NASA, BBC News, Veritasium, Live Science, and Ocean Action News

NASA, BBC News, Veritasium, Live Science, and Ocean Action News

May 15-16, 2022 Total Lunar Eclipse: Shadow View

Visualizations by Ernie Wright Released on March 24, 2022

Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). The Moon moves right to left, passing through the penumbra and umbra, leaving in its wake an eclipse diagram with the times at various stages of the eclipse.

Both movies and high-resolution still images are available for Eastern (above), CentralMountain, and Pacific Daylight Time, as well as UTC. Also see the visibility map and Dial-a-Moon for this eclipse.

On May 16, 2022 (the night of May 15 in the Western Hemisphere), the Moon enters the Earth’s shadow, creating a total lunar eclipse, the first since May of 2021. This animation shows the changing appearance of the Moon as it travels into and out of the Earth’s shadow, along with times at various stages.

The penumbra is the part of the Earth’s shadow where the Sun is only partially covered by the Earth. The umbra is where the Sun is completely hidden. The Moon’s appearance isn’t affected much by the penumbra. The real action begins when the Moon starts to disappear as it enters the umbra at about 10:28 p.m. EDT on the 15th. An hour later, entirely within the umbra, the Moon is a ghostly copper color. Totality lasts for an hour and a half before the Moon begins to emerge from the central shadow. Throughout the eclipse, the Moon is moving throught the constellation Libra.

For more information, please following the link:

May 15-16, 2022 Total Lunar Eclipse: Telescopic View

Visualizations by Ernie Wright Released on March 24, 2022

Time Monday, May 16, 2022, 04:11:30 UTC
Eclipse 100.0%
Diameter 1979.2 arcseconds
Distance 362131 km (28.39 Earth diameters)
J2000 Right Ascension, Declination 15h 30m 12s, 19° 15′ 08″S
Sublunar Latitude, Longitude 19.328°S 63.865°W

Also see the shadow diagram and visibility map for this eclipse.

The total lunar eclipse of May 16, 2022 (the night of May 15 in the Western Hemisphere) occurs near perigee, making the Moon appear about 7% larger than average. This eclipse is ideally timed for viewing from most of the Western Hemisphere, including the Lower 48 of the United States. The total phase occurs near moonset in Africa and western Europe.

The sublunar point, the last line of the table above, is the point on the Earth’s surface where the Moon is directly overhead. It’s also the center of the hemisphere of the Earth where the eclipse is visible. The closer you are to that location, the higher the Moon will be in your sky. The eclipse percentage in the table is the fraction of the Moon covered by the Earth’s umbra, the part of its shadow in which the Sun is completely blocked. The part of the shadow in which the Sun is only partially blocked is called the penumbra.

The animations on this page run from 1:00:00 to 7:29:50 UTC, which is also the valid range of times for this Dial-a-Moon. The exposure setting of the virtual camera changes around totality in order to capture the wide dynamic range of the eclipse. The parts of the Moon outside the umbra during the partial phases are almost as bright as an ordinary full moon, making the obstructed parts appear nearly black. But during totality, our eyes adjust and reveal a range of hues painted on the Moon by all of Earth’s sunrises and sunsets.

All phases of a lunar eclipse are safe to view, both with your naked eye and an unfiltered telescope.

For more information, please following the link:

Solar Eclipse Diagram

When the moon passes directly between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse takes place. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.)

Partial Lunar Eclipse

When only a part of the moon enters Earth’s shadow, the event is called a partial lunar eclipse. Image Credit: Brad Riza

Total Lunar Eclipse

A total lunar eclipse happens when the whole moon enters Earth’s shadow. Some sunlight still reaches the moon, but first it goes through Earth’s atmosphere. The atmosphere filters out most of the sun’s blue light, so the moon looks red.

In this time-lapsed image, the moon changes color as it moves through Earth’s shadow. Image Credit: Fred Espenak

Solar Eclipse Diagram

When the moon passes directly between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse takes place. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.)

Partial Solar Eclipse

A partial solar eclipse takes place when the sun, moon and Earth are not exactly lined up. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.)

May 12, 2022

Total Solar Eclipse

For a total eclipse to take place, the sun, moon and Earth must be in a direct line. During a total solar eclipse, the moon blocks the sun’s glare, making the sun’s corona more visible. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.) Image Credit: Steve Albers, Dennis DiCicco and Gary Emerson

Annular Eclipse

An annular eclipse happens when the moon is farthest from Earth. Because the moon is farther away from Earth, it seems smaller and does not block the entire view of the sun. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.) Image Credit: Stefan Seip

Moon’s Shadow on Earth During Solar Eclipse

During a solar eclipse, the moon casts a large shadow onto Earth’s surface. Image Credit: Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES)

Diagram of Umbra and Penumbra

During an eclipse, two shadows are cast. The first is called the umbra (UM bruh). This shadow gets smaller as it goes away from the sun. It is the dark center of the eclipse shadow. The second shadow is called the penumbra (pe NUM bruh). The penumbra gets larger as it goes away from the sun.

For more information, please following the link:

Watch a Total Lunar Eclipse (NASA Science Live)

Streamed live 2 hours ago, 5.16.2022  NASA

Go outside with NASA and watch the total lunar eclipse! On the evening of May 15, Earth will pass between the Sun and the Moon, blocking sunlight and casting a shadow on the lunar surface. Starting at 9:32 p.m. EDT (1:32 UTC on May 16), people with clear skies in the Americas, Europe, and parts of Africa will begin to see the Moon get bathed in the red glow of every sunrise and sunset refracted through Earth’s atmosphere. Totality will occur at 12:12 a.m. EDT on May 16 (4:12 UTC). Join NASA experts to learn about this incredible natural phenomenon, look through telescope views across the world, and hear about plans to return humans to the lunar surface with the Artemis program. Have questions? Ask them in our live chat.

AXiOS AM & PM: Mike Allen <> May 16, 2022


  1. 1,000 words

Photo: Ringo H.W. Chiu/AP

This combination of photos shows the moon in various stages of a total lunar eclipse during last night’s first blood moon of the year, as seen from Temple City, Calif.

  • The moon was bathedin reflected red and orange hues of Earth’s sunsets and sunrises for about 90 minutes — one of the longest totalities of the decade.

NASA YouTube.

  1. Parting shot – AXIOS 5.16.2022 PM

Photo: Ted S. Warren/AP

These photos show the Moon last night during a full lunar eclipse (upper left) … and at various stages as it emerges from Earth’s shadow — as seen near Moscow, Idaho.

The orange results from the Moon passing into Earth’s shadow.

Earth from Orbit: NOAA Debuts First Imagery from GOES-18

On May 11, 2022, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, shared the first images of the Western Hemisphere from its Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-T (GOES-T). Later designated GOES-18, the satellite’s Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument recently captured stunning views of Earth.

Launched by NASA on March 1, GOES-18 lifted off at 4:38 p.m. EST from Cape Canaveral Space Force Station’s Space Launch Complex 41 in Florida. The ABI views Earth with 16 different channels, each measuring energy at different wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum to obtain information about Earth’s atmosphere, land, and ocean.

Learn more: GOES Overview and History

Image Credit: NOAA

Last Updated: May 12, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Earth, Image of the Day

May 4, 2022

A Sunrise Across Our World


The crew aboard the International Space Station has a window on Planet Earth. In this image an orbital sunrise beams across Earth’s horizon revealing silhouetted clouds above the South China Sea.

Every 24 hours, the space station makes 16 orbits of Earth, traveling through 16 sunrises and sunsets.

Learn More
International Space Station Facts and Figures


Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Apr 22, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  EarthImage of the Day

Apr 21, 2022

Astronaut Victor Glover: Inspiring Washington Area Students

NASA astronaut Victor Glover fist pumps with 3-year-old Ezra Garrel at the conclusion of an educational event, Thursday, April 28, 2022, at the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington. Glover most recently served as pilot and second-in-command on the Crew-1 SpaceX Crew Dragon, named Resilience, which landed after a long duration mission aboard the International Space Station, May 2, 2021. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

NASA astronaut Victor Glover greets one of his youngest fans, 3-year-old Ezra Garrel, with a fist bump at the conclusion of an educational event for students in the Washington, DC area, Thursday, April 28, 2022, at the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington. Glover most recently served as pilot and second-in-command on the Crew-1 SpaceX Crew Dragon, named Resilience. The long-duration mission aboard the International Space Station returned to Earth on May 2, 2021.

Image Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

Last Updated: Apr 29, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Apr 26, 2022

Tags:  Humans in Space, Image of the Day


An Angel Wing in Space

Two merging galaxies in the VV689 system — nicknamed the Angel Wing —feature in this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In this view, the focus is placed on the system itself, allowing a closer look at it’s unique morphology.

This Hubble Space Telescope image features two merging galaxies in the VV-689 system, nicknamed the Angel Wing. Unlike chance alignments of galaxies, which only appear to overlap when viewed from our vantage point on Earth, the two galaxies in VV-689 are in the midst of a collision. The galactic interaction has left the VV-689 system almost completely symmetrical, giving the impression of a vast set of galactic wings.

“Zoo Gems,” interesting galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project is a crowdsourced program and relies on hundreds of thousands of volunteers to classify galaxies and help astronomers wade through a deluge of data from robotic telescopes. In the process, volunteers discovered a gallery of weird and wonderful galaxy types, some not previously studied. A similar, project called Radio Galaxy Zoo: LOFAR is using the same crowdsourcing approach to locate supermassive black holes in distant galaxies.

Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, W. Keel; Acknowledgment: J. Schmidt
Text Credit: ESA

Last Updated: Apr 26, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Galaxies, Image of the Day

Happy 32nd Birthday to Hubble!

We’re celebrating the Hubble Space Telescope‘s 32nd birthday with a stunning look at an unusual close-knit collection of five galaxies, called The Hickson Compact Group 40.

This eclectic galaxy grouping includes three spiral-shaped galaxies, an elliptical galaxy, and a lenticular (lens-like) galaxy. Somehow, these different galaxies crossed paths in their evolution to create an exceptionally crowded and eclectic galaxy sampler.

Hubble’s 32nd Anniversary: An Eclectic Galaxy Grouping (video)

Image Credit: NASA, ESA, STScI; Image Processing: Alyssa Pagan (STScI)

Last Updated: Apr 21, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Galaxies, Image of the Day

Black Holes Are Hard to Find

Black holes are hard to find. They have such strong gravity that light can’t escape them, so scientists must rely on clues from their surroundings to find them.

When a star weighing more than 20 times the Sun runs out of fuel, it collapses into a black hole. Scientists estimate that there are tens of millions of these black holes dotted around the Milky Way, but so far we’ve only identified a few dozen.

This image from 2001 is an artist’s impression of a black hole accretion disk. Around many black holes is an accretion disk of material emitting energy as it falls into the black hole.

Learn more about black holes.

Image Credit: XMM-Newton, ESA, NASA

Last Updated: May 4, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Black Holes, Image of the Day

Apr 29, 2022

Black Hole Image Makes History; NASA Telescopes Coordinated Observations

A black hole and its shadow have been captured in an image for the first time, a historic feat by an international network of radio telescopes called the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). EHT is an international collaboration whose support in the U.S. includes the National Science Foundation.

Using the Event Horizon Telescope, scientists obtained an image of the black hole at the center of galaxy M87, outlined by emission from hot gas swirling around it under the influence of strong gravity near its event horizon.

Credits: Event Horizon Telescope collaboration et al.

A black hole is an extremely dense object from which no light can escape. Anything that comes within a black hole’s “event horizon,” its point of no return, will be consumed, never to re-emerge, because of the black hole’s unimaginably strong gravity. By its very nature, a black hole cannot be seen, but the hot disk of material that encircles it shines bright. Against a bright backdrop, such as this disk, a black hole appears to cast a shadow.   

The stunning new image shows the shadow of the supermassive black hole in the center of Messier 87 (M87), an elliptical galaxy some 55 million light-years from Earth. This black hole is 6.5 billion times the mass of the Sun. Catching its shadow involved eight ground-based radio telescopes around the globe, operating together as if they were one telescope the size of our entire planet. 

“This is an amazing accomplishment by the EHT team,” said Paul Hertz, director of the astrophysics division at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Years ago, we thought we would have to build a very large space telescope to image a black hole. By getting radio telescopes around the world to work in concert like one instrument, the EHT team achieved this, decades ahead of time.”

To complement the EHT findings, several NASA spacecraft were part of a large effort, coordinated by the EHT’s Multiwavelength Working Group, to observe the black hole using different wavelengths of light. As part of this effort, NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory space telescope missions, all attuned to different varieties of X-ray light, turned their gaze to the M87 black hole around the same time as the EHT in April 2017. NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was also watching for changes in gamma-ray light from M87 during the EHT observations. If EHT observed changes in the structure of the black hole’s environment, data from these missions and other telescopes could be used to help figure out what was going on. 

Chandra X-ray Observatory close-up of the core of the M87 galaxy.

