NASA, BBC News, Veritasium, Live Science, and Ocean Action News

NASA, BBC News, Veritasium, Live Science, and Ocean Action News

May 15-16, 2022 Total Lunar Eclipse: Shadow View

Visualizations by Ernie Wright Released on March 24, 2022

Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). The Moon moves right to left, passing through the penumbra and umbra, leaving in its wake an eclipse diagram with the times at various stages of the eclipse.

Both movies and high-resolution still images are available for Eastern (above), CentralMountain, and Pacific Daylight Time, as well as UTC. Also see the visibility map and Dial-a-Moon for this eclipse.

On May 16, 2022 (the night of May 15 in the Western Hemisphere), the Moon enters the Earth’s shadow, creating a total lunar eclipse, the first since May of 2021. This animation shows the changing appearance of the Moon as it travels into and out of the Earth’s shadow, along with times at various stages.

The penumbra is the part of the Earth’s shadow where the Sun is only partially covered by the Earth. The umbra is where the Sun is completely hidden. The Moon’s appearance isn’t affected much by the penumbra. The real action begins when the Moon starts to disappear as it enters the umbra at about 10:28 p.m. EDT on the 15th. An hour later, entirely within the umbra, the Moon is a ghostly copper color. Totality lasts for an hour and a half before the Moon begins to emerge from the central shadow. Throughout the eclipse, the Moon is moving throught the constellation Libra.

For more information, please following the link:

https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4980

May 15-16, 2022 Total Lunar Eclipse: Telescopic View

Visualizations by Ernie Wright Released on March 24, 2022

Time Monday, May 16, 2022, 04:11:30 UTC
Eclipse 100.0%
Diameter 1979.2 arcseconds
Distance 362131 km (28.39 Earth diameters)
J2000 Right Ascension, Declination 15h 30m 12s, 19° 15′ 08″S
Sublunar Latitude, Longitude 19.328°S 63.865°W

Also see the shadow diagram and visibility map for this eclipse.

The total lunar eclipse of May 16, 2022 (the night of May 15 in the Western Hemisphere) occurs near perigee, making the Moon appear about 7% larger than average. This eclipse is ideally timed for viewing from most of the Western Hemisphere, including the Lower 48 of the United States. The total phase occurs near moonset in Africa and western Europe.

The sublunar point, the last line of the table above, is the point on the Earth’s surface where the Moon is directly overhead. It’s also the center of the hemisphere of the Earth where the eclipse is visible. The closer you are to that location, the higher the Moon will be in your sky. The eclipse percentage in the table is the fraction of the Moon covered by the Earth’s umbra, the part of its shadow in which the Sun is completely blocked. The part of the shadow in which the Sun is only partially blocked is called the penumbra.

The animations on this page run from 1:00:00 to 7:29:50 UTC, which is also the valid range of times for this Dial-a-Moon. The exposure setting of the virtual camera changes around totality in order to capture the wide dynamic range of the eclipse. The parts of the Moon outside the umbra during the partial phases are almost as bright as an ordinary full moon, making the obstructed parts appear nearly black. But during totality, our eyes adjust and reveal a range of hues painted on the Moon by all of Earth’s sunrises and sunsets.

All phases of a lunar eclipse are safe to view, both with your naked eye and an unfiltered telescope.

For more information, please following the link:

https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4979

Solar Eclipse Diagram

When the moon passes directly between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse takes place. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.)

Partial Lunar Eclipse

When only a part of the moon enters Earth’s shadow, the event is called a partial lunar eclipse. Image Credit: Brad Riza

Total Lunar Eclipse

A total lunar eclipse happens when the whole moon enters Earth’s shadow. Some sunlight still reaches the moon, but first it goes through Earth’s atmosphere. The atmosphere filters out most of the sun’s blue light, so the moon looks red.

In this time-lapsed image, the moon changes color as it moves through Earth’s shadow. Image Credit: Fred Espenak

Solar Eclipse Diagram

When the moon passes directly between the sun and Earth, a solar eclipse takes place. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.)

Partial Solar Eclipse

A partial solar eclipse takes place when the sun, moon and Earth are not exactly lined up. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.)

May 12, 2022

Total Solar Eclipse

For a total eclipse to take place, the sun, moon and Earth must be in a direct line. During a total solar eclipse, the moon blocks the sun’s glare, making the sun’s corona more visible. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.) Image Credit: Steve Albers, Dennis DiCicco and Gary Emerson

Annular Eclipse

An annular eclipse happens when the moon is farthest from Earth. Because the moon is farther away from Earth, it seems smaller and does not block the entire view of the sun. (NEVER look at the sun during any type of solar eclipse! Looking at the sun is dangerous. It can damage your eyes.) Image Credit: Stefan Seip

Moon’s Shadow on Earth During Solar Eclipse

During a solar eclipse, the moon casts a large shadow onto Earth’s surface. Image Credit: Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES)

Diagram of Umbra and Penumbra

During an eclipse, two shadows are cast. The first is called the umbra (UM bruh). This shadow gets smaller as it goes away from the sun. It is the dark center of the eclipse shadow. The second shadow is called the penumbra (pe NUM bruh). The penumbra gets larger as it goes away from the sun.

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.google.com/search?q=nasa+lunar+eclipse+images&oq=NASA+lunar+eclipse+photos&aqs=chrome.1.69i57j0i22i30.5117j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

Watch a Total Lunar Eclipse (NASA Science Live)

Streamed live 2 hours ago, 5.16.2022  NASA

Go outside with NASA and watch the total lunar eclipse! On the evening of May 15, Earth will pass between the Sun and the Moon, blocking sunlight and casting a shadow on the lunar surface. Starting at 9:32 p.m. EDT (1:32 UTC on May 16), people with clear skies in the Americas, Europe, and parts of Africa will begin to see the Moon get bathed in the red glow of every sunrise and sunset refracted through Earth’s atmosphere. Totality will occur at 12:12 a.m. EDT on May 16 (4:12 UTC). Join NASA experts to learn about this incredible natural phenomenon, look through telescope views across the world, and hear about plans to return humans to the lunar surface with the Artemis program. Have questions? Ask them in our live chat. https://nasa.gov/moon

AXiOS AM & PM: Mike Allen <mike@axios.com> May 16, 2022

 

  1. 1,000 words

Photo: Ringo H.W. Chiu/AP

This combination of photos shows the moon in various stages of a total lunar eclipse during last night’s first blood moon of the year, as seen from Temple City, Calif.

  • The moon was bathedin reflected red and orange hues of Earth’s sunsets and sunrises for about 90 minutes — one of the longest totalities of the decade.

NASA YouTube.

  1. Parting shot – AXIOS 5.16.2022 PM

Photo: Ted S. Warren/AP

These photos show the Moon last night during a full lunar eclipse (upper left) … and at various stages as it emerges from Earth’s shadow — as seen near Moscow, Idaho.

The orange results from the Moon passing into Earth’s shadow.

Earth from Orbit: NOAA Debuts First Imagery from GOES-18

On May 11, 2022, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, shared the first images of the Western Hemisphere from its Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-T (GOES-T). Later designated GOES-18, the satellite’s Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instrument recently captured stunning views of Earth.

Launched by NASA on March 1, GOES-18 lifted off at 4:38 p.m. EST from Cape Canaveral Space Force Station’s Space Launch Complex 41 in Florida. The ABI views Earth with 16 different channels, each measuring energy at different wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum to obtain information about Earth’s atmosphere, land, and ocean.

Learn more: GOES Overview and History

Image Credit: NOAA

Last Updated: May 12, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Earth, Image of the Day

May 4, 2022

A Sunrise Across Our World

GMT076_EHDC3_1157

The crew aboard the International Space Station has a window on Planet Earth. In this image an orbital sunrise beams across Earth’s horizon revealing silhouetted clouds above the South China Sea.

Every 24 hours, the space station makes 16 orbits of Earth, traveling through 16 sunrises and sunsets.

Learn More
International Space Station Facts and Figures

#EarthDay

Image Credit: NASA

Last Updated: Apr 22, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  EarthImage of the Day

Apr 21, 2022

Astronaut Victor Glover: Inspiring Washington Area Students

NASA astronaut Victor Glover fist pumps with 3-year-old Ezra Garrel at the conclusion of an educational event, Thursday, April 28, 2022, at the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington. Glover most recently served as pilot and second-in-command on the Crew-1 SpaceX Crew Dragon, named Resilience, which landed after a long duration mission aboard the International Space Station, May 2, 2021. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

NASA astronaut Victor Glover greets one of his youngest fans, 3-year-old Ezra Garrel, with a fist bump at the conclusion of an educational event for students in the Washington, DC area, Thursday, April 28, 2022, at the National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington. Glover most recently served as pilot and second-in-command on the Crew-1 SpaceX Crew Dragon, named Resilience. The long-duration mission aboard the International Space Station returned to Earth on May 2, 2021.

Image Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

Last Updated: Apr 29, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Apr 26, 2022

Tags:  Humans in Space, Image of the Day

 

An Angel Wing in Space

Two merging galaxies in the VV689 system — nicknamed the Angel Wing —feature in this image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In this view, the focus is placed on the system itself, allowing a closer look at it’s unique morphology.

This Hubble Space Telescope image features two merging galaxies in the VV-689 system, nicknamed the Angel Wing. Unlike chance alignments of galaxies, which only appear to overlap when viewed from our vantage point on Earth, the two galaxies in VV-689 are in the midst of a collision. The galactic interaction has left the VV-689 system almost completely symmetrical, giving the impression of a vast set of galactic wings.

“Zoo Gems,” interesting galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project is a crowdsourced program and relies on hundreds of thousands of volunteers to classify galaxies and help astronomers wade through a deluge of data from robotic telescopes. In the process, volunteers discovered a gallery of weird and wonderful galaxy types, some not previously studied. A similar, project called Radio Galaxy Zoo: LOFAR is using the same crowdsourcing approach to locate supermassive black holes in distant galaxies.

Image Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, W. Keel; Acknowledgment: J. Schmidt
Text Credit: ESA

Last Updated: Apr 26, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Galaxies, Image of the Day

Happy 32nd Birthday to Hubble!

We’re celebrating the Hubble Space Telescope‘s 32nd birthday with a stunning look at an unusual close-knit collection of five galaxies, called The Hickson Compact Group 40.

This eclectic galaxy grouping includes three spiral-shaped galaxies, an elliptical galaxy, and a lenticular (lens-like) galaxy. Somehow, these different galaxies crossed paths in their evolution to create an exceptionally crowded and eclectic galaxy sampler.

Hubble’s 32nd Anniversary: An Eclectic Galaxy Grouping (video)

Image Credit: NASA, ESA, STScI; Image Processing: Alyssa Pagan (STScI)

Last Updated: Apr 21, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Galaxies, Image of the Day

Black Holes Are Hard to Find

Black holes are hard to find. They have such strong gravity that light can’t escape them, so scientists must rely on clues from their surroundings to find them.

When a star weighing more than 20 times the Sun runs out of fuel, it collapses into a black hole. Scientists estimate that there are tens of millions of these black holes dotted around the Milky Way, but so far we’ve only identified a few dozen.

This image from 2001 is an artist’s impression of a black hole accretion disk. Around many black holes is an accretion disk of material emitting energy as it falls into the black hole.

Learn more about black holes.

Image Credit: XMM-Newton, ESA, NASA

Last Updated: May 4, 2022

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Black Holes, Image of the Day

Apr 29, 2022

Black Hole Image Makes History; NASA Telescopes Coordinated Observations

A black hole and its shadow have been captured in an image for the first time, a historic feat by an international network of radio telescopes called the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). EHT is an international collaboration whose support in the U.S. includes the National Science Foundation.

Using the Event Horizon Telescope, scientists obtained an image of the black hole at the center of galaxy M87, outlined by emission from hot gas swirling around it under the influence of strong gravity near its event horizon.

Credits: Event Horizon Telescope collaboration et al.

A black hole is an extremely dense object from which no light can escape. Anything that comes within a black hole’s “event horizon,” its point of no return, will be consumed, never to re-emerge, because of the black hole’s unimaginably strong gravity. By its very nature, a black hole cannot be seen, but the hot disk of material that encircles it shines bright. Against a bright backdrop, such as this disk, a black hole appears to cast a shadow.   

The stunning new image shows the shadow of the supermassive black hole in the center of Messier 87 (M87), an elliptical galaxy some 55 million light-years from Earth. This black hole is 6.5 billion times the mass of the Sun. Catching its shadow involved eight ground-based radio telescopes around the globe, operating together as if they were one telescope the size of our entire planet. 

“This is an amazing accomplishment by the EHT team,” said Paul Hertz, director of the astrophysics division at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “Years ago, we thought we would have to build a very large space telescope to image a black hole. By getting radio telescopes around the world to work in concert like one instrument, the EHT team achieved this, decades ahead of time.”

To complement the EHT findings, several NASA spacecraft were part of a large effort, coordinated by the EHT’s Multiwavelength Working Group, to observe the black hole using different wavelengths of light. As part of this effort, NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory space telescope missions, all attuned to different varieties of X-ray light, turned their gaze to the M87 black hole around the same time as the EHT in April 2017. NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was also watching for changes in gamma-ray light from M87 during the EHT observations. If EHT observed changes in the structure of the black hole’s environment, data from these missions and other telescopes could be used to help figure out what was going on. 

Chandra X-ray Observatory close-up of the core of the M87 galaxy.

Credits: NASA/CXC/Villanova University/J. Neilsen

While NASA observations did not directly trace out the historic image, astronomers used data from NASA’s Chandra and NuSTAR satellites to measure the X-ray brightness of M87’s jet. Scientists used this information to compare their models of the jet and disk around the black hole with the EHT observations. Other insights may come as researchers continue to pore over these data. 

There are many remaining questions about black holes that the coordinated NASA observations may help answer. Mysteries linger about why particles get such a huge energy boost around black holes, forming dramatic jets that surge away from the poles of black holes at nearly the speed of light. When material falls into the black hole, where does the energy go? 

“X-rays help us connect what’s happening to the particles near the event horizon with what we can measure with our telescopes,” said Joey Neilsen, an astronomer at Villanova University in Pennsylvania, who led the Chandra and NuSTAR analysis on behalf of the EHT’s Multiwavelength Working Group. 

Chandra X-ray Observatory close-up of the core of the M87 galaxy.

Credits: NASA/CXC/Villanova University/J. Neilsen

NASA space telescopes have previously studied a jet extending more than 1,000 light-years away from the center of M87. The jet is made of particles traveling near the speed of light, shooting out at high energies from close to the event horizon. The EHT was designed in part to study the origin of this jet and others like it. A blob of matter in the jet called HST-1, discovered by Hubble astronomers in 1999, has undergone a mysterious cycle of brightening and dimming.

Chandra, NuSTAR, Swift and Fermi, as well as NASA’s Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) experiment on the International Space Station, also looked at the black hole at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy, called Sagittarius A*, in coordination with EHT.   

Getting so many different telescopes on the ground and in space to all look toward the same celestial object is a huge undertaking in and of itself, scientists emphasize. 

“Scheduling all of these coordinated observations was a really hard problem for both the EHT and the Chandra and NuSTAR mission planners,” Neilsen said. “They did really incredible work to get us the data that we have, and we’re exceedingly grateful.”

Neilsen and colleagues who were part of the coordinated observations will be working on dissecting the entire spectrum of light coming from the M87 black hole, all the way from low-energy radio waves to high-energy gamma rays. With so much data from EHT and other telescopes, scientists may have years of discoveries ahead. 

Elizabeth Landau
NASA Headquarters, Washington
818-359-3241
elandau@jpl.nasa.gov

Last Updated: May 8, 2019

Editor: Sarah Loff

Tags:  Black Holes, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array)Universe

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/news/black-hole-image-makes-history

AXIOS – 5.12. 2022

4.  Parting shot: Our own black hole
The first image of Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Source: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

Astronomers have captured the first image of the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, Axios Science author Alison Snyder reports.

Why it matters: The “historic breakthrough” offers an unprecedented look at the extreme object driving the evolution of our galaxy.

·  Astronomers imaged Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) using the Event Horizon Telescope.

Most galaxies are thought to have a supermassive black hole at their center.

·  The false orange-yellow color in the image is the silhouette of the black hole created by matter teetering on its edge, or event horizon.

·  Light can’t escape a black hole, but hot plasma swirling around it emits short radio waves that radio telescopes can pick up. In the image, the gas silhouettes the black hole itself.

ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS

1st image of our galaxy’s ‘black hole heart’ unveiled

(ESO/José Francisco Salgado (josefrancisco.org), EHT Collaboration)

Astronomers have captured the first ever image of the colossal black hole at the center of our galaxy, providing the first direct evidence of the cosmic giant’s existence.

Located 26,000 light-years away, Sagittarius A* is a gargantuan tear in space-time that is four million times the mass of our sun and 40 million miles (60 million kilometers) across. The image was captured by the Event Horizon telescope (EHT), a network of eight synchronized radio telescopes placed in various locations around the world.

Full Story: Live Science (5/12)

BBC is a British public broadcast service.

Wikipedia

#BBCNews

Supermassive black hole in Milky Way pictured for first time – BBC News – 5:53

May 12, 2022  BBC News

A supermassive black hole that lives at the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way, has been pictured for the very first time. Known as Sagittarius A*, the object is a staggering four-million times the mass of our Sun. For scale, the ring is roughly the size of Mercury’s orbit around our star. Fortunately, this monster is a long, long way away – some 26,000 light-years in the distance – so there’s no possibility of us ever coming to any danger. The BBC’s Science correspondent Pallab Ghosh reports. Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog #BBCNews

A Picture of the Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole

May 12, 2022  Veritasium

This is an image of the supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. Visit https://www.kiwico.com/veritasium30 to get 30% off your first month of any crate! ??? Image of Sgr A* from EHT collaboration Event Horizon Telescope collaboration: https://ve42.co/EHT Animations from The Relativistic Astrophysics group, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. Massive thanks to Prof. Luciano Rezzolla, Dr Christian Fromm and Dr Alejandro Cruz-Osorio. A huge thanks to Prof. Peter Tuthill and Dr Manisha Caleb for feedback on earlier versions of this video and helping explain VLBI. Great video by Thatcher Chamberlin about VLBI here – https://youtu.be/Y8rAHTvpJbk Animations and simulations with English text: L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/jvftAadCFRI Video of stars going around Sgr A* from European Southern Observatory https://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso… Video zooming into the center of our galaxy from European Southern Observatory https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXAU0… Video of observation of M87 courtesy of: C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/meOKmzhTcIY Video of observation of SgrA* courtesy of C. M. Fromm, Y. Mizuno & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) Z. Younsi (University College London) https://youtu.be/VnsZj9RvhFU Video of telescopes in the array 2017: C. M. Fromm & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/Ame7fzBuFnk Animations and simulations (no text): L. R. Weih & L. Rezzolla (Goethe University Frankfurt) https://youtu.be/XmvpKFSvB7A ??? Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Inconcision, Kelly Snook, TTST, Ross McCawley, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr., OnlineBookClub.org, Dmitry Kuzmichev, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, MJP, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal ??? Written by Derek Muller Animation by Ivy Tello, Mike Radjabov, Maria Raykova Filmed by Petr Lebedev

LIFE’S LITTLE MYSTERIES

Why do microwaves cook food so much faster than ovens do?

(FG Trade via Getty Images)

You might love charred, broiled sirloin; crisp, oven-roasted veggies; or flaky, baked salmon, all of which generally require an oven. But when you are in a hurry or famished, you may turn to a faster cooking method, the hallmark of culinary convenience: the microwave.

The microwave has made it possible to nourish ourselves with cooked food in a matter of seconds. But how, exactly, does it work so much quicker than an oven?

Full Story: Live Science (5/2)

IN THE SKY

Black Moon solar eclipse looks otherworldly in stunning images

(timeanddate)

A rare solar eclipse Saturday (April 30) stunned viewers across Antarctica, the southern tip of South America, and the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

While much of the event took place in remote areas, live cameras on Earth and satellites in space allowed people around the world to witness the moon blocking as much as 64% of the sun. The eclipse happened during a Black Moon, which is the second new moon in a single month.

Full Story: Live Science (5/1)

Scientists discover bizarre ‘worm-like’ aurora stretching halfway across Mars

(Emirates Mars Mission)

On clear Martian nights, long, snake-like ribbons of light may streak through the sky for thousands of miles. It’s a pretty sight, according to new observations from the United Arab Emirates Mars Mission (EMM) — and it represents a strange new type of aurora never seen before on any planet.

Auroras — also known on Earth as the southern or northern lights — occur when charged particles from solar wind collide with molecules in a planet’s atmosphere. Several different types of auroras have been detected on Mars, including planet-wide “diffuse auroras,” which glow faintly through the entire Martian sky during intense solar storms, as well as patchy “discrete auroras,” which only glow above certain spots of Martian crust thought to contain magnetized minerals, according to EMM.

This new type of aurora — which EMM researchers dubbed a “sinuous discrete aurora” — seems to be a strange mishmash of the others, the researchers said.

Full Story: Live Science (5/5)

IN THE SKY

Earliest documented aurora found in ancient Chinese text

(Elena Pueyo via Getty Images)

The earliest documented case of an aurora, the fleeting but brilliantly colored lights that sometimes illuminate the night sky, dates to the early 10th century B.C., a new study on an ancient Chinese text reveals.

The text describes “five-colored light” witnessed in the northern part of the night sky toward the end of the reign of King Zh?o, the fourth king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty. The exact dates of Zh?o’s reign aren’t known, but it’s likely that this “five-colored light” event happened in either 977 B.C. or 957 B.C., according to the study.

Full Story: Live Science (4/25)

YOUR HEALTH

World’s oldest person dies in Japan at age 119

(Guinness World Records)

Kane Tanaka of Japan, who was the world’s oldest living person, has died at age 119, according to news reports.

Tanaka was born on Jan. 2, 1903 and died on April 19, according to CNN.

According to Guinness World Records, Tanaka became the world’s oldest living person on Jan. 30, 2019 at 116 years and 28 days old. She held the title for three years, until her death last week.

