PBS News, TED Talks, BBC Click, Pocket, New York Times, Thisiscolossal, Derek Hugger, Frist Art Museum, and Creators

PBS News: January 24 – 30, 2020, The extraordinary legacy and unique voice of Jim Lehrer, and Idlib is the last refuge for Syrians fleeing Assad — and it is barely livable,

TED Talks: Stuart Oda Are indoor vertical farms the future of agriculture?, Mohammad Modarres Why you should shop at your local farmers market, Wevita Davison how urban agriculture is transforming Detroit

BBC Click: The Self-Driving Car Revolution & More

Pocket: Invasion of the ‘Frankenbees’: The Danger of Building a Better Bee

New York Times: Bricks Alive! Scientists Create Living Concrete

Thisiscolossal: A Towering Turtle of Discarded Industrial Junk Welded by Ono Gaf and A Kinetic Sculpture Built from over 600 Parts Gracefully Imitates a Swimming Sea Turtle Urban Species: Kinetic Lifeforms Created by U-Ram Choe and Slowly Rising: A Mesmerizing New Music Video by Hideki Inaba

Derek Hugger: Carapace – an organic motion sculpture

Frist Art Museum: URAM Choe – New Urban Species Exhibition

Creators: Kinetic Sculptor Puts Cyber Dreams In Motion

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 30, 2020

Jan 30, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, senators continue asking questions in President Trump’s impeachment trial as a pivotal vote on witnesses looms. Plus: Legal experts analyze the latest impeachment trial developments, a preview of the Iowa caucus, novel coronavirus is now a global health emergency, the economic power of peer pressure, Malcolm Gladwell on meeting strangers and Gwen Ifill forever remembered. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 29, 2020

•Jan 29, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, carefully scripted legal arguments give way to senator questions in President Trump’s impeachment trial. Plus: Legal experts analyze the latest from the impeachment trial, how China and the global health community are responding to the outbreak of novel coronavirus, understanding traumatic brain injury, saving Australian wildlife after bushfires and Now Read This. Editor’s Note: The first segment of tonight’s show incorrectly identified the location of the bakery sending cakes to lawmakers in the Senate. The cakes did not come from a bakery in Washington, D.C., but rather from one in New York. The segment’s transcript has been corrected. NewsHour regrets the error. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS Senators begin question period in Trump impeachment trial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wrVi0… 2 legal experts on the latest from Trump’s impeachment trial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BVXe… News Wrap: Trump touts USMCA trade deal at signing ceremony https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IUnH… How China is responding to rapid spread of novel coronavirus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AIROm… The challenge traumatic brain injury poses for U.S. troops https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAa8c… Australians rush to rescue wildlife imperiled by bushfires https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PDKyy… ‘Heart Berries’ author Terese Mailhot on reader questions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y73WI… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode Jan 28, 2020

Jan 28, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Tuesday on the NewsHour, President Trump’s legal team concludes its defense, arguing that Trump’s impeachment was motivated by political differences and that conviction would set a dangerous precedent. Plus: Sen. Elizabeth Warren on the Senate impeachment trial, reaction to Trump’s long-awaited Middle East peace plan, the battle over Huawei and 5G technology and a conversation with Robert DeNiro. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS Witness question remains unsettled in Trump’s Senate trial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uCX8x… Sen. Warren on Trump’s trial and why ‘women win’ elections  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6nhN… News Wrap: U.S. steps up screenings for novel coronavirus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCF2I… 2 reactions to Trump’s long-awaited Middle East peace plan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-9TV… Why the U.S. doesn’t want Huawei building 5G networks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNUWU… Robert De Niro on ‘The Irishman’ and his prolific career https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4g6X_… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 27, 2020

Jan 27, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Monday on the NewsHour, President Trump’s legal team presents its defense in his Senate impeachment trial. Plus: China’s coronavirus is still spreading as the city of Wuhan remains closed, previewing Trump’s long-awaited Middle East peace plan, remembering the horror of Auschwitz-Birkenau, 2020 Democrats in Iowa, Politics Monday with Amy Walter and Tamara Keith and the world grieves Kobe Bryant. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode January 26, 2020

Jan 26, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Sunday, January 26, President Trump’s impeachment trial enters a second week, retired NBA superstar Kobe Bryant dies in a helicopter crash, new limits in China amid a widening coronavirus outbreak, Philadelphia’s famed Sigma Sound Studios lives, and award-winning vocalist Shemekia Copeland brings the blues into the 21st century. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode January 25, 2019

PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, January 25, President Trump’s legal team lays out their defense in the Senate impeachment trial, the wind energy industry faces the loss of decades-old tax incentives, the coronavirus continues to spread internationally, and one young lion dancer is impacting the Chinese Lunar New Year. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 24, 2020

Jan 24, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, House impeachment managers complete their third and final day of arguments in President Trump’s Senate trial. Plus: China’s new coronavirus outbreak continues to spread as new U.S. cases are confirmed, a drug company CEO is sentenced to prison for his role in prescribing deadly opioid drugs and the NewsHour family remembers co-founder, anchor, mentor and friend Jim Lehrer. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

The extraordinary legacy and unique voice of Jim Lehrer

Jan 23, 2020  PBS NewsHour

It is impossible to quantify Jim Lehrer’s influence on this news program, American journalism, presidential debates or the lives of so many of us. He was an extraordinary journalist, writer, collaborator and friend. Robert MacNeil, Lehrer’s NewsHour co-founder, longtime Lehrer friend Justice Stephen Breyer and Sharon Percy Rockefeller, president and CEO of WETA, join Judy Woodruff to remember him. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Idlib is the last refuge for Syrians fleeing Assad — and it is barely livable

Jan 21, 2020  PBS NewsHour

The war in Syria has waged for almost nine years and claimed millions of lives. Northwest Idlib province is the last refuge for Syrians fleeing attacks by President Bashar al-Assad’s regime. But the crowded, muddy refugee camps there offer little shelter or support, and to the north, Turkey’s border is closed to those seeking better conditions. Nick Schifrin reports on Idlib’s “fragile stability.” Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

By 2050, the global population is projected to reach 9.8 billion. How are we going to feed everyone? Investment-banker-turned-farmer Stuart Oda points to indoor vertical farming: growing food on tiered racks in a controlled, climate-proof environment. In a forward-looking talk, he explains how this method can maintain better safety standards, save money, use less water and help us provide for future generations.