Credits: NASA/CXC/Villanova University/J. Neilsen

While NASA observations did not directly trace out the historic image, astronomers used data from NASA’s Chandra and NuSTAR satellites to measure the X-ray brightness of M87’s jet. Scientists used this information to compare their models of the jet and disk around the black hole with the EHT observations. Other insights may come as researchers continue to pore over these data. 

There are many remaining questions about black holes that the coordinated NASA observations may help answer. Mysteries linger about why particles get such a huge energy boost around black holes, forming dramatic jets that surge away from the poles of black holes at nearly the speed of light. When material falls into the black hole, where does the energy go? 

“X-rays help us connect what’s happening to the particles near the event horizon with what we can measure with our telescopes,” said Joey Neilsen, an astronomer at Villanova University in Pennsylvania, who led the Chandra and NuSTAR analysis on behalf of the EHT’s Multiwavelength Working Group. 

Chandra X-ray Observatory close-up of the core of the M87 galaxy.

Credits: NASA/CXC/Villanova University/J. Neilsen

NASA space telescopes have previously studied a jet extending more than 1,000 light-years away from the center of M87. The jet is made of particles traveling near the speed of light, shooting out at high energies from close to the event horizon. The EHT was designed in part to study the origin of this jet and others like it. A blob of matter in the jet called HST-1, discovered by Hubble astronomers in 1999, has undergone a mysterious cycle of brightening and dimming.

Chandra, NuSTAR, Swift and Fermi, as well as NASA’s Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) experiment on the International Space Station, also looked at the black hole at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy, called Sagittarius A*, in coordination with EHT.   

Getting so many different telescopes on the ground and in space to all look toward the same celestial object is a huge undertaking in and of itself, scientists emphasize. 

“Scheduling all of these coordinated observations was a really hard problem for both the EHT and the Chandra and NuSTAR mission planners,” Neilsen said. “They did really incredible work to get us the data that we have, and we’re exceedingly grateful.”

Neilsen and colleagues who were part of the coordinated observations will be working on dissecting the entire spectrum of light coming from the M87 black hole, all the way from low-energy radio waves to high-energy gamma rays. With so much data from EHT and other telescopes, scientists may have years of discoveries ahead. 

Elizabeth Landau
NASA Headquarters, Washington

Last Updated: May 8, 2019

Editor: Sarah Loff

Tags:  Black Holes, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array)Universe

For more information, please following the link:

AXIOS – 5.12. 2022

4.  Parting shot: Our own black hole
The first image of Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Source: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

Astronomers have captured the first image of the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Axios Science author Alison Snyder reports.

Why it matters: The “historic breakthrough” offers an unprecedented look at the extreme object driving the evolution of our galaxy.

·  Astronomers imaged Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) using the Event Horizon Telescope.

Most galaxies are thought to have a supermassive black hole at their center.

·  The false orange-yellow color in the image is the silhouette of the black hole created by matter teetering on its edge, or event horizon.

·  Light can’t escape a black hole, but hot plasma swirling around it emits short radio waves that radio telescopes can pick up. In the image, the gas silhouettes the black hole itself.


1st image of our galaxy’s ‘black hole heart’ unveiled

(ESO/José Francisco Salgado (, EHT Collaboration)

Astronomers have captured the first ever image of the colossal black hole at the center of our galaxy, providing the first direct evidence of the cosmic giant’s existence.

Located 26,000 light-years away, Sagittarius A* is a gargantuan tear in space-time that is four million times the mass of our sun and 40 million miles (60 million kilometers) across. The image was captured by the Event Horizon telescope (EHT), a network of eight synchronized radio telescopes placed in various locations around the world.

Full Story: Live Science (5/12)

BBC is a British public broadcast service.



Supermassive black hole in Milky Way pictured for first time – BBC News – 5:53

May 12, 2022  BBC News

A supermassive black hole that lives at the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way, has been pictured for the very first time. Known as Sagittarius A*, the object is a staggering four-million times the mass of our Sun. For scale, the ring is roughly the size of Mercury’s orbit around our star. Fortunately, this monster is a long, long way away – some 26,000 light-years in the distance – so there’s no possibility of us ever coming to any danger. The BBC’s Science correspondent Pallab Ghosh reports. Please subscribe HERE #BBCNews

A Picture of the Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole

May 12, 2022  Veritasium

This is an image of the supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. Visit to get 30% off your first month of any crate! ??? Image of Sgr A* from EHT collaboration Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: Animations from The Relativistic Astrophysics group, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. Massive thanks to Prof. Luciano Rezzolla, Dr Christian Fromm and Dr Alejandro Cruz-Osorio. A huge thanks to Prof. Peter Tuthill and Dr Manisha Caleb for feedback on earlier versions of this video and helping explain VLBI. Great video by Thatcher Chamberlin about VLBI here – Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Video of stars going around Sgr A* from European Southern Observatory… Video zooming into the center of our galaxy from European Southern Observatory… Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) ??? Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Inconcision, Kelly Snook, TTST, Ross McCawley, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr.,, Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal ??? Written by Derek Muller Animation by Ivy Tello, Mike Radjabov, Maria Raykova Filmed by Petr Lebedev


Why do microwaves cook food so much faster than ovens do?

(FG Trade via Getty Images)

You might love charred, broiled sirloin; crisp, oven-roasted veggies; or flaky, baked salmon, all of which generally require an oven. But when you are in a hurry or famished, you may turn to a faster cooking method, the hallmark of culinary convenience: the microwave.

The microwave has made it possible to nourish ourselves with cooked food in a matter of seconds. But how, exactly, does it work so much quicker than an oven?

Full Story: Live Science (5/2)


Black Moon solar eclipse looks otherworldly in stunning images


A rare solar eclipse Saturday (April 30) stunned viewers across Antarctica, the southern tip of South America, and the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

While much of the event took place in remote areas, live cameras on Earth and satellites in space allowed people around the world to witness the moon blocking as much as 64% of the sun. The eclipse happened during a Black Moon, which is the second new moon in a single month.

Full Story: Live Science (5/1)

Scientists discover bizarre ‘worm-like’ aurora stretching halfway across Mars

(Emirates Mars Mission)

On clear Martian nights, long, snake-like ribbons of light may streak through the sky for thousands of miles. It’s a pretty sight, according to new observations from the United Arab Emirates Mars Mission (EMM) — and it represents a strange new type of aurora never seen before on any planet.

Auroras — also known on Earth as the southern or northern lights — occur when charged particles from solar wind collide with molecules in a planet’s atmosphere. Several different types of auroras have been detected on Mars, including planet-wide “diffuse auroras,” which glow faintly through the entire Martian sky during intense solar storms, as well as patchy “discrete auroras,” which only glow above certain spots of Martian crust thought to contain magnetized minerals, according to EMM.

This new type of aurora — which EMM researchers dubbed a “sinuous discrete aurora” — seems to be a strange mishmash of the others, the researchers said.

Full Story: Live Science (5/5)


Earliest documented aurora found in ancient Chinese text

(Elena Pueyo via Getty Images)

The earliest documented case of an aurora, the fleeting but brilliantly colored lights that sometimes illuminate the night sky, dates to the early 10th century B.C., a new study on an ancient Chinese text reveals.

The text describes “five-colored light” witnessed in the northern part of the night sky toward the end of the reign of King Zh?o, the fourth king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty. The exact dates of Zh?o’s reign aren’t known, but it’s likely that this “five-colored light” event happened in either 977 B.C. or 957 B.C., according to the study.

Full Story: Live Science (4/25)


World’s oldest person dies in Japan at age 119

(Guinness World Records)

Kane Tanaka of Japan, who was the world’s oldest living person, has died at age 119, according to news reports.

Tanaka was born on Jan. 2, 1903 and died on April 19, according to CNN.

According to Guinness World Records, Tanaka became the world’s oldest living person on Jan. 30, 2019 at 116 years and 28 days old. She held the title for three years, until her death last week.

Full Story: Live Science (4/26)

Ocean Action News

MAY 2022

Celebrating Mothers

With the month of May comes Mother’s Day, a special time to celebrate all the wonderful moms out there. Did you know our ocean has some stand-out moms, too? Dive in with us and take a look at some of the hardest working moms in the sea.

Rose, Rhododendron, and John’s Sculpture in our garden, Spring May 2022

I enjoy studying and reading about technology, realizing that many thousands of educated people around the world are busy working on different kinds of experiments and research to advance their projects.  This in return, will help human kind to progress, and hopefully, we will be able to appreciate one another and keep us together as a human race. 

Hopefully, we will be able to live together without wars all over the world, and be able to focus our attention to prevent global warming.

We may then realize that we are the care-takers keeping the world healthy for ourselves, younger generations, and all creatures on earth that cohabitant with us on this planet.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, May 21, 2022, 9:45 PM

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Live Science, TED-Climate Solutions, and PBS News-Worst Drought in 1,200 years

Live Science, TED-Climate Solutions, and PBS News-Worst Drought in 1,200 years


A third person has been cured of HIV, scientists report


A woman became the third person ever to be cured of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, after she received a stem-cell transplant that used cells from umbilical cord blood, scientists reported Tuesday (Feb. 15).

The two other people cured of HIV, Timothy Brown and Adam Castillejo, both received bone marrow transplants from donors who carried a genetic mutation that blocks HIV infection, Live Science previously reported. These transplants contained adult hematopoietic stem cells, which are stem cells that develop into all types of blood cells, including white blood cells, a key component of the immune system.

Full Story: Live Science (2/18)


 Mount Etna is erupting and astronauts are watching it from space

(Matthias Maurer/ESA)

The majestic Mount Etna is erupting so strongly in the Mediterranean that it’s catching the attention of the International Space Station crew.

Members of Expedition 66 currently in orbit shared some views of space of the highly active volcano, which has erupted dozens of times in the past year alone.

“@astro_luca’s home volcano #Etna is clearly smoking (and spitting lava as I learnt from the news) ,” wrote European Space Agency astronaut Matthias Maurer on Saturday (Feb. 12), referring to fellow ESA spaceflyer Luca Parmitano, who is from Italy.

Full Story: Live Science (2/18)


A newborn died of Lassa fever in the UK, two other family members ill

(CDC/C.S. Goldsmith)

A newborn baby in the U.K. died last week of Lassa fever — an acute viral illness that is endemic in parts of West Africa. Because the disease doesn’t spread easily, however, the chances of a wider outbreak are low, health authorities said.

The infant was one of three confirmed cases of the virus in the U.K.; all of the infected were members of the same family, and they had recently traveled to West Africa, the BBC reported on Feb. 15.

Full Story: Live Science (2/17)

Stressed about the cost of living crisis? 10 simple science-backed strategies to deal with anxiety and depression

(Chris J Ratcliffe / Stringer via Getty Images)

If you’re feeling anxious or depressed because you can’t afford to fuel up your car or buy groceries, you aren’t alone. With the cost of living at an all-time high in the U.K., and individuals still reeling from pandemic lockdowns, who could blame you? Though you can’t change the economy, there are simple actions you can take to stay sane and even boost your mental health.

Dips in mental health for a variety of reasons have been stark across the globe. In Great Britain, 17% of adults reported experiencing depression in summer 2021, up from about 10% pre-pandemic. (In early 2021, the rate reached as high as 21%.) The U.S. has seen a similar disruption in mental health: According to statistics published in April 2021 in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, the percentage of adults reporting symptoms of anxiety or depression in the U.S. rose from 36.5% to 41.5% between August 2020 and February 2021.

Full Story: Live Science (2/17)


7 theories on the origin of life

(Getty Images)

The origin of life on Earth began more than 3 billion years ago, evolving from the most basic of microbes into a dazzling array of complexity over time. But how did the first organisms on the only known home to life in the universe develop from the primordial soup?

Science remains undecided and conflicted as to the exact origin of life, also known as abiogenesis. Even the very definition of life is contested and rewritten, with one study published in the Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, suggesting uncovering 123 different published definitions.

Although science still seems unsure, here are some of the many different scientific theories on the origin of life on Earth.

Full Story: Live Science (2/14)


Rare, alien-like baby ‘ghost shark’ discovered off New Zealand coast

(Brit Finucci)

Researchers have discovered an exceptionally rare, newly hatched “ghost shark” near New Zealand’s South Island, according to the country’s National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA).

Translucent, gelatinous and crowned with a pair of giant black eyes on its pointed head, the alien-like baby likely belongs to one of the more than 50 known species of ghost sharks, also known as chimaeras, which live in deep water around the world. Though not exactly sharks, chimaeras are closely related to both sharks and rays, all of which are fish with skeletons made of cartilage instead of bone, according to NIWA.

Full Story: Live Science (2/17)


Largest galaxy ever discovered baffles scientists

(Oei et al/Astronomy and Astrophysics)

Astronomers just found the largest galaxy ever discovered, and they have no idea how it got so big.