Full Story: Live Science (4/26)

Ocean Action News

MAY 2022

Celebrating Mothers

With the month of May comes Mother’s Day, a special time to celebrate all the wonderful moms out there. Did you know our ocean has some stand-out moms, too? Dive in with us and take a look at some of the hardest working moms in the sea.

Rose, Rhododendron, and John’s Sculpture in our garden, Spring May 2022

I enjoy studying and reading about technology, realizing that many thousands of educated people around the world are busy working on different kinds of experiments and research to advance their projects.  This in return, will help human kind to progress, and hopefully, we will be able to appreciate one another and keep us together as a human race. 

Hopefully, we will be able to live together without wars all over the world, and be able to focus our attention to prevent global warming.

We may then realize that we are the care-takers keeping the world healthy for ourselves, younger generations, and all creatures on earth that cohabitant with us on this planet.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, May 21, 2022, 9:45 PM

Go to the top

JPL News-Month in Review, NASA -Climate Change, May 2022

JPL News-Month in Review, NASA-Climate Change, May 2022

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory <jplnewsroom@jpl.nasa.gov>

 EARTH

California Field Campaign Helping Scientists Protect Diverse Ecosystems
Above Santa Barbara County, the Surface Biology and Geology High-Frequency Time Series, or SHIFT, campaign collects data to understand land and aquatic ecosystems. Read More

EARTH.

California Field Campaign Helping Scientists Protect Diverse Ecosystems

A research plane collecting spectral imaging data of vegetation on land and in the ocean as part of the SHIFT campaign flies just off the Central Coast of California near Point Conception and the Jack and Laura Dangermond Preserve in February. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech Full Image Details

The SHIFT campaign uses a research plane carrying the AVIRIS-NG instrument to collect data on the function, health, and resilience of plant communities in the 640-square-mile (1,656-square-kilometer) area of Santa Barbara County and the nearby ocean shown in this annotated map. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech Full Image Details

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CLIMATE CHANGE

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WEATHER
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To assess how climate warming will change risks such as crop failures and wildfires, it’s necessary to look at how the risks are likely to interact. Read More

WEATHER.

New Space-Based Weather Instruments Start Gathering Data

MARS

NASA’s Mars Helicopter Scouts Ridgeline for Perseverance Science Team

NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter scouted this ridgeline near the ancient river delta in Jezero Crater because it is of interest to Perseverance rover scientists. Enlarged at right is a close-up of one of the ridgeline’s rocky outcrops. The image was captured on April 23, during the rotorcraft’s 27th flight.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-mars-helicopter-scouts-ridgeline-for-perseverance-science-team

 

MARS
NASA’s Mars Helicopter Spots Gear That Helped Perseverance Rover Land
Eyeing some of the components that enabled the rover to get safely to the Martian surface could provide valuable insights for future missions. Read More

This image of Perseverance’s backshell and parachute was collected by NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter during its 26th flight on April 19, 2022.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Full Image Details

MARS.

NASA’s Mars Helicopter Spots Gear That Helped Perseverance Rover Land

This image of Perseverance’s backshell and supersonic parachute was captured by NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter during its 26th flight on Mars on April 19, 2022.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Full Image Details 

SOLAR SYSTEM
Greenland Ice, Jupiter Moon Share Similar Feature
Parallel ice ridges, a common feature on Jupiter’s moon Europa, are found on Greenland’s ice sheet – and could bode well for Europa’s potential habitability. Read More

 The surface geology of Jupiter’s icy moon Europa is on display in this view made from images taken by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute

SOLAR SYSTEM.

Greenland Ice, Jupiter Moon Share Similar Feature

A double ridge cutting across the surface of Europa is seen in this mosaic of two images taken by NASA’s Galileo during the spacecraft’s close flyby on Feb. 20, 1997. Analysis of a similar feature in Greenland suggests shallow liquid water may be ubiquitous across the Jovian moon’s icy shell.

Credit: NASA/JPL/ASU

SOLAR SYSTEM
NASA Extends Exploration for 8 Planetary Science Missions

An illustration shows our solar system (not to scale).

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Among the missions are InSight, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Curiosity, all of which have been critical to expanding our understanding of the Red Planet. Read More

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasa-extends-exploration-for-8-planetary-science-missions

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Captures Video of Solar Eclipse on Mars

April 20, 2022

The Mastcam-Z camera recorded video of Phobos, one of the Red Planet’s two moons, to study how its orbit is changing over time.

NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover used its Mastcam-Z camera to shoot video of Phobos, one of Mars’ two moons, eclipsing the Sun. It’s the most zoomed-in, highest-frame-rate observation of a Phobos solar eclipse ever taken from the Martian surface. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS/SSI Full Image Details

NASA’s Perseveranc

MARS.

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Captures Video of Solar Eclipse on Mars

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Sees Solar Eclipse on Mars

Apr 20, 2022           NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover used its Mastcam-Z camera system to shoot video of Phobos, one of Mars’ two moons, eclipsing the Sun. It’s the most zoomed-in, highest frame-rate observation of a Phobos solar eclipse ever taken from the Martian surface. Several Mars rovers have observed Phobos crossing in front of the Sun over the past 18 years. Spirit and Opportunity made the first observations back in 2004; Curiosity in 2019 was the first to record video of the event. Each time these eclipses are observed, they allow scientists to measure subtle shifts in Phobos’ orbit over time. The moon’s tidal forces pull on the deep interior of the Red Planet, as well as its crust and mantle; studying how much Phobos shifts over time reveals something about how resistant the crust and mantle are, and thus what kinds of materials they’re made of. The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA’s Moon to Mars exploration approach, which includes Artemis missions to the Moon that will help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS/SSI

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Arrives at Delta for New Science Campaign

April 19, 2022

MARS.

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Arrives at Delta for New Science Campaign

The expanse of Jezero Crater’s river delta is shown in this panorama of 64 stitched-together images taken by the Mastcam-Z system on NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover on April 11, 2022, the 406th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS Full Image Details

This image of the parachute that helped deliver NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover to the Martian surface was taken by the rover’s Mastcam-Z instrument on April 6, 2022.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

Full Image Details

“The delta at Jezero Crater pr

For more information, please visit the following link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-perseverance-rover-arrives-at-delta-for-new-science-campaign

MARS.

What Sounds Captured by NASA’s Perseverane Rover Reveal About Mars

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Captures Puff, Whir, Zap Sounds from Mars

Apr 1, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Listen closely to new sounds from Mars recorded by NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover, including puffs and pings from a rover tool, light Martian wind, the whirring of the agency’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter, and laser zaps. Most of the sounds – best heard through headphones with the sound up – were recorded using the microphone belonging to Perseverance’s SuperCam instrument, mounted on the head of the rover’s mast. Other sounds, including the puffs and pings from the rover’s Gaseous Dust Removal Tool, or gDRT, blowing shavings off rock faces, were recorded by another microphone mounted on the chassis of the rover. A new study based on recordings made by the rover reveals that the speed of sound is slower on the Red Planet than on Earth and that, mostly, a deep silence prevails in the much thinner atmosphere. For more information on the study go to: https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/what-so… For more about Perseverance go to mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/ and nasa.gov/perseverance. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS/LANL/CNES/IRAP

This illustration indicates the placement of Perseverance’s two microphones. The microphone on the mast is part of the SuperCam science instrument. The microphone on the side of the rover was intended to capture the sounds of entry, descent, and landing for public engagement.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Full Image Details

 

JPL LIFE

NASA Wins 3 Webby Awards, 5 People’s Voice Awards for 2022

April 27, 2022

The awards are the highest honor for online communications.

Credit: Webby Awards

The JPL-managed NASA’s Global Climate Change and Solar System Exploration sites, along with JPL’s virtual tour, are among the winners.

 Read More

JPL LIFE

JPL Commits to First-Ever Space Industry Diversity Pledge
Interim Director Larry James joined 22 executives in a commitment to significantly increase the number of women and employees from underrepresented groups by 2030. Read More

Inclusion is a JPL core value.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Interim Director Larry James joined 22 executives in a commitment to significantly increase the number of women and employees from underrepresented groups by 2030.

Twenty-three space industry executives, including Larry James, interim director of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, gathered at the 37th Space Symposium in Colorado Springs, Colorado, on April 5 to pledge their commitment to advancing diversity across the collective workforce in coming years.

The executives signed the “Space Workforce 2030” pledge, the first-ever space industry commitment of its kind to “significantly increase the number of women and employees from underrepresented groups.” Each company will agree to annual reporting of data on diversity in our collective technical workforce, a regular cadence of exchanges of best practices, and work with universities to increase the number of diverse and underrepresented students graduating ready to join the space industry.

“We’re excited to be a part of this industry initiative and continuing to lead the way in growing our diverse and inclusive workforce,” said James. “We know that these qualities lead to stronger teams and innovative solutions – key things we need here at JPL as we tackle the toughest challenges in science and engineering.”

Cozette Hart, JPL’s director for human resources, is proud of JPL’s partnership in this effort.

“We’ve shared JPL DEI data in our annual report, so the unification and commitment of our industry to broaden this work is an extremely positive step for all of us,” said Hart.

Neela Rajendra, the Lab’s manager of diversity, equity, and inclusion, acknowledged the importance of being part of a cohort of other aerospace organizations where companies can identify trends and learn from each other.

“This is industry-specific and even more powerful,” she said. “There’s a recognition that if we can advance diversity, equity, and inclusion for the industry as a whole, we’ll all benefit from it.”

Collaboration also helps JPL refine its diversity focus areas as the Lab continues to develop its strategic plan, Rajendra added.

By signing the pledge, the companies vow to accomplish the following by 2030:

  • Significantly increase the number of women and employees from underrepresented groups in our collective technical workforce.
  • Significantly increase the number of women and employees from underrepresented groups who hold senior leadership positions in our collective technical workforce.
  • Work with universities to increase the percentages of women and students from underrepresented groups receiving aerospace engineering degrees to levels commensurate with overall engineering programs.
  • Sponsor K-12 programs that collectively reach over 5 million underrepresented students annually.
  • Meet twice a year at the working level to exchange best practices on strengthening diversity recruitment, STEM education outreach, and representation at leadership levels.
  • Seek like-minded leaders and organizations to join this effort.

“This effort links to the DEI recruitment efforts already in place at JPL,” shared Hart. “In partnership with these companies and our universities, colleges, and organizations such as Society of Women Engineers (SWE), National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), etc., we will be implementing even more opportunities for current and potential employees in the future.”

“Essentially, we’re committing to continuing the focus on our talent pipeline and really supporting future employees,” said Rajendra. “It’s about ensuring that all students and future talent have the opportunity to join the technical fields in aerospace regardless of background, socioeconomic status, or self-identity.”

Find the full list of “Space Workforce 2030” signatories below:

  • Roy Azevedo, president of Raytheon Intelligence & Space
  • Payam Banazadeh, CEO at Capella Space
  • Peter Beck, CEO at Rocket Lab
  • Tory Bruno, CEO at United Launch Alliance
  • Jim Chilton, senior VP of Space & Launch at Boeing
  • Michael Colglazier, CEO at Virgin Galactic
  • Eileen Drake, CEO and president of AeroJet Rocketdyne
  • Tim Ellis, CEO at Relativity Space
  • John Gedmark, CEO at Astranis Space Technologies
  • Steve Isakowitz, CEO at The Aerospace Corporation
  • Larry James, acting director at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • Daniel Jablonsky, CEO at Maxar Technologies
  • Dave Kaufman, president of Ball Aerospace
  • Chris Kemp, CEO at Astra
  • Robert Lightfoot, executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Space
  • Will Marshall, CEO at Planet
  • Dan Piemont, president of ABL Space Systems
  • Peter Platzer, CEO at Spire Global
  • John Serafini, CEO at HawkEye 360
  • Gwynne Shotwell, president and chief operating officer of SpaceX
  • Melanie Stricklan, CEO at Slingshot Aerospace
  • Amela Wilson, CEO at Nanoracks
  • Tom Wilson, president of Space Systems at Northrop Grumman

News Media Contact

Matthew Segal

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

818-354-8307

matthew.j.segal@jpl.nasa.gov

2022-052

Get the Latest JPL News

SUBSCRIBE TO THE NEWSLETTER

STARS AND GALAXIES
Webb Telescope’s Coldest Instrument Reaches Operating Temperature
With help from a cryocooler, the Mid-Infrared Instrument has dropped down to just a few degrees above the lowest temperature matter can reach and is ready for calibration. Read More

In this illustration, the multilayered sunshield on NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope stretches out beneath the observatory’s honeycomb mirror. The sunshield is the first step in cooling down Webb’s infrared instruments, but the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) requires additional help to reach its operating temperature.

Credit: NASA GSFC/CIL/Adriana Manrique Gutierrez

STARS AND GALAXIES.

What’s Up – May 2022

April 29, 2022

What are some skywatching highlights in May 2022? May provides some great planet spotting, including a conjunction of Jupiter a conjunction of Jupiter and Mars.

Read More

What are some skywatching highlights in May 2022? May provides some great planet spotting, including a close conjunction of Jupiter and Mars. At mid-month, a total eclipse of the Moon should delight skywatchers across the Americas, Europe, and Africa. And all month long, the Coma star cluster (aka, the Coma Berenices star cluster, or Melotte 111) is a great target for binoculars in the evening.

What’s Up: May 2022 Skywatching Tips from NASA

Apr 29, 2022  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

What are some skywatching highlights in May 2022? May provides some great planet spotting, including a close conjunction of Jupiter and Mars. At mid-month, a total eclipse of the Moon should delight skywatchers across the Americas, Europe, and Africa. And all month long, the Coma star cluster (aka, the Coma Berenices star cluster, or Melotte 111) is a great target for binoculars in the evening. YouTube Full Description (i.e., “Show More”) 0:00 Intro 0:11 Planet-spotting opportunities 1:02 Lunar eclipse 2:27 The Coma star cluster 3:33 May Moon phases Additional information about topics covered in this episode of What’s Up, along with still images from the video, and the video transcript, are available at https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/skywatch….

Chapters

Intro

0:00

Planet-spotting opportunities

0:11

Lunar eclipse

1:02

The Coma star cluster

2:27

May Moon phases

3:33

Transcript:

What’s Up for May? The planets of dusk and dawn, a lunar eclipse, and the Coma star cluster.

May begins and ends with a couple of great planet-spotting opportunities. On May 2nd, look to the west about 45 minutes after sunset to find Mercury about 10 degrees off the horizon, accompanied by a slim crescent moon. Just to the south of the Moon is brilliant red giant star Aldebaran, which should be roughly the same brightness as Mercury. (And by the way, this is the only chance to spot a naked-eye planet in the early evening until August.)

Then in the last week of May, you can watch each morning as Jupiter and Mars get increasingly close in the predawn sky. Their morning meetup culminates in a close conjunction that you can watch on the 28th through the 30th, where they’ll be separated by barely the width of the full moon. Should look incredible with binoculars, where you can also see Jupiter’s largest moons.

Skywatchers in the Western Hemisphere can look forward to a total lunar eclipse in mid-May. The event will be visible across the Americas, Europe, and Africa – basically anywhere the Moon is above the horizon at the time.

The visible part of the eclipse begins about 10:30pm U.S. Eastern time on May 15th, with totality starting an hour later and lasting for about an hour and a half. Those in the Eastern U.S. will see the eclipse start with the Moon well above the horizon. For the Central U.S., the eclipse starts about an hour and a half after dark, with the Moon relatively low in the sky. On the West coast of the U.S., the Moon rises with totality beginning or already underway, so you’ll want to find a clear view toward the southeast if viewing from there.

Now, lunar eclipses are the ones that are safe to look at directly with your eyes, binoculars, or a telescope (unlike solar eclipses).

The Moon takes on a dim, reddish hue during the period of totality. Even though the Moon is fully immersed in Earth’s shadow at that time, red wavelengths of sunlight filter through Earth’s atmosphere and fall onto the Moon’s surface. One way to think of this is that a total lunar eclipse shows us a projection of all the sunrises and sunsets happening on the planet at that moment.

So check your local details for this eclipse, and find lots more eclipse info from NASA at the address on your screen.

Finally in May, a really nice target for binoculars: the Coma star cluster. This loose, open star cluster displays 40 or 50 stars spread over a region of sky about three finger-widths wide. The brightest stars in the cluster form a distinctive Y shape, as seen here.

The Coma star cluster is located about 300 light years away, making it the second closest open cluster to Earth after the Hyades cluster in Taurus.

To find the Coma star cluster, look southward for the constellation Leo. It can be easiest to start from the Big Dipper, toward the north, and use the two “pointer stars” on the end which always point you toward Leo. Once you’ve identified Leo, the Coma star cluster is about 15 degrees to the east of the triangle of stars representing the lion’s hindquarters. It’s relatively easy to find with binoculars, even under light-polluted urban skies – as long as it’s clear out.

So here’s wishing you clear skies for finding the Coma star cluster and any other wonders you discover in the night sky in May.

Here are the phases of the Moon for May.

Stay up to date with all of NASA’s missions to explore the solar system and beyond at nasa.gov. I’m Preston Dyches from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and that’s What’s Up for this month.

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Happy Earth Day Everyone, Let Us Have Peace on Earth

Happy Earth Day Everyone, Let Us Have Peace on Earth

Photographs and Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

This is my studio, where I display some of my artworks.  Avocado plant, tangerine, mango and more plants, keep me company in the wintertime.  Now the weather is getting warmer I will move my plants to our little garden in the backyard.  Some of the plants will be displayed in front of our shop with one of my artworks and one of John artworks on our shutter gate.  I will miss not having the plants in my studio where I spend most of the evening and night, working on my Peace Project.  But now spring has arrived, with roses blooming soon.  The first flowers that appeared few weeks ago were daffodils.  Our daughter Mali’s plant, called “Bleeding Heart”, is flowering with its second to bloom right now.  I will plant the annuals such as Inpatients, Marigolds and a lot more soon.  These annual plants produce beautiful flowers in a variety of colors.  I am looking forward to the beauty of nature that gives us fresh and happy times to come.

Have A Happy Earth Day Everyone, Let Us Have Peace on Earth

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, April 22, 2022

The construction below the Water Lily Pond, my artwork, is Bodhi’s House.  I built this play house for my second grandson, Bodhi, after he was born. The pictures of families from both pairs of grandparents, are posted on all of the walls of this house. Bodhi likes to go inside of his play house to play hide and seek.  The photos of Bodhi are integrated with the artwork by Grandpa John.  Bodhi’s brother Kai, made one painting located at the top corner of the house.

With much Love,

Grandma Ing & Grandpa John, on Earth Day, Friday, April 22, 2022

This is Kai’s play house that was built in the same way I did with Bodhi’s house.  This house is a preservation of memories of Kai, and all the family that had opportunities to be with Kai’s Great Grandparents, on his father’s side.  Sadly, they both passed away few years ago.  Hopefully, when Kai and Bodhi grow up, they will be able to look back to the past with all the pictures of events of the family gathering together when they were young.

With much Love,

Grandma Ing & Grandpa John, on Earth Day, Friday, April 22, 2022

Have A Happy Earth Day Everyone, Let Us Have Peace on Earth

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, April 22, 2022 

Down to Earth: The Astronaut’s Perspective

Premiered Jan 1, 2021  NASA

Ever wonder what it’s like to see our planet from space? NASA’s astronauts will take you on a journey to the International Space Station, exploring the life-changing experience of an orbital perspective. View Earth as you’ve never seen it before: through the eyes of an astronaut.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IEA3jMp5cbc

Green Mountain Grandma – Zero Waste Life

Mar 23, 2022  NHK WORLD-JAPAN

Watch more shows on SDGs on NHK WORLD-JAPAN! https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/on… More quality content available on NHK WORLD-JAPAN! https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/on… Deep in the countryside of central Japan, an artisan makes the most of nature’s bounty while creating new items out of upcycled materials.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rvHJKqU-mZo

Carbon Farming: A Climate Solution Under Our Feet – NHK WORLD PRIME

Mar 28, 2022  NHK WORLD-JAPAN

00:00 – Opening 00:32 – From a NY organic farm 01:45 – Carbon farming: What is it? 03:03 – Regenerative agriculture: A Minnesota Case Study 06:04 – Ray Archuleta: Visually comparing soil health 12:19 – Gabe Brown: The 5 principles 19:14 – Shinano Takuro: Visualized rhizosphere 23:05 – Carbon farming around the world 23:42 – Toshimichi Yoshida: Our dear friend bacteria 38:20 – The ‘4 per 1000’ Initiative 39:20 – Biochar: A Yamanashi Case Study 47:54 – Conclusion Regenerative agriculture, also known as carbon farming, is one way people are taking action against the climate crisis, turning harmful carbon emissions in the atmosphere into nutrient rich soil or biochar and using it to farm organic and sustainable food. Meet carbon farming pioneers like Gabe Brown in the US, Toshimichi Yoshida in Japan and more. Watch more shows on SDGs on NHK WORLD-JAPAN! https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/on… More quality content available on NHK WORLD-JAPAN! https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/on…

Chapters

Opening

0:00

From a NY organic farm

0:32

Carbon farming: What is it?

1:45

Regenerative agriculture: A Minnesota Case Study

3:03

Ray Archuleta: Visually comparing soil health

6:04

Gabe Brown: The 5 principles

12:19

TEDGlobal 2009

July 2009           New York — before the City

400 years after Hudson found New York harbor, Eric Sanderson shares how he made a 3D map of Mannahatta’s fascinating pre-city ecology of hills, rivers, wildlife — accurate down to the block — when Times Square was a wetland and you couldn’t get delivery.

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

About the speaker

Eric Sanderson

Landscape ecologist

See speaker profile

Armed with an 18th-century map, a GPS and reams of data, Eric Sanderson has re-plotted the Manhattan of 1609, just in time for New York’s quadricentennial.

Get more from your TED experience

Deepen your commitment to learning with a TED Membership—you’ll get access to special virtual speaker events, book clubs and so much more.