This talk was presented at a TED Salon event given in partnership with Brightline Initiative. TED editors featured it among our selections on the home page. Read more about TED Salons.

About the speaker

Stuart Oda · Entrepreneur, urban farmer

Stuart Oda is an indoor urban farmer with a passion for innovation and sustainability. His goal: democratize access to fresh and nutritious food by democratizing the means and knowledge of production.

Take Action   learn

Learn more about indoor vertical farming by joining a community engagement event in your area.  Learn more ?

About TED Salon

TED Salons welcome an intimate audience for an afternoon or evening of highly-curated TED Talks revolving around a globally relevant theme. A condensed version of a TED flagship conference, they are distinct in their brevity, opportunities for conversation, and heightened interaction between the speaker and audience.

608,448 views

TED Salon: Brightline Initiative | June 2019

https://www.ted.com/talks/mohammad_modarres_why_you_should_shop_at_your_local_farmers_market#t-3081

he average farmer in America makes less than 15 cents of every dollar on a product that you purchase at a store. They feed our communities, but farmers often cannot afford the very foods they grow. In this actionable talk, social entrepreneur Mohammad Modarres shows how to put your purchasing power into action to save local agriculture from collapse and transform the food industry from the bottom up.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Mohammad Modarres · Social entrepreneur

Mohammad Modarres developed the first-ever Zabihah Halal and Glatt Kosher “Interfaith Meat” to make faith-based foods more accessible.

More Resources

How to build a more inclusive dinner tableIn his first TED Talk, Mohammad Modarres discusses why he produced the Shabbat Salaam interfaith dinner series, where he premiered Interfaith Meat to help Muslim and Jewish communities eat from the same plate.

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Take Action

participate

Support Abe’s Eats in their mission to make high-quality, inclusive foods accessible to all.

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learn

Learn more about the Farmers Market Coalition, dedicated to strengthening farmers markets across the US.

Learn more ?

1,209,420 views

TED Residency | May 2019

There’s something amazing growing in the city of Detroit: healthy, accessible, delicious, fresh food. In a spirited talk, fearless farmer Devita Davison explains how features of Detroit’s decay actually make it an ideal spot for urban agriculture. Join Davison for a walk through neighborhoods in transformation as she shares stories of opportunity and hope. “These aren’t plots of land where we’re just growing tomatoes and carrots,” Davison says. “We’re building social cohesion as well as providing healthy, fresh food.”

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Devita Davison · Food activist

At FoodLab Detroit, Devita Davison supports local entrepreneurs and imagines a new future for food justice.

Take Action  learn  Learn more about how FoodLab Detroit is using food as a catalyst for community change.  Learn more ?

participate

Donate to FoodLab Detroit and help strengthen our ability to support, improve and grow resources for our network of good food entrepreneurs.

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TED2017 | April 2017

The Self-Driving Car Revolution – BBC Click

Jan 23, 2020  BBC Click

Click looks at the battle for self-driving car supremacy between the USA and China. Subscribe HERE http://bit.ly/1uNQEWR Find us online at www.bbc.com/click Twitter: @bbcclick Facebook: www.facebook.com/BBCClick

Category    Science & Technology

https://getpocket.com/explore/item/invasion-of-the-frankenbees-the-danger-of-building-a-better-bee?utm_source=pocket-newtab

Pocket Worthy  Stories to fuel your mind.

Invasion of the ‘Frankenbees’: The Danger of Building a Better Bee

Beekeepers are sounding the alarm about the latest developments in genetically modified pollinators. 

The Guardian |  Bernhard Warner

GettyImages-167524958.jpg
BLANKENFELDE, GERMANY – APRIL 25: Worker bees surround a queen, who is marked with a yellow spot on her back, in the colony of beekeper Reiner Gabriel in the garden of his home near Berlin on April 25, 2013 in Blankenfelde, Germany. Local beekeepers claim their yearly loss rates within their bee populations has gone from an average of 10% per year to 30% per year over the last 10 years, though they are unsure whether the cause lies with a mite and a virus it might be spreading or with the increased use of certain pesticides by local farmers. According to a recent report prepared by Greenpeace seven pesticides currently in use in Europe present a real danger to bees. Bees are essential in nature in pollinating a wide variety of plants and trees. (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)

Sean Gallup/Getty Images

The spring of 2008 was brutal for Europe’s honeybees. In late April and early May, during the corn-planting season, dismayed beekeepers in Germany’s upper Rhine valley looked on as whole colonies perished. Millions of bees died. France, the Netherlands and Italy reported big losses, but in Germany the incident took on the urgency of a national crisis. “It was a disaster,” recalled Walter Haefeker, German president of the European Professional Beekeepers Association. “The government had to set up containers along the autobahn where beekeepers could dump their hives.”