At 16.3 million light-years wide, the Alcyoneus galaxy has a diameter 160 times wider than the Milky Way and four times that of the previous title holder, IC 1101, which spans 3.9 million light-years, researchers reported in a new study. Named after one of the mythical giants who fought Hercules and whose name means “mighty ass” in Greek, Alcyoneus is roughly 3 billion light-years from Earth.

Full Story: Live Science (2/17)


Largest comet ever observed bumps Hale-Bopp from pedestal

(Dark Energy Survey/DOE/FNAL/DECam/CTIO/NOIRLab/NSF/AURA/P. Bernardinelli & G. Bernstein (UPenn)/DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys)

The Bernardinelli-Bernstein comet, identified in 2021, is officially the biggest comet ever observed.

The new record, reported on the preprint website arXiv and now accepted for publication in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters, bumps the Hale-Bopp comet from the top spot. Hale-Bopp was discovered in 1995 and became visible to the naked eye in 1996; it was about 46 miles (74 kilometers) across. Bernardinelli-Bernstein, also known as comet 2014 UN271, has now been calculated to be about 85 miles (137 km) across.

Full Story: Live Science (2/11)


‘Invisible’ earthquake caused mysterious 2021 tsunami, scientists find

(NOAA Center for Tsunami Research)

The mysterious source of a globe-spanning tsunami that spread as far as 6,000 miles (10,000 kilometers) from its epicenter was an “invisible” earthquake, a new study has found.

In August 2021, an enormous tsunami rippled out into the North Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. It was the first time a tsunami had been recorded in three different oceans since the catastrophic 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake; at the time, scientists thought it was caused by a 7.5-magnitude earthquake detected near the South Sandwich Islands (a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean).

Full Story: Live Science (2/10)


Ebola can linger in brain fluid and trigger deadly relapse, monkey study suggests

(Maciej Frolow via Getty Images)

Ebola can lurk in fluid-filled cavities in the brain and kill monkeys, even after the animals have been treated for the disease and seem to have recovered, a new study shows.

The study, conducted in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), hints at why some human Ebola survivors relapse and die months or years after recovering from their initial infections, The Scientist reported. Past studies of monkeys and humans suggested that the Ebola virus can lurk in various places in the body — including the testes, eyes and brain — and the new report may reveal where in the brain the virus persists.

Full Story: Live Science (2/10)


The ‘weirdest wonder’ of evolution had an even weirder cousin, new study finds

(F. Anthony)

With five eyes, a backward-facing mouth, and a long, claw-tipped trunk where its nose should be, Opabinia regalis is one of the strangest-looking celebrities of the Cambrian period. In fact, this ancient sea-dweller is so unique that scientists have never discovered another species in the fossil record that appears to fit into its alien-faced family.

That is, until now.

Full Story: Live Science (2/10)


4-story rogue wave that randomly appeared in the Pacific Ocean is the ‘most extreme’ ever detected


A four-story-tall rogue wave that briefly reared up in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Canada in 2020 was the “most extreme” version of the freaky phenomenon ever recorded, scientists now say.

Rogue waves, also known as freak or killer waves, are massive waves that appear in the open ocean seemingly from nowhere.

The rogue wave was detected on Nov. 17, 2020, around 4.3 miles (7 kilometers) off the coast of Ucluelet on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, by an oceanic buoy belonging to Canadian-based research company MarineLabs. Now, in a new study published online Feb. 2 in the journal Scientific Reports, scientists have revealed that the Ucluelet wave was around 58 feet (17.6 meters) tall, making it around three times higher than surrounding waves. Rogue waves this much larger than surrounding swells are a “once in a millennium” occurrence, the researchers said in a statement.

Full Story: Live Science (2/15)


What are the largest impact craters on Earth?

(SCIEPRO Via Getty Images)

In its 4.5 billion-year existence, Earth has been punched and gouged by hundreds of large asteroids that have slammed into its surface. At least 190 of these collisions have left colossal scars that are still visible today. But not every space rock that zips into our planet’s atmosphere makes it to the ground. So what does it take for an asteroid to make a dent on Earth, and which known impact events have left the biggest craters?

Most space rocks that barrel into Earth’s atmosphere aren’t giant at all. They’re very small — around 3 feet (1 meter) across, according to NASA. That’s good for Earthlings, as any space rock less than 82 feet (25 m) in diameter usually won’t make it past Earth’s atmosphere, NASA reported. The space rock’s super high speeds heat up the gases in the atmosphere, which burn away the space rock (which technically becomes a meteor once it meets the atmosphere) as it passes through. In most cases, any space rock remnant that makes it through the atmosphere will cause little or no damage if it reaches the ground.

Full Story: Live Science (2/15)


How to see February’s Snow Moon this week

(Arman Mohammadi / 500px via Getty Images)

This week, you can lunch with the Snow Moon, which will appear at its fullest at 11:57 a.m. EST (1657 GMT) on Wednesday, Feb. 16.

If you can’t make this lunar lunch date, the moon will still be a perfect companion for other outdoor activities, appearing full for three days, from Tuesday (Feb. 15) through Thursday night (Feb. 17), according to NASA.

Full Story: Live Science (2/15)


Astronomers watched a dead planet smash into a dead star for first time ever

(University of Warwick/Mark Garlick)
Astronomers have finally seen the remnants of a dead planet as it tumbled onto the surface of a dead star — and in doing so, they confirmed decades of speculation about what happens to solar systems that reach the end of their lives.

These explosive observations — which were taken with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory — provide a preview of the violent future that may await Earth and its sun billions of years from now, the authors wrote in a study published Feb. 9 in the journal Nature.

Full Story: Live Science (2/9)


Wari leaders used hallucinogen to keep followers loyal 1,200 years ago, archaeologists say

(Lisa Milosavljevic)

The Wari leaders of a 1,200-year-old town now called Quilcapampa may have used their access to the psychoactive substance vilca to help keep their people loyal, a team of archaeologists says.

Recent excavations at the center of Quilcapampa, a site in southern Peru, revealed 16 vilca seeds alongside the remains of a drink made from fermented fruit that scientists refer to as “chicha de molle.” The archaeologists found the seeds and drink in an area of the site that contains buildings that were likely used for feasting, the team of researchers wrote in a paper published Jan. 12 in the journal Antiquity.

Full Story: Live Science (2/9)


A spacecraft could visit weird interloper ‘Oumuamua. Here’s how.

(Bjorn Bakstad via Getty Images)

In 2017, a totally bizarre object zipped through the solar system. Nicknamed ‘Oumuamua, this interstellar traveler was too far away and too speedy to be identified. Years later, scientists are still puzzling over what it might have been.

It’s not too late to go see, according to a new research paper posted to the preprint website arXiv. By executing a complex maneuver around Jupiter, a spacecraft launched by 2028 could catch up with ‘Oumuamua in 26 years.

Full Story: Live Science (2/10)


Geomagnetic storm sends 40 SpaceX satellites plummeting to Earth


A powerful geomagnetic storm has doomed 40 Starlink satellites launched by SpaceX last week, the company has announced.

Elon Musk’s company launched a Falcon 9 rocket bearing the 49 satellites from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Thursday (Feb. 3), but a geomagnetic storm that struck a day later sent the satellites plummeting back toward Earth, where they will burn up in the atmosphere.

Full Story: Live Science (2/9)


Achoo! Respiratory illness gave young ‘Dolly’ the dinosaur flu-like symptoms

(Woodruff et al. (2022)/Artwork by Corbin Rainbolt)

Hacking coughs, uncontrollable sneezing, high fevers and pounding headaches can make anyone miserable — even a dinosaur.

Recently, researchers identified the first evidence of respiratory illness in a long-necked, herbivorous type of dinosaur known as a sauropod, which lived about 150 million years ago during the Jurassic period (201.3 million to 145 million years ago) in what is now Montana.

Full Story: Live Science (2/10)

Creepy, big-eyed cockroach discovered trapped in amber from 100 million years ago

(Ryo Taniguchi, et al. The Science of Nature. September 28, 2021)

Today’s cockroaches are nocturnal creepy crawlers that scatter when you turn on the light. But their ancient relatives were likely the polar opposite, according to the discovery of an immaculately preserved, big-eyed cockroach trapped in amber.

Its huge peepers likely helped it forage during the day, when the sun was blazing overhead.

Full Story: Live Science (2/9)


300-year-old Arctic sponges feast on the corpses of their decaying, extinct neighbors

(Alfred-Wegener-Institut/PS101 AWI OFOS system/Antje Boetius,

On an underwater mountain in the Arctic Ocean lives a community of sponges with a ghoulish secret. With little to eat in the nutrient-poor water, the sponges survive by digesting the remains of long-dead animals that once inhabited the seamount peaks where the sponges now live. And they’ve been feasting on their extinct neighbors’ corpses for centuries.

Scientists recently discovered these macabre creatures on the Langseth Ridge, part of a former volcanic seamount in the Central Arctic, at depths of 1,640 to 1,969 feet (500 to 600 meters) where temperatures hover just above freezing. In those icy depths, researchers found thousands of sponges covering an area measuring 5.8 square miles (15 square kilometers).

Full Story: Live Science (2/8)

Pet hamsters sparked a coronavirus outbreak in Hong Kong

(Paul Starosta via Getty Images)

Imported pet hamsters carried the delta variant of the novel coronavirus into Hong Kong, sparking a local outbreak, a new study suggests.

The research, posted Jan. 28 to the database Preprints with The Lancet, has not yet been peer-reviewed, but it provides the first evidence of hamster-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Hamsters can be infected with the coronavirus in laboratory settings and are often used in research, but prior to the Hong Kong outbreak, there wasn’t evidence of the rodents passing the virus to humans, Nature reported.

So far, the outbreak has affected about 50 people and has prompted government officials to cull thousands of pet hamsters in the city, according to Nature.

Full Story: Live Science (2/7)


NASA asteroid detector ‘looks up’ to scan entire sky every 24 hours

(Mark Garlick/Science Photo Library via Getty Images)

 NASA’s asteroid monitoring system has been upgraded so that it can scan the entire night sky once every 24 hours for potentially hazardous space rocks that are heading our way.

The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) is essential for tracking of asteroids and debris that could be on a collision course with Earth, and it is operated from the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. ATLAS began as an array of just two telescopes in Hawaii, but it has now expanded to include two more telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere — giving it a complete view of the sky.

Full Story: Live Science (2/7)


Mt. Everest’s highest glacier lost 2,000 years worth of ice since the 1990s

(Getty Images)

Even the glaciers on Mount Everest are not safe from climate change, new research suggests.

In a record-setting study, a team of scientists scaled the world’s highest peak to monitor the mountain’s highest-altitude glacier — the South Col Glacier, standing nearly 26,000 feet (8,000 meters) above sea level — for signs of climate-related ice loss. After installing the two highest weather stations on Earth and collecting the world’s highest ice core from the glacier, the team found that South Col is losing ice roughly 80 times faster than it took for the ice to accumulate on the glacier’s surface, they reported Feb. 3 in the journal npj Climate and Atmospheric Science.

Full Story: Live Science (2/7)

Countdown Summit October 2021

The ocean’s ingenious climate solutions

Susan Ruffo

The ocean is often thought of as a victim of climate change, in need of human protection. But ocean expert Susan Ruffo says that mindset needs to shift. From storing carbon to providing protection to coastal communities, Ruffo highlights the ocean’s ready-made solutions to the climate crisis and asks: With more than eighty percent of the ocean still unexplored, what new solutions are waiting to be discovered?

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

About the speaker

Susan Ruffo

Ocean expert

See speaker profile

A conservationist and former diplomat, Susan Ruffo is the senior advisor for Ocean and Climate at United Nations Foundation.

Susan Ruffo’s resource list

TEDMonterey  July 2021

The unexpected, underwater plant fighting climate change

Carlos M. Duarte

Once considered the ugly duckling of environmental conservation, seagrass is emerging as a powerful tool for climate action. From drawing down carbon to filtering plastic pollution, marine scientist Carlos M. Duarte details the incredible things this oceanic hero does for our planet — and shows ingenious ways he and his team are protecting and rebuilding marine life.

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

Learn more about how rebuilding coastal habitats, including mangroves, seagrass meadows and salt marshes, is an effective climate solution and a path to restoring marine life. Support local projects.


About the speaker

Carlos M. Duarte

Marine scientist

See speaker profile

Carlos M. Duarte researches the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems — and develops nature-based solutions to mitigate them.

Carlos M. Duarte’s resource list

Countdown Summit  October 2021

The forest is our teacher. It’s time to respect it

Nemonte Nenquimo

For thousands of years, the Amazon rainforest has provided food, water and spiritual connection for its Indigenous inhabitants and the world. But the endless extraction of its natural resources by oil companies and others is destroying the lives of those who live there, says Waorani leader Nemonte Nenquimo, and threatening the overall stability of Earth’s biosphere. In this powerful talk, she reminds us of the destruction that continues to happen to the world’s largest tropical rainforest — and demands respect for Mother Nature. “The forest is our teacher,” she says. (Filmed in Ecuador by director Tom Laffay and associate producer Emily Wright, in collaboration with Amazon Frontlines. In Spanish with subtitles.)