Countdown Summit

October 2021

How to make radical climate action the new normal

A net-zero future is possible, but first we need to flip a mental switch to truly understand that we can stop the climate crisis if we try, says Nobel laureate Al Gore. In this inspiring and essential talk, Gore shares examples of extreme climate events (think: fires, floods and atmospheric tsunamis), identifies the man-made systems holding us back from progress and invites us all to join the movement for climate justice: “the biggest emergent social movement in all of history,” as he puts it. An unmissable tour de force on the current state of the crisis — and the transformations that will make it possible to find a way out of it.

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

About the speaker

Al Gore  

Climate advocate

See speaker profile

Nobel Laureate Al Gore continues to focus the world’s attention on the global climate crisis.

Learn more

Countdown: A global initiative to accelerate solutions to the climate crisis

Learn how you can help cut the world’s emissions in half by 2030, in the race to a zero-carbon world.

Countdown Summit

October 2021

5 promising factors propelling climate action

Given the scale of the challenge, the conversation around climate change is often tinged with doom and gloom. But climate tech investor Gabriel Kra thinks we need to reframe the crisis as a source of tremendous opportunity. He offers five big reasons to be optimistic about climate — starting with the fact that many of the world’s best minds are focused and working on building a clean future for all.

Read transcript

This talk was presented at an official TED conference. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

Don’t be afraid to take a chance. Go out and get a job working at a company to solve climate change. Or advocate within your current company. But stand up and be a part of the solution. Companies can have an impact, positive or negative, and you can make a difference.

About the speaker

Gabriel Kra

Climate tech investor

See speaker profile

A scientist and entrepreneur, Gabriel Kra invests in solar energy, hydrogen, plant-based food, storage and other climate technologies.

Get more from your TED experience

Deepen your commitment to learning with a TED Membership—you’ll get access to special virtual speaker events, book clubs and so much more.

National Zoo celebrates 50 years of panda conservation https://youtu.be/JOFMNG1NiPM

National Zoo celebrates 50 years of panda conservation

Apr 16, 2022  PBS NewsHour

It was 50 years ago this weekend that giant pandas were first brought to the Smithsonian’s National Zoo in Washington. The historic program with China has fostered a collaboration between scientists and led to a conservation success story for the once endangered species. Geoff Bennett takes an up close look at these popular and precious animals. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Lake Eyre – Commemorative Edition | ABC Australia

Apr 1, 2022  ABC Australia

ABC News reporter Paul Lockyer mounted four separate filming expeditions to Lake Eyre, often with cameraman John Bean and pilot Gary Ticehurst. They captured extraordinary footage of nature at work on a grand scale, as the desert bloomed and water flowed all the way to the parched mouth of the Murray River in South Australia. Birds flocked to the outback in record numbers and the rivers and lakes were brimming with fish. Tragically, on the last of those expeditions in August 2011 the ABC helicopter crashed at Lake Eyre, killing Paul, John and Gary. This 90-minute documentary combines the best footage of those expeditions and shows off Lake Eyre in all its many moods. It also contains special tributes to the three men. Lake Eyre features the footage and commentary from Paul Lockyer that was filmed for the original news documentaries, Lake Eyre – Australia’s Outback Wonder produced in 2009, and the follow-up, Return to Lake Eyre – The Deluge produced in 2010. This special amended version pulls together the stunning images that captured history in the making, following the floodwaters from north Queensland down the great outback rivers to Lake Eyre and recording the extraordinary transformation of an environment that was desolate and stark, that turned into a flourishing oasis. And as producer, Ben Hawke says: “This commemorative edition is a fitting tribute to three great professionals, and three great blokes.” Please note the audio in this program is mono. 00:00:00 | Lake Eyre 00:03:48 | Donald Malcolm Campbell, Bluebird land speed record 00:08:15 | Flinders Ranges 00:11:27 | Australian outback floods 00:13:30 | Professor Richard Kingsford, environmental/ biological expert and river ecologist 00:16:55 | Elder Don Rowlands, Watti Watti and Wangkangurru Yarluyandi man 00:24:20 | David Brook, Birdsville 00:26:18 | Birdsville races 00:35:46 | Australian dry season 00:38:25 | Australian native wild flowers 00:41:43 | Australian desert storms 00:46:15 | Christmas storms 2009 01:05:59 | Birdsville races 01:07:30 | Lake Yamma Yamma on Channel Country in south-western Queensland 01:11:53 | 2010 Australian floods 01:13:30 | Darling River and desert rivers 01:14:48 | Dale McGrath, Glenn McGrath’s brother 01:16:06 | The Coorong, Murry River meets the sea 01:20:15 | Victoria and New South Wales September 2012 floods 01:27:24 | Commemorating Journalist Paul Lockyer, pilot Gary Ticehurst, and cameraman John Bean Subscribe ? and tap the notification bell ? to be delivered Australian stories every day: http://ab.co/ABCAus-subscribe ___________________________________________ Web: http://abc.net.au/ Facebook: http://facebook.com/abc Twitter: http://twitter.com/abcaustralia Instagram: http://instagram.com/abcaustralia ___________________________________________ This is an official Australian Broadcasting Corporation YouTube channel. Contributions may be removed if they violate ABC’s Online Conditions of Use http://www.abc.net.au/conditions.htm (Section 3).

Chapters

Lake Eyre

0:00

Donald Malcolm Campbell, Bluebird land speed record

3:48

Flinders Ranges

8:15

Australian outback floods

11:27

Professor Richard Kingsford, environmental/ biological expert and river ecologist

13:30

Elder Don Rowlands, Watti Watti and Wangkangurru Yarluyandi man

16:55

#AlRoker #Obama #NationalParks

President Obama Discusses Life Post-Presidency And His Lifelong Passion For National Parks 25:20

Apr 15, 2022  TODAY

Watch Al Roker’s extended interview with former President Barack Obama as they discuss climate change, politics and life after the White House. The 44th president gives Al heartfelt advice on dealing with an empty nest and sending kids off to college. Team Obama and Team Roker also hold a nature scavenger hunt with kids from the Boys and Girls Club of Greater Washington and the National Park Service. » Subscribe to TODAY: http://on.today.com/SubscribeToTODAY » Watch the latest from TODAY: http://bit.ly/LatestTODAY About: TODAY brings you the latest headlines and expert tips on money, health and parenting. We wake up every morning to give you and your family all you need to start your day. If it matters to you, it matters to us. We are in the people business. Subscribe to our channel for exclusive TODAY archival footage & our original web series. Connect with TODAY Online! Visit TODAY’s Website: http://on.today.com/ReadTODAY Find TODAY on Facebook: http://on.today.com/LikeTODAY Follow TODAY on Twitter: http://on.today.com/FollowTODAY Follow TODAY on Instagram: http://on.today.com/InstaTODAY #AlRoker #Obama #NationalParks

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NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory News – Month in Review – October 2021 

NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory News – Month in Review – October 2021 

JPL News – Month in Review

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory <jplnewsroom@jpl.nasa.gov>

Friday, October 1, 2021

MONTH IN REVIEW

What’s Up – October 2021
What are some skywatching highlights in October? See several groupings of the Moon, planets, and stars at sunrise and sunset. Then get to know two bright stars that take turns with Polaris as North Star over thousands of years. Plus, Oct. 16 is International Observe the Moon Night!
› Watch now

NASA’s Mars Fleet Lies Low With Sun Between Earth and Red Planet
The missions will continue collecting data about the Red Planet, though engineers back on Earth will stop sending commands to them until mid-October.
› Read the full story

  NASA’s Perseverance Rover Cameras Capture Mars Like Never Before
Scientists tap into an array of imagers aboard the six-wheeled explorer to get a big picture of the Red Planet.
› Read the full story

NASA’s InSight Finds Three Big Marsquakes, Thanks to Solar-Panel Dusting
The lander cleared enough dust from one solar panel to keep its seismometer on through the summer, allowing scientists to study the three biggest quakes they’ve seen on Mars.
› Read the full story

NASA Robots Compete in DARPA’s Subterranean Challenge Final
Led by NASA JPL, Team CoSTAR will participate in the SubT final this week to demonstrate multi-robot autonomy in a series of tests in extreme environments.
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NASA’s Delta-X Helps With Disaster Response in Wake of Hurricane Ida
Researchers flying a radar instrument over coastal wetlands in Louisiana helped with monitoring oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico.
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Solar Electric Propulsion Makes NASA’s Psyche Spacecraft Go
Futuristic electric thrusters emitting a cool blue glow will guide the Psyche spacecraft through deep space to a metal-rich asteroid.
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NASA’s Ingenuity Helicopter Captures a Mars Rock Feature in 3D
The rotorcraft captures nuances of rocky outcrop during aerial reconnaissance.
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Take a 3D Spin on Mars and Track NASA’s Perseverance Rover
Two interactive web experiences let you explore the Martian surface, as seen by cameras aboard the rover and orbiters flying overhead.
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Justin Simon Shepherds Perseverance Through First Phase of Martian Rock Sampling
The Johnson Space Center scientist was tasked with helping guide the way for mission’s first cored Mars rock sample.
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NASA Confirms Thousands of Massive, Ancient Volcanic Eruptions on Mars
Scientists found evidence that a region of northern Mars called Arabia Terra experienced thousands of “super eruptions,” the biggest volcanic eruptions known, over a 500-million-year period.
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Visionary Tech Concepts Could Pioneer the Future in Space
Dozens of concepts are being presented at this year’s NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Symposium, including eight led by technologists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
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NASA’s Perseverance Rover Collects Puzzle Pieces of Mars’ History
The rocks it has analyzed for sample collection are helping the team better understand a past marked by volcanic activity and water.
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Mars Perseverance Team Members to Be Recognized at Hispanic Heritage Awards
The three award recipients – Diana Trujillo, Christina Hernandez, and Clara O’Farrell – are engineers from the NASA rover team.
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NASA’s Perseverance Rover Collects First Mars Rock Sample
The rock core is now enclosed in an airtight titanium sample tube, and will be available for retrieval in the future.
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Planetary Radar Observes 1,000th Near-Earth Asteroid Since 1968
Seven days after this historic milestone, a massive antenna at NASA’s Deep Space Network Goldstone complex imaged another, far larger object.
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NASA’s Perseverance Rover Successfully Cores Its First Rock
Perseverance will obtain additional imagery of the sample tube before potentially completing the process of collecting its first scientifically-selected Mars sample.
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Improving Food Security Through Capacity Building
Millions of people suffer from food insecurity around the globe. With the help of Earth-observing satellites, the NASA-USAID SERVIR project is hoping to reduce that number.
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NASA’s Deep Space Network Looks to the Future
The DSN is being upgraded to communicate with more spacecraft than ever before and to accommodate evolving mission needs.
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NASA’s Perseverance Rover Cameras Capture Mars Like Never Before

Sep 23, 2021

Using its WATSON camera, NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover took this selfie over a rock nicknamed “Rochette,” on Sept.10, 2021, the 198th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Two holes can be seen where the rover used its robotic arm to drill rock core samples.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Full Image Details

Scientists tap into an array of imagers aboard the six-wheeled explorer to get a big picture of the Red Planet.

NASA’s Perseverance rover has been exploring Jezero Crater for more than 217 Earth days (211 Martian days, or sols), and the dusty rocks there are beginning to tell their story – about a volatile young Mars flowing with lava and water.

That story, stretching billions of years into the past, is unfolding thanks in large part to the seven powerful science cameras aboard Perseverance. Able to home in on small features from great distances, take in vast sweeps of Martian landscape, and magnify tiny rock granules, these specialized cameras also help the rover team determine which rock samples offer the best chance to learn whether microscopic life ever existed on the Red Planet.

Altogether, some 800 scientists and engineers around the world make up the larger Perseverance team. That includes smaller teams, from a few dozen to as many as 100, for each of the rover’s cameras and instruments. And the teams behind the cameras must coordinate each decision about what to image.

“The imaging cameras are a huge piece of everything,” said Vivian Sun, the co-lead for Perseverance’s first science campaign at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “We use a lot of them every single day for science. They’re absolutely mission-critical.”

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-perseverance-rover-cameras-capture-mars-like-never-before?utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=nasajpl&utm_content=monthly20211001-19

Mars Report: Update on NASA’s Perseverance Rover SHERLOC Instrument (September 23rd, 2021)

Sep 23, 2021  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover has been hard at work using the SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals) instrument to help determine the best rocks to sample and look for signs of ancient life. Mounted on the rover’s robotic arm, SHERLOC is the only instrument that can directly detect organics, which are building blocks for life. Because it characterizes the chemical composition of rocks, SHERLOC can also help scientists understand whether any of the rocks formed in an ancient habitable environment. SHERLOC features spectrometers, a laser, and cameras, including WATSON (Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering). WATSON is a color camera that takes close-up images of rock grains and surface textures. This video provides an instrument update by Eva Scheller, one of the science team members from Caltech. For more information on Perseverance, visit https://mars.nasa.gov/perseverance. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Watch as Caltech’s Eva Scheller, a member of the Perseverance science team, provides a snapshot of the rover’s SHERLOC science instrument. Mounted on the rover’s robotic arm, SHERLOC features spectrometers, a laser, and cameras, including WATSON, which takes close-up images of rock grains and surface textures.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The storytelling began soon after Perseverance landed in February, and the stunning images have been stacking up as the multiple cameras conduct their scientific investigations. Here’s how they work, along with a sampling of what some have found so far:

The Big Picture

Perseverance’s two navigation cameras – among nine engineering cameras – support the rover’s autonomous driving capability. And at each stop, the rover first employs those two cameras to get the lay of the land with a 360-degree view.

Perseverance looks back with one of its navigation cameras toward its tracks on July 1, 2021 (the 130th sol, or Martian day, of its mission), after driving autonomously 358 feet (109 meters) – its longest autonomous drive to date. The image has been processed to enhance the contrast.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Full Image Details

“The navigation camera data is really useful to have those images to do a targeted science follow-up with higher-resolution instruments such as SuperCam and Mastcam-Z,” Sun said.

Perseverance’s six hazard avoidance cameras, or Hazcams, include two pairs in front (with only a single pair in use at any one time) to help avoid trouble spots and to place the rover’s robotic arm on targets; the two rear Hazcams provide images to help place the rover in the context of the broader landscape.

Mastcam-Z, a pair of “eyes” on the rover’s mast, is built for the big picture: panoramic color shots, including 3D images, with zoom capability. It can also capture high-definition video.

Perseverance Mars rover used its Mastcam-Z camera system to create this enhanced-color panorama, which scientists used to look for rock-sampling sites. The panorama is stitched together from 70 individual images taken on July 28, 2021, the 155th Martian day, or sol, of the mission.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

Full Image Details

Jim Bell at Arizona State University leads the Mastcam-Z team, which has been working at high speed to produce images for the larger group. “Part of our job on this mission has been a sort of triage,” he said. “We can swing through vast swaths of real estate and do some quick assessment of geology, of color. That has been helping the team figure out where to target instruments.”

Color is key: Mastcam-Z images allow scientists to make links between features seen from orbit by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and what they see on the ground.

The instrument also functions as a low-resolution spectrometer, dividing the light it captures into 11 colors. Scientists can analyze the colors for clues about the composition of the material giving off the light, helping them decide which features to zoom in on with the mission’s true spectrometers.

For instance, there’s a well-known series of images from March 17. It shows a wide escarpment, aka the “Delta Scarp,” that is part of a fan-shaped river delta that formed in the crater long ago. After Mastcam-Z provided the broad view, the mission turned to SuperCam for a closer look.

The Long View

This image of an escarpment, or scarp – a long, steep slope – along the delta of Mars’ Jezero Crater was generated using data from the Perseverance rover’s Mastcam-Z instrument. The inset image at top is a close-up provided by the Remote Microscopic Imager, which is part of the SuperCam instrument.

Credit: RMI: NASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/CNRS/ASU/MSSSMastcam-Z: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/MSSS

Full Image Details

Scientists use SuperCam to study mineralogy and chemistry, and to seek evidence of ancient microbial life. Perched near Mastcam-Z on Perseverance’s mast, it includes the Remote Micro-Imager, or RMI, which can zoom in on features the size of a softball from more than a mile away.

Once Mastcam-Z provided images of the scarp, the SuperCam RMI homed in on a corner of it, providing close-ups that were later stitched together for a more revealing view.

To Roger Wiens, principal investigator for SuperCam at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, these images spoke volumes about Mars’ ancient past, when the atmosphere was thick enough, and warm enough, to allow water to flow on the surface.

“This is showing huge boulders,” he said. “That means there had to have been some huge flash flooding that occurred that washed boulders down the riverbed into this delta formation.”

The chock-a-block layers told him even more.

“These large boulders are partway down the delta formation,” Wiens said. “If the lakebed was full, you would find these at the very top. So the lake wasn’t full at the time the flash flood happened. Overall, it may be indicating an unstable climate. Perhaps we didn’t always have this very placid, calm, habitable place that we might have liked for raising some micro-organisms.”

In addition, scientists have picked up signs of igneous rock that formed from lava or magma on the crater floor during this early period. That could mean not only flowing water, but flowing lava, before, during, or after the time that the lake itself formed.

These clues are crucial to the mission’s search for signs of ancient Martian life and potentially habitable environments. To that end, the rover is taking samples of Martian rock and sediment that future missions could return to Earth for in-depth study.

The (Really) Close-up

Perseverance took this close-up of a rock target nicknamed “Foux” using its WATSON camera on July 11, 2021, the 139th Martian day, r sol, of the mission. The area within the camera is roughly 1.4 by 1 inches (3.5 centimeters by 2.6 centimeters).

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Full Image Details

A variety of Perseverance’s cameras assist in the selection of those samples, including WATSON (the Wide Angle Topographic Sensor for Operations and eNgineering).

Located at the end of the rover’s robotic arm, WATSON provides extreme closeups of rock and sediment, zeroing in on the variety, size, shape, and color of tiny grains – as well as the “cement” between them – in those materials. Such information can lend insight into Mars’ history as well as the geological context of potential samples.

WATSON also helps engineers position the rover’s drill for extracting rock core samples and produces images of where the sample came from.

The imager partners with SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman & Luminescence for Organics & Chemicals), which includes an Autofocus and Contextual Imager (ACI), the rover’s highest-resolution camera. SHERLOC uses an ultraviolet laser to identify certain minerals in rock and sediment, while PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry), also on the robotic arm, uses X-rays to determine the chemical composition. These cameras, working in concert with WATSON, have helped capture geologic data – including signs of that igneous rock on the crater floor – with a precision that has surprised scientists.

“We’re getting really cool spectra of materials formed in aqueous [watery] environments – for example sulfate and carbonate,” said Luther Beegle, SHERLOC’s principal investigator at JPL.

Engineers also use WATSON to check on the rover’s systems and undercarriage – and to take Perseverance selfies (here’s how).

Beegle says not just the strong performance of the imaging instruments, but their ability to endure the harsh environment on the Martian surface, gives him confidence in Perseverance’s chances for major discoveries.

“Once we get over closer to the delta, where there should be really good preservation potential for signs of life, we’ve got a really good chance of seeing something if it’s there,” he said.

More About the Mission

A key objective for Perseverance’s mission on Mars is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet’s geology and past climate, pave the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith (broken rock and dust).

Subsequent NASA missions, in cooperation with ESA (European Space Agency), would send spacecraft to Mars to collect these sealed samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA’s Moon to Mars exploration approach, which includes Artemis missions to the Moon that will help prepare for human exploration of the Red Planet.

JPL, which is managed for NASA by Caltech in Pasadena, California, built and manages operations of the Perseverance rover.

For more about Perseverance:

mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

nasa.gov/perseverance

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

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NASA Headquarters, Washington

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Written by Pat Brennan

2021-199

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasas-perseverance-rover-cameras-capture-mars-like-never-before?utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=nasajpl&utm_content=monthly20211001-19

Mars Perseverance Team Members to Be Recognized at Hispanic Heritage Awards

Sep 08, 2021

From left to right: Diana Trujillo, Christina Hernandez, and Clara O’Farrell are engineers with NASA’s Mars Perseverance rover team.

Credit: Hispanic Heritage Foundation

The three award recipients – Diana Trujillo, Christina Hernandez, and Clara O’Farrell – are engineers from the NASA rover team.

Three Latina engineers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California are the 2021 recipients of STEM Awards from the Hispanic Heritage Foundation. They will be honored for their significant roles in the agency’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mission during the 34th Hispanic Heritage Awards broadcast on PBS Oct. 8, joined by Carlos Santana, Ivy Queen, and others.

NASA JPL recipients are:

  • Christina Hernandez began her work at JPL in the Natural Space Environments group and as mission assurance manager on STABLE (Sub arcsecond Telescope and Balloon Experiment). Her Mars-related work began with impact assessment to keep Mars spacecraft safe during the Comet Siding Spring event. As a payload systems engineer for Perseverance, she has worked on three of its seven science instruments. Her work on the rover’s PIXL (short for Planetary Instrument for X-Ray Lithochemistry) will help scientists hunt for signs of ancient microbial life by taking super-close images of rock and soil textures and using its X-ray spectrometer to identify chemical elements within them.
  • Clara O’Farrell, who is originally from Argentina, moved to the U.S. on her 19th birthday to start college. She studied aerospace engineering at Princeton and completed a doctoral degree at Caltech with research on fluid dynamics of jellyfish swimming. After joining JPL in 2013, she began her work on parachutes, aerodynamics, and trajectory simulation for Mars entry, descent, and landing. Her accomplishments as a guidance and control engineer include certifying a supersonic parachute to land Perseverance via supersonic sounding rocket tests.
  • Diana Trujillo, an aerospace engineer, is currently Technical Group Supervisor for Sequence Planning and Execution and a Tactical Mission Lead for Perseverance. Born and raised in Colombia, Trujillo immigrated to the U.S. at the age of 17 to pursue her dream of working for NASA. While enrolled in English-as-a-second-language courses, she also worked full time to support her studies in community college and later the University of Florida and University of Maryland. Diana has held several roles for NASA and JPL, including Mars Curiosity Mission Lead, Deputy Project System Engineer, and Deputy Team Chief of Engineering Operations on Curiosity. Trujillo has also been active in sharing the excitement and opportunities of STEM with the public. She created and hosted #JuntosPerseveramos, NASA’s first-ever Spanish-language live broadcast of a major mission milestone (Perseverance landing on Mars), attracting millions of viewers worldwide.

