Happy Mother’s Day Everyone 2022, and Always

🙂 Happy Mother’s Day Everyone 2022, and Always 🙂

Kai’s drawing of his mother, Mali’s portrait, Saturday, 12, 11, 2021

This is his mother laughing, hea, hea, hea, ——— after she saw her portrait by her son, Kai.

Kai’s drawing, he got some idea for the baby dinosaur inside the mother dinosaur, by seeing his mother pregnant with his younger brother, Bodhi.

🙂Mommy, I am among the Heart Flowers, just for you. 🙂              🙂 Mommy, I will give you these Heart Flowers 🙂                                            Mommy, we love you very much. 

                            “🙂 Have A Very Happy Mother’s Day Mommy 🙂”   

 Ing’s digital artwork, May 2022

Family Love

Family Love

Soft wind touches the coconut, mango, papaya, and others branches

Swinging back and forth just like someone fanning our evening garden

As the strong hot sun from afternoon heat gradually cools

It is the best time for our family to be together after dinner

Sitting outside on the landing by the garden

Where father planted a group of jasmine plants

Cool breeze in the evening after sun set

Creates the steam of jasmine fragrance in our direction

Our little family with father, mother and children

Sit close together, telling each other stories

We become the center of universe

That others would envy hearing

Laughing and talking of this little group of creatures on earth

We would wait for the moon to rise

Until the bright full moon appeared in the deep dark blue sky

Suddenly the laughing and talking disappeared

Leaving the sound of crickets singing and the frogs croaking

In the rhythmic harmony of nature

We all sat tightly close to each other

Listening to our father telling us a story

Before we would retire to bed

Mother went back inside the house

She came back with a delicious Thai desert for us

A taste that no one can compete with

She used the jasmine syrup to prepare the desert

The aroma of jasmine syrup mixed with coconut cream

Fresh from our coconut tree

The diced fresh fruits with

Crushed ice on top that cools our souls

Mother loves with her wit and hands

Creating a heaven on earth for five little girls

Begging for more we all wait

Sometimes we even love mother’s desert more than father’s story

On the day that the moon leaves us

The deep dark blue sky fills with sparking little stars

The night becomes darker

With the sound of our dog howling

Making us chilled to the spine

Five little girls sit even closer together

Father teases us with ghost and Dracula stories

We hug each other bound tightly

The bond of our love so great

The fear from the outside world disappears

Father, mother laugh to see us chilled

They are embracing us from the fear

It forms a circle of love

Of the lives well lived

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, December 18, 2011, 11:06 PM

For more information, please following the link:


Ing’s digital artwork, May 2022

Ing’s Poems for Her Mother

One year passed

Your name still echoes in my mind

Wake up with you

Go to sleep with you

In my mind

Mother you are with me more than before

Look at your pictures

Reminding of you

Missing you

Thinking of you

Writing this poem

While my tears are pouring down

My mother passed away one year today, Wednesday, April 4, 2012

 To My Mother

I think I saw you yesterday

But now you are gone

You are here

And you disappear

Never to come back

Never to see each other again

This is a life that I hardly recognize

I don’t believe it

But you are gone!

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, April 9, 2012, 4:10 AM

For more information, please following the link:


Tear Drops for My Mother

My sister-in-law called me this evening to tell me that my mother has passed away today.

To my mother and mothers all 

First tear drops for you carrying me for nine months

Second tear drop for your milk that nourished my start in life

Third tear drop for you holding my hands for my first walk

Forth tear drop I called Mommy for my first word

Fifth, sixth, seven and many more tear drops

Can never be enough for what you did for me

Even the liquid from my tears has run dry

But inside my tears are still pouring

Remembering what you did for me

We are far away just only physically

But my heart will always be with you

Longing for your touch

Giving you my last kiss and hug

That is physically denied

You are me as I am part of you

I will kiss and hug you as if you are here with me until I die 

Ing’s digital artwork, May 2022

Ing’s poem for her mother translated into Thai. 

🙂 Have A Happy Mother’s Day Mother🙂

Life Is Too Short for Fighting

My mother is laughing

But I am crying

Seeing her happy face

With her brother’s daughter


They are singing

Having a good time


My mother turns

Singing songs

From when she was young


She loves to laugh out loud

Mother I miss you


My heart is aching

I wish I were there with you again


Life is so fragile

And so short

She is gone


My recording of the event

Shows her laughing and happy again


Please do not fight!!

Enjoy each other

While we are still here in the flesh


Life will not last

The ending is coming so soon

Before we know it


Regretfully we say

We wish we can go back in time


Saying to ourselves

We would do more

Laugh more

And love more


But it is too late

She is gone


Mother, please laughs loader

Let me hear you once more


Syrians, Egyptians, Iraqis, and others, please do not fight or kill each other.  Life is too short.  It is better to spend your time being happy together for you to achieve happiness and have a meaningful life.

 Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, October 14, 2013, 2:18

For more information, please following the link:


My mother visited her older brother’s daughter in Chiang Mai, Thailand, summer 2004

Ing’s digital artwork, May 2022

🙂 Have A Happy Mother’s Day Mom🙂

 John’s mother came to visit us in the Summer of 1980.  She passed away in 1994.  We miss her visiting us.  We would go every summer to visit Mom and John’s sister, Phyllis when Mom was still alive.  I loved her roasted chicken and Welsh cakes.

The scene by the kitchen bay widow at John’s sister house in Swansea, Wales
This scene is what Mom and John’s sister saw when they were sitting in the armchair and relaxing by the kitchen bay widow at John’s sister house in Swansea, Wales. I miss both of them. I wish they were here with us. Life is too short to fight and be unhappy with each other. We will be apart from each other one of these days, sooner or later. Please get along and be happy with each other.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, October 15, 2017, Swansea, Wales

Swansea Shore on Monday, October 9, 2017
“Swansea Bay: Harnessing the power of our tides

  • Did you know… the UK has the second highest tidal range in the world and the difference in the range at Swansea Bay is a massive 7-9 meters!
  • Dave Sagan, Project Manager
  • An iconic, world-first infrastructure project in South West Wales
    • Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon will be the world’s first tidal lagoon power plant.
    • A tidal lagoon is a ‘U’ shaped breakwater, built out from the coast which has a bank of hydro turbines in it. Water fills up and empties the man-made lagoon as the tides rise and fall. We generate electricity on both the incoming and outgoing tides, four times a day, every day.
    • Due to the incredible tides on the West Coast of Britain, by keeping the turbine gates shut for just three hours, there is already a 14ft height difference in water between the inside and the outside of the lagoon. Power is then generated as the water rushes through 200ft long draft tubes, rotating the 23ft diameter hydro turbines.
    • The project was awarded a Development Consent Order in 2015 and is primed for construction. It will comprise 16 hydro turbines, a six-mile breakwater wall, generating electricity for 155,000 homes for the next 120 years. Its major delivery partners include Atkins, General Electric, Andritz Hydro, Laing O’Rourke and Alun Griffiths Ltd.”
    For more information please visit the following link:

Swansea Sky viewed at the backyard of John’s sister house, October 6, 2017
I am always longing for the Swansea Sky. It changes so fast from one color to the other or dark to light. My favorite sky is light pink to red orange which appears in the evening when the sun sets showing her appearance before leaving us to the night sky. This takes place around 6-7 pm. I was lucky to see it again on Friday, October 6, 2017. I viewed this beautiful red orange sky at the backyard of John’s sister house.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, October 8, 2017

For more information, please following the link:


Ing’s digital artwork, May 2022

Happy Mother’s Day Everyone

Vladimir Putin with his “real” mother, Maria Ivanovna Putina, as a boy. Wikimedia Commons

Happy Mother’s Day Maria Ivanovna Putina and All Russian Mothers

Top-Left: A woman cries outside houses damaged by a Russian airstrike, according to locals, in Gorenka, outside Kyiv yesterday. Photo: Vadim Ghirda/AP

Bottom-Right:  A woman outside a maternity hospital that was shelled yesterday in Mariupol, Ukraine. Photo: Evgeniy Maloletka/AP

Bottom-Left: Aftermath of Mariupol Hospital after a Russian attack severely damaged the children’s hospital and maternity ward. Photo: Mariupol City Council via AP

Happy Mother’s Day Every Ukrainian Mothers

Mr. Putin, “PLEASE STOP THE WAR IN UKRAINE” May Peace, Love & Kindness be in your Heart always

A woman arrives at the border crossing in Medyka, Poland. Photo: Visar Kryeziu

Are this lady and baby doing any harm to you?

You destroyed her home, her community and her country

You killed her family, her friends, and her beloved country, Ukraine.


Your young Russian men, are only teenagers, just starting their lives, were killed in thousands.


Millions of Ukrainians are homeless, with no place to stay, no food to eat.

Once you told people that your mother had no food to eat and she fainted, people thought that she was dead.

But now you put the Ukrainian people in a worse situation than your mother.


If you want your Ukraine brothers to be with you, you have to give them Peace, Love and Kindness

 You said that Ukraine is the brother of Russia. You should not kill your brother, but that is what you are doing.   


 You will never conquer Ukraine or the world.  If you use nuclear weapons, it will be suicide, because you and all your Russia people will also die.


If you want the world to respect and honor you, you need to use kindness and love, which in turn will bring peace.

Imagine that you stand proudly at the highest podium, with love, kindness and open arms, offering Peace to the world. This you can do though your wealth and power.

You will be honored as a man of Peace, Love and Kindness. For this you will be remembered and recorded in history forever.


“What does Peace mean to you?”