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

Donate to Amazon Frontlines, a nonprofit cofounded by Nemonte Nenquimo to seed a global effort to drive resources to the frontlines of Indigenous action in the Amazon.


Sign the letter to Ecuador’s Supreme Court, written by Nemonte Nenquimo and other Indigenous peoples to demand respect for their right to decide the future of their ancestral territories.


Share Nemonte Nenquimo’s talk with the presidents of five major Amazonian countries to make sure they hear her wisdom and heed her call to action.


About the speaker

Nemonte Nenquimo

Indigenous leader

See speaker profile

Nemonte Nenquimo is an Indigenous leader of the Waorani peoples, legendary hunter-harvesters of the south-central Ecuadorian Amazon. She is a founder of the Ceibo Alliance and Amazon Frontlines and a board member of Nia Tero.

Countdown Summit  October 2021

The powerful women on the front lines of climate action

Farwiza Farhan

When it comes to big problems like climate change, we tend to focus on big solutions — but many of the best ideas come from people on the ground, facing day-to-day conservation battles. Sharing her effort to protect the Leseur ecosystem in Indonesia (the last place on Earth where the Sumatran rhino, tiger, elephant and orangutan still roam together in the wild), TED Fellow and conservationist Farwiza Farhan explains the challenges women face on the front lines of forest preservation within patriarchal societies — and the resilient, world-changing power they hold.

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

About the speaker

Farwiza Farhan

Forest conservationist

Farwiza Farhan is a marine biologist and forest conservationist seeking to protect and restore the Leuser Ecosystem in Sumatra. She is a 2021 TED Fellow

Countdown May 2021

Women and girls, you are part of the climate solution

Rumaitha Al Busaidi

What does gender equality have to do with climate change? A lot more than you might think. Empowering women and girls around the world is one of the most important ways to combat carbon pollution and is projected to reduce CO2-equivalent gases by a total of 80 billion tons. Entrepreneur, scientist and TED Fellow Rumaitha Al Busaidi looks at why women are more likely to be impacted and displaced by climate catastrophes — and explains why access to education, employment and family planning for all women and girls is the key to our climate future.

Read transcript

Help close the confidence gap and give Arab women a resource to achieve more together.


About the speaker

Rumaitha Al Busaidi

Adventurer, entrepreneur

See speaker profile

Omani scientist, activist and athlete Rumaitha Al Busaidi empowers Arab women to step into spaces previously denied to them — whether it’s a football field, volcano summit or the front line of the battle against climate change.

Rumaitha Al Busaidi’s resource list

Western states face a bleak future amid the worst drought in more than 1,000 years

Feb 15, 2022  PBS NewsHour

The so-called megadrought that is afflicting the American West is the worst in 1,200 years, according to a study published this week. It has dried up water supplies, threatened ranchers and fueled wildfires. Park Williams, the lead author of the study just published in the journal Nature Climate Change, joins William Brangham with more. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

PBS NewsHour full episode, Feb. 15, 2022

Feb 15, 2022  PBS NewsHour

Tuesday on the NewsHour, President Biden warns a Russian invasion of Ukraine is still possible despite Moscow’s claims that it’s pulling back some of its troops. Then, we look at the life and legal work of a California judge who appears to be on a short list for the U.S. Supreme Court vacancy. Also, African Americans and African immigrants in Minnesota coalesce to amplify their voices. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS: President Biden warns Russia could still invade Ukraine… Biden draws a line on Ukraine, but how will Russia react?… News Wrap: New trial begins for Russian opposition leader… Sandy Hook families reach settlement with gun manufacturer… Trump’s accounting firm cuts ties over financial statements… Exploring the life and work of a Justice Leondra Kruger… West faces bleak future amid worst drought in 1,200 years… African Americans and African immigrants unite in Minnesota… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

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Live Science: Surgeons transplant pig’s heart into dying human patient in a first, NASA’s Perseverance rover is clogged up with pebbles, & more, and PBS News, NBC News

Live Science: Surgeons transplant pig’s heart into dying human patient in a first, NASA’s Perseverance rover is clogged up with pebbles, & more, and PBS News, NBC News

Live Science:  <> January 14, 2022

NASA’s Perseverance rover is clogged up with pebbles

Curvature of space-time measured using ‘atomic fountain’

(R. Hurt/Caltech-JPL)

In 1797, English scientist Henry Cavendish measured the strength of gravity with a contraption made of lead spheres, wooden rods and wire. In the 21st century, scientists are doing something very similar with rather more sophisticated tools: atoms.

Full Story: Live Science (1/14)

Striking satellite photo captures Mount Vesuvius peering through a hole in the clouds

(Joshua Stevens/Landsat/NASA Earth Observatory)

One of the world’s most dangerous volcanoes, Mount Vesuvius, appears to “peer up” into the sky through an eerily circular hole in the clouds in this striking satellite image.

The Operational Land Imager onboard the Landsat-8 satellite snapped the photo, which was released Jan. 10 by NASA’s Earth Observatory. The volcano’s summit caldera — a large bowl-like depression that forms when a volcano erupts and collapses — is clearly visible in the new image, as well as a section of large mountainous ridge to the north, which is a remnant of Mount Somma — an ancient volcano that once stood in the same spot as Mount Vesuvius, before the newer volcano’s cone grew from it’s center.

Full Story: Live Science (1/14)

Earth inhales and exhales carbon in mesmerizing animation

(Markus Reichstein /Creative Commons license)

The Earth seems to inhale and exhale in a new animation that shows how carbon is taken up and released as the seasons change.

The animated continents seem to deflate during summertimes, indicating times and places where vegetation is growing and plants are sucking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. When it’s winter, the continents seem to inflate, indicating that vegetation is dying off and carbon is being released.

Full Story: Live Science (1/13)

How are stalactites and stalagmites formed?


Stalactites and stalagmites decorate caves the world over. Stalactites hang down from the ceiling, while stalagmites rise up from the ground. They grow incredibly slowly, and some are so ancient that they predate modern humans, Live Science previously reported.

These tooth-like rock formations grow when dripping water comes into contact with the cave air, according to the National Park Service website. The water carries dissolved minerals, picked up on its journey from Earth’s surface. As it passes through the cave, it leaves tiny traces of those minerals behind, building each stalactite drip by drip.

Full Story: Live Science (1/14)

NASA’s Perseverance rover is clogged up with pebbles


A small pile of pebbles is clogging up the Perseverance Mars rover’s operations.

The rover, which is collecting rock samples for eventual return to Earth, began to struggle on Dec. 29, after extracting a core from a rock the mission team nicknamed “Issole.” According to a NASA blog, the problem occurred in the device that transfers the drill bit and sample out of the rover’s drill arm and into a carousel inside the rover’s chassis for storage. During the transfer, sensors within the rover recorded a higher-than-normal amount of friction at an unexpected point in the process.

Full Story: Live Science (1/13)

The virus behind ‘mono’ might trigger multiple sclerosis in some

(Kateryna Kon via Shutterstock)

Multiple sclerosis — an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord — may emerge after infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

An estimated 90% to 95% of people catch EBV, also called human herpesvirus 4, by the time they reach adulthood, according to the clinical resource UpToDate. In children, the virus typically causes an asymptomatic or very mild infection, but in teens and young adults, EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis, better known as “mono.” Despite EBV being a commonly-caught virus, there’s evidence to suggest that infections with the virus are a risk factor for multiple sclerosis, a far less common condition.

Full Story: Live Science (1/13)

These birds have been singing the same songs for literally a million years

(JayHendry/Getty Images)

A million years ago, the soundtrack of the “sky island” mountains of East Africa may have been very similar to what it is today. That’s because a group of tiny, colorful birds has been singing the exact same tunes for more than 500,000 years — and maybe as long as 1 million years, according to a new study.

Sunbirds in the family Nectariniidae are colorful, tiny, nectar-feeding birds that resemble hummingbirds and are common throughout Africa and Asia. They are the “little jewels that appear before you,” senior author Rauri Bowie, a professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and a curator in the school’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, said in a statement.

Full Story: Live Science (1/14)

Live Science:  <> January 11, 2022

Rare ‘bionic’ armor discovered in 2,500-year-old China burial

Surgeons transplant pig’s heart into dying human patient in a first

(University of Maryland Medical Center)

Doctors have transplanted the heart from a genetically modified pig into the chest of a man from Maryland in a last-ditch effort to save his life. The first-of-its-kind surgery is being hailed as a major step forward in the decades-long effort to successfully transplant animal organs into humans.

Although it’s been tried before — one of the earliest subjects, known as Baby Fae, survived 21 days with a baboon’s heart in 1984, according to Time — the practice has fallen into disuse because the animal organs are usually quickly rejected by their human host.

But doctors say this new transplant is a breakthrough because the donor pig had undergone gene-editing to remove a specific type of sugar from its cells that’s thought to be responsible for previous organ rejections in patients.

Full Story: Live Science (1/11)

Rare ‘bionic’ armor discovered in 2,500-year-old China burial

(Dongliang Xu/Turfan Museum)

About 2,500 years ago, a man in northwest China was buried with armor made of more than 5,000 leather scales, a military garment fashioned so intricately, its design looks like the overlapping scales of a fish, a new study finds.

The armor, which resembles an apron-like waistcoat, could be donned quickly without the help of another person. “It is a light, highly efficient one-size-fits-all defensive garment for soldiers of a mass army,” said study lead researcher Patrick Wertmann, a researcher at the Institute of Asian and Oriental Studies of the University of Zurich.

Full Story: Live Science (1/11)

Hungry badger accidentally unearths hundreds of ancient Roman coins in Spain


A hungry badger searching for food seems to have uncovered what turned out to be hundreds of Roman coins in a Spanish cave, according to a new study.

Archaeologists first discovered several coins laying on the ground at the entrance to a small cave in the woodlands outside Grado in northern Spain in April 2021. The researchers suspect that the coins were unearthed by a European badger (Meles meles) from a nearby den after a heavy storm dumped several feet of snow on the ground, making it harder for animals to find food. The hungry badger probably ventured into the cave looking for something to eat but came across the coins instead.

Full Story: Live Science (1/11)

Remains of a man and dog trying to escape ancient tsunami found on Aegean coast

(Vasif ?aho?lu)

Roughly 3,600 years ago, the massive Thera volcano in the Aegean Sea blew its top, unleashing massive tsunamis. Now, archaeologists in western Turkey have unearthed the bones of a young man and a dog killed by one of those tsunamis.

It’s the first time that any victims of the ancient eruption have been found in their archaeological context, and it’s the northernmost evidence found of the tsunamis that followed it.

Full Story: Live Science (1/10)

Enormous sea dragon fossil from 180 million years ago discovered in England

(Courtesy of Anglian Water)

The remains of a monstrous, 33-foot-long (10 meters) “sea dragon” that swam in the seas when dinosaurs were alive some 180 million years ago have been unearthed on a nature reserve in England. The behemoth is the biggest and most complete fossil of its kind ever discovered in the U.K.

“It is a truly unprecedented discovery and one of the greatest finds in British palaeontological history,” excavation leader Dean Lomax, a paleontologist and visiting scientist at the University of Manchester, said in a statement.

Though many such ichthyosaurs have been found in the U.K., none have been as large as the current discovery.

Full Story: Live Science (1/10)

How do energy saving light bulbs work?

(Getty Images)

Energy saving light bulbs were invented as a greener alternative to traditional bulbs, needing 90% less electricity to produce the same light, according to the Centre of Sustainable Energy. But how do they do it?

As bright ideas go, it’s almost impossible to overstate the impact the humble light bulb has had on human civilization. Before Thomas Edison had the original ‘light bulb moment’ and patented his invention all the way back in 1879 people were literally living in the dark ages, according to the Franklin Institute. People depended on oil or gas lamps and candles to light their rooms and streets, and when the sun went down the world would look much duller than it does today.

Full Story: Live Science (1/11)

‘Diamond rain’ on Uranus and Neptune seems likely

(Greg Stewart/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

The ice giants Uranus and Neptune don’t get nearly enough press; all the attention goes to their larger siblings, mighty Jupiter and magnificent Saturn.

At first glance, Uranus and Neptune are just bland, boring balls of uninteresting molecules. But hiding beneath the outer layers of those worlds, there may be something spectacular: a constant rain of diamonds.

Full Story: Live Science (1/11)

Scientists watched a star explode in real time for the first time ever

(W. M. Keck Observatory/Adam Makarenko)

Astronomers have watched a giant star blow up in a fiery supernova for the first time ever — and the spectacle was even more explosive than the researchers anticipated.

Scientists began watching the doomed star — a red supergiant named SN 2020tlf and located about 120 million light-years from Earth — more than 100 days before its final, violent collapse, according to a new study published Jan. 6 in the Astrophysical Journal. During that lead-up, the researchers saw the star erupt with bright flashes of light as great globs of gas exploded out of the star’s surface.