An investigation in July of that year concluded that the bees in Germany died of mass poisoning by the pesticide clothianidin, which can be 10,000 times more potent than DDT. In the months leading up to the bee crisis, clothianidin, developed by Bayer Crop Science from a class of insecticides called neonicotinoids, had been used up and down the Rhine following an outbreak of corn rootworm. The pesticide is designed to attack the nervous system of crop-munching pests, but studies have shown it can be harmful to insects such as the European honeybee. It muddles the bees’ super-acute sense of direction and upsets their feeding habits, while it can also alter the queen’s reproductive anatomy and sterilise males. As contaminated beehives piled up, Bayer paid €2m (£1.76m) into a compensation fund for beekeepers in the affected area, but offered no admission of guilt.

The die-off forced a reckoning among European farmers. Hundreds of studies examined the safety of neonicotinoids, known as neonics, and their links to colony collapse disorder (CCD), in which worker bees abandon the hive, leaving the queen and her recent offspring unprotected, to starve. In 2013, the evidence led to a landmark European commission ruling, imposing a moratorium on clothianidin and two other major neonics – the world’s most popular pesticides. In April 2018, Europe went a step further. The commission extended the ban on the trio of neonics to virtually everywhere outside greenhouses, citing evidence that by harming pollinating insects, neonics interfere with the pollination of crops to the value of €15bn a year. Environmentalists cheered the victory. Regulators beyond Europe plan to follow.

For Haefeker at the beekeepers association, who had spent years campaigning against the use of neonics, victory was sweet, but short-lived: faced with multiple threats from modern farming methods, beekeepers know the insecticide ban alone is not enough to save the honeybee.

Honeybees originated in Eurasia roughly 35m years ago, and as long as they have had steady access to flowering plants, they have thrived. But in the modern world, bees face all kinds of dangers. Colony collapse is not a single malady, but rather an amalgamation of different challenges. Alongside the dangers of pesticides, diseases such as Israeli acute paralysis virus, gut parasites and invasive parasites such as the varroa mite can overwhelm the bees’ immune systems. Industrial agriculture imposes its own threats: a mania for monocultures has led to shrinking foraging habitats, while, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency, bees employed in commercial pollination, in which hives are stacked high on trucks and driven around the country to pollinate almond trees and other crops, get highly stressed, which damages their resilience and eating habits.

Since the EU began phasing out neonics, in 2014, the honeybees’ recovery has not been as dramatic as hoped. Neonics are probably not the biggest factor in the demise of bees, but they are the easiest to outlaw. To farmers, this seems outrageously unfair. Citing an industry-funded study, they say the ban will cost the EU agriculture sector €880bn annually in diminished crop yields.

Another, more controversial, response to the slump in bee populations is in the works. This is the plan to create a more resilient strain of honeybee – a genetically modified superbee. The technology for creating GM honeybees is in its infancy, and still confined to the laboratory. But, if successful, it could lead to a hardier species, one that is resistant to natural and manmade hazards: viruses, varroa mites, pesticides and so on. If we can’t change modern farming practices, the thinking goes, maybe we should change the bees.

The prospect horrifies many bee people – from commercial beekeepers such as Haefeker to passionate amateurs – who see a lab-made superbee as a direct threat to the smaller, struggling bee species. Traditional beekeepers have a name for them that expresses their fear and suspicion: Frankenbees.

Like many beekeepers, Haefeker is an activist and conservationist. A kind of bearded Lorax, Dr Seuss’s valiant spokesman for threatened trees, Haefeker speaks for the bees. For much of the past two decades, he has sounded the alarm on declining bee health, bringing his message to lawmakers in Brussels, Berlin and Munich, before judges at the European court of justice in Luxembourg, to investor roundtables in London, to beekeeper conferences in Istanbul, Austria and Rome, and to corporate gatherings of the agrichemical industry around Europe.

When we met in Bavaria a week after the EU extended its neonics ban, I expected Haefeker to be in celebratory mood. But over lunch at a favourite roadway tavern an hour outside Munich, he explained that he considers the development of GM bees – however long it takes to get them in production – an even greater threat to the humble honeybee. “I don’t expect it to be commercialised next week, but then I don’t want to leave anything up to chance,” Haefeker said. “The public has been pretty late on a whole bunch of bad ideas. We don’t want to be late on this one.”

Some beekeepers worry that, if the agriculture industry succeeds in building and patenting a blockbuster, mite-free, pesticide-proof superbee, it would dominate and destroy the vibrant local market in conventional bee strains. There are health fears, too: the sting of GM bees may introduce new allergy risks. And beekeepers are afraid they would not be able to protect the gene pool of traditional strains such as the beloved Apis mellifera, the scientific name for the European honeybee, against a dominant, pesticide resistant, lab-designed version.

Jay Evans heads the bee research lab at the US Department of Agriculture, where they are looking at various threats to bee health. Designing a truly pesticide-resistant honeybee, a “bulletproof bee”, as Evans calls them, would “throw a lot of nature under the bus”.

It is always hive-like – 30C and humid – in the narrow, windowless laboratory where genetically engineered honeybees are created on the campus of Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf, Germany. One June day, three students in T-shirts were on the morning shift. Two of them silently inspected plastic honeycomb discs. Each disc contained 140 tiny plug holes, in each of which a single honeybee embryo was growing. These discs were then passed to a third student at a separate workstation, where, with remarkable dexterity, she injected each egg with an sgRNA gene-manipulation solution, a main ingredient in a revolutionary new gene-editing technique called Crispr-Cas9.

