century onwards. Contemporary Welsh still differs greatly from the Welsh of the 16th Century, but they are similar enough that a fluent Welsh speaker should have little trouble understanding it. The Modern Welsh period is where one can see a decline in the popularity of the Welsh language, as the number of people who spoke Welsh declined to the point at which there was concern that the language would become extinct entirely. Welsh government processes and legislation have worked to increase the proliferation of the Welsh language throughout school projects and the like.

Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the north and west of Wales, principally Gwynedd, Conwy, Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych), Anglesey (Ynys Môn), Carmarthenshire (Sir Gâr), north Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), Ceredigion, parts of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), and north-west and extreme south-west Powys, although first-language and other fluent speakers can be found throughout Wales.

Outside Wales

Welsh-speaking communities persisted well on into the modern period across the border with England. Archenfield was still Welsh enough in the time of Elizabeth I for the Bishop of Hereford to be made responsible, together with the four Welsh bishops, for the translation of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer into Welsh. Welsh was still commonly spoken here in the first half of the 19th century, and churchwardens’ notices were put up in both Welsh and English until about 1860.[31]

The number of Welsh-speaking people in the rest of Britain has not yet been counted for statistical purposes. In 1993, the Welsh-language television channel S4C published the results of a survey into the numbers of people who spoke or understood Welsh, which estimated that there were around 133,000 Welsh-speaking people living in England, about 50,000 of them in the Greater London area.[32] The Welsh Language Board, on the basis of an analysis of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Longitudinal Study, estimated there were 110,000 Welsh-speaking people in England, and another thousand in Scotland and Northern Ireland.[33] In the 2011 Census, 8,248 people in England gave Welsh in answer to the question “What is your main language?”[34] The ONS subsequently published a census glossary of terms to support the release of results from the census, including their definition of “main language” as referring to “first or preferred language” (though that wording was not in the census questionnaire itself).[35][36] The wards in England with the most people giving Welsh as their main language were the Liverpool wards: Central and Greenbank, and Oswestry South.[34] In terms of the regions of England, North West England (1,945), London (1,310) and the West Midlands (1,265) had the highest number of people noting Welsh as their main language.[37]

In the later 19th century, virtually all teaching in the schools of Wales was in English, even in areas where the pupils barely understood English. Some schools used the Welsh Not, a piece of wood, often bearing the letters “WN”, which was hung around the neck of any pupil caught speaking Welsh. The pupil could pass it on to any schoolmate heard speaking Welsh, with the pupil wearing it at the end of the day being given a beating. One of the most famous Welsh-born pioneers of higher education in Wales was Sir Hugh Owen. He made great progress in the cause of education, and more especially the University College of Wales at Aberystwyth, of which he was chief founder. He has been credited[by whom?] with the Welsh Intermediate Education Act 1889 (52 & 53 Vict c 40), following which several new Welsh schools were built. The first was completed in 1894 and named Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen.

Towards the beginning of the 20th century this policy slowly began to change, partly owing to the efforts of Owen Morgan Edwards when he became chief inspector of schools for Wales in 1907.

The Aberystwyth Welsh School (Ysgol Gymraeg Aberystwyth) was founded in 1939 by Sir Ifan ap Owen Edwards, the son of O.M. Edwards, as the first Welsh Primary School.[52] The headteacher was Norah Isaac. Ysgol Gymraeg is still a very successful school, and now there are Welsh language primary schools all over the country. Ysgol Glan Clwyd was established in Rhyl in 1955 as the first Welsh language school to teach at the secondary level.[53]

Examples of sentences in literary and colloquial Welsh

English

Literary Welsh

Colloquial Welsh

I get up early every day. Codaf yn gynnar bob dydd. Dw i’n codi’n gynnar bob dydd. (North)
Rwy’n codi’n gynnar bob dydd. (South)
I’ll get up early tomorrow. Codaf yn gynnar yfory. Mi goda i’n gynnar fory
Wna i godi’n gynnar fory
He had not stood there long. Ni safasai yno yn hir.[82] Doedd o ddim wedi sefyll yno’n hir. (North)
(D)ôdd e ddim wedi sefyll yna’n hir. (South)
They’ll sleep only when there’s a need. Ni chysgant ond pan fo angen. Fyddan nhw’n cysgu ddim ond pan fydd angen.