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, March 13, 2022, 3:38 PM

 For more information, please visit the following link:


Ing’s digital artwork, May 2022

Ing’s artwork

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Remembering 9/11 and One World Trade Center, New York City, New York 

Remembering 9/11 and One World Trade Center, New York City, New York 

Memorial to World Trade Center 

John and I had planned for a while to take a trip to Swansea, Wales, UK to visit John’s older sister Phyllis.  Finally, we bought two tickets from Air India.  We were scheduled to leave Newark, NJ on September 10, 2001.  We always plan to stay more than three weeks’ vacation as we wanted to spend as much time with Phyllis as we can, since Mom, John’s mother passed away in summer 1994 and Phyllis was alone by herself.  So, we planned to stay with her until October 9, 2001, which was the day we returned home to Newark.  ————————————

“Do you know the World Trade Center collapsed?” 

The taxi man asked us while he took our luggage out from the trunk. 

“No!  It is impossible.  We just came from World Trade Center.”

We responded. 

“Two planes hit the twin towers.”

The taxi man gave us more information. 

After greeting Phyllis, we ran in the living room and turned on the TV and found out that there were no Twin Towers anymore.  We learned that the terrorists hijacked the airplanes and used planes as weapons to destroy the buildings and people on the plane and thousand more in the World Trade Center Towers.  We also learned about the disasters in Washington DC and Pennsylvania. ——————————————————

After we came back home to Newark, NJ from Swansea, the first thing I wanted was to visit the remains of WTC to join others who felt the sadness from the loss of so many people.  We also went to Jersey City by the peer at the bank of Hudson River opposite WTC to look at the empty spots where Twin Towers would have been. Our hearts ached and we were confused as to the cause of this destruction.  We liked to bring friends and family to view the NY skyline and watch the 4th of July fireworks by the Hudson River with the WTC in the background. 

I began doing the artwork relating to WTC, a few ceramic sculptures as a Memorial for the Twin Towers.  I kept my artwork to myself.  I showed them to only few people who were close to me.  I did not want to provoke negative feelings or bad memories in others.  I felt such sadness about this horrible event.  It is the same sadness for any horrible event such as Holocausts, the nuclear bombs in Japan, the killing field in Cambodia, in Rwanda and other places in the world.  We humans never learn to be civilized.  We seem so quickly to forget the horrible events that took place and then bad things happen again.  We kill each other directly and indirectly.  The indirect actions of corruption, greed and power hunger cause direct action to surface.  Innocent people will always end up suffering the effects.  Hopefully we will be wiser and able to learn from past events and improve our human race to be able to live with each other in peaceful coexistence. 

Twenty years have passed since the 9/11 events and I would like to share my artwork with others and express some of my thought on my Peace Project website. 

Many thanks to my daughter and son-in-law who subscribe the website for me and my husband who has the patients to correct my writing.  

The followings are the pictures of my sculptures I produced on March 16, 2002 I made especially as a memorial to the Twin Towers and the people who lost in these events:

The description of WTC memorial: 

Two towers stand erect, supported by two long panels.  Outside of two panels are animal designs in one side and the garden and plants on the other side.  The long path between the two towers inside panels is blank spaces which can be the area that the loved ones or any ones express their thought in writing.  And the corridor between two panels can be the place for children to play hide and seek. 

I made this small-scale Twin Towers sculpture as a replica for loved ones or any ones who comes to mourn, let go of sadness and to remember the loss.  I hope we can realize that we should enjoy and appreciate one and other while we are still alive.  

Memorial to World Trade Center 

Time to mourn

Time to cry

Wipe the sadness away

Time to remember

Time to live

Get up and go

Work awaits

I will go on

Remembering the past

With heavy heart

When you are apart 

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, September 11, 2011, 5:57 AM 

Lost Hope  

Little girl feels 

Little girl hurts 

To feel the pain so young 

Her innocent lost

Even though it hasn’t begun 

We all lost our innocent and freedom 

Innocent of hoping working hard 

We will be better some day 

But freedom lost 

Sudden someone comes

And take the hope away 

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, September 04, 2011, 9:45 PM

On Tuesday, September 11, 2001 a total of 343 firefighters died with thousands of innocent civilians in the World Trade Center and other locations. Their lives were taken away by fanatic, brainwashed believers of a distorted version of their own religion.  If the hijackers believe in humankind and nature, they would not kill themselves and others.  So, one should always learn to questions what one is told to believe. 

I salute all the brave firefighters and others who risk their lives saving others.  May peace be with the brave firefighters, all their families and the others. 

Respectfully yours, 

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, August 8, 2003

 I wish it were!

Something that have wings

To save him

I love butterfly

Deep in my heart

I sent the butterfly

To catch him

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, September 15,2002

Order from the Top 

Sharp bayonet piercing on my back

As I am dying

Why do you kill me?

I don’t know you!

And you didn’t know me!

Oh! I forget

It’s an order from the top

If you didn’t kill me

I probably will kill you

Because I got order from the top also

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts Sunday, 8.28.2011, 6:27 PM

Mother liberty holds the twin towers

Close to her heart

Protecting World Trade Center

With her believe 

“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

Mother Liberty, do we still breathe free in this land of liberty?

Breathe free with fear for this event has come

Don’t shed your tears for this human race

The lesson learns might make us grow

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, August 30, 2011, 10:55 PM

What is the same and different between these two men?

One, they are both human beings

Two, they are both dead

Three, they are well known

Four, they both had a goal to be achieved

Five, one is nonviolent and other is violent

Six, one is spinning cotton on a wheel and other has a weapon

Seven, one is productive and other is destructive

Which do we prefer after we analyzing the lives of these two men?

History will record these two men’s actions when they were alive

I hope we can learn from these two people without vengeance and hatred

Let us teach our younger generations all over the world

To understand that we are all the same

If we harm others then we will harm ourselves in the end


Do not brainwash the youngsters!!!!!!!!!!! 

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, 9.13.2011, 1 PM

Flowers from my little garden

Floating in the air

Let each beautiful one

Touching each soul

Seeing beautiful things

Rising to the sky

Just wait for a little while

I will be with you all

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, 9.13.2011, 1:20 PM

World Trade Center Remembered


World Trade Center falls

Becoming colorful Twin Towers

Teaching us

They are here

And they are gone 

Thinking how good

When they are standing there

As we take things for granted

Even with the love ones 

Or the cleaning workers

Or the others that faithfully

Do their jobs for everyone

World Trade Center

 Becomes colorful

In our mind

 I didn’t do anything

Why you hate me this much?

What did I do wrong?

Or did my fellow countrymen

Cause the trouble to the others

That I do not aware of?


These questions and thought

Become active

In my brain neurons

Start charging for reasons 

Thanks to the Twin Towers

You make us think

I miss you


Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts Saturday, August 27, 2011, 3:40 PM

For more information, please visit the following link:



World Trade Center Under the Same Moon

 World Trade Center Under the Same Moon


The moon rises over the night sky


We sit and hold hand tight

Looking at the moon gets brighter

And the sky turns dark

By the Hudson River


Once we stood here

Watching the moon

Over the World Trade Center

Our hand firmly together


The same moon

But now the new one rise

Under the same sky

And the shiny moon


Let us hope

Peace will come to mankind


No fighting, no killing


Let build new World Trade Center

Under the same moon


As our hands tightly grip

Bond us with each other

And bond us all


Let Peace stand strong

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, July 04, 2012, 1:55 A.M.

For more information, please visit the following link:


One World Trade Center 9.8.13 Part1

New York City, New York 

On Sunday, September 8th, 2013 

One World Trade Center 

Piecing through clouds

Up high in the sky

Tall and slender

With beauty and grace


People all over the world

Admiring they come

 One World Trade center

That is your name 


Trade without greed

Trade with fairness

Trade with love

Trade with integrity

That is what the new

World Trade Center should be

 Warm people hearts

With generosity and kindness

With these qualities

No one will want to take you down


Forget the past

Start the new

Let us all come together

With prosperity and peace for all  

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Tuesday, September 11, 2013, 10:33 pm

Link to One World Trade Center 9.8.13 Part 1 page



One World Trade Center Part 2

New York City, New York 

On Sunday, September 8th, 2013 

 Link to One World Trade Center Part 2 Page:



One World Trade Center Part 3

New York City, New York 

On Sunday, September 8th, 2013 

Link to One World Trade Center Part 3 Page:


One World Trade Center Part 4

New York City, New York 

On Sunday, September 8th, 2013 

Link to One World Trade Center Part 4 page: 



One World Trade Center Part 5

New York City, New York 

On Sunday, September 8th, 2013 

Link to One World Trade Center Part 5  



One World Trade Center Part 6

New York City, New York 

On Sunday, September 8th, 2013 

Link to One World Trade Center Part 6 Page:


Photographs and artworks by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

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Welcome to The World Bodhi

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts and Mali DeSantis

Artwork by John Watts

🙂 🙂 🙂Happy Birthday Bodhi 🙂 🙂 🙂

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

🙂 🙂 🙂Happy Birthday Bodhi 🙂 🙂 🙂

Bodhi’s First Day on Earth, Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

New born, Baby Bodhi, Big Brother Kai, Mommy Mali and Daddy Jim (James DeSantis), Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

Big brother, Kai holds Baby Bodhi for the first time on Tuesday, March 10, 2020

New born, Baby Bodhi, Big Brother Kai, Mommy Mali, Grandma Ing from Thailand, Grandma Maria DeSantis from Italy, and Grandpa Jim DeSantis, descendant of Italian and Polish, on Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

Bodhi and Grandma Maria DeSantis

Bodhi and Grandpa Jim DeSantis

Grandma Maria is taking photos of Bodhi.

Grandpa John, from Wales, UK, could not come to the hospital for the birth of Bodhi, Mommy Mali called him on his iPad at home.  He was so glad to see the new born, Bodhi, on Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

New born, Baby Bodhi was born with a full head of spiky red hair.