Crispr technology has transformed microbiology in recent years by allowing scientists to copy a desirable part of the DNA strand and insert it directly into the chromosome of the target specimen. Now, with great precision, scientists can remove harmful mutations or unwanted traits, or insert a desired trait. In the US, you can buy a Crispr apple that doesn’t brown. Medical researchers, meanwhile, see Crispr as a promising route to making mosquitos resistant to the malaria parasite.

The director of the Düsseldorf lab is Martin Beye, a giant in the field of evolutionary genetics. In 2003, Beye and his colleagues were the first to pinpoint the gene variants, or alleles, that determine the sex of honeybees. Three years later (coincidentally, just as scientists determined the likely causes of colony collapse disorder), Beye and an international team of biologists decoded the Apis mellifera honeybee genome, a breakthrough that transformed the field of bee biology. Scientists now have an understanding of bee health down to the chromosomal level, enabling them, for example, to analyse precisely how pathogens and parasites affect their bee hosts. Genomics can take much of the guesswork out of breeding, too, revealing the precise gene markers that make stocks more resilient to stressors and disease. Once the genome was cracked, it was only a matter of time before the scientific community would build a designer bee. In 2014, Beye’s lab claimed that crown.

The gene-injection method Beye’s team pioneered, and laid out in their 2014 research paper, is painstaking and fraught with risk. To demonstrate, a student motioned for me to peer into her microscope. The faint outline of a tiny needle and its intended target, the egg, came into focus. Magnified, the egg looked like a smooth grey balloon, the kind performers at children’s parties tie into poodles and giraffes. Poke the egg at the wrong angle, or with too much pressure, or with an imprecise dosage, and it will pop. And the injection has to be stealthy enough to leave no marks. If the worker bees, the hive’s fastidious caretakers, sense in any way the pupae are not perfect, they cast them from the nest, leaving them for dead. Only the pristine survive.

To increase the odds of success, Beye’s team keep their injected embryos away from the workers at first, incubating in an artificial hive. Only after 72 hours do they slip the fittest of their modified larvae specimens into a queen-rearing colony. What happens next is similar to the conventional queen-breeding method. The researchers graft the larvae into cell cups lined with royal jelly, the nutrient rich compound that young larvae gorge on to become queens. Even so, the workers, on average, rejected three out of four mutant larvae. But the survival rate was enough to guarantee the birth, in 2014, of the world’s first genetically modified honeybee queens.

I was also shown the transgenic queens. Up close, they looked vigorous, but unremarkable. The researchers affixed a magenta-coloured ID tag to the queen’s back, between the base of her wings. She mingled with ordinary worker bees in a small wooden nucleus hive. The sides were made of a hard plastic for viewing. Beye’s research team told me their transgenic bees behave no differently than any other Apis mellifera honeybees. The queen and the workers covered every inch of their cramped confines, popping in and out of a small well containing water. After a week or so, the queen would be moved outside to a flight cage.

Beye’s researchers believe manipulating the genome of the European honeybee will lead to new insights into what makes this species unique – which genes make them such meticulous groomers, or which genes programme the worker bees’ super-assiduous attention to looking after their young. They want to know why bees are so good to each other. Is this instinct to work tirelessly for the good of the hive something learned, or genetic?

Beekeepers, dismayed at the prospect of GM bees becoming a reality, made a huge fuss about Beye’s work. Many suspected his lab was bankrolled by the agriculture industry, or “Big Ag”.

“The beekeeper associations … ” Beye said, shaking his head in lingering disbelief. In person, he is affable and professorial. “They thought we were working with Bayer. I mean, they’re very close by: Bayer’s headquarters is maybe 20km from here.” He insisted inferences of a Bayer connection were totally false.

Beye and Marianne Otte, his research partner, explained that the purpose of their work was to understand the genetic basis for bee behaviour and health. It was never to build a pesticide-resistant bee. Building a GM bee, Beye said, is “a stupid idea”. The world doesn’t need chemical-resistant bees, he says. It needs farming practices that don’t harm bees. “They should be working on that. Not on manipulating the bee.”

But the truth is that Beye’s highly detailed paper serves as a kind of blueprint for how to build a bee. Thanks to research like his, and the emergence of tools such as Crispr, it has never been cheaper or so straightforward for a chemical company to pursue a superbee resistant to, say, the chemicals it makes. Takeo Kubo, a professor of molecular biology at the University of Tokyo, was the second scientist in the world to make a genetically modified bee in his lab. He told me that he, too, is focused on basic research, and has no ties to the agriculture industry. But, unlike Beye, he welcomes the prospect of GM bee swarms buzzing around the countryside. Lab-made, pesticide-resistant bees could be a real saviour for beekeepers and farmers, he says. And, he adds, the science is no more than three years away. “I’m now 57 years old,” he told me via email, “and completely optimistic to see such transgenic bees in the marketplace in my lifetime!”

It is not yet legal to release genetically engineered bees into the wild, but the private sector is already watching closely. One US startup contacted Beye’s lab offering to help commercialise their breakthrough research. Beye said no.

Beekeepers tend to see the world through the eyes of their bees. After a few hours in their presence, you too begin to re-evaluate your surroundings. The monochrome sameness of our farmlands – that vast, neat checkerboard of green and brown that feeds us mammals so well – can be a desert for foraging pollinators. The shocking yellow brilliance of rapeseed in blossom each spring can be a reservoir of pesticides. Beekeepers have learned to mitigate the risks and adapt, mainly by moving their hives around an ever-dwindling patch of safe zones. But the genetically modified bee, which can breed with other species and looks just like bees hand-raised from carefully chosen strains, is an altogether more dangerous challenge.