Full Story: Live Science (1/10)

Live Science:  <> January 7, 2022

Rare and fragile fossils found at a secret site in Australia’s ‘dead heart’

Bizarre cloud of gas is one of the longest structures in the Milky Way

(ESA/Gaia/DPAC, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO & T. Müller/J. Syed/MPIA)

Astronomers have discovered what may be the longest structure in the Milky Way: an unusual cloud of hydrogen.

The gigantic structure, which is more than 3,900 light-years long and around 150 light-years wide, is located roughly 55,000 light-years away from the solar system, according to a statement by researchers. (Previously, the largest known clouds of gas in the Milky Way were thought to be about 800 light-years across.) The team named the lengthy cloud “Maggie,” which is short for the Magdalena River, the longest river in Colombia.

Full Story: Live Science (1/7)

Rapid tests may not detect omicron early in infection

(PATRICK T. FALLON/AFP via Getty Images)

Rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 may not reliably detect the omicron variant during the first few days of infection, even when a person is shedding the virus in high enough quantities to be contagious, preliminary evidence hints.

For the new study, posted Wednesday (Jan. 5) to the preprint database medRxiv, researchers looked at 30 people from five different workplaces in New York and California, all of whom tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in December 2021.

Full Story: Live Science (1/6)

Rare and fragile fossils found at a secret site in Australia’s ‘dead heart’

(Michael Frese)

Buried in Australia’s so-called dead heart, a trove of exceptional fossils, including those of trapdoor spiders, giant cicadas, tiny fish and a feather from an ancient bird, reveal a unique snapshot of a time when rainforests carpeted the now mostly-arid continent.

Paleontologists discovered the fossil treasure-trove, known as a Lagerstätte (“storage site” in German) in New South Wales, in a region so arid that British geologist John Walter Gregory famously dubbed it the “dead heart of Australia” over 100 years ago. The Lagerstätte’s location on private land was kept secret to protect it from illegal fossil collectors, while scientists excavated the remains of plants and animals that lived there sometime between 16 million and 11 million years ago.

Full Story: Live Science (1/7)

Weird structures near Earth’s core may be scars from a primordial interplanetary collision

(Tim Bertelink, CC 4.0)

A group of mysterious, ultradense structures just outside Earth’s core may be the remnants of an ancient interplanetary collision, new research suggests.

These strange structures are known as ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs), because seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel about 50% more slowly through these zones than through the surrounding mantle. That means the ULVZs are also much denser than the rest of the mantle, and possibly made of heavier elements.

Full Story: Live Science (1/7)

China’s $1 trillion ‘artificial sun’ fusion reactor just got five times hotter than the sun

(VCG via Getty Images)

China’s “artificial sun” has set a new world record after superheating a loop of plasma to temperatures five times hotter than the sun for more than 17 minutes, state media reported.

The EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) nuclear fusion reactor maintained a temperature of 158 million degrees Fahrenheit (70 million degrees Celsius) for 1,056 seconds, according to the Xinhua News Agency. The achievement brings scientists a small yet significant step closer to the creation of a source of near-unlimited clean energy.

Full Story: Live Science (1/6)

Nuclear-powered US submarine collided with a hidden underwater mountain, Navy reveals

(Smith Collection/Gado/Getty Images)

A nuclear-powered U.S. submarine that ran aground in the South China Sea last month collided with an uncharted seamount, according to a U.S. Navy investigation.

The USS Connecticut, a Seawolf-class fast-attack submarine, collided with an unknown object in international waters on Oct. 2, causing minor to moderate injuries to 11 crewmembers, NPR reported. The damaged submarine surfaced and made it to a port in Guam unassisted. The Navy hasn’t disclosed the full extent of the damage, and all the Navy said about the incident at the time was that “it was not another submarine” that had collided with the vessel, The Associated Press reported.

Full Story: Live Science (1/6)


U.K.’s first human case of H5N1 avian flu detected in man with pet ducks

(Wagner Lessa / EyeEm via Getty Images)

A 79-year-old man named Alan Gosling, who kept pet ducks at his home in Devon, England, recently became the first U.K. resident to catch the H5N1 strain of bird flu, DevonLive reported.

A flock of more than 100 ducks lived outside on Gosling’s property in Buckfastleigh, and after feeding the animals for some time, Gosling brought 20 of the ducks into his home to keep as pets. In December 2021, a few of the ducks in the outdoor flock fell ill, Gosling noticed.

Full Story: Live Science (1/7)

The sun used to have rings like Saturn

(Andrea Isella/Rice University)

Before Earth and the other planets in our solar system existed, the sun may have been surrounded by giant rings of dust similar to Saturn’s, according to a new study.

Those rings of dust may have prevented Earth from growing into a “super-Earth” — a type of planet that is about twice the size of Earth and up to 10 times its mass, according to NASA. Astronomers have discovered super-Earths orbiting about 30% of sun-like stars in our galaxy.

Full Story: Live Science (1/7)

‘Cosmic wildfires’ burn bright in new photo of the Flame Nebula

(ESO/Th. Stanke & ESO/J. Emerson/VISTA. Acknowledgment: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit)

A fiery new photograph of the Flame Nebula depicts the emissions from brand-new stars, burning through space like cosmic wildfires.

These wildfires don’t actually burn hot — the orange and yellow regions captured in this image are actually only a few tens of degrees warmer than absolute zero, the point at which the movement of atoms and other fundamental particles freezes, according to the European Southern Observatory (ESO). But the emissions are revealing. By pointing the SuperCam instrument aboard the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment in the Chilean desert at this region, researchers were able to discover a brand-new nebula and explore two dusty interstellar clouds, Messier 78 and NGC 2071.

Full Story: Live Science (1/7)



Wild video shows goldfish ‘driving’ a water-filled car in weird experiment

(Shachar Givon, Matan Samina, Prof. Ohad Ben Shahar, Prof. Ronen Segev/BGU)

Fish may not need bicycles, but they seem to like cars.

A supremely weird new video shows a goldfish driving a water-filled, motorized “car” from one end of a room to another, bobbing and weaving to avoid obstacles along the way. Scientists performed the odd experiment to better understand how goldfish navigate terrestrial environments.

Full Story: Live Science (1/6)


PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan. 14, 2022

Jan 14, 2022  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, health systems buckle under the latest surge of hospitalizations from COVID-19 as schools struggle to keep the virus at bay. Also, millions of Kenyans face hunger and ethnic conflict exacerbated by the global climate crisis, and David Brooks and Jonathan Capehart consider the push in Congress for voting rights and the Supreme Court’s decision on vaccine mandates. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS: News Wrap: Ukraine blames Russia for sweeping cyberattack… Health systems buckle under surge of COVID hospitalizations… How Boston’s sky-high COVID count impacts teachers, staff… Djokovic battles with Australia after violating COVID rules… Brooks and Capehart on voting rights, partisanship… Deadly drought in Kenya creates humanitarian crisis… Immersive Van Gogh exhibits paint new experiences with art… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

Nightly News Full Broadcast – Jan. 14

Jan 14, 2022  NBC News

Millions across the U.S. are under winter weather alerts, inside a Pittsburgh children’s hospital overwhelmed by Covid cases, and bodycam video shows dramatic rescues from Colorado wildfire. 00:00 Intro 01:44 Millions in U.S. under winter weather alerts 03:48 Inside children’s hospital overwhelmed by Covid cases 06:30 Novak Djokovic facing deportation, again 08:08 U.S. warning Russia may be prepping Ukraine invasion 09:05 Trump set for first rally of 2022 11:34 Bodycam video from Colorado wildfire 13:10 Covid testing company investigation 15:33 Critics blame China for Mekong River environmental disaster 19:16 Chicago’s oldest hot dog stand’s special community connection » Subscribe to NBC News: » Watch more NBC video: NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features,,, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. Connect with NBC News Online! NBC News App: Breaking News Alerts:… Visit NBCNews.Com: Find NBC News on Facebook: Follow NBC News on Twitter: #NightlyNews #NBCNews #FullBroadcast

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HAPPY HOLIDAYS EVERYONE: Colossal, Live Science, and  Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery

HAPPY HOLIDAYS EVERYONE: Colossal, Live Science, and  Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery

Colossal: Exceptionally Slow-Motion Footage Documents Tropical Butterflies Bursting from Their Chrysalises and Taking Flight, Tropical Butterflies in Slow Mo & Behind the Scenes!”  Dec 14, 2021  Ant Lab

A New Infrared View of the Dolomites by Paolo Pettigiani Shows Craggy Landscapes in Cotton Candy Colors, MARCH 26, 2018  LAURA STAUGAITIS


X-ray analysis reveals ‘highly decorated’ Viking sword caked in dirt and rust

Rare wispy ice formations streak across the sea near Antarctica in beautiful satellite images

Physicists create new state of matter from quantum soup of magnetically weird particles

Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery

“Open” 2021 Art Exhibition – Part 1 – Overall and Painting Categories, Aug 2, 2021  Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery

“Open” 2015 Online Art Exhibition – Part 2 – Painting Category, Sep 2, 2015  Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery

Colossal: Exceptionally Slow-Motion Footage Documents Tropical Butterflies Bursting from Their Chrysalises and Taking Flight, DECEMBER 15, 2021,  GRACE EBERT

In an extravagant display of evolutionary tricks and mating rituals, new footage by Adrian Smith of the wildly popular Ant Lab YouTube channel focuses on six tropical butterflies. The extremely slow-motion montage zeroes in on a trio of tropical creatures as they crack open and emerge from their chrysalises and others like the striking Blue Morpho as they take flight. Smith paired the spectacular clips with behind-the-scenes footage of the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences Living Conservatory, which fosters a climate-controlled environment that hundreds of butterflies hatch from every few weeks. If you haven’t seen his previous footage yet, make sure you watch these moths and an unusual muppet-esque troupe as they lift off the ground. (via The Kids Should See This)

Photography Science

Tropical Butterflies in Slow Mo & Behind the Scenes!” 

Dec 14, 2021  Ant Lab

I filmed slow motion flight and time-lapse eclosion sequences of tropical butterflies, and give a behind-the-scenes tour of our museum’s walk-in tropical rainforest exhibit. Check out for info about when to visit our museum and the butterflies. [Right now (Dec, 2021) the exhibit is closed due to pandemic-related safety measures. But we’re all hoping we can lift restrictions and get it open to all again soon!] Content 00:00 – owl butterfly 01:09 – behind the scenes 02:22 – timelapse eclosion 03:29 – longwings 04:13 – blue morpho 05:14 – malachite 05:38 – cattleheart 06:21 – blue morpho Butterfly species (in order of appearance) “Owl butterfly” – Caligo eurilochus “Blue-frosted Banner” Male – Catonephele numilia “Heliconious Longwing” – Heliconius hecale “Monarch” – Danaus plexippus “Heliconious Longwing” (on left) – Heliconius melpomene “Heliconious Longwing” (on right) – Heliconius hecale “Blue Morpho” – Morpho peleides “Malachite” – Siproeta stelenes “Cattleheart” – Parides arcas Music licensed from Follow on Instagram: Follow on Twitter: #INSECTS #VIDEO

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A New Infrared View of the Dolomites by Paolo Pettigiani Shows Craggy Landscapes in Cotton Candy Colors


26-year old photographer Paolo Pettigiani (previously) has been taking pictures since age 11, and in the last few years has produced several series of eye-popping infrared images. Pettigiani’s most recent work showcases the Dolomites, a craggy mountain range in the northeastern region of his native Italy.

Infrared photography uses a special film or light sensor that processes the usually not-visible wavelengths of infrared light (specifically near-infrared, as opposed to far-infrared, which is used in thermal imaging.) The resulting images from Pettigiani depict the stands of coniferous trees as watermelon-pink, while surfaces that don’t reflect IR light stay more true to their nature hues. You can see more of the artist’s photographs on his website, as well as on Behance and Instagram. Pettigiani also offers prints of his work via Lumas.

For more information, please visit the following link:


X-ray analysis reveals ‘highly decorated’ Viking sword caked in dirt and rust

(Historic Environment Scotland)

Archaeologists in Scotland have revealed the ornate hilt of a Viking sword after scanning it with X-rays. The sword is highly corroded and covered in dirt, but the new images show the weapon in a new light and reveal its striking design.

The sword is part of a hoard of Viking treasures unearthed in 2015 at a burial site on Papa Westray, one of the Orkney Islands located north of mainland Scotland. Archaeologists found the sword laid atop human remains. The burial also contained a buckle, arrows and a shield boss — the metal, central part of a shield. The site likely dates back to the first-generation Norwegian settlers, who came to the Orkney Islands during the 10th century, according to Historic Environment Scotland.

Full Story: Live Science (12/14)

Rare wispy ice formations streak across the sea near Antarctica in beautiful satellite images

(NASA Earth Observatory/Joshua Stevens/Landsat 8)

Strong winds and unusual ocean currents helped paint a breathtaking icescape on the surface of the ocean near Antarctica, and the rare phenomenon was recently captured in a stunning satellite image.