In fact, the differences between dialects of modern spoken Welsh pale into insignificance compared to the difference between some forms of the spoken language and the most formal constructions of the literary language. The latter is considerably more conservative and is the language used in Welsh translations of the Bible, amongst other things (although the 2004 Beibl Cymraeg Newydd – New Welsh Bible – is significantly less formal than the traditional 1588 Bible). Gareth King, author of a popular Welsh grammar, observes that “The difference between these two is much greater than between the virtually identical colloquial and literary forms of English”.[83] A grammar of Literary Welsh can be found in A Grammar of Welsh (1980) by Stephen J. Williams[84] or more completely in Gramadeg y Gymraeg (1996) by Peter Wynn Thomas.[85] (No comprehensive grammar of formal literary Welsh exists in English.) An English-language guide to colloquial Welsh forms and register and dialect differences is “Dweud Eich Dweud” (2001, 2013) by Ceri Jones.[86]

Welsh emigration

Flag of the city of Puerto Madryn, Argentina, inspired by the Flag of Wales, owing to the Welsh immigration

There has been migration from Wales to the rest of Britain throughout its history. During the Industrial Revolution thousands of Welsh people migrated, for example, to Liverpool and Ashton-in-Makerfield.[72][73] As a result, some people from England, Scotland and Ireland have Welsh surnames.[74][75][76][77]

John Adams, the second President of the United States (1797–1801), whose paternal great-grandfather David Adams was born and bred at “Fferm Penybanc”, Llanboidy, Carmarthenshire, Wales[78] and who emigrated from Wales in 1675.

Other Welsh settlers moved to other parts of Europe, concentrated in certain areas. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a small wave of contract miners from Wales arrived in Northern France; the centres of Welsh-French population are in coal mining towns of the French department of Pas-de-Calais.[citation needed] Welsh settlers from Wales (and later Patagonian Welsh) arrived in Newfoundland in the early 1900s, and founded towns Labrador‘s coast region.[citation needed] In 1852 Thomas Benbow Phillips of Tregaron established a settlement of about 100 Welsh people in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil.

Internationally Welsh people have emigrated, in relatively small numbers (in proportion to population, Irish emigration to the USA may have been 26 times greater than Welsh emigration),[79] to many countries, including the USA (in particular, Pennsylvania), Canada and Y Wladfa in Patagonia, Argentina.[80][81][82] Jackson County, Ohio was sometimes referred to as “Little Wales”, and the Welsh language was commonly heard or spoken among locals by the mid 20th century.[citation needed] Malad City in Idaho, which began as a Welsh Mormon settlement, lays claim to a greater proportion of inhabitants of Welsh descent than anywhere outside Wales itself.[83] Malad’s local High School is known as the “Malad Dragons”, and flies the Welsh Flag as its school colours.[84] Welsh people have also settled in New Zealand and Australia.[79][85]

Around 1.75 million Americans report themselves to have Welsh ancestry, as did 458,705 Canadians in Canada’s 2011 census.[5][7] This compares with 2.9 million people living in Wales (as of the 2001 census).[86]

There is no known evidence which would objectively support the legend that the Mandan, a Native American tribe of the central United States, are Welsh emigrants who reached North America under Prince Madog in 1170.[87]

The Ukrainian city of Donetsk was founded in 1869 by a Welsh businessman, John Hughes (an engineer from Merthyr Tydfil) who constructed a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the town was thus named Yuzovka (??????) in recognition of his role in its founding (“Yuz” being a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of Hughes).[88]

Former Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard was born in Barry, Wales. After she suffered from bronchopneumonia as a child, her parents were advised that it would aid her recovery to live in a warmer climate. This led the family to migrate to Australia in 1966, settling in Adelaide.