Jay Evans at the US agriculture department, an entomologist and beekeeper, admires Beye’s work, but thinks his breakthrough GM bee should remain confined to the lab. “The road to making a superbee looks really long to me, and probably not necessary,” he said. “I don’t see the justification.”

Haefeker, a former tech entrepreneur, came to beekeeping late in life, around his 40th birthday. After spending two decades in Silicon Valley, he, his wife and two sons returned home to Germany in 2001, settling in a picturesque village on Lake Starnberg, halfway between Munich and the Bavarian Alps. What started as a backyard hobby quickly became an obsession, then a growing business. Haefeker studied everything about beekeeping, from hive maintenance to nutrition. Later, he developed an iPhone app for breeders called iQueen and started a podcast called Bienenpolitik, or Beekeeping and Politics. One of the few tech-savvy beekeepers in bucolic Upper Bavaria, in 2003 Haefeker was recruited to join the local professional beekeepers association where second- and third-generation beekeepers routinely grumbled about modern farming practices gobbling up open space. His first assignment was to investigate an issue that nobody at the organisation knew much about: GM crops. “I had no opinion of GMOs (genetically modified organisms),” he recalls. “But as the new kid on the block it was my job to figure out: is this going to have an impact on us?”.

Haefeker’s investigations into GMOs turned into a decade-long crusade. What began as a local case involving a Bavarian beekeeper with GMO-contaminated honey grew into an epic battle, pitting Europe’s beekeepers against two giants: Monsanto, the biotech giant that markets MON810, the pest-resistant genetically modified maize, and the World Trade Organization, which, at the time, was pressuring the EU to give GM crops a chance. The beekeepers eventually won a huge victory in 2011 in the European court of justice, keeping European honey, for now, virtually GMO-free. The fight continues, but the beekeepers’ message was clear: don’t underestimate us.

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A beekeeper in California with his hives. Photograph: Brett Murphy © Guardian / eyevine Contact eyevine for more information about using this image: T: +44 (0) 20 8709 8709 E: info@eyevine.com http://www.eyevine.com

A beekeeper in California with his hives. Photograph: Brett Murphy

The agrichemical companies’ business model is to dominate both ends of the market. They sell the farmer the chemical that kills the pests, and then they sell them their patented seeds, genetically engineered to withstand those very chemicals. (Monsanto’s top-selling line of Roundup Ready herbicide-resistant seeds are marketed as the best defence against Roundup, Monsanto’s top-selling herbicide.) The multinationals have locked farmers into contracts that prevent them from manipulating the seeds to develop their own cross-breed.

Beekeepers fear genetic engineering of honeybees will introduce patents and privatisation to one of the last bastions of agriculture that is collectively managed and owned by no one. “Think about it,” Haefeker told me, “the one area Big Ag doesn’t yet control is pollination.” And pollination is huge. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that pollinators help farmers grow crops worth up to $577bn (£437bn) annually.

Damage to the bee population, by harming a vital pollinator, is already threatening crops worldwide. Outside FAO’s headquarters in Rome, a neon billboard flashes in English, Italian and Arabic a series of urgent save-the-planet messages. Save the bees tops the list. If bees disappear, food crops and animal feeds, not to mention the raw materials for biofuels (from canola and palm oil), textiles (cotton) and medicines, will simply vanish from much of the planet. It has got so bad in some parts of China that humans already pollinate some crops by hand. In what feels like a riff on a Black Mirror episode, Harvard researchers are working on the RoboBee, a flying robotic pollinator that is half the size of a paperclip and weighs less than one-tenth of a gram. In March 2018, Walmart filed a series of patents for its own tiny robotic pollinators.

Beekeepers and conservationists believe bees should be left to evolve on their own, helped only by protection of open spaces and best-practice natural breeding methods. Conventional bee breeding has embraced technology in recent years via the introduction of apps, tracking software and temperature-controlled “finishing” incubators. But the method is otherwise little changed from ancient times. During the year, beekeepers will perform what they call “splitting the hive”, or separating a portion of the colony, frame by frame, and putting the frames in new hives with new inhabitants. This can invigorate the gene pool by introducing hardy newcomers.

“Before the introduction of neonicotinoids,” Haefeker said, “about 15 years ago, you’d open up the hive and it was bursting with healthy bees. That level of reproductive energy is really crucial.”

During 2008, Germany’s infamous season of heavy colony losses, the dead piled up on the ground under Haefeker’s hives and along the hive’s inner floor. “It’s got better in recent years, since the bans went into place. But we’re not yet back to where we were in the days before neonics,” he said. “That will take years.” He tests the spring pollen for traces of neonics and other chemicals. The level of contamination is much improved, he says. On his property in Bavaria, he offered me a pinch of raw pollen. The sharp, sweet taste lingered on my tongue. I peered down to get a good look at the workers entering one of the hives. They streamed in one by one, their thighs weighed down with yellow balls of dandelion pollen. “It’s good, isn’t it?” Haefeker chuckled proudly.

By late July, cracks had appeared in the new neonics law. More than a dozen EU member states sought loopholes to stay the ban, and Bayer pledged to appeal against its legal basis, warning that the ban would limit our ability to grow the quantities of “safe, affordable” food we need.

Despite the setback, Haefeker remains defiant. “Their business model is obsolete,” he told me on the phone in July 2018. The “big six” companies of Big Ag are in the process of merging into three, forming Bayer-Monsanto, Dow-DuPont and Syngenta-ChemChina. This historic, quarter-of-a-trillion-dollar spending spree is a sign of market uncertainty, Haefeker asserts, not strength. The future, he says, is big data. Sensor- and computer-assisted crop care – digital crop protection, as it is known, in which tiny robots and drones will tend to rows and rows of crops round the clock, picking off pests and releasing super-precise flows of irrigation – will feed the planet’s billions, not chemicals. “I’ve been telling them this for years.”