Big brother, Kai is gently touching Baby Bodhi head and fingers and, in his mind, saying “I will take care of you my little brother.”.

Daddy holds Baby Bodhi’s hand with all his love and care.  Mommy is so happy to see that finally Baby Bodhi is here, joining with all the family and grownups to be healthy and strong like Big brother Kai.

You talking to me Brother Kai?

Brother Kai!  See!  My tongue is coming out just like yours.

Yes Mommy, I am sorry.

Daddy is carrying me carefully and gently to Mommy for my second drink of Mommy’s milk.

                             🙂  Thank you, Mommy, I am very hungry 🙂

Big Brother, Kai is very Happy to have his Baby Brother, Bodhi on Tuesday, March 10, 2020.

I went out to our small garden to take photographs of our little group of daffodils that have some flowers blooming.  I realized that today is the first day of spring.  I would like to welcome the plants that are starting to show their beautiful flowers from the long sleep during the winter cold. 

As I was looking at photographs of our second new born grandson, baby Bodhi, I thought that this is a great time for me to celebrate and share our new born grandson Bodhi with the world.  This healthy human came to the world giving us happiness and joy, despite the circumstances of the world. 

We will overcome the plight of the coronavirus (COVID-19).  Scientists will find some medication to cure the disease.  This moment makes all people realize that we are part of one humanity.  If one country is in trouble, the whole world will feel the consequence.  It is only a matter of time for the ripple effect to reach the whole world. 

Although trouble comes to us, love still prevails. Our little baby grandson, Bodhi heals our suffering.  He gives us happiness, and joy, for the spring that is arriving, with flowers blooming.  Freshness and beauty will be with us all again.

🙂 Have a Happy Spring Everyone 🙂

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts and John Watts, Friday, March 19, 2020

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Mumbles Visitors, Swansea Bay, Wales, UK, June 9, 2019

Mumbles Visitors, Swansea Bay, Wales, UK, June 9, 2019

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

John was waiting for me to come down from Oystermouth Castle hill.

Oystermouth Castle (Welsh: Castell Ystum Llwynarth) is a Norman stone castle in Wales, overlooking Swansea Bay on the east side of the Gower Peninsula near the village of the Mumbles.

I looked down seeing Mumbles village.

We walked along the shops of Mumbles center toward the promenade by Swansea Bay.

Beautiful baskets of mixed flowers are hung in front of some shops and bars.

Father and son were enjoying ice-cream together by the view of Swansea bay.

Swansea bay at the time of a receding tide.

People enjoyed walking along the promenade of Swansea bay.

Over all the mountaintops is peace.

In all treetops you perceive scarcely a breath.

The little birds in the forest are silent.

Wait then; soon you, too, will have peace.



Leave home In the sunshine: Dance through a meadow – Or sit by a stream and just be. The lilt of the water Will gather your worries And carry them down to the sea.




The morning sun, the new sweet earth and the great silence



Once you have heard meadowlark                                                                                                                       and caught the scent of fresh-plowed earth,                                                                                                                            you cannot escape peace.



I lay in a meadow until the unwrinkled serenity

entered into my bones, and made me into one                                          with the browsing kine, the still greenery,                  the drifting clouds, and the swooping birds. 

By ALICE JAMES 91848 – 1892)



I can’t bear a journey to the village –

I’m too contented here. I call my son to close the wooden gate. Thick wine drunk in quiet woods, green moss, Jade gray water under April winds –

and beyond the simmering dusk of the wild.



Do not let trifles disturb your tranquility of mind.

Life is too precious to be sacrificed for the nonessential and transient.



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Oystermouth Castle, Swansea, Wales, UK, June 9, 2019

Oystermouth Castle, Swansea, Wales, UK, June 9, 2019

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

This is the Gower Peninsula’s finest castle, standing on a small hill with a magnificent view over Swansea Bay in the resort town of Mumbles. It is well-preserved, intricate and exciting to explore. Oystermouth Castle was founded by William de Londres of Ogmore Castle

We enjoyed walking in the woods in back of the Castle, near the chapel window.

 Sun shines on leaves 

Touching little pink flowers

On the ground a patch of light yellow-green grass

A bush of dark green plants near by

On the surface of the castle wall

Creates a harmony of textures

And shades of green

A moment of utopia on earth

I was so happy to be surrounded by nature. We need to protect the forests and create more green places for all of us to enjoy.

Peace with Nature, where all life originates.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Monday, June 17, 2019

Here there are beautiful tall trees.

 There is a woods in back of the castle.

Sun shines through the space between the leaves that cover the tree branches, casting a beautiful shadow on the tree trunk.

Adults and children have a good time walking through the woods.

I love the roots of the tree, growing out and wrapping around the trunk of the tree.

John walked out of the woods, unexpextedly viewing a large open space of neatly cut grass.

With a special lens I viewed the beautiful pink flowers inside the castle.

Oystermouth Castle (Welsh: Castell Ystum Llwynarth) is a Norman stone castle in Wales, overlooking Swansea Bay on the east side of the Gower Peninsula near the village of the Mumbles.

Oystermouth Castle, showing the gatehouse and the chapel window

 The chapel (on the second floor of the chapel block) has 14th century traceried windows. According to local tradition the chapel was built under the direction of Aline de Mowbray.

People enjoyed playing football on the grass. I enjoyed viewing the shadow of the castle cast upon the grass.

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Oystermouth Castle, Mumbles Village, Swansea Bay, Wales, UK, 6.9.2019

Oystermouth Castle, Mumbles Village, Swansea Bay, Wales, UK, June 9, 2019

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Oystermouth Castle (Welsh: Castell Ystum Llwynarth) is a Norman stone castle in Wales, overlooking Swansea Bay on the east side of the Gower Peninsula near the village of the Mumbles.

The early castle The first castle was founded by William de Londres of Ogmore Castle soon after 1106 following the capture of Gower by the Normans. In 1116 the Welsh of Deheubarth retook the Gower Peninsula and forced William to flee his castle which was put to the torch. The castle was rebuilt soon afterwards, but was probably destroyed again in 1137 when Gower was once more retaken by the princes of Deheubarth. The Londres or London family finally died out in 1215 when Gower was again taken by the Welsh under the leadership of Llywelyn the Great. In 1220 the Welsh were expelled from the peninsula and the government of Henry III of England returned the barony of Gower to John de Braose who rebuilt both Swansea Castle and Oystermouth.

In the 13th century the Braose family were Lords of Gower and held the castle as part of their extensive land holdings and titles, including other castles on Gower and in the Welsh Marches. The de Braose dynasty could afford to rebuild Oystermouth castle in stone. A high curtain wall was built, internal buildings added, a chapel, basements,three storey residential buildings with fireplaces and garderobes on each floor. The castle had every residential feature necessary for living in some comfort and was also refortified cleverly. Towards the end of the century Oystermouth rather than Swansea Castle became their principal residence. Edward I paid a brief visit here in December 1284.

By 1331 the Lords of Gower were living elsewhere and the castle declined in importance in the 14th century.

The daughter of the last de Breos Lord, Aline de Breos, who improved the chapel making it one of the finest in any castle in south Wales, later married John de Mowbray, and the Lordship of Gower including the castle at Oystermouth passed to the de Mowbrays through this marriage, and then to the Herbert family, and finally the Somersets, who became successive Marquis of Worcester and finally Dukes of Beaufort.

Decline and decay After the Middle Ages, the castle gradually fell into ruin. A survey of Gower made in 1650 describes Oystermouth Castle as [a]n old decayed castle of no use, but of a very pleasant situation. It was portrayed in art in the 18th century as a picturesque ruin, and was restored by George Grant Francis in the 1840s while the castle was owned by the then Duke of Beaufort. In 1927 the Duke of Beaufort gave the castle to Swansea Corporation; today, the castle is maintained under the responsibility of the City and County of Swansea council.

2000s restoration In 2009 the National Assembly for Wales announced it was investing £19 million in the country’s heritage sites in an attempt to boost tourism.[1] As part of the programme Oystermouth Castle closed in 2010 while it underwent a £1 m refurbishment; it reopened to the public in July the following year.[2] Following the first phase of conservation works Oystermouth Castle reopened to the public in mid July 2011. The scheme includes new visitor facilities, an educational space, improvements to access and a 30-foot high glass viewing platform and bridge that leads to Alina’s Chapel.

Notable features of the castle On either side of the entrance gate the walls curve inward, showing that at one time there were supposed to be two round towers built into the gatehouse. It is unknown whether these were ever built.

The chapel (on the second floor of the chapel block) has 14th century traceried windows. According to local tradition the chapel was built under the direction of Aline de Mowbray.

Remnants of an ornate medieval painting dating back to the 14th century have recently been found in the chapel. The surviving painting is thought to be over 700 years old and was spotted during conservation work in the historic attraction’s chapel area. Exposure to the elements has taken its toll on the painting over time but expert Cadw analysis suggests it’s a double-arched canopy that contains the figures of angels. Some of the clear elements of the painting that remain include a wing with multiple feathers and circular shapes that form a head with yellow hair surrounded by a nimbus. It’s thought the painting is both highly important and testimony to the original design of the chapel attributed to Alina de Breos in the early 14th century that once formed part of a larger work of art.

This is the Gower Peninsula’s finest castle, standing on a small hill with a magnificent view over Swansea Bay in the resort town of Mumbles. It is well-preserved, intricate and exciting to explore. Oystermouth Castle was founded by William de Londres of Ogmore Castle

Ogmore Castle early in the 12th century. Of this first castle, which was probably a ringwork and bailey on the highest part of the hill, there is now no trace. The castle later came to be the chief residence of the lords of Gower, and its history became intimately connected with that of Swansea Castle.