For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

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Trip To Swansea In My Husband’s Motherland, Wales – Part 2

Swansea Shore on Monday, October 9, 2017
Poem and Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Swansea Shore!

A poor little bird
Standing on the edge
Watching the sea roll by

My poor sick husband
Trying to compose himself
Breathing in the fresh air

Oh, Swansea Shore!
I came here before
Seeing the waves
Rolling and hugging you
In and out with the rhythm of the tides

Oh, Swansea Shore!
I will come here again
In the sunset of my life
And you will still be here
For the long centuries to come

My little Grandson Kai
Holding his hands with his parents
Walking along the shore
Another younger generations will come

Admiring you with the sunset or the sunrise
The full moon appearing in the sky
You will give pleasure for all to see,

Oh, Swansea Shore!
I love you!

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, October 11, 2017, 4:17 am

The scene by the kitchen bay widow at John’s sister house in Swansea, Wales
This scene is what Mom and John’s sister saw when they were sitting in the armchair and relaxing by the kitchen bay widow at John’s sister house in Swansea, Wales. I miss both of them. I wish they were here with us. Life is too short to fight and be unhappy with each other. We will be apart from each other one of these days, sooner or later. Please get along and be happy with each other.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, October 15, 2017, Swansea, Wales

Solar panels at the back of John’s sister house in Swansea, Wales
In Swansea, Wales I saw some solar panels on people’s houses even though the weather is more cloudy and lightly raining a lot of the time. I was in Thailand for about two months in July and August where most of the time there is very strong sunshine and occasionally heavy rain for one hour or more but I saw no solar panels. They may have them somewhere that I did not see. I hope the Thai government helps to promote solar energy consumption.

 Comments:

munir faraj: We in Iraq have more than 300 sunny day and more than 12 hour/day but the goverment has no project to use this clean energy ???

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts: +munir faraj Thank you for your interest. Maybe you can speak about it peacefully and well intention. Iraq university might be a good place to talk to the science professors.
Have a wonderful Sunday and the week to come

 

Swansea Shore on Monday, October 9, 2017
“Swansea Bay: Harnessing the power of our tides

• Did you know… the UK has the second highest tidal range in the world and the difference in the range at Swansea Bay is a massive 7-9 metres!

• Dave Sagan, Project Manager

• An iconic, world-first infrastructure project in South West Wales
• Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon will be the world’s first tidal lagoon power plant.
• A tidal lagoon is a ‘U’ shaped breakwater, built out from the coast which has a bank of hydro turbines in it. Water fills up and empties the man-made lagoon as the tides rise and fall. We generate electricity on both the incoming and outgoing tides, four times a day, every day.
• Due to the incredible tides on the West Coast of Britain, by keeping the turbine gates shut for just three hours, there is already a 14ft height difference in water between the inside and the outside of the lagoon. Power is then generated as the water rushes through 200ft long draft tubes, rotating the 23ft diameter hydro turbines.
• The project was awarded a Development Consent Order in 2015 and is primed for construction. It will comprise 16 hydro turbines, a six mile breakwater wall, generating electricity for 155,000 homes for the next 120 years. Its major delivery partners include Atkins, General Electric, Andritz Hydro, Laing O’Rourke and Alun Griffiths Ltd.”
For more information please visit the following link:
http://www.tidallagoonpower.com/projects/swansea-bay/

Swansea Sky viewed at the backyard of John’s sister house, October 6, 2017
I am always longing for the Swansea Sky. It changes so fast from one color to the other or dark to light. My favorite sky is light pink to red orange which appears in the evening when the sun sets showing her appearance before leaving us to the night sky. This takes place around 6-7 pm. I was lucky to see it again on Friday, October 6, 2017. I viewed this beautiful red orange sky at the backyard of John’s sister house.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, October 8, 2017

The view at the backyard of John’s sister house, October 6, 2017

Swansea Bay on Thursday, October 5, 2017
Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