However ground down by Haefeker’s tireless advocacy for bees they may be, Bayer officials told me they largely concur with his view that the industry is beginning to grow less reliant on chemicals, and investing more in big data and tiny robots. They even let Haefeker in the building from time to time to discuss that digital future.

Humans have been consuming honey since our hunter-gatherer days. Not long after we began farming, we started keeping bees (sugar came several millennia later). About 10,000 years ago artists depicted apiculture on the walls of Spanish caves, and, centuries after that, demand for bees wax and honey drove commerce across the empires of ancient Greece and Rome. In the 20th century, apiology, the study of bees, took off. In the 1920s, Austrian zoologist Karl von Frisch was the first to explain the meaning of the honeybees’ waggle dance, which communicates to other bees the direction and distance of a food source; a half-century later he won the Nobel Prize. Honeybees are eusocial creatures, making them one of the most studied insects on the planet. Researchers study the species to understand how the human brain works and to improve the design of supercomputers. Bees, it turns out, can even do abstract maths.There are 22 million beekeepers across 146 countries, estimates Apimondia, a 123-year-old organisation that protects and promotes the livelihood of beekeepers, and lately they have been seeing a dramatic rise in membership. “During a downturn in the economy of a country, the number of new members increases,” Philip McCabe, an Irish beekeeper and president of Apimondia, told me. The media attention around colony collapse and bee health continues to bring in new members as well.

In October 2017, Haefeker delivered a presentation at Apimondia’s International Apicultural Congress in Istanbul, unveiling Apimondia’s answer to Frankenbees. Like Haefeker himself, the fix he proposes is geeky and left-leaning: an open-source license for honeybees. A software engineer, he takes inspiration from the free software movement of the 1980s and 90s, which gave birth to the “open source” concept. Now, he sees such a licence promoting open collaboration as the perfect model to protect the beekeepers from a nightmare scenario – powerful corporations building a genetically engineered bee that they then commercialise and lock down with patents and trademarks.

In his opening remarks, Haefeker launched into what he called “the big question”. “Did anybody ask our permission before they took our bees, the bees we have been working on, selecting and breeding within Apimondia, before the scientists decided to take these bees and modify them?” The answer was, of course, no. Until that moment, nobody, not even beekeepers, claimed an ownership stake on the bees’ genetic code. Anyone can start a hive, which might explain why you can find beekeepers tending to hives in Yemeni war zones, on the roof of Paris’ Bastille opera house and in Tanzanian refugee camps. The free exchange of breeding materials – from the queens and her eggs to the drones’ sperm – has long been encouraged to keep colonies genetically diverse. Through this free exchange, we preserve a common resource, benefitting everyone and everything. The beekeepers get healthier colonies out of the arrangement. We get flowers, food and honey.

To get around any attempt by the agriculture industry to distribute and license superbees, Apimondia is seeking to enshrine this freedom as a right in the form of an open-source contract, establishing bee breeding as a public good that nobody can own outright.

“This is the most efficient way to legally protect our bees from patenting and privatisation by commercial interests,” Haefeker insists. Later, he told me, “we don’t want to get screwed, the way farmers did by corporations and their GM patented seeds.”

Apimondia has minuscule lobbying resources, but it has lined up powerful allies, including the FAO, environmental NGOs and scientific advisers. Together, they press for international treaties to protect vital pollinators. Now Apimondia, too, is sounding the alarm on GM honeybees. Radical bee-breeding experiments don’t always end well, McCabe reminded me. Beekeepers won’t soon forget the story of the Africanised bee, a cross-breed between the African bee and European strains introduced in South America in the 1950s. It escaped quarantine, mated with indigenous species and then multiplied and multiplied, venturing thousands of miles north into the US, breeding with local species and quickly coming to dominate their gene pool. It landed the unfortunate, even nativist, nickname “African killer bee” for the aggressive manner in which it defends its nest. “That’s what we’re concerned with,” McCabe says, “any inter-breeding that messes with the genetics of indigenous bee populations.”

Jay Evans keeps bees on the grounds of his job at the USDA, at the government research facility in Maryland, 30 minutes north of Washington DC. I contacted him by phone and asked how things were going.

“Terribly,” he said with a wry laugh. “The losses have doubled in the last 10 years.” He blames a host of factors, with disease and parasites such as the varroa mite chief among them. Beekeepers, he added, are closely watching what happens next in Europe. “I go to beekeepers’ meetings all the time. They’re suffering. They’re trying to keep their operations afloat. They’re desperate for a new solution, or technology, or regulation. Anything,” he says. But there’s consensus on what they don’t want. “When I talk to a group, I talk a lot about genetics. And occasionally they’ll say: ‘Are you making a transgenic bee, one of those Frankenbees?’”

Haefeker and his business partner, Arno Bruder, run their beekeeping enterprise on a field bordering two organic farms in Upper Bavaria. Their colonies have recovered somewhat since the neonics ban went into effect, he said, but they take steps to protect their hives. A lot of beekeepers pack their hives on to trailers and position them near nature reserves or in fields like the one in which we stood. “Over time you learn where you have the worst exposure to whatever it is that harms the bees,” Haefeker said.