The earliest stone building of the castle, the keep, dates from the 12th century. This is the building straight ahead of the entrance. It has been much altered and incorporated into a later block, of which it now forms the southern half. Originally it was a free-standing, rectangular building, entered through an arched doorway, now blocked to the right of the present entrance porch. The great hall would have been on the first floor. Twice the Welsh burnt this early castle, first in 1116 and later in 1215.

In the 13th century the de Braoses were lords of Gower and held the castle, and towards the end of the century Oystermouth rather than Swansea became their principal residence. Edward I paid a brief visit here in December 1284. The de Braoses rebuilt the castle in stone, and most of what remains today is from that period. On the east and west sides is a high and impressive curtain wall with a wall-walk along the top. At its north-east end this leads to a garderobe and then rises to a small tower from which the panoramic view is magnificent. This is a good place from which to appreciate the lovely south window of the chapel. On its north side the castle is enclosed by the outside walls of several residential blocks.

The castle entrance on the south side is an arched passage flanked by what were originally two half-round towers. These have had their fronts hacked off, and the remainder patched and tidied up. Inside the castle the southern part is an open courtyard, with remains of two long, rectangular buildings against the curtain walls on either side of the entrance. The rest of the castle buildings fill the northern end. Behind the keep is a rectangular room with small windows and a fireplace in the south wall. Above this was the lord’s private apartment, or solar, and below is a basement.

A narrow passage leads through the top floor of the north-west block, thought to be the earliest stone addition to the castle after the keep. It is a high, three storey block with a barrel-vaulted basement, and similar middle floor, now held up by a modern pillar. In the south-east corner there is a fascinating narrow passage, dimly lit by narrow slits, which leads back to the keep. It skirts round a spiral staircase which can be glimpsed through its slits. To the west of the keep is a small guardroom. The north end of the west range is a three-storey residential building with fireplaces and garderobes on each floor. To the south is a range with steps leading down to two barrel-vaulted basements and steps up to a large, once well-lit room, with the remains of a large fireplace in its west wall. Apparently the de Braoses lived in some comfort here.

There remains the chapel block on the east side, architecturally the high point of the castle. It was added in the early 14th century, and is usually attributed to Lady Alenora de Mowbray, wife of lord John Mowbray who held the castle then. It blends in well with the rest of the castle, but its detail suggest a much greater level of refinement. On the ground floor are a large fireplace, narrow trefoil-headed splayed windows and a garderobe in the south-east corner. Above is a similar floor. But on the top floor was a large chapel, the great glory of which is its east window. This and the other chapel windows, retain their fine tracery, the finest of the period of any window in south-east Wales.

The chapel use was short-lived, for by 1331 the lords of Gower lived elsewhere. A gradual decline set in, and by the 16th century the castle was ruined. It still has the power to stir the imagination.

Welsh’ s Flag with red dragon as a symbol

Mumbles’ Village

I stood on the hill of Oystermouth Castle and looked down to Swansea Bay, the pier extending onto the beach, where the light house stands tall by the edge of the bay.

We enjoyed viewing outside of the Castle with beautiful yellow flowers in full bloom near the stone structure of the Castle creating a romantic atmosphere.

Two bouquets of pink flowers growing out of the wall as if it is an invitation saying “Hello” to the visitors who come to enjoy the Castle. Plants and trees beautify the place and surroundings creating oxygen for us to breath at the same time taking in carbon dioxide giving a healthy environment.

Sunlight shines on the leaves, giving different shades of green and light yellow as if the artist painted them on a canvas.

This is a glimpse of beauty that nature creates, if we take notice, cultivate, and enjoy it in our beautiful world.

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Dylan Thomas ‘Poems, Seagulls, Swansea Centre, and the Shoppers, Wales, UK, on, May 25, 2019

Dylan Thomas ‘Poems, Seagulls, Swansea Center, and the Shoppers, Wales, UK, on, May 25, 2019

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Oh, Seagulls!

You are free

Flying above people

Landing on the roofs and on the ground

Walking among people

As if you are the shoppers

Picking throw away food

For your delicious meals

Swansea is your home

No place like Home

Poem written by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, June 8, 2019, 12:30 a.m.

While I was walking among the Welsh, I thought about Dylan Thomas. He is one of my favorite artists. I wish that he would have lived longer than thirty-nine years. He passed away on November 9, 1953, shortly after his thirty-ninth birthday.

Dylan Thomas was one of the great Poet and writer in his time, 1914-1953 and at the present time. He was born in Swansea on October 27, 1914. He was a son of the senior English master at the grammar School in Swansea.

He worked briefly at the South Wales Evening Post before embarking on a literary career in London. He wrote eighteen poems in 1934, twenty-five poems in 1936.

He wrote, The Map of London in 1939, Deaths and Entrances in 1946, and, In Country Sleep, in 1952.

Dylan Thomas’ collected poems 1934-1952 was published in 1952.

Throughout his life he also wrote short stories, the most famous collection being the autobiographical stories comprising, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog, in 1940.

During the 1940s and early 1950s he also wrote film scripts, and features and talks for radio.

Between 1950 and 1953 he went on four lecturing visits to America, and it was on the last of these trips that he completed his radio play for voices, Under Milk Wood.

On November 9, 1953, shortly after his thirty-ninth birthday, he collapsed and died in New York City. He is buried in Laugharne, Carmarthenshire, which had become his main home since 1949.

On March 1, 1982 a memorial stone to commemorate Dylan Thomas was unveiled in ‘Poets’ Corner’ in Westminster Abbey.

The above information was taken from, “The Collected Stories Dylan Thomas”, edited by Walford Davies, introduced by Leslie Norris.

Fern Hill by Dylan Thomas

Now as I was young and easy under the apple boughs

About the lilting house and happy as the grass was green,

The night above the dingle starry,

Time let me hail and climb

Golden in the heydays of his eyes,

And honoured among wagons

I was prince of the apple towns

And once below a time

I lordly had the trees and leaves

Trail with daisies and barley

Down the rivers of the windfall light.

And as I was green and carefree,

famous among the barns

About the happy yard and singing as the farm was home,

In the sun that is young once only,

Time let me play and be

Golden in the mercy of his means,

And green and golden

I was huntsman and herdsman,

the calves Sang to my horn,

the foxes on the hills barked clear and cold,

And the sabbath rang slowly

In the pebbles of the holy streams.

All the sun long it was running,

it was lovely,

the hay Fields high as the house,

the tunes from the chimneys, it was air

And playing, lovely and watery

And fire green as grass.

And nightly under the simple stars

As I rode to sleep the owls were bearing the farm away,

All the moon long I heard, blessed among stables, the nightjars

Flying with the ricks, and the horses

Flashing into the dark.

And then to awake, and the farm, like a wanderer white

With the dew, come back, the cock on his shoulder: it was all

Shining, it was Adam and maiden,

The sky gathered again

And the sun grew round that very day.

So it must have been after the birth of the simple light In the first, spinning place, the spellbound horses walking warm

Out of the whinnying green stable

On to the fields of praise.

And honoured among foxes and pheasants by the gay house

Under the new made clouds and happy as the heart was long,

In the sun born over and over,

I ran my heedless ways,

My wishes raced through the house high hay

And nothing I cared, at my sky blue trades, that time allows

In all his tuneful turning so few and such morning songs

Before the children green and golden

Follow him out of grace,

Nothing I cared, in the lamb white days, that time would take me

Up to the swallow thronged loft by the shadow of my hand,

In the moon that is always rising,

Nor that riding to sleep

I should hear him fly with the high fields

And wake to the farm forever fled from the childless land.

Oh as I was young and easy in the mercy of his means,

Time held me green and dying

Though I sang in my chains like the sea.

From Read Me 2: A Poem For Every Day of The Year

The Song of the Mischievous Dog by Dylan Thomas

There are many who say that a dog has its day,

There are others who think that a lobster is pink,

And that bees never work in their hives.

There are fewer, of course, who insist that a horse

Has a horn and two humps on its head,

And a fellow who jests that a mare can build nests Is as rare as a donkey that’s red.

Yet in spite of all this, I have moments of bliss,

For I cherish a passion for bones,

And though doubtful of biscuit,

I’m willing to risk it,

And I love to chase rabbits and stones.

But my greatest delight is to take a good bite

At a calf that is plump and delicious;

And if I indulge in a bite at a bulge,

Let’s hope you won’t think me too vicious.

From Read Me: A Poem A Day

Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night by Dylan Thomas

Do not go gentle into that good night,

Old age should burn and rave at close of day;

Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Though wise men at their end know dark is right,

Because their words had forked no lightning they

Do not go gentle into that good night.

Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright

Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,

Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,

And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,

Do not go gentle into that good night.

30 Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

And you, my father, there on the sad height,

Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears,

I pray. Do not go gentle into that good night.

Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

From A Poem For Every Night of The Year

From ‘Under Milk Wood’ by Dylan Thomas

Every morning when I wake,

Dear Lord, a little prayer I make,

O please do keep Thy lovely eye

On all poor creatures born to die

And every evening at sun-down

I ask a blessing on the town,

For whether we last the night or no

I’m sure is always touch-and-go.

We are not wholly bad or good

Who live our lives under Milk Wood,

And Thou, I know, wilt be the first

To see our best side, not our worst.

O let us see another day!

Bless us all this night, I pray,

 And to the sun we all will bow

And say, good-bye – but just for now!

From A Poem For Every Day Of The Year

And Death Shall Have No Dominion by Dylan Thomas

And death shall have no dominion.