On Thursday, October 5, 2017 about 4-5 pm in the evening, I walked along the seashore to the house. Swansea Library is located by the Swansea shore, and John’s sister house is about 10 minutes’ walk. I was very lucky to see the silver shimmering water on the shore by the evening sun, which was hovering over with the bright white rays shining on the water.
It was very difficult to see the camera screen, with the bright light shining on my camcorder. I only hope that I would get some nice shots.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, October 8, 2017

“Swansea Bay (Welsh: Bae Abertawe) is a bay on the Bristol Channel on the southern coast of Wales. Places on the bay include Swansea and Port Talbot. The River Neath, River Tawe, River Afan, River Kenfig and Clyne River flow into the bay.
Swansea Bay (and upper reaches of the Bristol Channel) experience a large tidal range. The shipping ports in Swansea Bay are Swansea Docks, Port Talbot Docks and Briton Ferry wharfs.
Oyster fishing was once an important industry in Swansea Bay, employing 600 people at its height in the 1860s. However, overfishing, disease and pollution had all but wiped out the oyster population by 1920. In 2005 plans were announced to reintroduce the Oyster farming industry.[1]”
Beaches[edit]
The bay is lined with sandy beaches. Each stretch of beach within the bay has its own individual name:
• Aberavon Beach
• Baglan Bay
• Jersey Marine Beach
• Swansea Beach
• Mumbles Beach

For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

Swansea Bay on Thursday, October 5, 2017
Swansea Bay, Pollution: For the last two decades of the 20th century, the bay was blighted by pollution, partly from the surrounding heavy industry and partly from sewerage outlets being sited at inappropriate locations including the main one that was located just seaward of Mumbles Lighthouse. A pumping station inside the cliff adjacent to Knab Rock brought all of Swansea city’s effluent in a raw form to this point. Adding to the problem was the natural current flow of the waters in the Bay which often did not move the polluted waters further out to sea. Ironically, the outgoing tide did not carry the raw sewage down the adjacent Bristol Channel, but instead cause it to be sucked inaround the circumference of the Bay and only then out down the Channel. If not fully discharged on that tide, the incoming tide would then push the same effluent up the Channel, and once again circulate around the Bay. Efforts were made by the local authority to reduce the pollution in the Bay but care had to be taken to ensure the pollution did not move to the popular beach resorts in south Gower instead.
This original sewer outlet was finally made inactive in around 1996 following the construction of a brand new pipeline which ran all the way back around the Bay following the line of the old Mumbles Railway as far as Beach Street, along the sea-side of the Maritime Quarter and through Swansea Docks to a new £90 million sewage treatment plant at Crymlyn Burrows near Port Tennant from which a new outlet was made, extending further out to sea. As a consequence of the huge improvement these works have made, it is hoped that Swansea Bay will achieve Blue Flag Beach status. Aberavon beach was awarded Blue Flag status in December 2007.[2]”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

Swansea Bay on Thursday, October 5, 2017
“Swansea Bay, Power generation, Fossil: There is one existing GE built gas-fired power station located just inland at Baglan Bay. A second gas fired power station, the “Abernedd Power Station” has been approved for construction.[3]
Biomass plans[edit]
A new biomass power station has been approved for construction near the coast at Port Talbot.[4]
Tidal plans[edit]
Main article: Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay
Swansea Bay (along with the rest of the Bristol Channel) has one of the highest tidal ranges in the world. This offers a potential for electricity generation using tidal lagoons. A proposal has been put forward by Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay Ltd. for a tidal lagoon to be constructed.[5] The tidal lagoon would be sited just south of the Queen’s Dock between River Tawe and River Neath estuaries. This project is controversial, partly due to the amount of subsidy required to make the project viable and also because of the potential damage to an AONB and MCZ in Cornwall where Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay seek to re-open a disused quarry at Dean Point from which to source the rock for the lagoon.[6][7][8]”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