He pulled out a frame to reveal a queen. Like an awkward commuter on the tube, she brushed up against every inhabitant near her as she made her way from one end of the frame to the other. The jostling has a purpose; it reassures the cavorting masses. “It’s the queen’s pheromones,” he explained. It makes them relaxed and productive. “The pheromones affect us beekeepers, too.” He says he plans to harness this anti-stress essence and build a kind of a bee-powered wellness centre on the two-hectare property. I pictured Munich’s pampered classes soaking up queen-bee pheromones in a lodge in the hills around Lake Starnberg. A moment later, Haefeker put the frame back, closed the lid, and surveyed his hives with satisfaction. He and Bruder then discussed what’s next.

Keeping bees safe from pesticides is labour-intensive and requires specialist local knowledge. Bruder agreed to wake before dawn the following morning and pack up some of the hives, load them on to a trailer and drive the bees to higher ground. They had decided on a region in the foothills of the Alps, about an hour away, near the Wieskirche, an 18th-century church on the Unesco world heritage list. There would be fresh dandelion flowers up there. The bees would be further away from intensive agriculture, said Haefeker. “We’ve scouted out the locations.”

Meanwhile, it is possible that humankind has even more extreme designs on bees. In October 2018, Haefeker sent me a message pointing to something called Insect Allies, a $45m research project sponsored by Darpa, the US Department of Defense’s military research department. It proposes using insects to carry immune-boosting mutations designed to protect crops from drought, flooding, pathogens and bioweapons. In essence, the visiting insects would modify the plant’s genetic makeup. A group of academics from universities in Germany and France declared the programme’s existence alarming, saying it turns the insects themselves into bioweapons.

Darpa does not say what kind of insects it plans to use, but Haefeker did not like the sound of it. “We need to keep an eye on this craziness,” his text read, “in case they want to use bees to transport their genetically modified viruses into crops.”

This article was originally published on October 16, 2018, by The Guardian, and is republished here with permission.

Bricks Alive! Scientists Create Living Concrete

“A Frankenstein material” is teeming with — and ultimately made by — photosynthetic microbes. And it can reproduce.

Wil Srubar, left, a structural engineer at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and materials science and engineering PhD student, Sarah Williams, holding bricks of building matter made from cyanobacteria and other materials.Credit…CU Boulder College of Engineering & Applied Science

By Amos Zeeberg  Jan. 15, 2020

 For centuries, builders have been making concrete roughly the same way: by mixing hard materials like sand with various binders, and hoping it stays fixed and rigid for a long time to come.

Now, an interdisciplinary team of researchers at the University of Colorado, Boulder, has created a rather different kind of concrete — one that is alive and can even reproduce.

Minerals in the new material are deposited not by chemistry but by cyanobacteria, a common class of microbes that capture energy through photosynthesis. The photosynthetic process absorbs carbon dioxide, in stark contrast to the production of regular concrete, which spews huge amounts of that greenhouse gas.

Photosynthetic bacteria also give the concrete another unusual feature: a green color. “It really does look like a Frankenstein material,” said Wil Srubar, a structural engineer and the head of the research project. (The green color fades as the material dries.)

Other researchers have worked on incorporating biology into concrete, especially concrete that can heal its own cracks. A major advantage of the new material, its creators say, is that instead of adding bacteria to regular concrete — an inhospitable environment — their process is oriented around bacteria: enlisting them to build the concrete, and keeping them alive so they make more later on.

The new concrete, described Wednesday in the journal Matter, “represents a new and exciting class of low-carbon, designer construction materials,” said Andrea Hamilton, a concrete expert at the University of Strathclyde, in Scotland.

To build the living concrete, the researchers first tried putting cyanobacteria in a mixture of warm water, sand and nutrients. The microbes eagerly absorbed light and began producing calcium carbonate, gradually cementing the sand particles together. But the process was slow — and Darpa, the Department of Defense’s speculative research arm and the project’s funder, wanted the construction to go very quickly. Necessity, happily, birthed invention.

An arch made from living building materials in Dr. Srubar’s lab.

An arch made from living building materials in Dr. Srubar’s lab.Credit…CU Boulder College of Engineering & Applied Science

Dr. Srubar had previously worked with gelatin, a food ingredient that, when dissolved in water and cooled, forms special bonds between its molecules. Importantly, it can be used at moderate temperatures that are gentle on bacteria. He suggested adding gelatin to strengthen the matrix being built by the cyanobacteria, and the team was intrigued.

The researchers bought Knox brand gelatin at a local supermarket and dissolved it in the solution with the bacteria. When they poured the mixture into molds and cooled it in a refrigerator, the gelatin formed its bonds — “just like when you make Jell-O,” Dr. Srubar said. The gelatin provided more structure, and worked with the bacteria to help the living concrete grow stronger and faster.

After about a day, the mixture formed concrete blocks in the shape of whatever molds the group used, including two-inch cubes, shoe box-size blocks and truss pieces with struts and cutouts. Individual two-inch cubes were strong enough for a person to stand on, although the material is weak compared to most conventional concretes. Blocks about the size of a shoe box showed potential for doing real construction.

“The first time we made a big structure using this system, we didn’t know if it was going to work, scaling up from this little-bitty thing to this big brick,” said Chelsea Heveran, a former postdoc with the group — now an engineer at Montana State University — and the lead author of the study. “We took it out of the mold and held it — it was a beautiful, bright green and said ‘Darpa’ on the side.” (The mold featured the name of the project’s funder.) “It was the first time we had the scale we were envisioning, and that was really exciting.”

When the group brought small samples to a regular review meeting with officials from Darpa, they were impressed, Dr. Srubar said: “Everyone wanted one on their desk.”