Dead man naked they shall be one

With the man in the wind and the west moon;

When their bones are picked clean and the clean bones gone,

They shall have stars at elbow and foot;

Though they go mad they shall be sane,

Though they sink through the sea they shall rise again;

Though lovers be lost love shall not;

And death shall have no dominion.

And death shall have no dominion.

Under the windings of the sea

They lying long shall not die windily;

Twisting on racks when sinews give way,

Strapped to a wheel, yet they shall not break;

Faith in their hands shall snap in two,

And the unicorn evils run them through;

Split all ends up they shan’t crack;

And death shall have no dominion.

And death shall have no dominion.

No more may gulls cry at their ears

Or waves break loud on the seashores;

Where blew a flower may a flower no more

Lift its head to the blows of the rain;

Though they be mad and dead as nails,

Heads of the characters hammer through daisies;

Break in the sun till the sun breaks down,

And death shall have no dominion.

From A Poem For Every Day Of The Year

From love’s first fever by Dylan Thomas

From love’s first fever to her plague, from the soft second

And to the hollow minute of the womb,

From the unfolding to the scissored caul,

The time for breast and the green apron age

When no mouth stirred about the hanging famine,

All world was one, one windy nothing,

My world was christened in a stream of milk.

And earth and sky were as one airy hill.

The sun and mood shed one white light.

From the first print of the unshodden foot, the lifting

Hand, the breaking of the hair,

From the first scent of the heart, the warning ghost, And to the first dumb wonder at the flesh,

The sun was red, the moon was grey, The earth and sky were as two mountains meeting.

The body prospered, teeth in the marrowed gums,

The growing bones, the rumour of the manseed

Within the hallowed gland, blood blessed the heart,

And the four winds, that had long blown as one,

Shone in my ears the light of sound,

Called in my eyes the sound of light.

And yellow was the multiplying sand,

Each golden grain spat life into its fellow,

Green was the singing house.

The plum my mother picked matured slowly,

The boy she dropped from darkness at her side Into the sided lap of light grew strong,

Was muscled, matted, wise to the crying thigh,

And to the voice that, like a voice of hunger,

Itched in the noise of wind and sun.

And from the first declension of the flesh

I learnt man’s tongue, to twist the shapes of thoughts

Into the stony idiom of the brain,

To shade and knit anew the patch of words

Left by the dead who, in their moonless acre,

Need no word’s warmth.

The root of tongues ends in a spentout cancer,

That but a name, where maggots have their X.

I learnt the verbs of will, and had my secret;

The code of night tapped on my tongue;

What had been one was many sounding minded.

One wound, one mind, spewed out the matter,

One breast gave suck the fever’s issue;

From the divorcing sky I learnt the double,

The two-framed globe that spun into a score;

A million minds gave suck to such a bud As forks my eye;

Youth did condense; the tears of spring

Dissolved in summer and the hundred seasons;

One sun, one manna, warmed and fed.

Poem by Dylan Thomas

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Swansea Center, Wall Murals and the Shoppers on, May 26&28, 2019

Swansea Center, Wall Murals and the Shoppers on, May 26&28, 2019

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

  The USA flag shows the location of American Hotel by the beach in Swansea.

We left Swansea beach and walked toward TESCO supermarket, which took about 10 minutes and it is close to the Shopping Center. We saw a man sitting on the sidewalk.

 We are not sure that he wanted to rest or beg.

 We arrived at TESCO and found out that the supermarket closes early on Sunday.

 I love to see the rays of sun rays upon the building.

 After TESCO we walked toward home, we went through Bus Station. We saw a young man outside Bus Station. He asked for change while we were passing him.

This young lady, holding a cigarette, standing by a door inside the Bus Station, asked us for change as well.

This sign inside the bus station advertises the Quadrant Shopping Center.

There were not many people traveling on Sunday, only these two pigeons, who enjoyed walking freely.

After we came out of the Bus Station, another man asked us for money. I am sad to see these people begging for money. I do not know what are their circumstances that caused them to beg. But I wish someone or the government would help them both mentally and physically.

 We passed a Tattoo shop and I was glad to see the mural on the wall. I noticed that tattoos are very popular here. I saw both men and women with tattoos, some only on an arm or leg, but some have tattoo’s covering a lot of their body. I thought that only young people love to tattoos for fashion, but I also saw middle aged people with tattoos.

I presume that this wall mural was produced by, Fresh Murals Co.

The signature shown here is, Read and Weeps.

An interesting graffiti near the wall mural.

John was waiting for me as I was taking photographs of the wall mural. The advertising on the opposite wall between people at both ends and John sitting by the tattoo sign made it an interesting composition.

We passed the Swansea Grand Theatre.


I like the sign of this Indian Cuisine restaurant.

Interesting mural on the store gate of a Tatto Lab shop.

Volunteer, Donate and Service, for good causes are good for society at last.

There is quite a mixed population in Swansea. Many Arabic shops, and Chinese shops on St. Helens Road and also Arabic, Chinese, Indian, and Thai restaurants throughout Swansea. So, we see all races of people walking on Swansea streets.

This is Swansea Shopping center, where I took these photographs on Tuesday, May 28, 2019.

By accident, I captured a picture of Phyllis neighbors and friends, Mikey, and Betty, his sister, stood next to him, they were talking to someone. These two people were very helpful to Phyllis, John’s sister. We are very grateful for their generosity.

John told me that he saw Chinese people in Swansea more than in previous years.

I was really surprised and enjoyed seeing this Seagull eating French frys on the tray, as if he or she was one of Burger King’s customers.

It is fun to see our reflection on the glass window.

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Swansea Beach and the Visitors on Sunday, May 26, 2019

Swansea Beach and the Visitors on Sunday, May 26, 2019

  First thing we did before we went out of the house is to enjoy the blooming of spring flowers in Phyllis’s little garden. We miss Mom and Phyllis who devoted their energy and time taking care of family and this house. We wish they were here. Please do not fight, we will all perish one day, soon or later. Please get along and enjoy each other while you can.

I love plants and beautiful flowers. Thanks, Phyllis and Mom who created a beautiful little place for us.

Swansea Library allowed us to be temporary members. As members we can use free internet for 2 hours each day. Without membership free internet is only available for 30 minutes a day. For the record, we went to Swansea city center and asked a shop the cost of using the internet. The rate was 1 pound for 20 minutes. The library and the shop are the same distance from the house we are staying in. We appreciate the help Swansea Library gives to foreigners and others who come to visit Swansea.

After visiting the library, we usually enjoy the beach which is situated right next to the library. In fact, the large library windows look out directly onto Swansea Bay.

John was eager to step onto the beach, to walk about enjoying the scenery and remembering his youth playing here every chance he could.

We visited Swansea beach about two years ago, on Monday, October 9, 2017 and I wrote a poem as follows: Swansea Shore!

A poor little bird Standing on the edge

Watching the sea roll by

My poor sick husband Trying to compose himself Breathing in the fresh air Oh, Swansea Shore!

I came here before Seeing the waves Rolling and hugging you

In and out with the rhythm of the tides

Oh, Swansea Shore! I will come here again In the sunset of my life

And you will still be here For the long centuries to come

My little Grandson Kai

Holding his hands with his parents

Walking along the shore

Another younger generations will come

Admiring you with the sunset or the sunrise

The full moon appearing in the sky You will give pleasure for all to see,

Oh, Swansea Shore!

I love you!

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, October 11, 2017, 4:17 am

This was one of the pictures that I took two years ago, which I posted along with my poem.

The information about the Swansea Bay which I posted when we came to Swansea last time. “Swansea Bay (Welsh: Bae Abertawe) is a bay on the Bristol Channel on the southern coast of Wales. Places on the bay include Swansea and Port Talbot. The River Neath, River Tawe, River Afan, River Kenfig and Clyne River flow into the bay. Swansea Bay (and upper reaches of the Bristol Channel) experience a large tidal range. The shipping ports in Swansea Bay are Swansea Docks, Port Talbot Docks and Briton Ferry wharfs. Oyster fishing was once an important industry in Swansea Bay, employing 600 people at its height in the 1860s. However, overfishing, disease and pollution had all but wiped out the oyster population by 1920. In 2005 plans were announced to reintroduce the Oyster farming industry.[1]” Beaches[edit] The bay is lined with sandy beaches. Each stretch of beach within the bay has its own individual name: • Aberavon Beach • Baglan Bay • Jersey Marine Beach • Swansea Beach • Mumbles Beach For more information please visit the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

 “Swansea Bay: Harnessing the power of our tides • Did you know… the UK has the second highest tidal range in the world and the difference in the range at Swansea Bay is a massive 7-9 metres! • Dave Sagan, Project Manager • An iconic, world-first infrastructure project in South West Wales • Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon will be the world’s first tidal lagoon power plant. • A tidal lagoon is a ‘U’ shaped breakwater, built out from the coast which has a bank of hydro turbines in it. Water fills up and empties the man-made lagoon as the tides rise and fall. We generate electricity on both the incoming and outgoing tides, four times a day, every day. • Due to the incredible tides on the West Coast of Britain, by keeping the turbine gates shut for just three hours, there is already a 14ft height difference in water between the inside and the outside of the lagoon. Power is then generated as the water rushes through 200ft long draft tubes, rotating the 23ft diameter hydro turbines. • The project was awarded a Development Consent Order in 2015 and is primed for construction. It will comprise 16 hydro turbines, a six-mile breakwater wall, generating electricity for 155,000 homes for the next 120 years. Its major delivery partners include Atkins, General Electric, Andritz Hydro, Le aing O’Rourke and Alun Griffiths Ltd.” For more information please visit the following link: https://www.tidallagoonpower.com/projects/swansea-bay/ I posted the above information about two years ago. I was so glad for the new pollution free project for Wales. I hoped that I would enjoy seeing this project come to reality when we visit Swansea next time. But unfortunately, the project still has not been completed. I hope that no matter what party is in control, the project will still go through. This will benefit the people, help the environment of the country, and in turn the world at large.