Swansea Bay on Thursday, October 9, 2017
Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts
“Swansea Bay: Wind plans
In addition to tidal power, construction of an offshore windfarm in the Bay has been approved,[9] but construction has now been deferred owing to the costs involved. The windfarm was to have been sited at Scarweather Sands, about 5 km (3 mi) off the coast and visible from Porthcawl.”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

Swansea Bay and the Full Moon, Tuesday, October 3, 2017
Ing’s Poem on the Killing in Las Vegas, USA
Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

 A delicate full moon
Appear in the grey Swansea Bay Sky
To say
“Hello World!”
“How are you?”
Sad news from America
They love their guns more than their lives
I will keep watching you
I hope one day
All of you will look at me
With happiness in a peaceful world

My sadness goes out to all the people who perished and who were wounded.

“Wake up America!!!!!!!”

The British Countryside
My husband’s beloved country, Wales, United Kingdom
Ing & John Travel to Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom

Fortunately, we had our computers, so John was working on rewriting his play. I was checking on the photographs that I took from Newark to Swansea. I selected them for posting on Google+ and my website after I was able to connect to the internet. But meanwhile John went to the Swansea Library computer section to get information on “Renewable energy in the United Kingdom” a few days ago before he got sick. I enjoyed reading the history of old and new technology development in Britain. I thought we should learn from British science technology. A lot of important scientists came from this country. So many Scientists all over the world have contributed to the benefit of mankind. We should share the knowledge with each other to develop a better world rather than create wars fighting among countries or fighting in your own country among each other. Can you imagine what our world would be like? We could instead concentrate on fighting a common enemy, the little germs that cause our sickness.
On Thursday and Friday, the weather turned nice with sunshine. We both went to the backyard baking in the sun for a little while.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, October 7, 2017
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_United_Kingdom

The British Countryside

Unfortunately, starting from the first day, September 26, when we arrived in our Swansea house, I got sick with a very bad cold. On Friday, September 29 John took me to Singleton Hospital. We waited for a while for an available Doctor to attend to me. She checked my ears, lungs and throat and said no chest congestion. She wrote a prescription for me. John went to the receptionist asking for the hospital charge. The receptionist said “No charge.” This will never happen in USA. I am very thankful to the British system and how they care for their people. Before John’s mother and sister passed away they had a lot of care, the nurses come to their house to care for them. Both of them had to be taken care of hospital for an extended period. All the care they had with zero charge.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, October 6, 2017

 

The British Countryside

John had to work hard, shopping for food and taking care of me, in return I gave him my cold. John had a symptom of cold on Saturday, September 30, and getting worse on Sunday. Looking outside by the kitchen bay window, the sky was cloudy with drizzly rain, and was damp and cold. The weather had been like this most of this first week we were here. We could not go anywhere anyway, so it was a good time to be sick and have a warm cup of tea in the comfort of bed at home.
 
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, October 6, 2017

The British Countryside

Fortunately, we had our computers, so John was working on rewriting his play. I was checking on the photographs that I took from Newark to Swansea. I selected them for posting on Google+ and my website after I was able to connect to the internet. But meanwhile John went to the Swansea Library computer section to get information on “Renewable energy in the United Kingdom
On Thursday and Friday, the weather turned nice with sunshine. We both went to the backyard baking in the sun for a little while.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, October 7, 2017
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_United_Kingdom

 

The British Countryside
My husband’s beloved country, Wales, United Kingdom

I love the British neat and clean countryside. Nice tall trees and shrubs along the way of the bus ride to Swansea. I spotted some large area of farmland filled with solar panels. When I saw them a second time I asked John, “What are they?” He said it is a “Solar Farm”. When I saw them again I could not get the photograph because the bus went passed too quickly. I am very interested in new technologies. I appreciate that our Google+ community has a lot of technology information including Street Art, scenery and other things.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, October 6, 2017