The incredible image was taken on Nov. 20 by the Operational Land Imager onboard Landsat 8, a collaboration between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey, and was released on Dec. 8 by NASA’s Earth Observatory. The picture focuses on a channel of water about 3.7 miles (6 kilometers) across between the Ronne Ice Shelf — a permanent floating extension of the main Antarctic Ice Sheet, which birthed A-76, the world’s largest iceberg, in May — and a large chunk of sea ice in the Weddell Sea.

Full Story: Live Science (12/14)

Live Science: MATH & PHYSICS
Physicists create new state of matter from quantum soup of magnetically weird particles

(Phillip Tur via Shutterstock)

Scientists have spotted a long hypothesized, never-seen-before state of matter in the laboratory for the first time.

By firing lasers at an ultracold lattice of rubidium atoms, scientists have prodded the atoms into a messy soup of quantum uncertainty known as a quantum spin liquid. The atoms in this quantum magnetic soup quickly became connected, linking up their states across the entire material in a process called quantum entanglement. This means that any change to one atom causes immediate changes in all of the others in the material; this breakthrough could pave the way for the development of even better quantum computers, the researchers said in a paper describing their findings Dec. 3 in the journal Science.

Full Story: Live Science (12/14)

“Open” 2021 Art Exhibition – Part 1 – Overall and Painting Categories

Aug 2, 2021  Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery

Visit our Website Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery is pleased to announce that its 11th Annual “Open” 2021 Art Exhibition is now posted on its website and ready to be viewed online. 2D and 3D, artists were asked to submit their best representational and/or abstract art. The gallery received submissions from 26 different countries around the world and 36 different states including the District of Columbia. Overall, the gallery received 879 entries that were judged for this art competition. Congratulations to Overall 1st Place winner, John H. Diephouse, and all the artists designated as this month’s winners, along with the Special Merit and Special Recognition artists. To proceed to the gallery’s 11th Annual “Open” online art exhibition follow this link:….

“Open” 2015 Online Art Exhibition – Part 2 – Painting Category

Sep 2, 2015  Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery

Visit our Website Light Space & Time Online Art Gallery is pleased to announce that the September 2015 Open Art Exhibition is now posted on their website and is ready to be viewed online. The “Open” is a No Theme Art Competition, whereby artists were asked to submit their best representational or abstract artworks on any subject matter. An art competition was held in August 2015 which determined and judged the art for this exhibition. The gallery received submissions from 19 different countries from around the world and they also received entries from 34 different states and the District of Columbia. Overall, there were 734 entries judged for this art competition. The Guest Judge for this competition was Jeffrey Shonkwiler the Founder of Florida Artists Registry, a member supported arts organization, created in 2000. He is past director of Gallery at Avalon Island where he curated over 60 exhibits. Congratulations to the artists who have been designated as this month’s category winners, along with the winning Special Merit and Special Recognition artists. The gallery commends all of the winning artists for their artistic skill and their creativity, as this online art exhibition is indicative of their creativity. To proceed to the gallery’s “Open” online art exhibition follow this link….

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PBS News, NBC News, LastWeekTonight, Veritasium, Real Engineering, NASA, AXIOS, and Live Science

PBS News, NBC News, LastWeekTonight, Veritasium, Real Engineering, NASA, AXIOS, and Live Science

PBS NewsHour full episode, Aug. 20, 2021

NBC Nightly News Full Broadcast – August 20th, 2021

Ransomware: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO), Aug 16, 2021  LastWeekTonight

The Genius of 3D Printed Rockets, Aug 12, 2021  Veritasium

The Plane That Will Change Travel Forever,Aug 2, 2021  Real Engineering

 Highlighting an Upcoming Earth-Observing Mission on This Week @NASA – August 20, 2021 NASA

Axios AM: By Mike Allan, Aug 20, 2021- Extreme heat becomes global health issue

Live Science: Fusion experiment breaks record, blasts out 10 quadrillion watts of power and more, Aug 19 & 20, 2021

PBS NewsHour full episode, Aug. 20, 2021

Aug 20, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, the Taliban targets Afghans who worked with the United States as their desperation to flee the country intensifies. Then, despite soaring levels of new COVID cases in Florida, school officials face backlash to face cover mandates. And, Jonathan Capehart and Michael Gerson break down President Biden’s handling of the Afghanistan crisis and the politics of mask mandates. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS Anxious Afghans rush airport gates in bid to flee country… News Wrap: FDA to grant full approval to Pfizer vaccine… How the U.S. ignored corruption within the Afghan government… Examining Florida’s politicization of school mask mandates… Gerson and Capehart on Afghanistan, school mask mandates… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel:

NBC Nightly News Full Broadcast – August 20th, 2021

Aug 20, 2021  NBC News

President Biden pledges to evacuate all Americans trapped in Afghanistan, chaos outside Kabul airport with evacuations ongoing, and the battle over masks in schools intensifies across the South. Watch “NBC Nightly News With Lester Holt” at 6:30 p.m. ET / 5:30 p.m. CT (or check your local listings). 00:00 Intro 02:10 Biden: We Will Get You Home 09:06 Masks In Schools Debate 12:18 Jeopardy Host Backlash 13:58 Heat Wave Deaths 16:36 Families Of The Fallen 19:14 Inspiring America: Big Steps After An Injury » Subscribe to NBC News: » Watch more NBC video: NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features,,, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. Connect with NBC News Online! NBC News App: Breaking News Alerts:… Visit NBCNews.Com: Find NBC News on Facebook: Follow NBC News on Twitter: Follow NBC News on Instagram: #NBCNews #Afghanistan #MaskMandates

Ransomware: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)

Aug 16, 2021  LastWeekTonight

John Oliver discusses ransomware attacks, why they’re on the rise, and what can be done about them. Connect with Last Week Tonight online… Subscribe to the Last Week Tonight YouTube channel for more almost news as it almost happens: Find Last Week Tonight on Facebook like your mom would: Follow us on Twitter for news about jokes and jokes about news: Visit our official site for all that other stuff at once:

The Genius of 3D Printed Rockets

Aug 12, 2021  Veritasium

3D printed rockets save on up front tooling, enable rapid iteration, decrease part count, and facilitate radically new designs. For your chance to win 2 seats on one of the first Virgin Galactic flights to Space and support a great cause, go to Thanks to Tim Ellis and everyone at Relativity Space for the tour! Special thanks to Scott Manley for the interview and advising on aerospace engineering. Check out his channel: ?????????????????????????? References: Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Parts. NASA. — Boen, B. (2009). Winter Wonder: Rocket Icicles. NASA. — Hall, N. (2021). Rocket Thrust Equation. NASA. — Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Thrust. NASA. — Regenerative Cooling — How A Gold Bullet Almost Destroyed A Space Shuttle by Scott Manley — ?????????????????????????? Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal ?????????????????????????? Written by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang Animation by Mike Radjabov Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang Edited by Trenton Oliver SFX by Shaun Clifford Additional video supplied by Getty Images & Pond5 Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

The Plane That Will Change Travel Forever

Aug 2, 2021  Real Engineering

Get a free month of Nebula with any Real Engineering merch:… New streaming platform: Vlog channel:… Patreon:… Facebook: Instagram:… Reddit:… Twitter: Discord: Get your Real Engineering shirts at:… Credits: Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus Editor: Dylan Hennessy ( Animator: Mike Ridolfi ( Sound: Graham Haerther ( Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster References: References: [1]… [2]… [3]… [4] Page 19… [5]…. [6] [7]… [8]… [9] Page 81… [10] [11] Page 20… [12] Webinar by Mark Page a pioneer in the blended wing body design. &… [13]… [14]… [15] Page 13 [16]… [17] Page 22 [18] Page 1 Select imagery/video supplied by Getty Images Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage. Music by Epidemic Sound: Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung

Highlighting an Upcoming Earth-Observing Mission on This Week @NASA – August 20, 2021

Aug 20, 2021   NASA

Highlighting an upcoming Earth-observing mission, the science on the next resupply mission to the space station, and testing a new material to help future spacecraft land on distant worlds … a few of the stories to tell you about – This Week at NASA! Download Link:… Producer: Andre Valentine Editor: Lacey Young Music: Universal Production Music


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Axios AM: Aug 20, 2021

Mike Allen

Extreme heat becomes global health issue

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios
Heat-related deaths around the world increased by 74% from 1980 to 2016, Axios’ Marisa Fernandez writes from a study published yesterday in The Lancet.

More than 356,000 people died from extreme heat-related causes in just nine countries in 2019, a death toll that’s expected to grow as temperatures increase worldwide.

  • 1.3 million deaths were related to cold — a 31% increase since 1990.

Heat stress can lead to stroke, organ and brain damage. A pair of studies out of the University of Washington found it also causes several types of heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

Live Science: Fusion experiment breaks record, blasts out 10 quadrillion watts of power and more, Aug 19 & 20, 2021

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Top Science News
Milky Way has a 3,000-light-year-long splinter in its arm, and astronomers don’t know why


The Sagittarius arm of the Milky Way spirals out of our galaxy’s center, forming a swooping highway of gas that spans tens of thousands of light-years. This highway is dotted with the headlights of billions of stars, all seemingly moving along the same curvy track. But now, astronomers have found something unusual — a “break” in the arm, slashing perpendicularly through the spiral like a splinter poking through a piece of wood.

Spanning about 3,000 light-years, this stellar splinter makes up just a fraction of the Milky Way (which has a diameter of about 100,000 light-years). Still, the newfound break is the first major structure to be discovered disrupting the seemingly uniform flow of the galaxy’s Sagittarius arm, according to a study published online July 21 in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

History & Archaeology
Mass grave from Nazi atrocity discovered in Poland’s ‘Death Valley’

(D. Frymark; Antiquity Publications Ltd.)

Archaeologists in Poland have discovered a mass grave that the Nazis tried to destroy at the end of World War II, a new study finds.

The mass grave, filled with the remains of about 500 individuals, is linked to the horrific “Pomeranian Crime” that took place in Poland’s pre-war Pomerania province when the Nazis occupied the country in 1939. The Nazis killed up to 35,000 people in Pomerania at the beginning of the war, and they returned in 1945 to kill even more people, as well as to hide evidence of the prior massacres by exhuming and burning the bodies of victims.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Space Exploration
SpaceX Starlink satellites responsible for over half of close encounters in orbit, scientist says


Operators of satellite constellations are constantly forced to move their satellites because of encounters with other spacecraft and pieces of space junk. And, thanks to SpaceX’s Starlink satellites, the number of such dangerous approaches will continue to grow, according to estimates based on available data.

SpaceX’s Starlink satellites alone are involved in about 1,600 close encounters between two spacecraft every week, that’s about 50 % of all such incidents, according to Hugh Lewis, the head of the Astronautics Research Group at the University of Southampton, U.K. These encounters include situations when two spacecraft pass within a distance of 0.6 miles (1 kilometer) from each other.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

Chinese satellite got whacked by hunk of Russian rocket in March

(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

Yunhai 1-02’s wounds are not self-inflicted.

In March, the U.S. Space Force’s 18th Space Control Squadron (18SPCS) reported the breakup of Yunhai 1-02, a Chinese military satellite that launched in September 2019. It was unclear at the time whether the spacecraft had suffered some sort of failure — an explosion in its propulsion system, perhaps — or if it had collided with something in orbit.

We now know that the latter explanation is correct, thanks to some sleuthing by astrophysicist and satellite tracker Jonathan McDowell, who’s based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Chinese astronomers eye Tibetan Plateau site for observatory project


Chinese astronomers hope to establish a major observatory program on the roof of the world, the Tibetan Plateau, with new research arguing for pristine observing conditions nestled in the uplands.

The analysis focuses on a study site near Lenghu Town in Qinghai Province at an altitude of more than 2.5 miles (4.2 kilometers) and some 1,900 miles (3,000 km) west of Beijing. In the paper, the scientists argue that three years of monitoring shows conditions on par with those at some of the most renowned scientific outposts on Earth.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

Math & Physics
Fusion experiment breaks record, blasts out 10 quadrillion watts of energy

(Damien Jemison/NIF)

Scientists used an unconventional method of creating nuclear fusion to yield a record-breaking burst of energy of more than 10 quadrillion watts, by firing intense beams of light from the world’s largest lasers at a tiny pellet of hydrogen.

Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Northern California said they had focused 192 giant lasers at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) onto a pea-size pellet, resulting in the release of 1.3 megajoules of energy in 100 trillionths of a second — roughly 10% of the energy of the sunlight that hits Earth every moment, and about 70% of the energy that the pellet had absorbed from the lasers. The scientists hope one day to reach the break-even or “ignition” point of the pellet, where it gives off 100% or more energy than it absorbs.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Physicists give weird new phase of matter an extra dimension

(IQOQI Innsbruck/Harald Ritsch)

Physicists have created the first ever two-dimensional supersolid — a bizarre phase of matter that behaves like both a solid and a frictionless liquid at the same time.