I always enjoy seeing the, “funny humps” on the horizon, which is the lighthouse at the Mumbles end of Swansea Bay.

“Swansea Bay: Wind plans In addition to tidal power, construction of an offshore windfarm in the Bay has been approved,[9] but construction has now been deferred owing to the costs involved. The windfarm was to have been sited at Scarweather Sands, about 5 km (3 mi) off the coast and visible from Porthcawl.” For more information please visit the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay I posted above information in 2017, when we visited Swansea last time. We saw some of the wind mills in two locations while we were on the Bus from Heathrow airport to Swansea city. Two of the large wind mills are in the photograph.

The lady enjoyed walking on the pathway along the beach.

John concentrated on capturing the action on the beach.  

The fresh air and gentle breeze against these two bikers faces on this beautiful seashore will to be remembered by them.

John probably said “Got it”. One of his perfect photographs, he captured on the beach.

A little one had fun on the beach with brother and mother. I wish to see Kai and his parents on the beach with us.

I saw at least two people holding equipment for digging worms for fishing.

Some people enjoyed the cool breeze on the steps while the tide was out before the waves roll back in covering the steps again.

Riding on the path next to beach is fun, especially having a loved one hugging you by the waist.

Happiness is freedom to enjoy biking, walking, or sitting in the pleasant atmosphere on Swansea beach.

 Swansea Bay, Pollution: For the last two decades of the 20th century, the bay was blighted by pollution, partly from the surrounding heavy industry and partly from sewerage outlets being sited at inappropriate locations including the main one that was located just seaward of Mumbles Lighthouse. A pumping station inside the cliff adjacent to Knab Rock brought all of Swansea city’s effluent in a raw form to this point. Adding to the problem was the natural current flow of the waters in the Bay which often did not move the polluted waters further out to sea. Ironically, the outgoing tide did not carry the raw sewage down the adjacent Bristol Channel, but instead cause it to be sucked in around the circumference of the Bay and only then out down the Channel. If not fully discharged on that tide, the incoming tide would then push the same effluent up the Channel, and once again circulate around the Bay. Efforts were made by the local authority to reduce the pollution in the Bay but care had to be taken to ensure the pollution did not move to the popular beach resorts in south Gower instead. This original sewer outlet was finally made inactive in around 1996 following the construction of a brand new pipeline which ran all the way back around the Bay following the line of the old Mumbles Railway as far as Beach Street, along the sea-side of the Maritime Quarter and through Swansea Docks to a new £90 million sewage treatment plant at Crymlyn Burrows near Port Tennant from which a new outlet was made, extending further out to sea. As a consequence of the huge improvement these works have made, it is hoped that Swansea Bay will achieve Blue Flag Beach status. Aberavon beach was awarded Blue Flag status in December 2007.[2]” For more information please visit the following link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Bay

After the tide went out, it showed the remaining evidence of the living organisms that exist on the beach.

Soft sand on the sea shore is probably comfortable for running.

I asked John, “What is this big lump of sand? It Looks like poop.” He said, “ That hole was the place where people used a pipe do draw core sample of deeper sand to find warms for fishing. The sand in the pipe get discard on the surface.” One can learn new things, no matter how old you are.

I enjoyed seeing different types of shell, big and small.

 Shells are everywhere on the curve of tide waves that end on the beach. Like our hearts beating, the tide never stops its rhythmic cycle. in and out regularly like our heart beat that never stop until we no longer breath, as if when the tide never came back the beach lay dry and the organisms on the beach are vanishing.

I collected different types of shells for Kai while thinking of him, hoping that he will enjoy seeing the shells from the Swansea shore.

 I wish we would appreciate the sea more than we do, so that we will keep it clean from polution that humans dump in the sea including large quantities of plastic. The earth is not only for humans use. It belongs to all the organisms that live in the sea.

The sun cast our shadow on the beach for me to capture and remember our walk that beautiful day. “We miss you! We miss you! Until we meet again!

 I love this photo where John walked on the beautiful smooth sand, casting his perfect shadow at a 45 degrees angle. In front of him is a tall building reaching into the clouds and blue sky.

The wall dividing the United States and Mexico is a political problem for immigrants into USA, but not this wall.

Playing on the beach with mother and brother is fun, and happy time. They will remember this moment as long as they live.

A pretty young lady on walks alonghe beach.

The wind blows the hair while a cool breeze brings pleasure.

This gentleman is enjoying a time with no rain in the comfortable atmosphere of Swansea beach.

 Millions of pictures were taken by the beach for love ones at home or as a personal memory of the Swansea shore.

 I came to Swansea many times before, when Mom, John’s Mother and Phyllis, John’s sister were still alive. Mom passed away in 1996. We still came to visit Phyllis and Swansea. Then Phyllis passed away three years ago. We still visit Swansea. I miss Mom and Phyllis and said hello when I went in their rooms. Before I concentrated on taking photographs of places and monuments more than people. Lucky technology has allowed us to capture images of people, see their movements on video, and hear them talk. From now on I will concentrate on recording the stories of people rather than places. Places will continue to exist but people are here for only a limited time. Kai my grandson, who is three and a half, will look back at my photos posted on my website in ten or twenty years. Here he will see the difference time has made to the people and culture presented in my work and learn from this.

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Trip To Swansea In My Husband’s Motherland , Wales –Part 7

Photograph and Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Ing’s “Peace Comes To You”Poem translated into Welsh By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017

Sent: 09 October 2017 19:38
From: Lewis, Hywel                                                      Subject: poem

Pan fyddwch chi’n mwynhau diferion glaw,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan fyddwch chi’n clywed adar yn canu,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan welwch chi bysgod’n nofio mewn dwr glân,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
Pan fyddwch chi’n clywed plant yn chwerthin,

Ddaw heddwch i chi,
A phan fyddwch chi’n hwmian wrth gerdded yn y goedwig

Ddaw heddwch i chi,,
A phan fyddwch chi’n eistedd yn dawel yn gwylio’r haul yn codi a’i osod
Gwrando ar y tonnau’n canu,
Yna ddaw heddwch i chi,
Gadewch i heddwch ddod atoch mewn gwahanol ffyrdd
Gadewch i heddwch fod gyda ni holl.

 Ing’s comments:
I was very lucky when I went to Swansea, Wales in October 2017. A friend came to visit us with her three daughters and her sister with one daughter. They made us very happy from their visit and all of them read my “Peace Comes to You” poem aloud for me to record their voices. They also wrote their peace comments from my Peace Project “What does Peace mean to you?” on my large Peace Poster. The girls enjoyed drawing artwork and writing their expressions on Peace. I was doubly lucky to have Mr. Hywel Lewis, who works at the Swansea Library, being kind enough to translate my poem “Peace Comes To You” into Welsh. Mr. Lewis also read my poem both in Welsh and in English for me to record. John went to Swansea many times to visit his sister but was unable to find anyone to translate my Peace Poem. John is Welsh, I thought that it is important for me to have a Welsh translation for my Peace Poem. I already have my Peace Poem translated into 28 languages and the Welsh translation added to this number made the total 29. I was so lucky, happy and grateful to receive this help, that I felt much better even though I had bad cold for the entire time of my trip to the UK.
Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Wednesday, December 27, 2017


 Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in English and Welsh translated into Welsh By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017

 Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced Welsh pronunciation: [k?m?rai?, ? ??m?rai?] ( listen)) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. It is spoken natively in Wales, by few in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).[10] Historically, it has also been known in English as “Cambrian”,[11] “Cambric”[12] and “Cymric”.[13]
The United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded that 19% of people aged three and over who live in Wales can speak Welsh, a decrease from the 20.8% recorded in 2001. An overall increase in the size of the Welsh population, most of whom are not Welsh speakers, appears to correspond with a fall in the number of Welsh speakers in Wales – from 582,000 in 2001 to 562,000 in 2011. This figure is still a greater number, however, than the 508,000 (18.7%) of people who said that they could speak Welsh in 1991. According to the Welsh Language Use Survey 2013–15, 24% of people aged three and over living in Wales were able to speak Welsh, demonstrating a possible increase in the prevalence of the Welsh language.[14]
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Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in English and Welsh translated into Welsh by Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017 and Swansea Bay, Swansea, Wales, UK

“Welsh orthography: Welsh is written in a Latin alphabet traditionally consisting of 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs treated as single letters for collation:
a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y
In contrast to English practice, “w” and “y” are considered vowel letters in Welsh along with “a”, “e”, “i”, “o” and “u”.
The letter “j” is used in many everyday words borrowed from English, like jam, jôc “joke” and garej “garage”. The letters “k”, “q”, “v”, “x”, and “z” are used in some technical terms, like kilogram, volt and zero, but in all cases can be, and often are, replaced by Welsh letters: cilogram, folt and sero.[75] The letter “k” was in common use until the sixteenth century, but was dropped at the time of the publication of the New Testament in Welsh, as William Salesbury explained: “C for K, because the printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth”. This change was not popular at the time.[76]
The most common diacritic is the circumflex, which disambiguates long vowels, most often in the case of homographs, where the vowel is short in one word and long in the other: e.g. man “place” vs mân “fine”, “small”.
Main articles: Colloquial Welsh morphology and Literary Welsh morphology
Welsh morphology has much in common with that of the other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use of initial consonant mutations and of so-called “conjugated prepositions” (prepositions that fuse with the personal pronouns that are their object). Welsh nouns belong to one of two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, but they are not inflected for case. Welsh has a variety of different endings and other methods to indicate the plural, and two endings to indicate the singular of some nouns. In spoken Welsh, verbal features are indicated primarily by the use of auxiliary verbs rather than by the inflection of the main verb. In literary Welsh, on the other hand, inflection of the main verb is usual.”