Ocean power

Due to the island location of the UK, the country has great potential for generating electricity from wave power and tidal power.
To date, wave and tidal power have received very little money for development and consequently have not yet been exploited on a significant commercial basis due to doubts over their economic viability in the UK.[33] The European Marine Energy Centre in Orkney operates a grid connected wave power scheme at Billia Croo outside Stromness and a grid connected tidal test side in a narrow channel between the Westray Firth and Stronsay Firth.[34]
Funding for the UK’s first wave farm was announced by then Scottish Executive in February 2007. It will be the world’s largest, with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines and a cost of over 4 million pounds.[35] In the south of Scotland,investigations have taken place into a Tidal Power scheme involving the construction of a Solway Barage, possibly located south of Annan.
A Wave farm project to harness Wave power, using the PB150 PowerBuoy has been completed by Ocean Power Technologiesin Scotland and is under development off Cornwall at Wave Hub.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_United_Kingdom

 

The British Countryside

From the mid-1990s renewable energy began to contribute to the electricity generated in the United Kingdom, adding to a small hydroelectricity generating capacity. The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for 14.9% of the electricity generated in the United Kingdom in 2013,[3] reaching 53.7 TWh of electricity generated. In the second quarter of 2015, renewable electricity generation exceeded 25% and coal generation for the first time.[4]
Renewable energy contributions to meeting the UK’s 15% target reduction in total energy consumption by 2020, in accordance with the 2009 EU Renewable Directive, totalled 5.2% in 2013 as measured in accordance with the methodology set out in the Directive.[3] By 2016 provisional calculations show that the figure had risen again to 8.3 per cent of energy consumption (all sources) coming from renewable sources in 2015.[5]
Interest in renewable energy in the UK has increased in recent years due to new UK and EU targets for reductions in carbon emissions and the promotion of renewable electricity power generation through commercial incentives such as the Renewable Obligation Certificate scheme (ROCs) and Feed in tariffs (FITs) and the promotion of renewable heat through the Renewable Heat Incentive. Historically hydroelectric schemes were the largest producers of renewable electricity in the UK, but these have now been surpassed by wind power schemes, for which the UK has large potential resources.
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_United_Kingdom

Swansea Castle on Thursday, October 9, 2017
Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts
“Swansea Castle (Welsh: Castell Abertawe) is located in the city centre of Swansea, Wales, UK. It was founded by Henry de Beaumont in 1107[1] as the caput of the lordship of Gower. The castle is now ruined and only two blocks remain, though the site has been improved in the 2010s for use as a public space.”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Castle

 

Swansea Castle
Henry de Beaumont was granted the Lordship of Gower in 1106 and he began to solidify the control of the Normans in the area.[4] A timber castle existed in Swansea in 1116, when it was recorded as being attacked by Welsh forces who destroyed the outer defences.[4]
The original castle seems to have been a sub-rectangular/oval enclosure overlooking the River Tawe on the east, surrounded on the north, west and south sides by a larger sub-rectangular outer bailey. The inner bailey probably contained a motte but the other view is that it was a ring work.[5] The motte (or ring work) was 52 metres (171 ft) in diameter (only second in size to Cardiff Castle) and survived to the early 20th century.

The castle was besieged in 1192 by Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth. Despite 10 weeks of starvation the castle was saved.[4]
After various other unsuccessful attacks the castle fell in 1217 but was restored to the English in 1220 as part of the settlement between Llywelyn ap Iorwerth and Henry III of England.

Swansea Castle
The castle was rebuilt in stone, probably between 1221 and 1284 (described now as the “New Castle”),[3] firstly the inner castle with at least one tower, finally the large outer bailey.
The only visible remains today, two sides of the rectangular South East corner of the “new castle”‘s outer bailey, were built in the late 13th or early 14th century. The south face (which ends in a tall garderobe tower) is capped with an elegant series of arcades at the wall-head, which are similar to structures at the Bishop of Saint David’s palaces at Lamphey and St David’s.