“Congratulations to Christina, Clara, and Diana on receiving this prestigious STEM award,” said Dr. Jim Green, NASA’s chief scientist. “Each of them was integral to the planning, development, and successful landing of our Mars Perseverance rover. Our Mars Perseverance mission will advance NASA’s quest to explore past habitability of the Red Planet. Because of the hard work and dedication of our team, we can now look for past microbial life through the collection of core rock and soil samples and test technologies that will pave the way for future human exploration of Mars. Thank you to the Hispanic Heritage Foundation for their consideration and for this outstanding recognition of our extremely talented, diverse, and inspirational NASA workforce.”

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In the Hispanic Heritage Foundation’s news release, the organization’s president and CEO, Jose Antonio Tijerino, said, “As leaders in the STEM space, these inspirational Latinas demonstrate the great vision and value proposition our community presents America. These engineers also represent role models for aspiring Latinx engineers in expanding human knowledge and scientific discovery.”

The Hispanic Heritage Awards are produced by the Hispanic Heritage Foundation and were created by the White House in 1988 to commemorate the establishment of Hispanic Heritage Month in America. The awards are among the highest honors by Latinos for Latinos and are supported by 40 national Hispanic-serving institutions. The Foundation’s programs focus on education, workforce, and social impact through the lens of leadership.

More information at: https://www.hispanicheritage.org.

To learn more about Perseverance, visit:

https://nasa.gov/perseverance

and

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

News Media Contact

DC Agle / Andrew Good

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

818-393-9011 / 818-393-2433

agle@jpl.nasa.gov / andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov

2021-188

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/mars-perseverance-team-members-to-be-recognized-at-hispanic-heritage-awards

Delta-X Oil Slick Radar Signal in Gulf of Mexico

Sep 20, 2021

An oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico following Hurricane Ida – a high-end Category 4 when it made landfall near Port Fourchon, Louisiana, on Aug. 29, 2021 – appears as a green trail in the inset false-color graphic provided by NASA’s Delta-X project, while the surrounding seawater appears orange. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) regularly monitors U.S. coastal waters for potential spills and noticed slicks that appeared just off the coast after the hurricane. They were able to use this information from Delta-X to corroborate other data they had about oil slicks in the area (satellite image in the second inset picture). The blue-green swath crossing from the Gulf of Mexico over the Louisiana coast denotes the flight path of the Delta-X radar instrument on Sept. 1, just before 11:30 a.m. CDT.

Charged with studying the Mississippi River Delta, Delta-X was gearing up to collect data on Louisiana’s coastal wetlands when Hurricane Ida barreled ashore in late August. The storm damaged buildings and infrastructure alike, resulting in power outages, flooding, and oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico.

Oil tends to smooth out the bumps on the ocean’s surface, which results in a distinct radar signal that the Delta-X mission was able to pick out of their data. Delta-X added flight paths to their planned schedule – with the support of NASA’s Applied Science Disaster Program – in order to collect information over the gulf in areas of interest to NOAA.

Delta-X is studying two wetlands – the Atchafalaya and Terrebonne Basins – by land, boat, and air to quantify water and sediment flow as well as vegetation growth. While the Atchafalaya Basin has been gaining land through sediment accumulation, Terrebonne Basin, which is right next to the Atchafalaya, has been rapidly losing land. The data collected by the project will be applied to models used to forecast which areas of the delta are likely to gain or lose land under various sea level rise, river flow, and watershed management scenarios.

The mission uses several instruments to collect its data. Affixed to the bottom of a Gulfstream-III airplane, one of those instruments, the all-weather Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR), bounces radar signals off of Earth’s surface, forming a kind of image of a particular area. Repeated images of the same regions, captured at different times, enable researchers to detect changes in those areas, such as fluctuating water levels beneath the vegetation as the tides move in and out of these wetlands. In addition to radar measurements, teams from Caltech, Louisiana State University, Florida International University, and other collaborating institutions gather water and vegetation samples – among other data – by boat, other airborne sensors, and from instruments on the ground.

Funded by NASA’s Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS-3) program, Delta-X is managed by the agency’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages JPL for NASA. Fall 2021 was Delta-X’s last scheduled field campaign, although the five-year mission will run through the end of 2023.

To learn more about the Delta-X mission, visit: https://deltax.jpl.nasa.gov

Hurricane Ida, August 27, 2021

Oct 07, 2021

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/hurricane-ida-august-27-2021

On August 27, 2021 Ida crossed over Cuba as a Category 1 Storm. 48 hours later the storm intensified to a Category 4 before making landfall on the coast of Louisiana. The storm was the second most destructive storm to ever make landfall on the Louisiana coast with sustained winds over 150 mph (240 km/h).

The rapid intensification process that the storm system underwent is not well understood. Satellite images such as this are helpful as scientists attempt to understand new weather patterns that are emerging with Global Climate Change.

Tasked with detecting plant water use and stress, ECOSTRESS’s primary mission is to measure the temperature of plants heating up as they run out of water. But it can also measure and track heat-related phenomena like wildfires, heat waves, and volcanoes. ECOSTRESS observations have a spatial resolution of about 77 by 77 yards (70 by 70 meters), which enables researchers to study surface-temperature conditions down to the size of a football field. Due to the space station’s unique orbit, the mission can acquire images of the same regions at different times of the day, as opposed to crossing over each area at the same time of day like satellites in other orbits do. This is advantageous when monitoring plant stress in the same area throughout the day, for example.

The ECOSTRESS mission launched to the space station on June 29, 2018. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, built and manages the mission for the Earth Science Division in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. ECOSTRESS is an Earth Venture Instrument mission; the program is managed by NASA’s Earth System Science Pathfinder program at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

More information about ECOSTRESS is available here: https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/.

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/delta-x-oil-slick-radar-signal-in-gulf-of-mexico

July 2021 Heat Wave Surface Temperature

Jul 15, 2021

Click here for movie

Collecting temperature readings in the atmosphere and at the surface, NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard the agency’s Aqua satellite captured the progression of a slow-moving heat dome across the southwestern U.S. from July 1 to July 12, 2021. The animation of the AIRS data shows surface air temperature anomalies – values above or below long-term averages. The hottest areas, shown in pink, experienced surface air temperatures more than 10 degrees Fahrenheit (5.6 degrees Celsius) above average. Surface air temperature is something that people directly feel when they are outside.

AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), senses emitted infrared and microwave radiation from Earth to provide a three-dimensional look at the planet’s weather and climate. Working in tandem, the two instruments make simultaneous observations down to Earth’s surface. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, three-dimensional map of atmospheric temperature and humidity, cloud amounts and heights, greenhouse gas concentrations, and many other atmospheric phenomena. Launched into Earth orbit in 2002, the AIRS and AMSU instruments fly aboard NASA’s Aqua spacecraft and are managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of Caltech.

More information about AIRS can be found at https://airs.jpl.nasa.gov.

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/july-2021-heat-wave-surface-temperature

ECOSTRESS Views 2021 Northern California Dixie Fire

Jul 29, 2021

Click here for animation

NASA’s ECOSTRESS captured data over Northern California’s Dixie Fire, which had ballooned to over 220,000 acres as of July 29, 2021. In the data visualization, the red areas show the hottest pixels – and fire movement – from July 15 to July 24. The most heavily affected areas are south of Lake Almanor in Plumas County.

Tasked with detecting plant water use and stress from the vantage point of the International Space Station, ECOSTRESS’s primary mission is to measure the temperature of plants heating up as they run out of water. But it can also measure and track heat-related phenomena like wildfires, heat waves, and volcanoes. ECOSTRESS observations have a spatial resolution of about 77 by 77 yards (70 by 70 meters), which enables researchers to study surface-temperature conditions down to the size of a football field. Due to the space station’s unique orbit, the mission can acquire images of the same regions at different times of the day, as opposed to crossing over each area at the same time of day like satellites in other orbits do. This is advantageous when monitoring plant stress in the same area throughout the day, for example.

The ECOSTRESS mission launched to the space station on June 29, 2018. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, built and manages the mission for the Earth Science Division in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. ECOSTRESS is an Earth Venture Instrument mission; the program is managed by NASA’s Earth System Science Pathfinder program at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

More information about ECOSTRESS is available here: https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/.

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ecostress-views-2021-northern-california-dixie-fire

ECOSTRESS Views 2021 Southern Oregon Bootleg Fire

Jul 29, 2021

Click here for animation

NASA’s ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) is aiding in the fight against fires in the Western U.S. As of July 27, 2021, the Bootleg Fire in southern Oregon had ballooned to more than 410,000 acres, damaging hundreds of buildings and vehicles in its path.

ECOSTRESS measures surface temperature from the vantage point of the International Space Station. Researchers of the RADR-Fire team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been experimenting with ECOSTRESS data as part of a new tool now being implemented for first responders like the U.S. Forest Service.

In the visualization, ECOSTRESS is tracking the movement of the Bootleg Fire between July 7 and July and identifying its proximity to critical infrastructure — areas in red represent the hottest pixels ECOSTRESS detected. The extreme heat in those areas indicates the fire front, or where resources are most needed.

Tasked with detecting plant water use and stress, ECOSTRESS’s primary mission is to measure the temperature of plants heating up as they run out of water. But it can also measure and track heat-related phenomena like wildfires, heat waves, and volcanoes. ECOSTRESS observations have a spatial resolution of about 77 by 77 yards (70 by 70 meters), which enables researchers to study surface-temperature conditions down to the size of a football field. Due to the space station’s unique orbit, the mission can acquire images of the same regions at different times of the day, as opposed to crossing over each area at the same time of day like satellites in other orbits do. This is advantageous when monitoring plant stress in the same area throughout the day, for example.

The ECOSTRESS mission launched to the space station on June 29, 2018. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, built and manages the mission for the Earth Science Division in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. ECOSTRESS is an Earth Venture Instrument mission; the program is managed by NASA’s Earth System Science Pathfinder program at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

More information about ECOSTRESS is available here: https://ecostress.jpl.nasa.gov/.

For more information, please following the link:

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ecostress-views-2021-southern-oregon-bootleg-fire

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 Highlighting an Upcoming Earth-Observing Mission on This Week @NASA – August 20, 2021 NASA

Axios AM: By Mike Allan, Aug 20, 2021- Extreme heat becomes global health issue

Live Science: Fusion experiment breaks record, blasts out 10 quadrillion watts of power and more, Aug 19 & 20, 2021

PBS NewsHour full episode, Aug. 20, 2021

Aug 20, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, the Taliban targets Afghans who worked with the United States as their desperation to flee the country intensifies. Then, despite soaring levels of new COVID cases in Florida, school officials face backlash to face cover mandates. And, Jonathan Capehart and Michael Gerson break down President Biden’s handling of the Afghanistan crisis and the politics of mask mandates. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS Anxious Afghans rush airport gates in bid to flee country https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkUzA… News Wrap: FDA to grant full approval to Pfizer vaccine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eBjlL… How the U.S. ignored corruption within the Afghan government https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJ4Y0… Examining Florida’s politicization of school mask mandates https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doJkI… Gerson and Capehart on Afghanistan, school mask mandates https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GrrBu… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

NBC Nightly News Full Broadcast – August 20th, 2021

Aug 20, 2021  NBC News

President Biden pledges to evacuate all Americans trapped in Afghanistan, chaos outside Kabul airport with evacuations ongoing, and the battle over masks in schools intensifies across the South. Watch “NBC Nightly News With Lester Holt” at 6:30 p.m. ET / 5:30 p.m. CT (or check your local listings). 00:00 Intro 02:10 Biden: We Will Get You Home 09:06 Masks In Schools Debate 12:18 Jeopardy Host Backlash 13:58 Heat Wave Deaths 16:36 Families Of The Fallen 19:14 Inspiring America: Big Steps After An Injury » Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC » Watch more NBC video: http://bit.ly/MoreNBCNews NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. Connect with NBC News Online! NBC News App: https://apps.nbcnews.com/mobile Breaking News Alerts: https://link.nbcnews.com/join/5cj/bre… Visit NBCNews.Com: http://nbcnews.to/ReadNBC Find NBC News on Facebook: http://nbcnews.to/LikeNBC Follow NBC News on Twitter: http://nbcnews.to/FollowNBC Follow NBC News on Instagram: http://nbcnews.to/InstaNBC #NBCNews #Afghanistan #MaskMandates

Ransomware: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)

Aug 16, 2021  LastWeekTonight

John Oliver discusses ransomware attacks, why they’re on the rise, and what can be done about them. Connect with Last Week Tonight online… Subscribe to the Last Week Tonight YouTube channel for more almost news as it almost happens: www.youtube.com/lastweektonight Find Last Week Tonight on Facebook like your mom would: www.facebook.com/lastweektonight Follow us on Twitter for news about jokes and jokes about news: www.twitter.com/lastweektonight Visit our official site for all that other stuff at once: www.hbo.com/lastweektonight

The Genius of 3D Printed Rockets

Aug 12, 2021  Veritasium

3D printed rockets save on up front tooling, enable rapid iteration, decrease part count, and facilitate radically new designs. For your chance to win 2 seats on one of the first Virgin Galactic flights to Space and support a great cause, go to https://www.omaze.com/veritasium Thanks to Tim Ellis and everyone at Relativity Space for the tour! https://www.relativityspace.com/ https://youtube.com/c/RelativitySpace Special thanks to Scott Manley for the interview and advising on aerospace engineering. Check out his channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/szyzyg ?????????????????????????? References: Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Parts. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketParts Boen, B. (2009). Winter Wonder: Rocket Icicles. NASA. — https://ve42.co/EngineIcicles Hall, N. (2021). Rocket Thrust Equation. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketEqn Benson, T. (2021). Rocket Thrust. NASA. — https://ve42.co/RocketThrust Regenerative Cooling — https://ve42.co/RegenCooling How A Gold Bullet Almost Destroyed A Space Shuttle by Scott Manley — https://ve42.co/ManleyEngine ?????????????????????????? Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy ‘kkm’ K’Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal ?????????????????????????? Written by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang Animation by Mike Radjabov Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, Trenton Oliver, and Emily Zhang Edited by Trenton Oliver SFX by Shaun Clifford Additional video supplied by Getty Images & Pond5 Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

The Plane That Will Change Travel Forever

Aug 2, 2021  Real Engineering

Get a free month of Nebula with any Real Engineering merch: https://store.nebula.app/collections/… New streaming platform: https://watchnebula.com/ Vlog channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCMet… Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=282505… Facebook: http://facebook.com/realengineering1 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/brianjamesm… Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/RealEngineer… Twitter: https://twitter.com/thebrianmcmanus Discord: https://discord.gg/s8BhkmN Get your Real Engineering shirts at: https://standard.tv/collections/real-… Credits: Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus Editor: Dylan Hennessy (https://www.behance.net/dylanhennessy1) Animator: Mike Ridolfi (https://www.moboxgraphics.com/) Sound: Graham Haerther (https://haerther.net/) Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster https://twitter.com/forgottentowel References: References: [1] https://theicct.org/sites/default/fil… [2] https://spinoff.nasa.gov/Spinoff2010/… [3] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science… [4] Page 19 https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/fi… [5] https://www.statista.com/statistics/6…. [6] https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/1.9084 [7] https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Displ… [8] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science… [9] Page 81 https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/fi… [10] https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/1.9084 [11] Page 20 https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/fi… [12] Webinar by Mark Page a pioneer in the blended wing body design. https://youtu.be/x0vYuPmOPYE & https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/air… [13] https://www.businessinsider.com/boein… [14] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science… [15] Page 13 https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/1.9084 [16] https://www.boeing.com/history/produc… [17] Page 22 https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/1.9084 [18] Page 1 https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/10.2514/1.9084 Select imagery/video supplied by Getty Images Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage. Music by Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com/creator Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung

Highlighting an Upcoming Earth-Observing Mission on This Week @NASA – August 20, 2021

Aug 20, 2021   NASA

Highlighting an upcoming Earth-observing mission, the science on the next resupply mission to the space station, and testing a new material to help future spacecraft land on distant worlds … a few of the stories to tell you about – This Week at NASA! Download Link: https://images.nasa.gov/details-Highl… Producer: Andre Valentine Editor: Lacey Young Music: Universal Production Music

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Axios AM: Aug 20, 2021

Mike Allen mike@axios.com

Extreme heat becomes global health issue

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios
Heat-related deaths around the world increased by 74% from 1980 to 2016, Axios’ Marisa Fernandez writes from a study published yesterday in The Lancet.

More than 356,000 people died from extreme heat-related causes in just nine countries in 2019, a death toll that’s expected to grow as temperatures increase worldwide.

  • 1.3 million deaths were related to cold — a 31% increase since 1990.

Heat stress can lead to stroke, organ and brain damage. A pair of studies out of the University of Washington found it also causes several types of heart disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease.

Live Science: Fusion experiment breaks record, blasts out 10 quadrillion watts of power and more, Aug 19 & 20, 2021

Created for ingpeaceproject@gmail.com |  Web Version
Top Science News
Milky Way has a 3,000-light-year-long splinter in its arm, and astronomers don’t know why

(NASA/JPL)

The Sagittarius arm of the Milky Way spirals out of our galaxy’s center, forming a swooping highway of gas that spans tens of thousands of light-years. This highway is dotted with the headlights of billions of stars, all seemingly moving along the same curvy track. But now, astronomers have found something unusual — a “break” in the arm, slashing perpendicularly through the spiral like a splinter poking through a piece of wood.

Spanning about 3,000 light-years, this stellar splinter makes up just a fraction of the Milky Way (which has a diameter of about 100,000 light-years). Still, the newfound break is the first major structure to be discovered disrupting the seemingly uniform flow of the galaxy’s Sagittarius arm, according to a study published online July 21 in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

History & Archaeology
Mass grave from Nazi atrocity discovered in Poland’s ‘Death Valley’

(D. Frymark; Antiquity Publications Ltd.)

Archaeologists in Poland have discovered a mass grave that the Nazis tried to destroy at the end of World War II, a new study finds.

The mass grave, filled with the remains of about 500 individuals, is linked to the horrific “Pomeranian Crime” that took place in Poland’s pre-war Pomerania province when the Nazis occupied the country in 1939. The Nazis killed up to 35,000 people in Pomerania at the beginning of the war, and they returned in 1945 to kill even more people, as well as to hide evidence of the prior massacres by exhuming and burning the bodies of victims.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Space Exploration
SpaceX Starlink satellites responsible for over half of close encounters in orbit, scientist says

(SpaceX)

Operators of satellite constellations are constantly forced to move their satellites because of encounters with other spacecraft and pieces of space junk. And, thanks to SpaceX’s Starlink satellites, the number of such dangerous approaches will continue to grow, according to estimates based on available data.

SpaceX’s Starlink satellites alone are involved in about 1,600 close encounters between two spacecraft every week, that’s about 50 % of all such incidents, according to Hugh Lewis, the head of the Astronautics Research Group at the University of Southampton, U.K. These encounters include situations when two spacecraft pass within a distance of 0.6 miles (1 kilometer) from each other.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

Chinese satellite got whacked by hunk of Russian rocket in March

(NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

Yunhai 1-02’s wounds are not self-inflicted.

In March, the U.S. Space Force’s 18th Space Control Squadron (18SPCS) reported the breakup of Yunhai 1-02, a Chinese military satellite that launched in September 2019. It was unclear at the time whether the spacecraft had suffered some sort of failure — an explosion in its propulsion system, perhaps — or if it had collided with something in orbit.

We now know that the latter explanation is correct, thanks to some sleuthing by astrophysicist and satellite tracker Jonathan McDowell, who’s based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Chinese astronomers eye Tibetan Plateau site for observatory project

(NASA JSC)

Chinese astronomers hope to establish a major observatory program on the roof of the world, the Tibetan Plateau, with new research arguing for pristine observing conditions nestled in the uplands.

The analysis focuses on a study site near Lenghu Town in Qinghai Province at an altitude of more than 2.5 miles (4.2 kilometers) and some 1,900 miles (3,000 km) west of Beijing. In the paper, the scientists argue that three years of monitoring shows conditions on par with those at some of the most renowned scientific outposts on Earth.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

Math & Physics
Fusion experiment breaks record, blasts out 10 quadrillion watts of energy

(Damien Jemison/NIF)

Scientists used an unconventional method of creating nuclear fusion to yield a record-breaking burst of energy of more than 10 quadrillion watts, by firing intense beams of light from the world’s largest lasers at a tiny pellet of hydrogen.

Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Northern California said they had focused 192 giant lasers at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) onto a pea-size pellet, resulting in the release of 1.3 megajoules of energy in 100 trillionths of a second — roughly 10% of the energy of the sunlight that hits Earth every moment, and about 70% of the energy that the pellet had absorbed from the lasers. The scientists hope one day to reach the break-even or “ignition” point of the pellet, where it gives off 100% or more energy than it absorbs.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Physicists give weird new phase of matter an extra dimension

(IQOQI Innsbruck/Harald Ritsch)

Physicists have created the first ever two-dimensional supersolid — a bizarre phase of matter that behaves like both a solid and a frictionless liquid at the same time.

Supersolids are materials whose atoms are arranged into a regular, repeating, crystal structure, yet are also able to flow forever without ever losing any kinetic energy. Despite their freakish properties, which appear to violate many of the known laws of physics, physicists have long predicted them theoretically — they first appeared as a suggestion in the work of the physicist Eugene Gross as early as 1957.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Curious Creatures
World’s most elusive giant squid could be monogamous, female corpse hints

(Miyazu Energy Aquarium)

A female of the world’s largest squid — sometimes called the “kraken” after the mythological sea monster — that was caught off the coast of Japan apparently had just one amorous encounter in her lifetime.