Supersolids are materials whose atoms are arranged into a regular, repeating, crystal structure, yet are also able to flow forever without ever losing any kinetic energy. Despite their freakish properties, which appear to violate many of the known laws of physics, physicists have long predicted them theoretically — they first appeared as a suggestion in the work of the physicist Eugene Gross as early as 1957.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Curious Creatures
World’s most elusive giant squid could be monogamous, female corpse hints

(Miyazu Energy Aquarium)

A female of the world’s largest squid — sometimes called the “kraken” after the mythological sea monster — that was caught off the coast of Japan apparently had just one amorous encounter in her lifetime.

The female had sperm packets from just one male giant squid embedded in her body, which surprised researchers. Because giant squid are solitary creatures that probably run across potential mates only occasionally, scientists expected that females would opportunistically collect and store sperm from multiple males over time.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

Your Brain
Lab-made mini brains grow their own sets of ‘eyes’

(Elke Gabriel)

Scientists recently grew mini brains with their own sets of “eyes,” according to a new study.

Organoids are miniature versions of organs that scientists can grow in the lab from stem cells, or cells that can mature into any type of cell in the body. Previously, scientists have developed tiny beating hearts and tear ducts that could cry like humans do. Scientists have even grown mini brains that produce brain waves like those of preterm babies.

Now, a group of scientists has grown mini brains that have something their real counterparts do not: a set of eye-like structures called “optic cups” that give rise to the retina — the tissue that sits in the back of the eye and contains light-sensing cells, according to a statement.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Daily Quiz



What material is a modern penny mostly made of?

(Learn the answer here)





Antarctica’s ‘Doomsday Glacier’ is fighting an invisible battle against the inner Earth, new study finds


West Antarctica is one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth. For evidence, you need look no further than Thwaites Glacier — also known as the “Doomsday Glacier.”

Since the 1980s, Thwaites has lost an estimated 595 billion tons (540 billion metric tons) of ice, single-handedly contributing 4% to the annual global sea-level rise during that time, Live Science previously reported. The glacier’s rate of ice loss has accelerated substantially in the past three decades, partially due to hidden rivers of comparatively warm seawater slicing across the glacier’s underbelly, as well as unmitigated climate change warming the air and the ocean.

Now, new research suggests that the warming ocean and atmosphere aren’t the only factors pushing Thwaites to the brink; the heat of the Earth itself may also be giving West Antarctica’s glaciers a disproportionately nasty kick.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/20)

Why this weekend’s Blue Moon is extra rare (and how to see it)

(Gary Hershorn/Getty Images)

The saying “once in a blue moon” is especially pertinent this week: This Sunday (Aug. 22), the full Sturgeon Moon is expected to impress skygazers, particularly because of its “blue” designation.

Typically, the term “Blue Moon” refers to the second full moon within the same month. The last one rose on Oct. 31, 2020, when an eerie Blue Moon lit up the night sky on Halloween. But there’s a lesser-known definition, dating to 1528, which applies to the third full moon in a season with four full moons, according to NASA.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/20)

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PBS News, NBC News, TED-Electronic pills that could transform how we treat disease, You are your microbes & More, Live Science-Human brain, and Colossal

PBS News, NBC News, TED-Electronic pills that could transform how we treat disease, You are your microbes & More, Live Science-Human brain, and Colossal

PBS NewsHour full episode, May 28, 2021 

NBC Nightly News Broadcast (Full) – May 27th, 2021 

TED: Khalil Ramadi Electronic pills that could transform how we treat disease?  2021-05-25

TED: Bianca Tylek – The multibillion dollar us prison industry and how to dismantle it?

TED: Rohan Pavuluri – How to empower people to solve their own legal problems?

TED: Peter Paccone – How do us supreme court justices get appointed?

TED: Steven Allison – Earth’s original inhabitants and their role in combating climate change, 2021-04-19

TED:  Henna Maria Uusitupa – How the gut microbes you reborn with affect your lifelong health?

TED: Dan Knights – How we study the microbes living in your gut#t-513930?

TED: Rob Knight – How our microbes make us who we are#t-1025438?

TED-Ed: Jessica Green and Karen Guillemin – You are your microbes.

Live Science – Human brain: Facts, functions & anatomy                                                                                                                                                  by Tanya Lewis – Staff WriterAshley P. Taylor – Live Science Contributor

Colossal – Jewels in the Night Sea: Luminous Plankton Captured in the Dark Waters off the South Coast of Japan, AUGUST 17, 2018  KATE SIERZPUTOWSKI

PBS NewsHour full episode, May 28, 2021

May 28, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, Republican senators block the push for an independent investigation into the mob attack on the capitol on January 6. The western U.S. faces a critical shortage of water as the threats of wildfires loom on the horizon. Then, David Brooks and Jonathan Capehart analyze the failure to investigate the insurrection, how QAnon is breaking up families, and the Biden budget. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS Why a commission to investigate Jan. 6 was not established… News Wrap: News Wrap: Air travel to see pre-pandemic highs this weekend… Remembering the victims of the San Jose mass shooting… Former NJ Gov. Kean ‘sad’ that GOP blocked Jan. 6 commission… 2021 could be one of the driest years in a millennium… 15% of Americans believe outlandish QAnon conspiracies… Brooks and Capehart on Jan. 6 commission vote, Biden budget… In memory of 5 amazing Americans lost to COVID… How art is retelling the powerful stories of Tulsa massacre… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: Find more from PBS NewsHour at Subscribe to our YouTube channel: Follow us: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: Newsletters:

NBC Nightly News Broadcast (Full) – May 27th, 2021

May 27, 2021  NBC News

The latest on the deadly San Jose rail yard shooting, Ohio announces the first winner of $1 million vaccine lottery, and a California health official urges caution for Memorial Day weekend. Watch “NBC Nightly News With Lester Holt” at 6:30 p.m. ET / 5:30 p.m. CT (or check your local listings). 00:00 Intro 01:59 San Jose Shooting 04:25 Memorial Day Travel Rush 08:00 Mother Of Capitol Hill Officer Urges Commission 09:52 Cybersecurity Crackdown 11:29 Anti-Asian Hate Crimes 13:27 Tulsa Confronts Trauma Of Massacre 16:52 Lost Submarines Of WWII » Subscribe to NBC News: » Watch more NBC video: Connect with NBC Nightly News online! NBC News App: Breaking News Alerts:… Visit Find Nightly News on Facebook: Follow Nightly News on Twitter: Follow Nightly News on Instagram: NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features,,, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. #NBCNews #MemorialDay #Tulsa

Could a small jolt of electricity to your gut help treat chronic diseases? Medical hacker and TED Fellow Khalil Ramadi is developing a new, noninvasive therapy that could treat diseases like diabetes, obesity, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s with an electronic pill. More targeted than a traditional pill and less invasive than surgery, these micro-devices contain electronics that deliver “bionudges” — bursts of electrical or chemical stimuli — to the gut, potentially helping control appetite, aid digestion, regulate hormones — and even stimulate happiness in the brain.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.


Khalil Ramadi · Medical hacker

Khalil Ramadi builds medical technologies that leverage the connection between the brain and the gut.



TED Fellows: Shape Your Future

This groundbreaking selection of talks from the TED Fellows are snapshots of influential, new ideas from leading voices in medicine, human rights, conservation, astrophysics, education and beyond. Dive in to discover what (and who) is shaping your future.

More at ?

A phone call to a US prison or jail can cost up to a dollar per minute — a rate that forces one in three families with incarcerated loved ones into debt. In this searing talk about mass incarceration, criminal justice advocate and TED Fellow Bianca Tylek exposes the predatory nature of the billion-dollar prison telecom industry and presents straightforward strategies to dismantle the network of corporations that has a financial interest in seeing more people behind bars for longer periods of time.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.


Bianca Tylek · Criminal justice advocate

Bianca Tylek is dismantling the US prison industry.



The Prison Industry: How it started. How it works. How it harms.

Worth Rises

Blurb (2021)


TED Fellows: Shape Your Future


This groundbreaking selection of talks from the TED Fellows are snapshots of influential, new ideas from leading voices in medicine, human rights, conservation, astrophysics, education and beyond. Dive in to discover what (and who) is shaping your future.

More at ?



Donate to Worth Rises to join the fight against the prison industry.

Learn more ?


Take action for prison phone justice to connect families and their incarcerated loved ones.

Learn more ?


Demand that Tom Gores either sell Securus or the Detroit Pistons.

Learn more ?


TED Fellows: Shape Your Future | May 2021

If you can’t afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you, right? Not in US civil court. From high legal fees to confusing paperwork and expensive lawyers, it can be difficult to settle civil matters. Entrepreneur and TED Fellow Rohan Pavuluri is working to streamline cumbersome legal processes with an app that empowers people to solve their own legal problems.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.


Rohan Pavuluri · Civil rights entrepreneur

Rohan Pavuluri helps American families navigate an increasingly complex and expensive legal system.

There’s a job out there with a great deal of power, pay, prestige, and near-perfect job-security. And there’s only one way to be hired: get appointed to the US Supreme Court. But how do US Supreme Court Justices actually get that honor? Peter Paccone outlines the difficult process of getting a seat on the highest bench in the country. [Directed by Hernando Bahamon, narrated by Addison Anderson, music by Manuel Borda].


Peter Paccone · Educator


TED-Ed Original lessons feature the words and ideas of educators brought to life by professional animators.

TED-Ed | November 2016

Every environment on the planet — from forested mountaintops to scorching deserts and even the human gut — has a microbiome that keeps it healthy and balanced. Ecologist Steven Allison explores how these extraordinarily adaptable, diverse collections of microorganisms could help solve big global problems like climate change and food insecurity — and makes the case for getting to know Earth’s original inhabitants in fascinating ways.

This talk was presented to a local audience at TEDxUCIrvine, an independent event. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.


Steven D. Allison · Ecologist

For Steven Allison, it’s no longer sufficient to just study the natural world — we must make sure our world stays ecologically sound for generations to come.



Volunteer or donate to restore habitat with groups like The Nature Conservancy.

Learn more ?


TEDx was created in the spirit of TED’s mission, “ideas worth spreading.” It supports independent organizers who want to create a TED-like event in their own community.

Find a TEDx event near you ?

TEDxUCIrvine | October 2020

Your lifelong health may have been decided the day you were born, says microbiome researcher Henna-Maria Uusitupa. In this fascinating talk, she shows how the gut microbes you acquire during birth and as an infant impact your health into adulthood — and discusses new microbiome research that could help tackle problems like obesity and diabetes.

This talk was presented at a TED Institute event given in partnership with DuPont. TED editors featured it among our selections on the home page. Read more about the TED Institute.


Henna-Maria Uusitupa · Microbiome researcher

Henna-Maria Uusitupa investigates innovative solutions to minimize health risks that infants might have due to disruptions in microbiota development.


Every year, TED works with a group of select companies and foundations to identify internal ideators, inventors, connectors, and creators. Drawing on the same rigorous regimen that has prepared speakers for the TED main stage, TED Institute works closely with each partner, overseeing curation and providing intensive one-on-one talk development to sharpen and fine tune ideas. The culmination is an event produced, recorded, and hosted by TED, generating a growing library of valuable TED Talks that can spur innovation and transform organizations.

Learn more about TED Institute

TED@DuPont | September 2019

There are about a hundred trillion microbes living inside your gut — protecting you from infection, aiding digestion and regulating your immune system. As our bodies have adapted to life in modern society, we’ve started to lose some of our normal microbes; at the same time, diseases linked to a loss of diversity in microbiome are skyrocketing in developed nations. Computational microbiologist Dan Knights shares some intriguing discoveries about the differences in the microbiomes of people in developing countries compared to the US, and how they might affect our health. Learn more about the world of microbes living inside you — and the work being done to create tools to restore and replenish them.

This video was produced by TEDMED. TED’s editors featured it among our daily selections on the home page.


Dan Knights · Computational microbiologist

Dan Knights develops computational methods for doing precision medicine with gut bacterial communities, or microbiomes, and he applies those methods to study human disease.

TEDMED 2017 | November 2017

Rob Knight is a pioneer in studying human microbes, the community of tiny single-cell organisms living inside our bodies that have a huge — and largely unexplored — role in our health. “The three pounds of microbes that you carry around with you might be more important than every single gene you carry around in your genome,” he says. Find out why.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.


Rob Knight · Microbial ecologist

Rob Knight explores the unseen microbial world that exists literally right under our noses — and everywhere else on (and in) our bodies.


Follow Your Gut

Rob Knight

TED Books (2015)


How the microbiome shapes our world

Rob Knight talks to biologist Jonathan Eisen and biodiversity scientist Jessica Green about the latest research on complex microbial ecosystems — out in the world and inside our guts.

More at ?