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Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in Welsh translated into Welsh
By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017,  Swansea Bay, Swansea, Wales, UK

“Welsh numerals
The traditional counting system used in the Welsh language is vigesimal, i.e. it is based on twenties, as in standard French numbers 70 (soixante-dix, literally “sixty-ten”) to 99 (quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, literally “four score nineteen”). Welsh numbers from 11 to 14 are “x on ten” (e.g. un ar ddeg: 11), 16 to 19 are “x on fifteen” (e.g. un ar bymtheg: 16), though 18 is deunaw, “two nines”; numbers from 21 to 39 are “1–19 on twenty”, 40 is deugain “two twenties”, 60 is trigain “three twenties”, etc. This form continues to be used, especially by older people, and it is obligatory in certain circumstances (such as telling the time, and in ordinal numbers).[77]
There is also a decimal counting system, which has become relatively widely used, though less so in giving the time, ages, and dates (it features no ordinal numbers). This system is in especially common use in schools due to its simplicity, and in Patagonian Welsh. Whereas 39 in the vigesimal system is pedwar ar bymtheg ar hugain (“four on fifteen on twenty”) or even deugain namyn un (“two score minus one”), in the decimal system it is tri deg naw (“three tens nine”).
Although there is only one word for “one” (un), it triggers the soft mutation (treiglad meddal) of feminine nouns, where possible, other than those beginning with “ll” or “rh”. There are separate masculine and feminine forms of the numbers “two” (dau and dwy), “three” (tri and tair) and “four” (pedwar and pedair), which must agree with the grammatical gender of the objects being counted. The objects being counted appear in the singular, not plural form.”
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Adelaide Dupont’s comments:
#welsh is a very #peaceful #language.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts: +Adelaide Dupont Thank you for your comment
Have A Wonderful New Year

Adelaide Dupont: +Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts I appreciate your #newyear #wishes!


Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem translated into Welsh
By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017 and “The Flag of Wales”

“The Flag of Wales (Y Ddraig Goch) incorporates the red dragon, a popular symbol of Wales and the Welsh people, along with the Tudor colours of green and white. It was used by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, after which it was carried in state to St. Paul’s Cathedral. The red dragon was then included in the Tudor royal arms to signify their Welsh descent. It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in 1959. Since the British Union Flag does not have any Welsh representation, the Flag of Wales has become very popular.”
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 Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem in English and Swansea Bay, Swansea, Wales, UK

Welsh syntax
The canonical word order in Welsh is verb–subject–object.
Colloquial Welsh inclines very strongly towards the use of auxiliaries with its verbs, as in English. The present tense is constructed with bod (“to be”) as an auxiliary verb, with the main verb appearing as a verbnoun (used in a way loosely equivalent to an infinitive) after the particle yn:
Mae Siân yn mynd i Lanelli
Siân is going to Llanelli.
There, mae is a third-person singular present indicative form of bod, and mynd is the verbnoun meaning “to go”. The imperfect is constructed in a similar manner, as are the periphrastic forms of the future and conditional tenses.
In the preterite, future and conditional mood tenses, there are inflected forms of all verbs, which are used in the written language. However, speech now more commonly uses the verbnoun together with an inflected form of gwneud (“do”), so “I went” can be Mi es i or Mi wnes i fynd (“I did go”). Mi is an example of a preverbal particle; such particles are common in Welsh.
Welsh lacks separate pronouns for constructing subordinate clauses; instead, special verb forms or relative pronouns that appear identical to some preverbal particles are used.
Possessives as direct objects of verbnouns
The Welsh for “I like Rhodri” is Dw i’n hoffi Rhodri (word for word, “am I [the] liking [of] Rhodri”), with Rhodri in a possessive relationship with hoffi. With personal pronouns, the possessive form of the personal pronoun is used, as in “I like him”: Dw i’n ei hoffi, literally, “am I his liking” – “I like you” is Dw i’n dy hoffi (“am I your liking”).
Pronoun doubling
In colloquial Welsh, possessive pronouns, whether they are used to mean “my”, “your”, etc. or to indicate the direct object of a verbnoun, are commonly reinforced by the use of the corresponding personal pronoun after the noun or verbnoun: ei d? e “his house” (literally “his house of him”), Dw i’n dy hoffi di “I like you” (“I am [engaged in the action of] your liking of you”), etc. It should be noted that the “reinforcement” (or, simply, “redoubling”) adds no emphasis in the colloquial register. While the possessive pronoun alone may be used, especially in more formal registers, as shown above, it is considered incorrect to use only the personal pronoun. Such usage is nevertheless sometimes heard in very colloquial speech, mainly among young speakers: Ble ‘dyn ni’n mynd? T? ti neu d? fi? (“Where are we going? Your house or my house?”).
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Ing’s “Peace Comes To You” Poem translated into Welsh
By Mr. Hywel Lewis on October 9, 2017 and Swansea Bay at the back of Swansea Library, Swansea, Wales, UK
Photograph and Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Swansea Bay (Welsh: Bae Abertawe) is a bay on the southern coast of Wales. The River Neath, River Tawe, River Afan, River Kenfig and Clyne River flow into the bay. Swansea Bay and the upper reaches of the Bristol Channel experience a large tidal range. The shipping ports in Swansea Bay are Swansea Docks, Port Talbot Docks and Briton Ferry wharfs.
Each stretch of beach within the bay has its own individual name:
·Aberavon Beach
·Baglan Bay
·Jersey Marine Beach
·Swansea Beach
·Mumbles Beach
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 “The 1588 Welsh Bible: The Bible translations into Welsh helped maintain the use of Welsh in daily life. The New Testament was translated by William Salesbury in 1567 followed by the complete Bible by William Morgan in 1588.

The Welsh language arguably originated from the Britons at the end of the 6th century. Prior to this, three distinct languages were spoken by the Britons during the 5th and 6th centuries: Latin, Irish, and British. According to T. M. Charles-Edwards, the emergence of Welsh as a distinct language occurred towards the end of this period.[17] The emergence of Welsh was not instantaneous and clearly identifiable. Instead, the shift occurred over a long period of time, with some historians claiming that it happened as late as the 9th century. Kenneth H. Jackson proposed a more general time period for the emergence, specifically after the Battle of Dyrham, a military battle between the West Saxons and the Britons in 577 AD.[18]
Four periods are identified in the history of Welsh, with rather indistinct boundaries: Primitve Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh. The period immediately following the language’s emergence is sometimes referred to as Primitive Welsh,[19] followed by the Old Welsh period – which is generally considered to stretch from the beginning of the 9th century to sometime during the 12th century.[19] The Middle Welsh period is considered to have lasted from then until the 14th century, when the Modern Welsh period began, which in turn is divided into Early and Late Modern Welsh.
The name Welsh originated as an exonym given to its speakers by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning “foreign speech” (see Walha)[citation needed], and the native term for the language is Cymraeg, meaning “British”.”

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Swansea Bay (1840)
Bartlett, William Henry, 1809-1854, artist. Armytage, James Charles, d. 1897, engraver. – This image is available from the National Library of Wales You can view this image in its original context on the NLW Catalogue
Abstract: A view of showing Swansea bay and a town. Ships are sailing in the sea and a lighthouse can be seen in the background.
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Bilingual road markings near Cardiff Airport. In Welsh-speaking areas, the Welsh signage appears first. Photograph by Adrian Pingstone
The Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 gave the Welsh language official status in Wales,[15] making it the only language that is de jure official in any part of the United Kingdom, with English being de facto official. Thus, official documents and procedures require Welsh and English to be given equality in the conduct of the proceedings of the National Assembly for Wales.[16]
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Trilingual (Spanish, Welsh and English) sign in Argentina

Gastón Cuello – Own work

Sign at former Gaiman Station of the Central Chubut Railway

Sign promoting the learning of Welsh: Alan Fryer

Defnyddiwch eich Cymraeg – Use your Welsh. Detail of 488575


See also: Celtic languages § Classification

Welsh evolved from Common Brittonic, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Celtic Britons. Classified as Insular Celtic, the British language probably arrived in Britain during the Bronze Age or Iron Age and was probably spoken throughout the island south of the Firth of Forth.[20] During the Early Middle Ages the British language began to fragment due to increased dialect differentiation, thus evolving into Welsh and the other Brittonic languages. It is not clear when Welsh became distinct.[18][21][22]

Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around 550, and labelled the period between then and about 800 “Primitive Welsh”.[18] This Primitive Welsh may have been spoken in both Wales and the Hen Ogledd (“Old North”) – the Brittonic-speaking areas of what is now northern England and southern Scotland – and therefore may have been the ancestor of Cumbric as well as Welsh. Jackson, however, believed that the two varieties were already distinct by that time.[18] The earliest Welsh poetry – that attributed to the Cynfeirdd or “Early Poets” – is generally considered to date to the Primitive Welsh period. However, much of this poetry was supposedly composed in the Hen Ogledd, raising further questions about the dating of the material and language in which it was originally composed.[18] This discretion stems from the fact that Cumbric was widely believed to have been the language used in Hen Ogledd. An 8th century inscription in Tywyn shows the language already dropping inflections in the declension of nouns.[23]

Janet Davies proposed that the origins of Welsh language were much less definite; in The Welsh Language: A History, she proposes that Welsh may have been around even earlier than 600 AD. This is evidenced by the dropping of final syllables from Brittonic: *bardos “poet” became bardd, and *abona “river” became afon.[21] Though both Davies and Jackson cite minor changes in syllable structure and sounds as evidence for the creation of Old Welsh, Davies suggests it may be more appropriate to refer to this derivative language as Lingua Brittanica rather than characterizing it as a new language altogether.