The female had sperm packets from just one male giant squid embedded in her body, which surprised researchers. Because giant squid are solitary creatures that probably run across potential mates only occasionally, scientists expected that females would opportunistically collect and store sperm from multiple males over time.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/19)

Your Brain
Lab-made mini brains grow their own sets of ‘eyes’

(Elke Gabriel)

Scientists recently grew mini brains with their own sets of “eyes,” according to a new study.

Organoids are miniature versions of organs that scientists can grow in the lab from stem cells, or cells that can mature into any type of cell in the body. Previously, scientists have developed tiny beating hearts and tear ducts that could cry like humans do. Scientists have even grown mini brains that produce brain waves like those of preterm babies.

Now, a group of scientists has grown mini brains that have something their real counterparts do not: a set of eye-like structures called “optic cups” that give rise to the retina — the tissue that sits in the back of the eye and contains light-sensing cells, according to a statement.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/18)

Daily Quiz

 

POLL QUESTION:

What material is a modern penny mostly made of?

(Learn the answer here)

Zinc

 

Copper

 

Bronze
Tin
LIMATE CHANGE
Antarctica’s ‘Doomsday Glacier’ is fighting an invisible battle against the inner Earth, new study finds

(NASA)

West Antarctica is one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth. For evidence, you need look no further than Thwaites Glacier — also known as the “Doomsday Glacier.”

Since the 1980s, Thwaites has lost an estimated 595 billion tons (540 billion metric tons) of ice, single-handedly contributing 4% to the annual global sea-level rise during that time, Live Science previously reported. The glacier’s rate of ice loss has accelerated substantially in the past three decades, partially due to hidden rivers of comparatively warm seawater slicing across the glacier’s underbelly, as well as unmitigated climate change warming the air and the ocean.

Now, new research suggests that the warming ocean and atmosphere aren’t the only factors pushing Thwaites to the brink; the heat of the Earth itself may also be giving West Antarctica’s glaciers a disproportionately nasty kick.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/20)

Why this weekend’s Blue Moon is extra rare (and how to see it)

(Gary Hershorn/Getty Images)

The saying “once in a blue moon” is especially pertinent this week: This Sunday (Aug. 22), the full Sturgeon Moon is expected to impress skygazers, particularly because of its “blue” designation.

Typically, the term “Blue Moon” refers to the second full moon within the same month. The last one rose on Oct. 31, 2020, when an eerie Blue Moon lit up the night sky on Halloween. But there’s a lesser-known definition, dating to 1528, which applies to the third full moon in a season with four full moons, according to NASA.

Full Story: LiveScience (8/20)

 Go to the top

EARTH SCIENCE, Studying Our Home Planet at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of technology, NASA, Richard Branson makes historic spaceflight, ABC News, CNET Highlights, and NBC News

EARTH SCIENCE, Studying Our Home Planet at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of technology, NASA, Richard Branson makes historic spaceflight, ABC News, CNET Highlights, and NBC News

EARTH SCIENCE: Studying Our Home Planet at JPL, California Institute of technology

EARTH: Assembly of Satellite to Track World’s Water Shifts From US to France

TECHNOLOGY: Deep Space Atomic Clock Moves Toward Increased Spacecraft Autonomy

How NASA’s Deep Space Atomic Clock Could Be the Next Space GPS, Jun 10, 2019  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

EARTH: Major Ocean-Observing Satellite Starts Providing Science Data

SOLAR SYSTEM: NASA Balloon Detects California Earthquake – Next Stop, Venus?

EARTH: Machine Learning Model Doubles Accuracy of Global Landslide ‘Nowcasts’

CLIMATE CHANGE: Local Lockdowns Brought Fast Global Ozone Reductions, NASA Finds

NASA Finds Local Lockdowns Brought Global Ozone Reductions, Jun 9, 2021 NASA Goddard

CLIMATE CHANGE: NASA Map Gives Most Accurate Space-Based View of LA’s Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide Over the L.A. Metropolitan Area, Jun 4, 2021  JPLraw

EARTH: Satellites Show How Earth’s Water Cycle Is Ramping Up as Climate Warms

ROBOTICS: Robotic Navigation Tech Will Explore the Deep Ocean

JPL Robotics: Explore a gallery of cutting-edge robot prototypes being developed for future planetary exploration – VIEW GALLERY

EARTH.  Caldera Collapse Increases the Size and Duration of Volcanic Eruptions

Caldera Collapse Increases Size of Volcanic Eruptions, May 10, 2021  JPLraw

VIDEO. Water-Monitoring Satellite Moves Closer to Launch

Water-Monitoring Satellite Moves Closer to Launch

Jun 30, 2021  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Clean Room Sneak Peek: International SWOT Satellite (Live Q&A), May 20, 2021  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Study Identifies Methane ‘Super-Emitters’ in Largest US Oilfield, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Richard Branson makes historic spaceflight, Jul 11, 2021  ABC News

Watch Richard Branson’s message from space and full post-spaceflight conference, Jul 12, 2021  CNET Highlights

Richard Branson Holds News Conference After Historic Virgin Galactic Space Flight, 7.11.2021 NBC News

 

EARTH SCIENCE

Studying Our Home Planet at JPL

EARTH.

Assembly of Satellite to Track World’s Water Shifts From US to France

TECHNOLOGY.

Deep Space Atomic Clock Moves Toward Increased Spacecraft Autonomy

How NASA’s Deep Space Atomic Clock Could Be the Next Space GPS

Jun 10, 2019  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NASA has perfected new navigation technology that would make self-driving spacecraft and GPS beyond the Moon a reality. The Deep Space Atomic Clock is the first atomic clock small and stable enough to fly on a spacecraft beyond Earth’s orbit. As NASA works to put humans on Mars and the Moon, the clock’s precise timekeeping will be key to these missions’ success. For more about the Deep Space Atomic Clock: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/td…

EARTH.

Major Ocean-Observing Satellite Starts Providing Science Data

SOLAR SYSTEM.

NASA Balloon Detects California Earthquake – Next Stop, Venus?

EARTH.

Machine Learning Model Doubles Accuracy of Global Landslide ‘Nowcasts’

CLIMATE CHANGE.

Local Lockdowns Brought Fast Global Ozone Reductions, NASA Finds

NASA Finds Local Lockdowns Brought Global Ozone Reductions

Jun 9, 2021 NASA Goddard

As the coronavirus pandemic slowed global commerce to a crawl in early 2020, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) – which create ozone, a danger to human health and to climate – decreased 15% globally with local reductions as high as 50%, according to a study led by scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. As a result of the lower NOx emissions, by June 2020 global ozone levels had dropped to a level that policymakers thought it would take at least 15 years to reach by conventional means, such as regulations. Music credit: Universal Production Music: Waiting For Results – Adam John Salkeld [PRS], Neil Pollard [PRS] Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Scientific Visualization Studio Katie Jepson (KBRwyle): Lead Producer Carol Rasmussen (NASA/JPL CalTech): Lead Writer Trent L. Schindler (USRA): Lead Visualizer Kazuyuki Miyazaki (JPL): Scientist Kevin W Bowman (JPL): Scientist Kathryn Mersmann (KBRwyle): Associate Producer Katie Jepson (KBRwyle): Editor This video can be freely shared and downloaded at https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13871. While the video in its entirety can be shared without permission, some individual imagery is provided by pond5.com and is obtained through permission and may not be excised or remixed in other products. Specific details on stock footage may be found here https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13871. For more information on NASA’s media guidelines, visit https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/guide… If you liked this video, subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/NASAGoddard Follow NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center · Instagram http://www.instagram.com/nasagoddard · Twitter http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard · Twitter http://twitter.com/NASAGoddardPix · Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NASAGoddard · Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc

CLIMATE CHANGE.

NASA Map Gives Most Accurate Space-Based View of LA’s Carbon Dioxide

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/nasa-map-gives-most-accurate-space-based-view-of-las-carbon-dioxide

Carbon Dioxide Over the L.A. Metropolitan Area

Jun 4, 2021  JPLraw

This animation shows the accumulation of five adjoining swaths of data over the Los Angeles metropolitan area that, when combined, create a map of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations that covers about 50 square miles (80 square kilometers). Researchers have used the data, collected by NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) instrument aboard the space station, to create one of the most accurate maps ever made from space of the human influence on CO2 abundances in the L.A. Basin. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

EARTH.

Satellites Show How Earth’s Water Cycle Is Ramping Up as Climate Warms

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/satellites-show-how-earths-water-cycle-is-ramping-up-as-climate-warms

 

ROBOTICS.

Robotic Navigation Tech Will Explore the Deep Ocean

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/robotic-navigation-tech-will-explore-the-deep-ocean

 

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/robotics-at-jpl

Robotics

ROBOT.

BRUIE

An under-surface rover designed to explore alien oceans.

Dec 22, 2020

ROBOT.

DuAxel

A versatile rover for accessing high-risk terrain.

Dec 16, 2020

ROBOT.

NeBula-SPOT

Explores complex environments without human guidance.

Dec 8, 2020

ROBOT.

Rollocopter

An innovative robot that can either roll or fly.

Nov 1, 2020

ROBOT.

A-PUFFER

A foldable robot that can access tight spaces.

Sep 30, 2020

ROBOT.

RoMan

A powerful robot designed to work in real-world environments.

Sep 1, 2020

ROBOT.

NeBula-Husky

A platform for testing autonomous exploration capabilities in underground environments.

Feb 27, 2020

ROBOT.

LLAMA

A fast-moving legged robot that can traverse challenging environments.

Aug 23, 2018

ROBOT.

RoboSimian

This is RoboSimian, an ape-like robot that traverses complex terrain and performs dexterous tasks..

Sep 27, 2015

ROBOT.

Freeclimber: LEMUR 3

A robot designed to crawl, walk, or climb in extreme terrains.

Dec 2, 2011

EARTH.

Caldera Collapse Increases the Size and Duration of Volcanic Eruptions

 https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/caldera-collapse-increases-the-size-and-duration-of-volcanic-eruptions

 

Caldera Collapse Increases Size of Volcanic Eruptions

Unlisted

May 10, 2021  JPLraw

In 2018, Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano experienced its largest eruption in over 200 years. JPL scientists used data from the rare event to better understand what causes large-scale eruptions like this. The culprit? The collapse of a volcano’s caldera – the large, crater-like depression at the volcano’s summit. Kilauea is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. Because of this and its relative ease of accessibility, it is also among the most heavily outfitted with monitoring equipment – instruments that measure and record everything from earthquakes and ground movement to lava volume and advancement. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

 

EXPLORE MORE

VIDEO.

Water-Monitoring Satellite Moves Closer to Launch

Water-Monitoring Satellite Moves Closer to Launch

Jun 30, 2021  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT) will help scientists monitor Earth’s ocean, as well as the amount of freshwater in its lakes and rivers when it launches in late 2022. After engineers put together the spacecraft’s payload of scientific instruments at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, the satellite now moves to Cannes, France, to complete integration before it will be launched in late 2022. Project manager Parag Vaze explains. SWOT is a collaboration between NASA and the French space agency Centre National d’Etudes Spatial (CNES), with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA). To learn more about the mission, visit: https://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/ Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Clean Room Sneak Peek: International SWOT Satellite (Live Q&A)

May 20, 2021  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Check out the new spacecraft we’re building. Targeting a late-2022 launch date, this SUV-size satellite will measure the height of Earth’s water. SWOT will help researchers understand and track the volume and location of water – a finite resource – around the world, making NASA’s first truly global survey of the planet’s surface water. SWOT is being jointly developed by NASA and CNES, with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA). https://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/ Speakers: Parag Vaze, SWOT project manager, JPL Dr. Karen St. Germain, Earth science division director, NASA Marina Jurica, host Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Study Identifies Methane ‘Super-Emitters’ in Largest US Oilfield

Jun 02, 2021

Gas flaring during oil and gas production is a known source of methane emissions.

Pasadena, CA 91109

Credit: Leslie Von Pless

Fixing just the worst leaks in the Permian Basin oilfield’s infrastructure could cut methane emissions by 55 tons an hour, according to a study by NASA, University of Arizona, and ASU.

About half of the biggest sources of the potent greenhouse gas methane in the Permian Basin oilfield are likely to be malfunctioning oilfield equipment, according to a month-long airborne study by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of Arizona, and Arizona State University.

Repeatedly measuring the size and persistence of emission sources using sensor-equipped aircraft, researchers found that repairing only the 123 sources that they found leaking most persistently on their flights would reduce methane emissions by 55 tons (50 metric tons) an hour. That’s equivalent to 5.5% of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s estimates of all methane emissions from oil and gas production in the entire United States.

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The research team measured methane concentrations around “super-emitter” methane sources – those emitting more than 22 pounds (10 kilograms) of methane per hour – in the oilfield, which is located in Texas and New Mexico. They calculated the emission rates by combining observed methane concentrations with reported wind speeds. Using airborne imaging spectrometers that identify methane and other gases by their effects on reflected sunlight, the campaign located a total of 1,756 super-emitters in a 22,000-square-mile (57,000-square-kilometer) section of the immense oilfield. As they resurveyed the area throughout the month, the team recorded emissions each time a plume was visible, whether once or a dozen times.

“Multiple revisits of these sites are the best way to discriminate between unplanned and planned emissions,” said Daniel Cusworth, a JPL scientist and lead author of an analysis published today in the journal Environmental Science and Technology. Cusworth explained that while some regular operations in an oilfield, such as venting pressure-relief valves, release methane, plumes from these planned operations would probably be visible on only one or two consecutive flights. If an emission plume persists, by far the most likely cause is malfunctioning or broken oil and gas equipment. There’s no other industry in the region that could produce such large plumes, and there are more than 60,000 oil and gas wells as well as compressors, pipelines, and other types of equipment – all of which can potentially leak.

For their analysis, Cusworth and colleagues focused on 1,100 sources seen emitting methane plumes on at least three flights. Just 123 of these were classified as most persistent, with plumes visible on 50 to 100% of revisits. These few sources emitted about 29% of all the methane detected from the entire group. The 258 plumes in the next most persistent class produced an additional 23% of detected emissions; the researchers think these sources are leaks or a mixture of leaks and planned operations. They classified the remaining two-thirds of the sources as least persistent and most likely to be the result of planned operations. This last and largest class produced 48% of emissions.

Once methane sources have been located and verified on the ground by facility operators, there’s a good chance that leaks can be repaired, said Riley Duren of the University of Arizona, who designed and led the flight campaign. “We’ve done cooperative studies with oil and gas operators in California and the Permian where they independently report that 50% of the sources we’re finding are fixable.”

The campaign also recorded surprisingly large variations in the extent of emissions. In one part of the basin, emissions almost doubled over a five-day period and then dropped back almost to the original value over another 10 days. These large, unpredictable variations prove that a single snapshot of methane emissions from any location is inadequate for decision-makers to monitor and regulate emission sources, Duren said. “You need measurements daily or weekly,” he added. “That’s a big argument for using airborne and satellite remote sensing.”

The imaging spectrometers used in the study, NASA’s Next-Generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer and ASU’s Global Airborne Observatory, are able to pinpoint methane sources to within about 15 to 30 feet (5 to 10 meters) while flying at the altitude of a commercial airliner. When methane emission plumes were detected, researchers used a high-resolution camera to relate the plumes to individual pieces of equipment on the ground.

Data from this study can be viewed and downloaded at the team’s data portal.

Monitor the Planet’s Vital Signs With Eyes on Earth

News Media Contact

Jane J. Lee / Ian J. O’Neill

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

818-354-0307 / 818-354-2649

jane.j.lee@jpl.nasa.gov / ian.j.oneill@jpl.nasa.gov

Written by Carol Rasmussen

2021-112

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Have A Happy Earth Day Everyone, Greeting from Kai and Bodhi with the blooming flowers in our garden, Washington Post, NASA, PBS News, NBC News, NowThis News, NASA Johnson, AXIOS, Google Doodles, BBC News, and The New York Times

Have A Happy Earth Day Everyone, Greeting from Kai and Bodhi with the blooming flowers in our garden, Washington Post, NASA, PBS News, NBC News, NowThis News, NASA Johnson, AXIOS, Google Doodles, BBC News, and The New York Times

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🙂 Have A Happy Earth Day Everyone 🙂

Greetings from our two grandsons, five-year-old Kai, and, one-year-old Bodhi, with the flowers blooming in our garden.

Kai, our 5-year-old Grandson brought the tangerine plant outdoors to the garden on Thursday, April 19, 2021.  We keep our plants inside the apartment during winter.    Now that the weather is about 55 – 60-degree Fahrenheit, I decide to move some of the plants outdoors to the garden. 

Kai was surprised to see the Bleeding-Heat plant brooming.  Daffodils are the first flowers blooming in our garden.  The Bleeding-Heart Plant produced the second blooming of flowers.

This is the first time that Bodhi sees the flowers bloom.  He was very excited to see new things in his one-year-old life.  He wanted to pull the flowers as a young baby accustom to do.  This Bleeding-Heart Plant is a gift from his mother to us many years ago.  We always enjoy to see these beautiful flowers blooming in the early spring.  Because of staying so long inside during winter and the COVID-19 lockdown, we are eager to be outdoor in our garden.  It is really such a pleasure for us to see our daughter’s plant blooming into beautiful flowers.

WATCH: Biden hosts world leaders for virtual climate summit

Streamed live on Apr 22, 2021  Washington Post, 8:20:10, 1st Day

President Biden is convening world leaders for a two-day virtual climate summit to urge the world’s major economies to strengthen their climate ambitions. Read more: https://wapo.st/3gAg2zx?. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: https://wapo.st/2QOdcqK? Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonpost? Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/washingtonp…? Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpost/?

WATCH: Biden hosts world leaders for virtual climate summit

Streamed live 17 hours ago, 4.23.2021  Washington Post , 3:36:35, 2nd Day

President Biden is convening world leaders for a climate summit to urge the world’s major economies to strengthen their climate ambitions. Read more: https://wapo.st/3tLAscI?. Subscribe to The Washington Post on YouTube: https://wapo.st/2QOdcqK? Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/washingtonpost? Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/washingtonp…? Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/washingtonpost/?

Daffodils, the first flowers to bloom in our garden. I took photo of these flowers on Friday, April 2, 2021

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Climate change : Wikipedia

Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.

#ConnectedByEarth

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Streamed live 9 hours ago, 4.22.2021  NASA

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Our Planet, Our Home? An Earth Day Perspective

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We are all connected to and by Earth — whether it’s the trees and plants that give us the oxygen we breathe, the snow-capped mountains that provide the water we drink, or the breathtaking geophysical forces that shape the land beneath our feet. NASA has over 20 satellites measuring the height of oceans and inland water, clouds and precipitation, carbon dioxide and much more. By understanding our changing world, we improve lives and safeguard our future. https://images.nasa.gov/details-Our%2…? Video Credits: Producer/Editor: Amy Leniart Writer: Jim Wilson Co-Writers: Karen Fox, Amy Leniart, Tylar Greene

Our backyard garden is small.  We have only few daffodils.  But I am happy to see the flowers bloom.

 Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

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PBS NewsHour full episode, Apr. 22, 2021

Apr 22, 2021  PBS NewsHour

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4K Earth Views Extended Cut for Earth Day 2021

Apr 22, 2021  NASA Johnson

Everything that happens on the International Space Station revolves around one thing: Earth, sixteen times a day! So for Earth Day 2021, NASA offers a gift you can’t get anywhere else with this leisurely view of our home planet, from 250 miles up, rendered in extraordinary ultra-high definition video. Hit play, relax and enjoy. This 4K footage was recorded between 2019 and 2020. _______________________________________ FOLLOW THE SPACE STATION! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Space_Station? Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ISS? Instagram: https://instagram.com/iss/? HD Download: https://archive.org/details/jsc2021m0…? 2021_210422-

Axios PM: 5 new climate pledges

By Mike Allen ·Apr 22, 2021

Mike Allen mike@axios.com

Good afternoon: Today’s PM — edited by Justin Green — is 497 words, a 2-minute read.

·  Stocks fell modestly today after reports that President Biden wants to nearly double the capital gains tax paid by wealthy Americans.

·  Sen. Tim Scott will deliver the GOP’s rebuttal to Biden’s joint address to Congress.

Please join Axios’ Joann Muller and Erica Pandey tomorrow at 12:30 p.m. ET for conversations about electric and autonomous vehicles with Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg and San Francisco-Marin Food Bank executive director Tanis Crosby. Sign up here.

  1. 5 new climate pledges, 4.22.2021

German Chancellor Angela Merkel takes part in the virtual international climate summit with President Biden. Photo: Kay Nietfeld/Pool via Getty Images
1.      Canada: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said Canada would increase its target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from 40% to 45% of its 2005 levels by 2030.

2.     Japan: Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga said Japan would cut its emissions by 46% from 2013 levels by 2030.

3.     South Korea: President Moon Jae-in pledged to end all new public financing for overseas coal projects, and will submit new emissions targets later this year.

4.     Brazil: President Jair Bolsonaro pledged to end illegal deforestation by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.

5.     China: President Xi Jinping said his country — the world’s largest consumer of coal — will attempt to “strictly limit increasing coal consumption” over the next five years.

Go deeper: More details on the pledges, via Axios’ Jacob Knutson.

WATCH LIVE: Greta Thunberg, climate experts testify before House on fossil fuel subsidies

Streamed live 16 hours ago, 4.22.2021  PBS NewsHour

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Earth Day 2021 Doodle

Apr 21, 2021, GoogleDoodles

This year’s annual Earth Day Doodle highlights how everyone can plant the seed to a brighter future—one sapling at a time. Happy Earth Day 2021! Learn more: http://www.google.com/doodles/earth-d…? ——- To follow Google Doodles on YouTube, subscribe to: @GoogleDoodles? Follow Google Doodles on Twitter at: https://twitter.com/GoogleDoodles?