From the microbes in our stomachs to the ones on our teeth we are homes to millions of unique and diverse communities which help our bodies function. Jessica Green and Karen Guillemin emphasize the importance of understanding the many organisms that make up each and every organism. [Directed by Celine Keller and Paula Spagnoletti, narrated by Jessica Green].


Jessica Green · Engineer and biodiversity scientist

Jessica Green wants people to understand the important role microbes play in every facet of our lives: climate change, building ecosystems, human health, even roller derby — using nontraditional tools like art, animation and film to help people visualize the invisible world.


TED-Ed Original lessons feature the words and ideas of educators brought to life by professional animators.


TED-Ed | January 2013

Live Science: Human brain: Facts, functions & anatomy

By Tanya Lewis – Staff WriterAshley P. Taylor – Live Science Contributor 

The human brain is the command center for the human nervous system.

A medical illustration of the human brain from ‘Quain’s Elements of Anatomy, Eighth Edition, Vol.II’ (by William Sharpey MD, LLD, FRS L&E, Allen Thomson, MD, LLD, FRS L&E, and Edward Albert Schafer) depicts the right half of the brain, 1876. (Image credit: Vintage MedStock/Getty Images)

The human brain is the command center for the human nervous system. It receives signals from the body’s sensory organs and outputs information to the muscles. The human brain has the same basic structure as other mammal brains but is larger in relation to body size than the brains of many other mammals, such as dolphins, whales and elephants.


The human brain weighs about 3 lbs. (1.4 kilograms) and makes up about 2% of a human’s body weight. On average, male brains are about 10% larger than female brains, according to Northwestern Medicine in Illinois. The average male has a brain volume of nearly 78 cubic inches (1,274 cubic centimeters), while the average female brain has a volume of 69 cubic inches (1,131 cubic cm). The cerebrum, which is the main part of the brain located in the front area of the skull, makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.


The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells (neurons) — called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons (thin strands through which electrical impulses are transmitted between neurons) a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”


  • The brain can’t multitask, according to the Dent Neurologic Institute. Instead, it switches between tasks, which increases errors and makes things take longer.
  • The human brain triples in size during the first year of life and reaches full maturity at about age 25.
  • Humans use all of the brain all of the time, not just 10% of it.
  • The brain is 60% fat, according to Northwestern Medicine.
  • The human brain can generate 23 watts of electrical power — enough to fuel a small lightbulb.

Do Scientists Understand The Human Brain?  | Video

“We might someday figure out how the brain works” says NYU neuroscientist Gary Marcus, co-author of “The Future of the Brain”, in this exclusive interview with Live Science’s Bahar Gholipour. Marcus breaks down the latest advancements in neuroscience and explains where these discoveries are coming from.


The largest part of the human brain is the cerebrum, which is divided into two hemispheres, according to the Mayfield Clinic. Each hemisphere consists of four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. The rippled surface of the cerebrum is called the cortex. Underneath the cerebrum lies the brainstem, and behind that sits the cerebellum.

The frontal lobe is important for cognitive functions, such as thought and planning ahead, and for the control of voluntary movement. The temporal lobe generates memories and emotions. The parietal lobe integrates input from different senses and is important for spatial orientation and navigation. Visual processing takes place in the occipital lobe, near the back of the skull.

The brainstem connects to the spinal cord and consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. The primary functions of the brainstem include relaying information between the brain and the body; supplying most of the cranial nerves to the face and head; and performing critical functions in controlling the heart, breathing and levels of consciousness (it’s involved in controlling wake and sleep cycles).

Human brain anatomy.  (Image credit: Mark Garlick/Getty Images)

Between the cerebrum and brainstem lie the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus relays sensory and motor signals to the cortex. Except for olfaction (sense of smell), every sensory system sends information through the thalamus to the cortex, according to the online textbook, “Neuroanatomy, Thalamus” (StatPublishing, 2020). The hypothalamus connects the nervous system to the endocrine system — where hormones are produced — via the pituitary gland.

The cerebellum lies beneath the cerebrum and has important functions in motor control. It plays a role in coordination and balance and may also have some cognitive functions.

The brain also has four interconnected cavities, called ventricles, which produce what’s called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This fluid circulates around the brain and spinal cord, cushioning it from injury, and is eventually absorbed into the bloodstream.

In addition to cushioning the central nervous system, CSF clears waste from the brain. In what’s called the glymphatic system, waste products from the interstitial fluid surrounding brain cells move into the CSF and away from the brain, according to the Society for Neuroscience. Studies suggest this waste clearance process mostly happens during sleep. In a 2013 Science paper, researchers reported that when mice were asleep, their interstitial spaces expanded by 60%, and the brain’s glymphatic system cleared beta-amyloid (the protein that makes up Alzheimer’s disease’s hallmark plaques) faster than when the rodents were awake. Clearing potentially neurotoxic waste from the brain or “taking out the trash” through the glymphatic system could be one reason that sleep is so important, the authors suggested in their paper.

Is The Human Brain Just a Computer? One Neuroscientist Thinks So

In recent years, much of the scientific community has backed away from the ‘computational engine’ comparison, citing the brain’s extreme complexity. But NYU neuroscientist Gary Marcus, co-author of “The Future of the Brain,” thinks “we’ve given up too soon,” in this chat with Live Science’s Bahar Gholipour. PLAY SOUND


Overall brain size doesn’t correlate with level of intelligence for non-human animals. For instance, the brain of a sperm whale is more than five times heavier than the human brain, but humans are considered to be of higher intelligence than sperm whales. A more accurate measure of an animal’s likely intelligence is the ratio between the size of the brain and body size, although not even that measure puts humans in first place: The tree shrew has the highest brain-to-body ratio of any mammal, according to, a website produced by the Society for Neuroscience.

Among humans, brain size doesn’t indicate a person’s level of intelligence. Some geniuses in their field have smaller-than-average brains, while others have brains that are larger than average, according to Christof Koch, a neuroscientist and president of the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle. For example, compare the brains of two highly acclaimed writers. The Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev’s brain was found to weigh 71 ounces (2,021 grams), while the brain of French writer Anatole France weighed only 36 ounces (1,017 g).

Brain size doesn’t indicate a person’s intelligence.   (Image credit: Shutterstock)

The reason behind humans’ intelligence, in part, is neurons and folds. Humans have more neurons per unit volume than other animals, and the only way they can all fit within the brain’s layered structure is to make folds in the outer layer, or cortex, said Dr. Eric Holland, a neurosurgeon and cancer biologist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington.

“The more complicated a brain gets, the more gyri and sulci, or wiggly hills and valleys, it has,” Holland told Live Science. Other intelligent animals, such as monkeys and dolphins, also have these folds in their cortex, whereas mice have smooth brains, he said.

How the brain is integrated also seems to matter when it comes to intelligence. A genius among geniuses, Albert Einstein had an average size brain; researchers suspect his mind-boggling cognitive abilities may have stemmed from its high connectivity, with several pathways connecting distant regions of his brain, Live Science previously reported.

Humans also have the largest frontal lobes of any animal, Holland said. The frontal lobes are associated with higher-level functions such as self-control, planning, logic and abstract thought — basically, “the things that make us particularly human,” he said.


The human brain is divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The hemispheres are strongly, though not entirely, symmetrical. Generally, the left brain controls the muscles on the right side of the body, and the right brain controls the left side. One hemisphere may be slightly dominant, as with left- or right-handedness.

Related: What’s the difference between the right brain and the left brain?

The popular notions about “left brain” and “right brain” qualities are generalizations that are not well supported by evidence. However, there are some important differences between these areas. The left brain contains regions that are involved in language production and comprehension (called Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area, respectively) and is also associated with mathematical calculation and fact retrieval, Holland said. The right brain plays a role in visual and auditory processing, spatial skills and artistic ability — more instinctive or creative things, Holland said — though these functions involve both hemispheres. “Everyone uses both halves all the time,” he said.

The human brain has two hemispheres, which are popularly considered to be responsible for completely different set of skills, but there’s little scientific research to support that notion.  (Image credit: Dimitri Otis/Getty Images)


In April 2013, President Barack Obama announced a scientific grand challenge known as the BRAIN Initiative, short for Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies. The $100-million-plus effort aimed to develop new technologies to produce a dynamic picture of the human brain, from the level of individual cells to complex circuits.

Like other major science efforts, such as the Human Genome Project, the significant expense is usually worth the investment, Holland said. Scientists hope the increased understanding will lead to new ways to treat, cure and prevent brain disorders.

The project contains members from several government agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), as well as private research organizations, including the Allen Institute for Brain Science and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

In May 2013, the project’s backers outlined their goals in the journal Science. In September 2014, the NIH announced $46 million in BRAIN Initiative grants. Industry members pledged another $30 million to support the effort, and major foundations and universities also agreed to apply more than $240 million of their own research toward BRAIN Initiative goals.

When the project was announced, President Obama convened a commission to evaluate the ethical issues involved in research on the brain. In May 2014, the commission released the first half of its report, calling for ethics to be integrated early and explicitly in neuroscience research, Live Science previously reported. In March 2015, the commission released the second half of the report, which focused on issues of cognitive enhancement, informed consent and using neuroscience in the legal system, Live Science reported.

The Brain Initiative has achieved several of its goals. As of 2018, the NIH has “invested more than $559 million in the research of more than 500 scientists,” and Congress appropriated “close to $400 million in NIH funding for fiscal year 2018,” according to the initiative’s website. The research funding facilitated the development of new brain-imaging and brain-mapping tools, and helped create the BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network (BICCN) — an effort to catalog the brain’s “parts’ list.” The BICCN released its first results in November 2018.

Beyond a parts list, the BRAIN Initiative is working to develop a detailed picture of the circuits in the brain. For example, in 2020, BRAIN Initiative researchers published a study in the journal Neuron, reporting that they had developed a system, tested in mice, to control and monitor circuit activity at any depth in the brain. Previous efforts could only examine circuits close to the surface of the brain. Also in 2020, the initiative’s Machine Intelligence from Cortical Networks (MICrONS) program, an effort to map circuits in the cortex, launched a website where researchers can share their data, including electron microscopy images of circuits.

Since 2019, the initiative has sponsored a photo and video contest in which initiative researchers are invited to submit eye-catching depictions of the brain. Check out the 2020 winners on the Brain Initiative website.


April 2019 marked a milestone for both the initiative and neuroscience research at large: BRAIN Initiative researcher Nenad Sestan, of the Yale School of Medicine, published a report in the journal Nature, revealing that his research team had restored circulation and some cellular functions to pig brains four hours after the animals’ deaths, Live Science previously reported. The results challenged the prevailing view that brain cells are suddenly and irreversibly damaged shortly after the heart stops beating. The researchers did not observe any signs of consciousness in the brains, nor were they trying to; on the contrary, the researchers injected pig brains with chemicals that mimicked blood flow and also blocked neurons from firing. The researchers emphasized that they did not bring the pig brains back to life. They did, however, restore some of their cellular activity.


This article was updated on May 28, 2021 by Live Science contributor Ashley P. Taylor.

For more information, please visit the following link:

Jewels in the Night Sea: Luminous Plankton Captured in the Dark Waters off the South Coast of Japan

 Colossal – Jewels in the Night Sea: Luminous Plankton Captured in the Dark Waters off the South Coast of Japan


Larval fish of Dendrochirus, all images copyright Ryo Minemizu

Japanese marine life photographer Ryo Minemizu focuses his lens on some of the tiniest and most abundant life forms in our oceans. His series Phenomenons explores the diverse beauty and extravagant colors of plankton, and is shot amongst the dark waters of the Osezaki sea near Mount Fuji and other coasts around Japan, the Philippines and Maldives. To capture the small creatures Minemizu sets his shutter speed to just a fraction of a second, while ensuring that his own movements don’t disturb the surrounding organisms.

“Plankton symbolize how precious life is by their tiny existence,” he explains. “I wanted other people to see them as they are in the sea, so it was my motivation from the beginning to shoot plankton underwater, which is quite a challenge. Most plankton are small, and their movements are hard to predict.”

His solo exhibition Jewels in the Night Sea begins a three-city tour at Canon Gallery in Ginza, Tokyo from August 20-29, 2018. It will then move to Cannon galleries in Nagoya and Osaka from September 6-12 and September 20-26, 2018. You can see more of Minemizu’s underwater photography on Instagram and Twitter. Select prints from his Phenomenons series are available in his online shop. (via This Isn’t Happiness)

Abdominal fin of an unconventional trough pattern is large enough to ensure buoyancy. Body length: 35mm

Unknown a larval Gymnapogon

This fish resembles a color and a way to swim like a flatworm/body length 20mm

Batesian mimicry, larval fish of Soleichthys

Unlike as now that being shed by the tide, when it comes to adults it is not moving at the bottom of the deep sea.

Larval Tripod fish

A kind of Paralepididae, which is approaching with interest in the light.

The Paralepididae

Hyperiidea on Nausithoe jellyfish

Larval Barred soapfish

The paddle of zoea larva of Lysmata

Megalopa larva of Eplumula phalangium

Larva of Pleurobranchaea

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