Swansea Castle
14th to 19th centuries
By the 14th century the castle was losing its military importance. Alina de Mowbray ruled the Gower until 1331 when her son John de Mowbray took over as Lord of Gower.[7] He was probably responsible for adding the arcaded parapet walk to the castle.[7]
Despite the Welsh rebellion led by Owain Glyndwr, which saw a number of English castles attacked in the early years of the 1400s, it is not known whether Swansea fell to these forces. Swansea Castle’s account books only record that two men were sent north to gather intelligence on Glyndwr’s activities.[8]

Swansea Castle
14th to 19th centuries
The castle owners were subsequently absentee landlords. By 1650 the castle was described as “a decayed Buildinge”.[9] By the 1670s the square tower was being used as a bottle factory and, in 1700, a town hall was built in the castle courtyard. By the mid 1700s the Great Hall had become Swansea’s workhouse.[9] The town hall was replaced by a post office in the 1800s and, by 1850, a military Drill Room had replaced the workhouse. The River Tawe, which had flowed near to the castle, was straightened and diverted during the 1840s.[2]

Swansea Castle
20th and 21st centuries
Part of the interior of the castle, in particular the large motte, was demolished 1909-13[10] for the construction of a newspaper office. In the very early 1930s, poet Dylan Thomas worked for the South Wales Daily Post at the castle site.[11] The newspaper offices were removed in 1976[11] and the remains of the castle were later consolidated and opened up to view from the street.
As a Scheduled Ancient Monument, it was given a Grade I heritage listing in 1952.[12]
The castle were fenced off and only opened to the public on rare occasions, most recently for public tours in 2012 to coincide with St Davids Day.[13] In the early 2010s a project was launched, funded by the European Regional Development Fund and Welsh Government, to open up the castle to the public on a more permanent basis with a stone paved courtyard and information panels. Demountable stairs were planned, to access the upper floors. The intention was to have public tours, events such as markets and for the castle to feature as part of a Swansea castle trail.[14]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Castle

 

Swansea Castle
When I saw people climb up the castle wall I thought it was a climbing sport activity. I asked John “Do they climb up the castle wall for sport? John said “They are doing repair work and getting rid of the weeds that growing on top of the castle wall.” It was a lucky moment to see people working on the castle.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Thursday, October 12, 2017

The Informational Poster in front of Swansea Castle, Swansea, Wales, UK
Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts
“History: The first castles
Henry de Beaumont was granted the Lordship of Gower in 1106 and he began to solidify the control of the Normans in the area.[4] A timber castle existed in Swansea in 1116, when it was recorded as being attacked by Welsh forces who destroyed the outer defences.[4]
The original castle seems to have been a sub-rectangular/oval enclosure overlooking the River Tawe on the east, surrounded on the north, west and south sides by a larger sub-rectangular outer bailey. The inner bailey probably contained a motte but the other view is that it was a ring work.[5] The motte (or ring work) was 52 metres (171 ft) in diameter (only second in size to Cardiff Castle) and survived to the early 20th century.[6]
The castle was besieged in 1192 by Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth. Despite 10 weeks of starvation the castle was saved.[4]
After various other unsuccessful attacks the castle fell in 1217 but was restored to the English in 1220 as part of the settlement between Llywelyn ap Iorwerth and Henry III of England.
The castle was rebuilt in stone, probably between 1221 and 1284 (described now as the “New Castle”),[3] firstly the inner castle with at least one tower, finally the large outer bailey.
The only visible remains today, two sides of the rectangular South East corner of the “new castle”‘s outer bailey, were built in the late 13th or early 14th century. The south face (which ends in a tall garderobe tower) is capped with an elegant series of arcades at the wall-head, which are similar to structures at the Bishop of Saint David’s palaces at Lamphey and St David’s.”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Castle

 

A group of young people gathering at Swansea Center, Swansea, Wales, UK

“Swansea city centre in Swansea, Wales, contains the main shopping, leisure and nightlife district in Swansea. The city centre covers much of the Castle ward including the area around Oxford Street, Castle Square, and the Quadrant Shopping Centre; Alexandra Road, High Street, Wind Street and the Castle; Parc Tawe; and the Maritime Quarter extending down to the seafront.[1]”
For more information please visit the following link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_City_Centre

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