President Biden pledges 50% cut in US carbon emissions at global climate summit – BBC News

Apr 22, 2021  BBC News, 5:39

President Biden has opened a major global climate summit with a call to other world leaders to step up to the challenge. Joe Biden pledged to cut US emissions by at least half from 2005 levels by the end of this decade but he warned that his country couldn’t take action alone. He told world leaders that scientists were calling this the “decisive decade” for tackling climate change and action was needed now. The latest data shows China is the world’s biggest producer of carbon dioxide, emitting 28% of global output. China is second biggest, producing 15% with India producing 7%. Sophie Raworth presents BBC News at Ten reporting by science editor David Shukman and North America editor Jon Sopel. Please subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1rbfUog? #BBCNews?

It’s time to ‘get serious’ about climate change, Boris Johnson @BBC News? live ? BBC

Apr 22, 2021  BBC, 10:49

Subscribe and ? to OFFICIAL BBC YouTube ? https://bit.ly/2IXqEIn? Stream original BBC programmes FIRST on BBC iPlayer ? https://bbc.in/2J18jYJ? ? Subscribe and ? @BBC News ? https://bit.ly/3a1zyip? ? Stream BBC News live on BBC iPlayer ? https://bbc.in/3b64IVP? ? Coronavirus / Covid-19 ? https://bbc.in/3luQp33? ? Follow BBC News live updates here ? https://bbc.in/2JmUswL? It’s Thurdsday 22 April. Our top stories this morning 0:00? The US will attempt to re-assert its global leadership on climate change as President Joe Biden hosts 40 leaders at a virtual summit in the White House. Get the full story ? https://bbc.in/3ekUuEk? Get the latest news, sport, business and weather from the BBC’s Breakfast team live on iPlayer daily from 6am. BBC Breakfast | BBC News | BBC #BBC? #BBCiPlayer? #BBCNews? #BBCNewsLive? #BBCCoronavirus? #Coronavirus? #Covid?-19 #CoronavirusOutbreak? #Corona? #CoronavirusUK?

The New York Times: Biden’s Intelligence Director Vows to Put Climate at ‘Center’ of Foreign Policy,

Last Updated 

April 22, 2021, 10:01 p.m. ET 5 hours ago

Avril Haines, the director of national intelligence, struck a note of urgency in telling world leaders that climate change must be “fully integrated” with national security. President Biden committed the United States to cutting emissions by half by the end of the decade at a virtual Earth Day summit.

President Biden speaking on Thursday during a virtual summit on climate change from the East Room of the White House.Credit…Pool photo by Al Drago

Here’s what you need to know:

Biden’s intelligence director tells world leaders climate is now ‘at the center’ of U.S. foreign policy.·

Biden wants to slash emissions. Success would mean a very different America.·

China’s leader, Xi Jinping, promises to ‘strictly limit’ coal.·

Here’s what Canada, Russia and other countries have committed to so far today.·

The virtual summit makes history, but proves even world leaders aren’t immune to tech issues.·

Fossil fuel industries react carefully to Biden’s emissions pledge.·

Biden plans to nominate ocean scientist Rick Spinrad to head NOAA, the country’s premier climate science agency.

Biden’s intelligence director tells world leaders climate is now ‘at the center’ of U.S. foreign policy. 

Avril Haines, the director of national intelligence, speaking on Capitol Hill last week.Credit…Pool photo by Graeme Jennings

Avril Haines, President Biden’s director of national intelligence, told world leaders on Thursday that climate change was no longer a peripheral issue but now “at the center” of U.S. foreign policy, with far-reaching impacts on force deployments and the stability of hard-hit regions.

Ms. Haines, speaking at this week’s virtual global climate conference, struck a tone of urgency at variance with the attitudes of many of her predecessors, who downplayed the role of rising sea levels, droughts, crop failures, fires, diseases and more frequent severe weather events.

“To address climate change properly it must be at the center of a country’s national security and foreign policy,” she said, echoing the words of Lloyd J. Austin III, the defense secretary, who addressed the conference a few minutes earlier.

“It needs to be fully integrated with every aspect of our analysis in order to allow us not only to monitor the threat but also, critically, to ensure that policymakers understand the importance of climate change on seemingly unrelated policies,” Ms. Haines said.

Her comments came after NATO officials announced they would likely agree on a climate “action plan” to reduce emissions by military units and conduct an alliance-wide assessment of the potential threats arising from climate disruptions.

On Thursday, the C.I.A. announced it was adding a new category covering the environment to its World Factbook. The agency’s unclassified guide will now provide the latest country data on climate, air pollutants, infectious diseases, food security, waste and other environmental topics.

Ms. Haines began by saying that the intelligence services had long recognized the importance of climate change — and praised efforts by the C.I.A. over the last three decades to identify the geopolitical impact of climate-based changes in Russia, Asia, Africa and the Arctic.

“We have not always made it a key priority,” she added.

The Biden administration has promised to put a new focus on climate change at the nation’s intelligence agencies. Top intelligence officials all pledged in their confirmation hearings to increase their agencies’ focus on climate.

A pair of recent intelligence reports have presented a grim picture of climate change. The annual worldwide threat assessment, which looks at short-term challenges, said extreme weather caused by climate change would increase the potential for surges in migration and cause instability around the globe.

The changes will “exacerbate political instability and humanitarian crises,” the annual threat report said.

The intelligence agencies issued even more dire warnings with the quadrennial Global Trends report issued on April 8, which argued that climate change would contribute to instability, strain military readiness and encourage new political movements. It said that all societies would be forced to adapt to a warmer planet through changes both small and complex, including the building of massive new sea walls and the relocation of cities and towns.

The report said the physical effects of climate change would intensify over the next 20 years, particularly in the 2030s, and the impact would fall disproportionately on poor parts of the world.

Some Republicans have expressed reservations at expanding the intelligence community’s focus on climate change. At a hearing last week, Ms. Haines argued that while there was partisan division over the issue, intelligence analysts have been examining the issue for decades during administrations of both parties.

“It’s just become increasingly accepted as something that is part of the national security landscape,” she said.

— Glenn Thrush and Julian E. Barnes

U.S. says it will sharply cut emissions and increase funds to vulnerable countries to fight climate change.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel takes part in the virtual international climate summit with President Biden on Thursday.Credit…Pool photo by Kay Nietfeld

President Biden on Thursday declared America “has resolved to take action” on climate change, and the White House said it would substantially increase the money it offers to developing countries to address the issue.

In a show of renewed resolve after four years of the Trump administration’s unvarnished climate denial, Mr. Biden formally pledged that the United States would cut its emissions at least in half from 2005 levels by 2030. His administration also announced it intends to double by 2024 the amount of money it offers to help developing countries, compared with what the United States spent annually in the second half of the Obama administration.

Barely three months into Mr. Biden’s presidency, the contrast with his science-denying predecessor, President Donald J. Trump, could not have been more striking.

“The signs are unmistakable, the science is undeniable and the cost of inaction keeps mounting,” Mr. Biden said.

John Kerry, President Biden’s global climate change envoy, said he believes the United States will meet and possibly even surpass the new goal.

Speaking at the conclusion of the first day of the summit, Mr. Kerry called the goal “ambitious but appropriate and achievable” and said the market is moving faster than expected in creating renewable energy and new breakthroughs are likely on the horizon in battery storage and other areas.

“Is it doable? Will we probably exceed it? I expect yes,” Mr. Kerry said.

Asked what the Biden administration can do now to prevent a future president from gutting the climate plans as President Trump did to the Obama administration, Mr. Kerry noted that he fielded that question in virtually every diplomatic discussion over the past three months.

“You destroyed your credibility, you left the Paris Agreement, how can we trust you?” Mr. Kerry said other leaders asked him. He insisted the private sector will cement clean energy policies into reality even if Mr. Bidens’ policies stall or are someday overturned.,

“No politician, I think, can change what is now happening in the marketplace.”

The Biden administration said it plans to offer an estimated $5.7 billion a year by 2024. In a statement, the White House said that it would “work closely with Congress to meet these goals.”

Between 2013 and 2016, U.S. international climate finance was around $2.5 billion a year, including in the form of export credit and loans, based on government data from that time.

Joe Thwaites from the World Resources Institute said the foreign aid pledges were not especially ambitious. “The climate finance plan the Biden administration launched today starts to play catch up after the U.S. was largely absent for the last four years — when many other developed countries already doubled their climate finance, and some committed to doubling again before 2025,” he said.

The two-day summit comes at a time when scientists are warning that governments must take decisive action to prevent global temperatures from rising more than 1.5 degrees above preindustrial levels. The consequences of exceeding that threshold includes mass species extinctions, water shortages and extreme weather events that will be most devastating to the poorest countries least responsible for causing global warming.

Officially, nations that are party to the Paris agreement are obligated to announce their new targets for emissions cuts in time for a United Nations conference in Scotland in November.

In an executive order announced late Thursday morning, the White House also said it would “seek to” end investments in “carbon-intensive” fossil fuel projects abroad. It was also not clear if that referred to money for gas pipelines and terminals. The United States is a leading exporter of gas, and development aid has been used to promote the expansion of gas, including in Africa.

Mr. Kerry said in his remarks that no country alone would be able to finance the transition to a green economy, adding that private banks and asset managers would have to align their investments accordingly.

The summit is the first of its kind to be convened by a United States president, and Mr. Biden is joined by other world leaders like Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia, and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada.

While the summit is an international one, Mr. Biden’s speech was also aimed at a domestic audience, focusing not just on America’s obligation to help cut its global emissions but on the jobs he believes are available in greening the U.S. economy.

“The countries that take decisive actions now” to tackle climate change, Mr. Biden said, “will be the ones that reap the clean energy benefits of the boom that’s coming.”

Mr. Biden’s target of 50 percent to 52 percent by the end of the decade calls for a steep and rapid decline of fossil fuel use in virtually every sector of the American economy and marks the start of what is sure to be a bitter partisan fight over achieving it.

One of Mr. Biden’s biggest political obstacles is international: Republicans say the United States should not be asked to sacrifice if the world’s largest emitters will swallow U.S. efforts in their pollution.

Christopher Flavelle contributed reporting.

Biden wants to slash emissions. Success would mean a very different America.

By 2030, half of the country’s electricity would come from renewable sources such as wind.Credit…Bing Guan/Reuters

President Biden’s new pledge to slash the United States’ greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade is long on ambition and short on specifics, but experts say that success would require rapid and sweeping changes to virtually every corner of the nation’s economy, transforming the way Americans drive to work, heat their homes and operate their factories.

In several recent studies, researchers have explored what a future America might look like if it wants to achieve Mr. Biden’s goal: cutting the nation’s planet-warming emissions at least 50 percent below 2005 levels by the year 2030.

By the end of the decade, those studies suggest, more than half of the new cars and S.U.V.s sold at dealerships would need to be powered by electricity, not gasoline. Nearly all coal-fired power plants would need to be shut down. Forests would need to expand. The number of wind turbines and solar panels dotting the nation’s landscape could quadruple.

It’s achievable in theory, researchers say, but it’s an enormous challenge. To get there, the Biden administration would probably need to put in place a vast array of new federal policies, many of which could face obstacles in Congress or the courts. And policymakers would have to take care in crafting measures that do not cause serious economic harm, such as widespread job losses or spikes in energy prices, that could lead to blowback.

“It’s not an easy task,” said Nathan Hultman, the director of the University of Maryland’s Center on Global Sustainability. “We won’t be able to sit back and hope that market forces alone will do the job.”

In two recent studies, Mr. Hultman and his colleagues modeled possible paths to achieving at least a 50 percent reduction in emissions by 2030. The changes would be far-reaching:

·         By 2030, half of the country’s electricity would come from renewable sources such as wind, solar or hydropower, up from one-fifth today.

·         New natural gas plants would be built largely with technology that can capture carbon dioxide instead of releasing it into the atmosphere — technology that is still in its infancy.

·         Virtually all of the 200 remaining coal plants in the U.S. would shut down unless they, too, can capture their emissions and bury them underground.

·         By 2030, two-thirds of new cars and S.U.V.s sold would be battery-powered, up from roughly 2 percent today.

·         All new buildings would be heated by electricity rather than natural gas.

·         The nation’s cement, steel and chemical industries would adopt stringent new energy-efficiency targets.

·         Oil and gas producers would slash emissions of methane, a potent heat-trapping gas, by 60 percent.

·         The nation’s forests would expand, and farming practices would be reworked, so that they pull 20 percent more carbon dioxide out of the air than they do today.

— Brad Plumer

READ THE FULL ARTICLE

Biden Wants to Slash Emissions. Success Would Mean a Very Different America.

Hitting the targets could require a rapid shift to electric vehicles, the expansion of forests nationwide, development of complex new carbon-capture technology and many other changes, researchers said.

April 22, 2021

China’s leader, Xi Jinping, promises to ‘strictly limit’ coal.

China’s president, Xi Jinping, delivered a speech during the opening of the Boao Forum for Asia on Tuesday. Mr. Xi promised Thursday that China would limit coal consumption.Credit…Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

President Xi Jinping of China said his country would “strictly limit increasing coal consumption” in the next five years and phase it down in the following five years.

That’s significant because China is, by far, the world’s largest coal consumer and is continuing to expand its fleet of coal-fired power plants. Coal is the dirtiest fossil fuel.

Mr. Xi repeated his pledge from last year to draw down carbon emissions to net zero by 2060. And, in a pointed reminder to his host, President Biden, he said that the industrialized countries of the West had a historic responsibility to act faster to reduce emissions.

The United States is history’s largest emitter. China is today’s largest emitter.

Mr. Xi added a conciliatory note by saying “China looks forward to working with the international community, including with the United States” on addressing climate change.

Neither China nor India, whose prime minister, Narendra Modi, spoke after Mr. Xi, made any new commitments to ramp up their climate ambitions. Mr. Modi repeated India’s pledge to expand its fleet of renewable energy projects, urged people to make lifestyle changes to address climate change, and announced a vague new partnership with the United States on green energy projects.

India’s once-galloping economy has slowed sharply and the country is currently in the throes of a deadly coronavirus surge.

— Somini Sengupta

Here’s what Canada, Russia and other countries have committed to so far today.

A video monitor in the East Room of the White House showed the heads of state participating in the virtual climate summit on Thursday.Credit…Al Drago for The New York Times

Beyond the big two of the United States and China, here’s an overview of what some American allies and adversaries have said so far at President Biden’s virtual climate summit with world leaders on Thursday.

·         Prime Minister Justin Trudeau pledged that Canada would reduce its greenhouse gas emissions 40 percent to 45 percent from 2005 levels by 2030, a step up from its previous target of a 30 percent reduction in the same time frame. This is a significant increase in ambition for an economy that is still highly dependent on oil extraction, and a sign that Mr. Biden’s decision to increase the United States’ target is having an influence on his closest allies.

·         Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India reiterated his country’s promise to install 450 gigawatts of renewable energy capacity by 2030, but made no new commitments. He argued that India’s per capita emissions were far smaller than those of other major emitters and said, “We, in India, are doing our part.”

·         Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga announced that Japan would cut emissions 46 percent below 2013 levels by the end of the decade, a significant show of solidarity with the United States.

·         President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia, the world’s fourth largest greenhouse gas polluter, made only a vague pledge to “significantly reduce the net accumulated emissions in our country by 2050.” He highlighted a carbon pricing pilot program that he said would allow the Sakhalin region to become carbon neutral by 2025, but he said nothing about construction of the Nord Stream 2, a major natural gas pipeline that is opposed by both climate advocates and United States national security advisers.

·         President Jair Bolsonaro of Brazil pledged to eliminate illegal deforestation by 2030, a promise that was met with extreme skepticism by those in the environmental community who have seen the destruction of the Amazon skyrocket under his watch. Mr. Bolsonaro also vowed that Brazil would become carbon neutral by 2050, a decade earlier than it had previously said it would. Ending deforestation by 2030, he claimed, would cut Brazil’s emissions 50 percent.

Coral Davenport, Lisa Friedman and Somini Sengupta contributed reporting.

— Maggie Astor

For more information please visit the following link:

https://www.nytimes.com/live/2021/04/22/us/biden-earth-day-climate-summit

My two grandsons, Bodhi and Kai enjoyed to be in the garden. That make me very happy. I wish children all over the world would be able to enjoy nature.  Parents and other adults should cultivate and take care of nature for younger generations to have a chance to appreciate a beautiful and peaceful world.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, April 24, 2021

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Icelandic volcano could erupt for years, creating “perfect tourist” attraction, Reuters, PBS News, NBC News, Global News, TED-Ed, NASA and NASA Scientific Visualization Studio

Icelandic volcano could erupt for years, creating “perfect tourist” attraction, Reuters, PBS News, NBC News, Global News, TED-Ed, NASA and NASA Scientific Visualization Studio

PBS NewsHour full episode, Apr. 2, 2021

NBC Nightly News Broadcast (Full) – April 2nd, 2021

Reuters Photographs: Icelandic volcano could erupt for years, creating “perfect tourist” attraction

Iceland volcano eruption offers “most beautiful” lava show, Mar 22, 2021, Global News

Iceland volcano: Drone footage captures stunning up-close view of eruption, Mar 24, 2021, Global News

Volcanic eruption explained – Steven Anderson, Jul 13, 2020  TED-Ed

The colossal consequences of supervolcanoes – Alex Gendler, Jun 9, 2014  TED-Ed

NASA Helps the World Weather the 2020 Hurricane Season, Program area Disasters Region North America, South America, by Timothy “Seph” Allen, Published    Thursday, February 25, 2021

2020 Hurricane Season, Feb 25, 2021, NASA Scientific Visualization Studio

PBS NewsHour full episode, Apr. 2, 2021

Apr 2, 2021  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, a strong jobs report offers signs of hope for an economic recovery, new laws across the country try to combat racial discrimination based on how you wear your hair, and David Brooks and Jonathan Capehart consider President Biden’s new infrastructure plan and Major League Baseball’s reaction to Georgia’s new voting law. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS News Wrap: Officer, suspect killed in attack at U.S. Capitol https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1v5OM…? Jobs report offers signs of hope for an economic recovery https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vr_AV…? U.S. opens the door to a new nuclear deal with Iran https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ABP1L…? How hair discrimination impacts Black Americans https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TOrw7…? Brooks and Capehart on Biden’s new infrastructure plan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N7ZDl…? Honoring 5 phenomenal people who lost their lives to COVID https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyJVj…? New Mexico inmates connect with Hemingway’s life and work https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmbh0…? Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG? Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour? Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6? Follow us: Facebook: http://www.pbs.org/newshour? Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/newshour? Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/newshour? Subscribe: PBS NewsHour podcasts: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/podcasts? Newsletters: https://www.pbs.org/newshour/subscribe?

NBC Nightly News Broadcast (Full) – April 2nd, 2021 | NBC Nightly News

Apr 2, 2021  NBC News

Police officer killed in vehicle attack at U.S. Capitol, top Minneapolis police lieutenant says Derek Chauvin’s use of force “totally unnecessary,” and U.S. economy adds 916,000 jobs in March. Watch “NBC Nightly News With Lester Holt” at 6:30 p.m. ET / 5:30 p.m. CT (or check your local listings). 00:00? Intro 02:12? Capitol Police Officer Killed In Vehicle Attack 04:12? Police: Second Capitol Officer In Stable Condition 04:24? Biden ‘Heartbroken’ Over Officer’s Death At Capitol 04:47? Capitol Attacker Identified As 25-Year-Old From Virginia 05:44? Police: No Indication Capitol Attack Terror Related 05:55? Capitol Has Been On High Alert Since January 6 Riot 06:23? Investigators Searching Capitol Attackers Social Media 06:52? Capitol Police Ask For Prayers After Deadly Attack 07:16? Capitol Police Remain On Edge Since January 6 Riot 07:43? Officer William Evans Killed In Capitol Attack 08:20? Capitol Attack Raises New D.C. Security Questions 10:00? Lieutenant: Chauvin’s Use Of Force ‘Totally Unnecessary’ 11:00? Chauvin’s Ex-Supervisor: Floyd Restrained Too Long 11:17? Chauvin Told Ex-Supervisor Floyd ‘Was Going Crazy’ 11:32? Prosecutors Allege Chauvin Used Excessive Force 12:15? CDC: Fully Vaccinated People Can Travel Safely In U.S. 13:58? CDC Issues New Guidance For Resuming Cruises 14:20? New Mexico Leads U.S. IN Race To Herd Immunity 16:32? MLB Moves All-Star Game Over Georgia Voting Law 16:54? U.S. Adds 900,000+ Jobs In March As Hiring Surges 18:55? NBC News Correspondent Bill Neely Announces Retirement » Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC? » Watch more NBC video: http://bit.ly/MoreNBCNews? Connect with NBC Nightly News online! NBC News App: https://smart.link/5d0cd9df61b80? Breaking News Alerts: https://link.nbcnews.com/join/5cj/bre…? Visit NBCNightlyNews.com: https://nbcnews.to/2wFotQ8? Find Nightly News on Facebook: https://bit.ly/2TZ1PhF? Follow Nightly News on Twitter: https://bit.ly/1yFY2s4? Follow Nightly News on Instagram: https://bit.ly/2tEncJD? NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands that deliver compelling, diverse and engaging news stories. NBC News Digital features NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly News, Meet the Press, Dateline, and the existing apps and digital extensions of these respective properties. We deliver the best in breaking news, live video coverage, original journalism and segments from your favorite NBC News Shows. #GeorgeFloyd? #CovidVaccine? #NBCNews? NBC Nightly News Broadcast (Full) – April 2nd, 2021 | NBC Nightly News

Reuters Photographs: Icelandic volcano could erupt for years, creating “perfect tourist” attraction

https://www.reuters.com/news/picture/icelandic-volcano-could-erupt-for-years-idUSRTXB2C23

Reuters / Sunday, March 21, 2021

A volcanic eruption in Geldingadalur in Iceland’s Reykjanes peninsula, March 20. The volcano in Iceland spewing lava into the sky could continue its spectacular display for years, potentially becoming a new tourist attraction on the island known for its natural wonders. Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is via REUTERS

Volcanic eruption in Geldingadalur in Reykjanes peninsula in Iceland, March 20.   Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is via REUTERS

Reuters / Monday, March 22, 2021

A view of the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 21. Thousands of Icelanders have flocked to the site of the eruption, some 30 kilometres southwest of the capital, hoping to be awed by the rare lava fountains and even to cook a meal on the scorching crust of magma. REUTERS/Cat