Sculpture of Owain Glynd?r, the last native Welsh person to hold the title Prince of Wales

Primitive Welsh

The argued dates for the period of “Primitive Welsh” are widely debated, with some historians’ suggestions differing by hundreds of years.

Old Welsh

The next main period is Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg, 9th to 11th centuries); poetry from both Wales and Scotland has been preserved in this form of the language. As Germanic and Gaelic colonisation of Britain proceeded, the Brittonic speakers in Wales were split off from those in northern England, speaking Cumbric, and those in the southwest, speaking what would become Cornish, and so the languages diverged. Both the works of Aneirin (Canu Aneirin, c. 600) and the Book of Taliesin (Canu Taliesin) were during this era.

Middle Welsh

Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period. This is the language of nearly all surviving early manuscripts of the Mabinogion, although the tales themselves are certainly much older. It is also the language of the existing Welsh law manuscripts. Middle Welsh is reasonably intelligible to a modern-day Welsh speaker.

The famous cleric Gerald of Wales tells, in his Descriptio Cambriae, a story of King Henry II of England. During one of the King’s many raids in the 12th century, Henry asked an old man of Pencader, Carmarthenshire whether the Welsh people could resist his army. The old man replied:

It can never be destroyed through the wrath of man, unless the wrath of God shall concur. Nor do I think that any other nation than this of Wales, nor any other language, whatever may hereafter come to pass, shall in the day of reckoning before the Supreme Judge, answer for this corner of the Earth.[24]

Modern Welsh

Modern Welsh is subdivided within itself into Early Modern and Late Modern Welsh.Early Modern Welsh ran from the 15th century through to the end of the 16th century, and the Late Modern Welsh period roughly dates from the 16th century onwards. Contemporary Welsh still differs greatly from the Welsh of the 16th Century, but they are similar enough that a fluent Welsh speaker should have little trouble understanding it. The Modern Welsh period is where one can see a decline in the popularity of the Welsh language, as the number of people who spoke Welsh declined to the point at which there was concern that the language would become extinct entirely. Welsh government processes and legislation have worked to increase the proliferation of the Welsh language throughout school projects and the like.

Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the north and west of Wales, principally Gwynedd, Conwy, Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych), Anglesey (Ynys Môn), Carmarthenshire (Sir Gâr), north Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), Ceredigion, parts of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), and north-west and extreme south-west Powys, although first-language and other fluent speakers can be found throughout Wales.

Outside Wales

Welsh-speaking communities persisted well on into the modern period across the border with England. Archenfield was still Welsh enough in the time of Elizabeth I for the Bishop of Hereford to be made responsible, together with the four Welsh bishops, for the translation of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer into Welsh. Welsh was still commonly spoken here in the first half of the 19th century, and churchwardens’ notices were put up in both Welsh and English until about 1860.[31]

The number of Welsh-speaking people in the rest of Britain has not yet been counted for statistical purposes. In 1993, the Welsh-language television channel S4C published the results of a survey into the numbers of people who spoke or understood Welsh, which estimated that there were around 133,000 Welsh-speaking people living in England, about 50,000 of them in the Greater London area.[32] The Welsh Language Board, on the basis of an analysis of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Longitudinal Study, estimated there were 110,000 Welsh-speaking people in England, and another thousand in Scotland and Northern Ireland.[33] In the 2011 Census, 8,248 people in England gave Welsh in answer to the question “What is your main language?”[34] The ONS subsequently published a census glossary of terms to support the release of results from the census, including their definition of “main language” as referring to “first or preferred language” (though that wording was not in the census questionnaire itself).[35][36] The wards in England with the most people giving Welsh as their main language were the Liverpool wards: Central and Greenbank, and Oswestry South.[34] In terms of the regions of England, North West England (1,945), London (1,310) and the West Midlands (1,265) had the highest number of people noting Welsh as their main language.[37]

In the later 19th century, virtually all teaching in the schools of Wales was in English, even in areas where the pupils barely understood English. Some schools used the Welsh Not, a piece of wood, often bearing the letters “WN”, which was hung around the neck of any pupil caught speaking Welsh. The pupil could pass it on to any schoolmate heard speaking Welsh, with the pupil wearing it at the end of the day being given a beating. One of the most famous Welsh-born pioneers of higher education in Wales was Sir Hugh Owen. He made great progress in the cause of education, and more especially the University College of Wales at Aberystwyth, of which he was chief founder. He has been credited[by whom?] with the Welsh Intermediate Education Act 1889 (52 & 53 Vict c 40), following which several new Welsh schools were built. The first was completed in 1894 and named Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen.

Towards the beginning of the 20th century this policy slowly began to change, partly owing to the efforts of Owen Morgan Edwards when he became chief inspector of schools for Wales in 1907.

The Aberystwyth Welsh School (Ysgol Gymraeg Aberystwyth) was founded in 1939 by Sir Ifan ap Owen Edwards, the son of O.M. Edwards, as the first Welsh Primary School.[52] The headteacher was Norah Isaac. Ysgol Gymraeg is still a very successful school, and now there are Welsh language primary schools all over the country. Ysgol Glan Clwyd was established in Rhyl in 1955 as the first Welsh language school to teach at the secondary level.[53]

Examples of sentences in literary and colloquial Welsh


Literary Welsh

Colloquial Welsh

I get up early every day. Codaf yn gynnar bob dydd. Dw i’n codi’n gynnar bob dydd. (North)
Rwy’n codi’n gynnar bob dydd. (South)
I’ll get up early tomorrow. Codaf yn gynnar yfory. Mi goda i’n gynnar fory
Wna i godi’n gynnar fory
He had not stood there long. Ni safasai yno yn hir.[82] Doedd o ddim wedi sefyll yno’n hir. (North)
(D)ôdd e ddim wedi sefyll yna’n hir. (South)
They’ll sleep only when there’s a need. Ni chysgant ond pan fo angen. Fyddan nhw’n cysgu ddim ond pan fydd angen.

In fact, the differences between dialects of modern spoken Welsh pale into insignificance compared to the difference between some forms of the spoken language and the most formal constructions of the literary language. The latter is considerably more conservative and is the language used in Welsh translations of the Bible, amongst other things (although the 2004 Beibl Cymraeg Newydd – New Welsh Bible – is significantly less formal than the traditional 1588 Bible). Gareth King, author of a popular Welsh grammar, observes that “The difference between these two is much greater than between the virtually identical colloquial and literary forms of English”.[83] A grammar of Literary Welsh can be found in A Grammar of Welsh (1980) by Stephen J. Williams[84] or more completely in Gramadeg y Gymraeg (1996) by Peter Wynn Thomas.[85] (No comprehensive grammar of formal literary Welsh exists in English.) An English-language guide to colloquial Welsh forms and register and dialect differences is “Dweud Eich Dweud” (2001, 2013) by Ceri Jones.[86]

Welsh emigration

Flag of the city of Puerto Madryn, Argentina, inspired by the Flag of Wales, owing to the Welsh immigration

There has been migration from Wales to the rest of Britain throughout its history. During the Industrial Revolution thousands of Welsh people migrated, for example, to Liverpool and Ashton-in-Makerfield.[72][73] As a result, some people from England, Scotland and Ireland have Welsh surnames.[74][75][76][77]

John Adams, the second President of the United States (1797–1801), whose paternal great-grandfather David Adams was born and bred at “Fferm Penybanc”, Llanboidy, Carmarthenshire, Wales[78] and who emigrated from Wales in 1675.

Other Welsh settlers moved to other parts of Europe, concentrated in certain areas. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a small wave of contract miners from Wales arrived in Northern France; the centres of Welsh-French population are in coal mining towns of the French department of Pas-de-Calais.[citation needed] Welsh settlers from Wales (and later Patagonian Welsh) arrived in Newfoundland in the early 1900s, and founded towns Labrador‘s coast region.[citation needed] In 1852 Thomas Benbow Phillips of Tregaron established a settlement of about 100 Welsh people in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil.

Internationally Welsh people have emigrated, in relatively small numbers (in proportion to population, Irish emigration to the USA may have been 26 times greater than Welsh emigration),[79] to many countries, including the USA (in particular, Pennsylvania), Canada and Y Wladfa in Patagonia, Argentina.[80][81][82] Jackson County, Ohio was sometimes referred to as “Little Wales”, and the Welsh language was commonly heard or spoken among locals by the mid 20th century.[citation needed] Malad City in Idaho, which began as a Welsh Mormon settlement, lays claim to a greater proportion of inhabitants of Welsh descent than anywhere outside Wales itself.[83] Malad’s local High School is known as the “Malad Dragons”, and flies the Welsh Flag as its school colours.[84] Welsh people have also settled in New Zealand and Australia.[79][85]

Around 1.75 million Americans report themselves to have Welsh ancestry, as did 458,705 Canadians in Canada’s 2011 census.[5][7] This compares with 2.9 million people living in Wales (as of the 2001 census).[86]

There is no known evidence which would objectively support the legend that the Mandan, a Native American tribe of the central United States, are Welsh emigrants who reached North America under Prince Madog in 1170.[87]

The Ukrainian city of Donetsk was founded in 1869 by a Welsh businessman, John Hughes (an engineer from Merthyr Tydfil) who constructed a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the town was thus named Yuzovka (??????) in recognition of his role in its founding (“Yuz” being a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of Hughes).[88]

Former Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard was born in Barry, Wales. After she suffered from bronchopneumonia as a child, her parents were advised that it would aid her recovery to live in a warmer climate. This led the family to migrate to Australia in 1966, settling in Adelaide.

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