Gundry-Beck

A view of the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula following Friday’s eruption in Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 Lava flows from a volcano in the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Sigtryggur Johannsson

 People visit a volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 26. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A tourist poses for pictures at a volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 26. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

Reuters / Monday, March 22, 2021

A person stands in front of the volcanic site on Iceland’s Reykjanes Peninsula, March 21. To cope with the hoard of visitors, authorities in Iceland set up a 3.5 kilometre (2.2 miles) hiking trail to the eruption site and are patrolling the area to prevent onlookers from venturing into hazardous areas polluted by volcanic gasses. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland March 27. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 People gather at the volcanic site on Iceland’s Reykjanes Peninsula, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A volcanic eruption in Geldingadalur in Iceland’s Reykjanes peninsula, March 20. Thousands of curious onlookers have been flocking to the erupting volcano. Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is via REUTERS

Cars line up on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland March 23. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 Lava flows from a volcano in Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, March 20. Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is. REUTERS

Lava flows from a volcano in Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Sigtryggur Johannsson

A volcanic eruption in Geldingadalur in Iceland’s Reykjanes peninsula, March 20.   Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is via REUTERS

Lava flows from a volcano in Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, March 20. Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is. REUTERS

 People gather at the volcanic site on Iceland’s Reykjanes Peninsula, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland March 27. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A person looks at the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 27. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

A view of a volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 26. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

A man prepares hot dogs at the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

Lava flows from a volcano in Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Sigtryggur Johannsson

 Volcanic eruption in Geldingadalur in Iceland’s Reykjanes peninsula, March 20.   Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is via REUTERS

 A view of the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula following Friday’s eruption in Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

Lava oozes at the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula following Friday’s eruption in Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

People sit in front of the volcanic site on Iceland’s Reykjanes Peninsula, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A view of the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland March 23. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

A volcanic eruption in Geldingadalur in Iceland’s Reykjanes peninsula, March 20.   Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is via REUTERS

Volcanic eruption in Geldingadalur in Reykjanes peninsula in Iceland, March 20.   Kristinn Magnusson/mbl.is via REUTERS

Lava flows from a volcano in Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, March 20. REUTERS/Sigtryggur Johannsson

A view of the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

A volcanic eruption is seen (rear) near Fagradalsfjall, a mountain on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, March 19. VF.IS/via REUTERS

 People gather at the volcanic site on Iceland’s Reykjanes Peninsula, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

 A view of the volcanic site on the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, March 21. REUTERS/Cat Gundry-Beck

Iceland volcano eruption offers “most beautiful” lava show

Mar 22, 2021  Global News

Scientists descended on the area near an erupting volcano in Iceland’s southwest on Sunday, as lava continued to pour from the crater near Fagradalsfjall, a mountain on the Reykjanes Peninsula since Friday. Drone footage showed lava spewing from the volcano, as people showed up to film and enjoy the natural phenomenon. Scientists at the foot of the volcano even used its lava as a giant grill to cook up hot dogs as they studied the eruption. The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) which had classified the eruption as small, said measurements showed no volcanic ash had been detected but a high level of volcanic gases had been measured close to the eruption site. “Here is the most beautiful thing that I have seen, this volcano,” a member of Iceland’s Search and Rescue team said. The volunteer group was at the site to make sure spectators were safe. For more info, please go to http://www.globalnews.ca? Subscribe to Global News Channel HERE: http://bit.ly/20fcXDc? Like Global News on Facebook HERE: http://bit.ly/255GMJQ? Follow Global News on Twitter HERE: http://bit.ly/1Toz8mt? Follow Global News on Instagram HERE: https://bit.ly/2QZaZIB? #GlobalNews? #volcano? #iceland?

Iceland volcano: Drone footage captures stunning up-close view of eruption

Mar 24, 2021  Global News

A drone captured stunning close-up shots of lava bubbling in the crater of a volcano on Tuesday that began erupting near Iceland’s capital Reykjavik on Friday. 0:15? The drone operator braved the snow and biked seven kilometres to the volcano which is not accessible by road, and captured lava pouring from the crater, down the side of the volcano, and into a lava field. The eruption, which occurred near Fagradalsfjall, a mountain on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland, followed thousands of small earthquakes in recent weeks and was the first on the peninsula since the 12th century. Drone operator credit: THE EMPIRE PRODUCTIONS/ICEBIKE ADVENTURES Please note: We did not slow down or manipulate the speed of the footage for effect. However, the music was added for your enjoyment. For more info, please go to http://www.globalnews.ca? Subscribe to Global News Channel HERE: http://bit.ly/20fcXDc? Like Global News on Facebook HERE: http://bit.ly/255GMJQ? Follow Global News on Twitter HERE: http://bit.ly/1Toz8mt? Follow Global News on Instagram HERE: https://bit.ly/2QZaZIB? #GlobalNews? #IcelandVolcano?

Volcanic eruption explained – Steven Anderson

Jul 13, 2020  TED-Ed

Dig into the science of how new volcanoes form, and what causes their unpredictable eruptions. — In February of 1942, Mexican farmer Dionisio Pulido thought he heard thunder coming from his cornfield. However, the sound wasn’t coming from the sky. The source was a large, smoking crack emitting gas and ejecting rocks, and would come to be known as the volcano Paricutin. Where do new volcanoes like this come from, and what triggers their unpredictable eruption? Steven Anderson investigates. Lesson by Steven Anderson, directed by Cabong Studios. Animator’s website: https://www.cabongstudios.com.br/? Sign up for our newsletter: http://bit.ly/TEDEdNewsletter? Support us on Patreon: http://bit.ly/TEDEdPatreon? Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/TEDEdFacebook? Find us on Twitter: http://bit.ly/TEDEdTwitter? Peep us on Instagram: http://bit.ly/TEDEdInstagram? View full lesson: https://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-makes…? Thank you so much to our patrons for your support! Without you this video would not be possible! Felipe Hoff, Rebecca Reineke, Cyrus Garay, Victoria Veretilo, Michael Aquilina, William Biersdorf, Patricia Alves Panagides, Valeria Sloan Vasquez, Mike Azarkman, Yvette Mocete, Pavel Maksimov, Victoria Soler-Roig, Betsy Feathers, Samuel Barbas, Therapist Gus, Sai Krishna Koyoda, Elizabeth Parker, William Bravante, Irindany Sandoval, Mark wisdom, Brighteagle, Beatriz Inácio, Mighterbump, Pamela Harrison, Maija Chapman, Liana Switzer, Curtis Light, The Brock, Dianne Palomar, Edgar Campos Barrachina, Maria Lerchbaumer, Ever Granada, Marin Kovachev, Ravi S. R?mphal, Penelope Misquitta, Tekin Gültekin, Jhuval, Hans Peng, Gaurav Mathur, Erik Biemans, Tony, Michelle, Katie and Josh Pedretti, Vaibhav Mirjolkar, Thomas Bahrman, Allan Hayes, Aidan Forero, Uday Kishore, Mikhail Shkirev, Devesh Kumar, Sunny Patel and Anuj Tomar.

The colossal consequences of supervolcanoes – Alex Gendler

Jun 9, 2014  TED-Ed

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-colossa…? In 1816, Europe and North America were plagued by heavy rains, odd-colored snow, famines, strange fogs and very cold weather well into June. Though many people believed it to be the apocalypse, this “year without a summer” was actually the result of a supervolcano eruption that happened one year earlier over 1,000 miles away. Alex Gendler describes the history and science of these epic eruptions. Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by Andrew Foerster.

https://appliedsciences.nasa.gov/our-impact/story/nasa-helps-world-weather-2020-hurricane-season

NASA Helps the World Weather the 2020 Hurricane Season

PROGRAM AREA DISASTERS REGIONNORTH  AMERICA  SOUTH  AMERICA

BREADCRUMB

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By Timothy “Seph” Allen, Published    Thursday, February 25, 2021

Forecasters predicted an above-normal hurricane season for 2020. They weren’t wrong.

As the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season smashed records with an unprecedented 30 named storms, NASA’s Earth Applied Sciences Disasters Program stood up to the challenge. The Disasters Program helps leaders and responders at national, regional, and local levels leverage NASA’s technology and expertise to assess, predict, and understand disasters’ impacts. The Disasters Program targets a wide range of hazards and disasters, and while NASA is not an operational response agency, the agency offers access to unique resources, relationships, and scientific expertise to those who use it on the ground.

The Atlantic hurricane season, which officially ran from June 1 to Nov. 30, marked the fifth year in a row with above-average hurricane activity. The National Weather Service noted that every mile of the U.S. Atlantic coast was under a tropical watch or warning in 2020. NOAA reported the most billion-dollar disasters in the U.S. in a single year in the 40 years that they have kept track, which hurricanes contributed significantly to. Of twelve named storm systems that made landfall in the continental U.S. in 2020, seven (Hanna, Isaias, Laura, Sally, Delta, Zeta and Eta) each caused over $1 billion in overall damage costs.

This visualization shows the hurricanes and tropical storms of 2020 as seen by NASA’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) – a data product combining precipitation observations from infrared and microwave satellite sensors united by the GPM Core Observatory. IMERG rain rates (in mm/hr) are overlaid on infrared cloud data from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Cloud Composite dataset together with storm tracks from the NOAA National Hurricane Center (NHC) Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecasting (ATCF) model. Sea surface temperatures (SST) are also shown over the oceans, derived from the NASA Multi-sensor Ultra-high Resolution (MUR) dataset, which combines data from multiple geostationary and orbiting satellites. Sea surface temperatures play an important role in hurricane formation and development, with warmer temperatures linked to more intense storms. Credits: NASA Goddard Scientific Visualization Studio

Tropical storms and hurricanes were also more active and intense later in the year than usual. “Countries that experience hurricanes are used to that season peaking between July to September,” remarks Ronan Lucey, a researcher at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, working within NASA’s Disasters Program. “This was a long season, and we have to look at the climatic conditions that lead to that.”

2020 Hurricane Season

Feb 25, 2021  NASA Scientific Visualization Studio

This visualization shows the hurricanes and tropical storms of 2020 as seen by NASA’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) which measures rain rates (in mm/hr) overlaid on infrared cloud data from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Cloud Composite dataset together with storm tracks from the NOAA National Hurricane Center (NHC) Automated Tropical Cyclone Forecasting (ATCF) model. Sea surface temperatures (SST) are also shown over the oceans, derived from the NASA Multi-sensor Ultra-high Resolution (MUR) dataset, which combines data from multiple geostationary and orbiting satellites. Visualizers: Alex Kekesi (lead), Greg Shirah (lead), Horace Mitchell For more information or to download this public domain video, go to https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4884#30824?

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NASA: SpaceCast Weekly, A New Source of Power for the Space Station, NASA ARSET, Expedition 64 In-Flight with MSNBC, Spacewalk, SpaceX: Starlink Mission, Starship | SN9 | High-Altitude Flight Test, and NASA – Image of the Day, Solar System and More

NASA: SpaceCast Weekly, A New Source of Power for the Space Station, NASA ARSET, Expedition 64 In-Flight with MSNBC, Spacewalk, SpaceX: Starlink Mission, Starship | SN9 | High-Altitude Flight Test, and NASA – Image of the DaySolar System and More

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SpaceCast Weekly – February 5, 2021

Feb 5, 2021  NASA Video

SpaceCast Weekly is a NASA Television broadcast from the Johnson Space Center in Houston featuring stories about NASA’s work in human spaceflight, including the International Space Station and its crews and scientific research activities, and the development of Orion and the Space Launch System, the next generation American spacecraft being built to take humans farther into space than they’ve ever gone before.

A New Source of Power for the Space Station on This Week @NASA – February 5, 2021

Feb 5, 2021  NASA

A new source of power for the space station, targeting a second Green Run hot fire test, and another major boost for our Space Launch System rocket … a few of the stories to tell you about – This Week at NASA! Download Link: https://images.nasa.gov/details-A%20N…

Expedition 64 Astronauts Speak with National Science Foundation – February 3, 2021

Feb 3, 2021  NASA Video

SPACE STATION CREW DISCUSSES LIFE IN SPACE WITH NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 64 Flight Engineers Kate Rubins and Victor Glover of NASA discussed research and other aspects of life in space during an in-flight conversation Feb. 3 with members of the National Science Foundation. Rubins, who is an epidemiologist, arrived on the station last October aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft, while Glover flew to the station last November aboard the SpaceX Crew Dragon “Resilience” vehicle.

NASA ARSET: Hyperspectral Data for Coastal and Ocean Systems, Part 3/3

Feb 3, 2021  NASA Video

Hyperspectral Data for Land and Coastal Systems Part 3: Hyperspectral Data for Coastal and Ocean Systems – Use of hyperspectral imaging for wetland vegetation communities – Use of hyperspectral for coastal shallow-water ecosystems – Use of hyperspectral for marine debris – Case study examples – Q&A You can access all training materials from this webinar series on the training webpage: https://appliedsciences.nasa.gov/join…? This training was created by NASA’s Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET). ARSET is a part of NASA’s Applied Science’s Capacity Building Program. Learn more about ARSET: appliedsciences.nasa.gov/arset

Expedition 64 In-Flight with MSNBC – February 4, 2021

Feb 4, 2021  NASA Video

SPACE STATION CREW MEMBER DISCUSSES LIFE IN SPACE WITH MSNBC Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 64 Flight Engineer Victor Glover of NASA discussed life and work on the outpost and his view of astronauts serving as role models during an in-flight interview Feb. 4 with MSNBC anchor Kendis Gibson. Glover, who is involved in a series of spacewalks outside the complex, arrived on the station last November aboard the SpaceX Crew Dragon “Resilience” vehicle.

Spacewalk to Finish Battery Upgrades & Install Cameras on the International Space Station

Streamed live on Feb 1, 2021  NASA

Watch two spacewalkers at work outside the International Space Station! NASA astronauts Victor Glover and Michael Hopkins will exit the orbiting lab’s Quest airlock at about 7 a.m. EST, to complete tasks including battery maintenance and installing high definition cameras.   Live coverage on NASA Television begins at 5:30? a.m.. The spacewalk will officially begin once the duo set their spacesuits to battery power, and is scheduled to last approximately six-and-a-half hours.

License

Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)

Starlink Mission

Streamed live on Feb 4, 2021 (1:20:58)  SpaceX

SpaceX is targeting Thursday, February 4 for launch of 60 Starlink satellites from Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40) at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida. The instantaneous window is at 1:19 a.m. EST, or 6:19? UTC. The Falcon 9 first stage rocket booster supporting this mission previously flew on four missions: the launches of GPS III Space Vehicle 03 and Turksat 5A and two Starlink missions. Following stage separation, SpaceX will land Falcon 9’s first stage on the “Of Course I Still Love You” droneship, which will be located in the Atlantic Ocean. One half of Falcon 9’s fairing previously flew on the SAOCOM-1B mission, and the other previously flew in support of the GPS III Space Vehicle 03 mission.

Starship | SN9 | High-Altitude Flight Test

Streamed live on Feb 2, 2021  SpaceX

On Tuesday, February 2, Starship serial number 9 (SN9) completed SpaceX’s second high-altitude flight test of a Starship prototype from our site in Cameron County, Texas. Similar to the high-altitude flight test of Starship serial number 8 (SN8), SN9 was powered through ascent by three Raptor engines, each shutting down in sequence prior to the vehicle reaching apogee – approximately 10 kilometers in altitude. SN9 successfully performed a propellant transition to the internal header tanks, which hold landing propellant, before reorienting itself for reentry and a controlled aerodynamic descent. The Starship prototype descended under active aerodynamic control, accomplished by independent movement of two forward and two aft flaps on the vehicle. All four flaps are actuated by an onboard flight computer to control Starship’s attitude during flight and enable precise landing at the intended location. During the landing flip maneuver, one of the Raptor engines did not relight and caused SN9 to land at high speed and experience a RUD. These test flights are all about improving our understanding and development of a fully reusable transportation system designed to carry both crew and cargo on long-duration, interplanetary flights and help humanity return to the Moon, and travel to Mars and beyond.

NASA: LATEST IMAGESImage of the DaySolar System

New Chandra observations have been used to make the first detection of X-ray emission from young stars with masses similar to our Sun outside our Milky Way galaxy. The Chandra observations of these low-mass stars were made of the region known as the “Wing” of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), one of the Milky Way’s closest galactic neighbors. In this composite image of the Wing the Chandra data is shown in purple, optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope is shown in red, green and blue and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope is shown in red. Astronomers call all elements heavier than hydrogen and helium – that is, with more than two protons in the atom’s nucleus – “metals”. The Wing is a region known to have fewer metals compared to most areas within the Milky Way. The Chandra results imply that the young, metal-poor stars in NGC 602a produce X-rays in a manner similar to stars with much higher metal content found in the Orion cluster in our galaxy.

The tip of the “wing” of the Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy is dazzling in this 2013 view from NASA’s Great Observatories. The Small Magellanic Cloud, or SMC, is a small galaxy about 200,000 light-years way that orbits our own Milky Way spiral galaxy.

The colors represent wavelengths of light across a broad spectrum. X-rays from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory are shown in purple; visible-light from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope is colored red, green and blue; and infrared observations from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope are also represented in red.

The spiral galaxy seen in the lower corner is actually behind this nebula. Other distant galaxies located hundreds of millions of light-years or more away can be seen sprinkled around the edge of the image.

The SMC is one of the Milky Way’s closest galactic neighbors. Even though it is a small, or so-called dwarf galaxy, the SMC is so bright that it is visible to the unaided eye from the Southern Hemisphere and near the equator. Many navigators, including Ferdinand Magellan who lends his name to the SMC, used it to help find their way across the oceans.

Modern astronomers are also interested in studying the SMC (and its cousin, the Large Magellanic Cloud), but for very different reasons. Because the SMC is so close and bright, it offers an opportunity to study phenomena that are difficult to examine in more distant galaxies. New Chandra data of the SMC have provided one such discovery: the first detection of X-ray emission from young stars, with masses similar to our sun, outside our Milky Way galaxy.

Image Credit: NASA/CXC/JPL-Caltech/STScI

Last Updated: Feb 5, 2021

Editor: Yvette Smith

Tags:  Image of the DaySolar System

Feb 5, 2021

Hubble Sees a Stellar Furnace

An orange glow radiates from the centre of NGC 1792, the heart of this stellar forge. Captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, this intimate view of NGC 1792 gives us some insight into this galactic powerhouse. The vast swathes of tell-tale blue seen throughout the galaxy indicate areas that are full of young, hot stars, and it is in the shades of orange, seen nearer the centre, that the older, cooler stars reside. Nestled in the constellation of Columba (The Dove), NGC 1792 is both a spiral galaxy, and a starburst galaxy. Within starburst galaxies, stars are forming at comparatively exorbitant rates. The rate of star formation can be more than 10 times faster in a starburst galaxy than in the Milky Way. When galaxies have a large resevoir of gas, like NGC 1792, these short lived starburst phases can be sparked by galactic events such as mergers and tidal interactions. One might think that these starburst galaxies would easily consume all of their gas in a large forming event. However, supernova explosions and intense stellar winds produced in these powerful starbursts can inject energy into the gas and disperse it. This halts the star formation before it can completely deplete the galaxy of all its fuel. Scientists are actively working to understand this complex interplay between the dynamics that drive and quench these fierce bursts of star formation.

Text credit: European Space Agency (ESA)
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, J. Lee; Acknowledgement: Leo Shatz

Last Updated: Feb 5, 2021

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  GalaxiesGoddard Space Flight CenterHubble Space TelescopeUniverse

SOFIA takes off from Hamburg, Germany, following a heavy maintenance visit at Lufthansa Technik.

Feb 4, 2021

SOFIA Begins First Series of Science Flights From Germany

SOFIA takes off from Hamburg, Germany, following a heavy maintenance visit at Lufthansa Technik.

SOFIA taking off from Hamburg, Germany, after finishing heavy maintenance at Lufthansa Technik.

Credits: Alexander Golz

NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, will conduct its first ever series of science observations from Germany in February and March, 2021. Many of the observations seek to answer fundamental questions in astronomy, including how stars can transform galaxies and what is the origin of cosmic rays in the Milky Way galaxy.

SOFIA, a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, DLR, recently completed scheduled maintenance and telescope upgrades at Lufthansa Technik’s facility in Hamburg, Germany. Now, the observatory will take advantage of its proximity to science teams at the Max Planck Institute of Radio Astronomy in Bonn and the University of Cologne, which operate the instrument called German Receiver at Terahertz Frequencies, or GREAT, to conduct research flights from the Cologne Bonn Airport.

“We’re taking advantage of SOFIA’s ability to observe from almost anywhere in the world to conduct compelling astronomical investigations,” said Paul Hertz, director of astrophysics at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “This observing campaign from Germany is an excellent example of the cooperation between NASA and DLR that has been the strength of the SOFIA program for over 25 years.”

SOFIA regularly flies to Christchurch, New Zealand, to study objects only visible in the skies over the Southern Hemisphere, and completed one science flight from Germany in 2019. But this is the first time a multi-flight observing campaign will be conducted over European soil. Over the course of six weeks, SOFIA will conduct about 20 overnight research flights that will focus on high-priority observations, including several large programs that were rescheduled from spring 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

With new COVID-19 safety procedures in place, SOFIA will use its GREAT instrument to search for signatures of celestial molecules, ions, and atoms that are key to unlocking some of the secrets of the universe.

The observations include:

How Stars Affect Their Surroundings   

In stellar nurseries like Cygnus X, newborn stars can destroy the clouds in which they’re born. Researchers will use SOFIA to create a map of ionized carbon, a gas the young stars are heating, to better understand this process. Ionized carbon’s chemical fingerprint can determine the speed of the gas at all positions across the celestial clouds. The signal is so strong that it reveals critical details that are otherwise hidden from view deep inside natal clouds. The data may also help explain the source of the mysterious bubble-like structures that were detected by the Herschel Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope but have yet to be fully understood.

Searching for Clues About Cosmic Rays 

The team will search for gases that can reveal the presence of cosmic rays, highly energetic charged particles that stream through our Milky Way galaxy. When a hydrogen atom combines with another element, such as argon or oxygen, simple molecules called hydrides are formed, some of which can be used to find cosmic rays. While cosmic rays can be detected directly within our solar system, astronomers know much less about their presence elsewhere in space. By measuring the concentration of hydride molecules, SOFIA’s observations will help researchers understand how common cosmic rays are in different parts of our galaxy, providing clues about the origin of these mysterious particles.

Understanding the Evolution of The Cigar Galaxy, or M82 

SOFIA previously found that the Cigar galaxy’s powerful wind, driven by the galaxy’s high rate of star birth, is aligned along the magnetic field lines and transports a huge amount of material out of the galaxy. Now, researchers will study ionized carbon gas, which traces star formation, to learn how this intense star birth and wind are affecting the evolution of the galaxy.

About GREAT

SOFIA’s GREAT instrument works like a radio receiver. Scientists tune to the frequency of the molecule they’re searching for, like tuning an FM radio to the right station. The instrument can also look for changes in signals that provide insights into how stars affect their surroundings, similar to how a radar gun bounces a signal off a moving car to determine its speed.

About SOFIA

SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center. NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley manages the SOFIA program, science, and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association, headquartered in Columbia, Maryland, and the German SOFIA Institute at the University of Stuttgart. The aircraft is maintained and operated by NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center Building 703, in Palmdale, California.

Media Contact: 

Elizabeth Landau
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-0845
elizabeth.r.landau@nasa.gov 

Alison Hawkes
NASA Ames Research Center, Silicon Valley, Calif.
650-604-4789
alison.hawkes@nasa.gov 

Last Updated: Feb 4, 2021

Editor: Kassandra Bell

Tags:  Ames Research CenterSOFIAUniverse

Feb 4, 2021

RELEASE 21-013

NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for SPHEREx Astrophysics Mission

NASA’s Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization and Ices Explorer (SPHEREx) mission is targeted to launch in 2024. SPHEREx will help astronomers understand both how our universe evolved and how common are the ingredients for life in our galaxy’s planetary systems.

Credits: Caltech

NASA has selected Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) of Hawthorne, California, to provide launch services for the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer (SPHEREx) mission. SPHEREx is a planned two-year astrophysics mission to survey the sky in the near-infrared light, which, though not visible to the human eye, serves as a powerful tool for answering cosmic questions involving the birth of the universe, and the subsequent development of galaxies.

It also will search for water and organic molecules – essentials for life as we know it – in regions where stars are born from gas and dust, known as stellar nurseries, as well as disks around stars where new planets could be forming. Astronomers will use the mission to gather data on more than 300 million galaxies, as well as more than 100 million stars in our own Milky Way galaxy.

The total cost for NASA to launch SPHEREx is approximately $98.8 million, which includes the launch service and other mission related costs.

The SPHEREx mission currently is targeted to launch as early as June 2024 on a Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex-4E at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

NASA’s Launch Services Program at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida will manage the SpaceX launch service. The mission, which is funded by the Astrophysics Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate at the agency’s headquarters in Washington, is led by the Explorer’s Program at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California is responsible for the mission’s overall project management, systems engineering, integration, and testing and mission operations.

For more information about NASA programs and missions, visit:  http://www.nasa.gov

Joshua Finch
Headquarters, Washington
202-358-1100
joshua.a.finch@nasa.gov

Patti Bielling
Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
321-867-9284
patricia.a.bielling@nasa.gov

Last Updated: Feb 4, 2021

Editor: Sean Potter

Tags:  GalaxiesKennedy Space CenterUniverse

Feb 3, 2021

NASA, International Partners Assess Mission to Map Ice on Mars, Guide Science Priorities

NASA and three international partners have signed a statement of intent to advance a possible robotic Mars ice mapping mission, which could help identify abundant, accessible ice for future candidate landing sites on the Red Planet. The agencies have agreed to establish a joint concept team to assess mission potential, as well as partnership opportunities.

This artist illustration depicts four orbiters as part of the International Mars Ice Mapper (I-MIM) mission concept. Low and to the left, an orbiter passes above the Martian surface, detecting buried water ice through a radar instrument and large reflector antenna. Circling Mars at a higher altitude are three telecommunications orbiters with one shown relaying data back to Earth.

Credits: NASA

Under the statement, NASA, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) announced their intention to develop a mission plan and define their potential roles and responsibilities. If the concept moves forward, the mission could be ready to launch as early as 2026.

The international Mars Ice Mapper mission would detect the location, depth, spatial extent, and abundance of near-surface ice deposits, which would enable the science community to interpret a more detailed volatile history of Mars. The radar-carrying orbiter would also help identify properties of the dust, loose rocky material – known as regolith – and rock layers that might impact the ability to access ice.

The ice-mapping mission could help the agency identify potential science objectives for initial human missions to Mars, which are expected to be designed for about 30 days of exploration on the surface. For example, identifying and characterizing accessible water ice could lead to human-tended science, such as ice coring to support the search for life. Mars Ice Mapper also could provide a map of water-ice resources for later human missions with longer surface expeditions, as well as help meet exploration engineering constraints, such as avoidance of rock and terrain hazards. Mapping shallow water ice could also support supplemental high-value science objectives related to Martian climatology and geology.

“This innovative partnership model for Mars Ice Mapper combines our global experience and allows for cost sharing across the board to make this mission more feasible for all interested parties,” said Jim Watzin, NASA’s senior advisor for agency architectures and mission alignment. “Human and robotic exploration go hand in hand, with the latter helping pave the way for smarter, safer human missions farther into the solar system. Together, we can help prepare humanity for our next giant leap – the first human mission to Mars.”

As the mission concept evolves, there may be opportunities for other space agency and commercial partners to join the mission.

Beyond promoting scientific observations while the orbiter completes its reconnaissance work, the agency partners will explore mission-enabling rideshare opportunities as part of their next phase of study. All science data from the mission would be made available to the international science community for both planetary science and Mars reconnaissance.

This approach is similar to what NASA is doing at the Moon under the Artemis program – sending astronauts to lunar South Pole, where ice is trapped in the permanently shadowed regions of the pole.

Access to water ice would also be central to scientific investigations on the surface of Mars that are led by future human explorers. Such explorers may one day core, sample, and analyze the ice to better understand the record of climatic and geologic change on Mars and its astrobiological potential, which could be revealed through signs of preserved ancient microbial life or even the possibility of living organisms, if Mars ever harbored life.

Ice is also a critical natural resource that could eventually supply hydrogen and oxygen for fuel. These elements could also provide resources for backup life support, civil engineering, mining, manufacturing, and, eventually, agriculture on Mars. Transporting water from Earth to deep space is extremely costly, so a local resource is essential to sustainable surface exploration.

“In addition to supporting plans for future human missions to Mars, learning more about subsurface ice will bring significant opportunities for scientific discovery,” said Eric Ianson, NASA Planetary Science Division Deputy Director and Mars Exploration Program Director. “Mapping near-surface water ice would reveal an as-yet hidden part of the Martian hydrosphere and the layering above it, which can help uncover the history of environmental change on Mars and lead to our ability to answer fundamental questions about whether Mars was ever home to microbial life or still might be today.”

The Red Planet is providing great research return for robotic exploration and the search for ancient life in our solar system. This latest news comes ahead of the agency’s Perseverance rover landing on Mars, which is scheduled to take place on February 18, following a seven-month journey in space. NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) also recently announced they are moving forward with the Mars Sample Return mission.

Learn more about NASA’s Mars Exploration at:

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mars/main

https://www.nasa.gov/topics/moon-to-mars

Grey Hautaluoma / Alana Johnson
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-0668 / 202-358-1501
grey.hautaluoma-1@nasa.gov / alana.r.johnson@nasa.gov

Last Updated: Feb 3, 2021

Editor: Tricia Talbert

Tags:  MarsSolar System

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NASA: Expedition 64 JAXA 6 Month Challenge Campaign, Story Time From Space Willow The Water Bear Book, SpaceCast Weekly, Countdown to Mars, and Perseverance Arrives at Mars

NASA: Expedition 64 JAXA 6 Month Challenge Campaign, Story Time From Space Willow The Water Bear Book, SpaceCast Weekly, Countdown to Mars, and Perseverance Arrives at Mars

NASA: Expedition 64 JAXA 6 Month Challenge Campaign – January 28, 2021,

             Expedition 64 Story Time From Space Willow The Water Bear Book –   January 26, 2021,

             SpaceCast Weekly – January 29, 2021,

             Countdown to Mars: A Story of Perseverance, Sep 14, 2020,

             Perseverance Arrives at Mars: Feb. 18, 2021 (Mission Trailer), Dec 21, 2020, 

             NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

             Mars Science Laboratory and Its Payload Fairing and The Latest Images

Expedition 64 JAXA 6 Month Challenge Campaign – January 28, 2021

Jan 28, 2021  NASA Video

SPACE STATION CREW MEMBER CONDUCTS EDUCATIONAL CHALLENGE WITH JAPANESE

STUDENTS Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 64 Flight Engineer Soichi Noguchi of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) answered questions about life and work on the outpost Jan. 28 submitted by Japanese students involved in a “6 Month Mission Challenge” educational activity. Noguchi arrived on the station in November aboard the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft “Resilience” for a six-month mission of scientific research.

Expedition 64 Story Time From Space Willow The Water Bear Book – January 26, 2021   NASA Video

SPACE STATION CREW MEMBER PLAYS THE ROLE OF STORY TELLER Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 64 Flight Engineer Shannon Walker of NASA played the role of story teller Jan. 26 as she read the children’s book “Willow the Water Bear” to students back on Earth from the orbital outpost. The book reading event was part of an educational STEM and literacy project sponsored as a payload activity by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Walker also answered questions about life and work on the complex submitted by students as part of the education

SpaceCast Weekly – January 29, 2021

Jan 29, 2021  NASA Video

SpaceCast Weekly is a NASA Television broadcast from the Johnson Space Center in Houston featuring stories about NASA’s work in human spaceflight, including the International Space Station and its crews and scientific research activities, and the development of Orion and the Space Launch System, the next generation American spacecraft being built to take humans farther into space than they’ve ever gone before. Video produced at the NASA Johnson Space Center

Countdown to Mars: A Story of Perseverance

Sep 14, 2020  NASA

“When you look at the team that put this robot together, and the team that put this launch vehicle together, that’s what they’ve done. They’ve persevered.” Go behind the scenes of our Perseverance Mars rover’s July 30, 2020 launch with NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. On Feb. 18, 2021, the rover will land in Jezero Crater, Mars, where it will search for signs of ancient life.

Perseverance Arrives at Mars: Feb. 18, 2021 (Mission Trailer)

Dec 21, 2020  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

After nearly 300 million miles (470 million km), NASA’s Perseverance rover completes its journey to Mars on Feb. 18, 2021. But, to reach the surface of the Red Planet, it has to survive the harrowing final phase known as Entry, Descent, and Landing.

Learn more: https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020? Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

PIA15029: Mars Science Laboratory and Its Payload Fairing

       Original Caption Released with Image:

Preparations are under way to enclose NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory in

an Atlas V rocket payload fairing in this photograph from inside the Payload

Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

The blocks on the interior of the fairing are components of the fairing acoustic

protection system, designed to protect the payload by dampening the sound

created by the rocket during liftoff. The fairing protects the spacecraft from the

impact of aerodynamic pressure and heating during ascent.

The spacecraft’s components include a car-sized rover, Curiosity, which has

10 science instruments designed to search for evidence about whether

Mars has had environments favorable to microbial life, including the chemical

ingredients for life.

Launch of the Mars Science Laboratory aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas

V rocket is planned for Nov. 25 from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape

Canaveral Air Force Station.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of

Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project

for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Launch management

is the responsibility of NASA’s Launch Services Program at the Kennedy

Space Center in Florida. The Atlas V launch service is provided by

United Launch Alliance, Denver, Colo.

Image Credit: NASA

Image Addition Date: 2011-11-10

PIA14758: Mars Science Laboratory Aeroshell with Curiosity Inside

Original Caption Released with Image:

At the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, and the spacecraft’s descent stage have been enclosed inside the spacecraft’s aeroshell.  This image, taken Oct. 1, 2011, shows the aeroshell with its heat shield on top.  The heat shield and the spacecraft’s back shell together form the encapsulating aeroshell that will protect the rover from the intense heat that will be generated as the flight system descends through the Martian atmosphere.  The mission is on track for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station during the period from Nov. 25 to Dec. 18, 2011.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology

in Pasadena, manages the Mars Science Laboratory mission for the NASA Science

Mission Directorate, Washington. This mission will land Curiosity on Mars in

August 2012. Researchers will use the tools on the rover to study whether the landing region has had environmental conditions favorable for supporting microbial life and favorable for preserving clues about whether life existed.

More information about Curiosity is at http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Addition Date: 2011-10-05

PIA14837: Curiosity While on Parachute, Artist’s Concept

                                   Original Caption Released with Image:

This is an artist’s concept of NASA’s Curiosity rover tucked inside the Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft’s backshell while the spacecraft is descending on a parachute toward Mars. The parachute is attached to the top of the backshell. In the scene depicted here, the spacecraft’s heat shield has already been jettisoned.

The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft is being prepared for launch during Nov. 25 to Dec. 18, 2011. Landing on Mars is in early August 2012. In a prime mission lasting one Martian year (nearly two Earth years) researchers will use the rover’s tools to study whether the landing region has had environmental conditions favorable for supporting microbial life and for preserving clues about whether life existed.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology,

Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Science Laboratory Project for the NASA Science

Mission Directorate, Washington.

More information about Curiosity is at http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Addition Date: 2011-10-03

 

PIA14267:                             Special Delivery from Mars to Earth (Artist’s Concept)

                        Original Caption Released with Image:This artist’s concept of a proposed Mars sample return mission portrays the separation of an Earth entry vehicle, bearing a container of Martian rock samples, from the main spacecraft that would have carried it from Martian orbit nearly to Earth.

NASA and the European Space Agency are collaborating on proposals for a mission to gather samples of Martian rocks and bring them to Earth after 2020. This illustration depicts preliminary concepts, not finished design.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech 

Image Addition Date: 2011-06-20

                           

PIA14266: Rendezvous in Martian Orbit (Artist’s Concept)

                                                                    

Original Caption Released with Image:

This artist’s concept of a proposed Mars sample return mission portrays the capture of a collection of Martian samples by a spacecraft orbiting Mars. The samples would have been collected on Mars by a rover and lifted to orbit by an ascent vehicle. After this rendezvous, the orbiter would fire its main thruster to escape Mars orbit and begin a return trip to deliver the sample container to Earth.

NASA and the European Space Agency are collaborating on proposals for a mission

to gather samples of Martian rocks and bring them to Earth after 2020. This illustration

depicts preliminary concepts, not finished design.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Addition Date: 2011-06-20

 

PIA14265: Martian Samples Leaving Mars (Artist’s Concept)

                                     

Original Caption Released with Image:

This artist’s concept of a proposed Mars sample return mission portrays the launch of an ascent vehicle. The solar panels in the foreground are part of a rover. The rover would have delivered to the ascent vehicle a cache of Martian rock samples that would have been left on the surface by a previous sample-collection rover. The ascent vehicle would release its sample container in Martian orbit, to be retrieved by a spacecraft for carrying the samples to Earth.

NASA and the European Space Agency are collaborating on proposals for a mission to

gather samples of Martian rocks and bring them to Earth after 2020. This illustration

depicts preliminary concepts, not finished design.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech


Image Addition Date:
2011-06-20

PIA14264: Landing on Mars for a Short Stay (Artist’s Concept)

                                        Original Caption Released with Image:

This artist’s concept of a proposed Mars sample return mission portrays a rocket-powered descent stage lowering a sample-retrieving rover and an ascent vehicle to the surface. The ascent vehicle is in the large cylinder, protecting it from the harsh Martian environment. The rover, with solar-panels in folded position, sits to the right of it. The ascent vehicle would receive samples of Martian rocks that are to be collected by a previous mission and retrieved by the rover. Then it would launch the samples into Martian orbit for a rendezvous with a spacecraft that would carry them to Earth.

NASA and the European Space Agency are collaborating on proposals for a mission

to gather samples of Martian rocks and bring them to Earth after 2020. This illustration

depicts preliminary concepts, not finished design.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Addition Date: 2011-06-20

 For more information, please visit the following links:

 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/snt?start=0

 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA14264

   PIA24390: Spring Sprouts on Mars

                                  Original Caption Released with Image:

The sun is rising in Mars’ Northern Hemisphere, and spring activity is starting as the seasonal polar cap begins to sublimate (going from ice directly to gas). A layer of dry ice covers the sand dunes in this image.

Gas jets sprout through the ice layer carrying dust and sand from the surface, showing up as dark fans. At this time in early Martian spring, the fans are visible between the sand dunes. The ground between the dunes is on the scale of tens of centimeters, and ice in places where the sun hits more directly will thin fastest, releasing the jets. Later, the ice over and around the dunes will rupture and more fans will appear on the dunes.

The map is projected here at a scale of 50 centimeters (19.7 inches) per pixel.

(The original image scale is 63.4 centimeters [25.0 inches] per pixel [with 2 x 2 binning]; objects on the order of 190 centimeters [74.8 inches] across are resolved.) North is up.

The University of Arizona, in Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., in Boulder, Colorado. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for

NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

           Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona


Image Addition Date: 2021-01-29

PIA24383: Stepping It Up in Arabia Terra

Original Caption Released with Image:

Several craters in Arabia Terra are filled with layered rock, often exposed in rounded mounds.

The bright layers are roughly the same thickness, giving a stair-step appearance.

The process that formed these sedimentary rocks is not yet well understood. They could have formed from sand or volcanic ash that was blown into the crater, or in water if the crater hosted a lake. One thing is certain, though: it wouldn’t be hard to get your 10,000 daily steps when going on a hike in beautiful Arabia Terra!

The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel.

(The original image scale is 27.6 centimeters [10.9 inches] per pixel [with 1 x 1 binning]; objects on the order of 83 centimeters [32.7 inches] across are resolved.) North is up.

The University of Arizona, in Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace

& Technologies Corp., in Boulder, Colorado. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division

of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project

for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona


Image Addition Date: 2021-01-29

 PIA24382: Blast Waves and Dusty Landslides

              Original Caption Released with Image:

Meteorites hit Mars and create small craters like the one we’ve imaged here. Usually we spot these new craters in lower-resolution images from the Context Camera because the impact disturbs dust on the surface and creates a dark mark that’s much bigger than the crater.

This meteorite hit a dusty area and made a crater, but did something a little more special to the surrounding dust. We can see dozens of dark, dust-free, streaks on slopes surrounding the crater. These slope streaks form when dust slumps downhill and happen naturally on a regular basis.

In this case though, the impact and explosion that made the crater seems to have

set off many of these downhill slumps of dust simultaneously. This could have

happened from the explosion’s blast wave passing through the air or the shaking

of the ground that it caused.

The map is projected here at a scale of 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) per pixel.

(The original image scale is 31.2 centimeters [12.3 inches] per pixel [with 1 x 1 binning]; objects on the order of 93 centimeters [36.6 inches] across are resolved.) North is up.

This is a stereo pair with ESP_065360_1900.

The University of Arizona, in Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace

& Technologies Corp., in Boulder, Colorado. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division

of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for

NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona


Image Addition Date:
2021-01-29

PIA24378: Mars 2020 Camera and Microphone Location (Illustration)

                             Original Caption Released with Image:

This graphic shows the location of four cameras and a microphone on the spacecraft for NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance mission. These cameras will capture the entry, descent, and landing phase of the mission.

A division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory built and will manage operations of the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover for the agency.

For more information about the mission, go to https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Addition Date: 2021-01-27

PIA24309: Exploring Majestic Jezero Crater (Illustration)

                                Original Caption Released with Image:

 An illustration of NASA’s Perseverance rover exploring inside Mars’ Jezero Crater.

The 28-mile-wide (45-kilometer-wide) crater is located on the western edge of

a flat plain called Isidis Planitia, which lies just north of the Martian equator.

NASA believes the ancient lake-delta system there is the best place for Perseverance, in its hunt for signs of past microscopic life, to find and collect promising rock and regolith (broken rock and dust) samples for a possible future return to Earth.  A key objective for Perseverance’s mission on Mars is astrobiology, including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will characterize the planet’s geology and past climate, pave the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith.

Subsequent missions, currently under consideration by NASA in cooperation with

ESA (European Space Agency), would send spacecraft to Mars to collect these cached

samples from the surface and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California built and manages

operations of the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover for NASA.

For more information about the mission, go to https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Addition Date: 2021-01-27

 PIA24265: Perseverance’s Stages of Descent (Illustration)

                                    Original Caption Released with Image:

This illustration depicts the some of the major milestones NASA’s Perseverance

rover will go through during its 7-minute descent to the Martian surface on

Feb. 18, 2021. Hundreds of critical events must execute perfectly and exactly

on time for the rover to land safely.

Entry, Descent, and Landing, or EDL, begins when the spacecraft reaches

the top of the Martian atmosphere, traveling nearly 12,500 mph (20,000 kph).

It ends about seven minutes later, with Perseverance stationary on the

Martian surface. Perseverance handles everything on its own during this

process. It takes more than 11 minutes to get a radio signal back from Mars,

so by the time the mission team hears that the spacecraft has entered

the atmosphere, in reality, the rover is already on the ground.

A key objective for Perseverance’s mission on Mars is astrobiology,

including the search for signs of ancient microbial life. The rover will

characterize the planet’s geology and past climate, pave the way for human

exploration of the Red Planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache

Martian rock and regolith.

Subsequent missions, currently under consideration by NASA in cooperation

with ESA (European Space Agency), would send spacecraft to Mars to

collect these cached samples from the surface and return them to Earth

for in-depth analysis.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California built and

manages operations of the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover for NASA.

For more information about the mission, go to: https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020.

Image Credit:  NASA/JPL-Caltech

Image Addition Date:  2021-01-27

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