Stored in relatively dry air at room temperature, the blocks reach their maximum strength over the course of days, and the bacteria gradually begin to die out. But even after a few weeks, the blocks are still alive; when again exposed to high temperature and humidity, many of the bacterial cells perk back up.

The group can take one block, cut it with a diamond-tipped saw, place half back in a warm beaker with more raw materials, pour it in a mold, and begin concrete formation anew. Each block could thus spawn three new generations, yielding eight descendant blocks.

The Department of Defense is interested in using the reproductive ability of these “L.B.M.s” — living building materials — to aid construction in remote or austere environments. “Out in the desert, you don’t want to have to truck in lots of materials,” Dr. Srubar said.

The blocks also have the advantage of being made from a variety of common materials. Most concrete requires virgin sand that comes from rivers, lakes and oceans, which is running short worldwide, largely because of the enormous demand for concrete. The new living material is not so picky. “We’re not pigeonholed into using some particular kind of sand,” Dr. Srubar said. “We could use waste materials like ground glass or recycled concrete.”

The research team is working to make the material more practical by making the concrete stronger; increasing the bacteria’s resistance to dehydration; reconfiguring the materials so they can be flat-packed and easily assembled, like slabs of drywall; and finding a different kind of cyanobacteria that doesn’t require the addition of a gel.

Eventually, Dr. Srubar said, the tools of synthetic biology could dramatically expand the realm of possibilities: for instance, building materials that can detect and respond to toxic chemicals, or that light up to reveal structural damage. Living concrete might help in environments harsher than even the driest deserts: other planets, like Mars.

“There’s no way we’re going to carry building materials to space,” Dr. Srubar said. “We’ll bring biology with us.”

A Towering Turtle of Discarded Industrial Junk Welded by Ono Gaf

July 31, 2014  Christopher Jobson

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Photo by Gina Sanderson

Indonesian artist Ono Gaf works primarily with metallic junk reclaimed from a trash heap to create his animalistic sculptures. His most recent piece is this giant turtle containing hundreds of individual metal components like car parts, tools, bike parts, instruments, springs, and tractor rotors. You can read a bit more about Gaf over on the Jakarta Post, and see more of this turtle in this set of photos by Gina Sanderson. (via Steampunk Tendencies)

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Photo by Gina Sanderson

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Photo by Gina Sanderson

A Kinetic Sculpture Built from over 600 Parts Gracefully Imitates a Swimming Sea Turtle

November 2, 2018  Kate Sierzputowski

Carapace is a kinetic sculpture designed by Derek Hugger (previously) that mimics the motion of a sea

turtle gliding through the ocean. The wooden work is composed of over six hundred parts which allow the creature to elegantly tilt its fins, move its body up and down, and even crane its head as if rising above the water for air. A single crank controls the complex structure of gears and mechanisms which were designed to flow as organically as possible.

“A non-trivial amount of time was spent watching and studying videos of turtles swimming,” explains Hugger. “Getting the motions of Carapace to closely resemble the motions of real turtles was a true challenge. Countless hours were spent refining the sculpture’s motion to be as lifelike as possible, even before any mechanisms were developed to drive those motions.”

Hugger has also developed a hummingbird in addition to several abstract wood sculptures. You can see these works in action on his website and Youtube.

Carapace: an organic motion sculpture

Oct 27, 2018  Derek Hugger

Make your own! Woodworking plans are available at http://www.derekhugger.com/carapace.html Carapace is a wooden kinetic sculpture that simulates the motion of a sea turtle swimming. A complex series of mechanisms allows Carapace to swim up and down, tilt forward or back, and even lift its head up for a breath of air. As each mechanism is carefully linked to the next, each of Carapace’s flowing motions are driven by turning a single crank. For more videos and photos of Carapace, check out: https://www.facebook.com/derekhuggerk… The music is “Morning Mist” by Marika Takeuchi.

Category   Science & Technology

Urban Species: Kinetic Lifeforms Created by U-Ram Choe

July 15, 2013  Christopher Jobson

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URAM Choe: New Urban Species Exhibition

Mar 29, 2010  Frist Art Museum

U-Ram Choe: New Urban Species is on view at the Frist Center through May 16, 2010. Korean artist U-Ram Choes kinetic sculptures are made of delicately curved sections of wrought metal, joined together in movable parts that are driven by motors to expand, contract, or otherwise suggest the autonomic motions of such primitive life forms as plants and single-celled aquatic creatures. The intricate workmanship and graceful movements of these mechanical sculptures offer viewers an unparalleled visual delight.

Category   Nonprofits & Activism

Kinetic Sculptor Puts Cyber Dreams In Motion

Nov 19, 2012  Creators

Through his prodigious understanding of robotics, U-ram Choe sees motion as a necessity in his work, creating moving, futuristic sculptures. For more information: http://thecreatorsproject.com/creator… The Creators Project is a partnership between Intel and VICE: http://thecreatorsproject.com/ ** Subscribe to The Creators Project: http://bit.ly/Subscribe_to_TheCreator… Check out our full video catalog: http://youtube.com/user/TheCreatorsPr… Facebook: http://fb.com/thecreatorsproject Twitter: http://twitter.com/creatorsproject Tumblr: http://thecreatorsproject.tumblr.com/

Category   Science & Technology

Korean artist U-Ram Choe lives and works in Seoul where he creates highly ornate kinetic that mimic forms and motions found in nature. Choe uses various metals, motors, gears, and custom CPU boards to control the precise motions of each sculpture that are at times perfectly synchronized and other times completely random. With names like “Unicus – cavum ad initium” and “Arbor Deus Pennatus” it’s clear the artist treats each new work like a brand new species.

The artworks are so complex each “organism” is shipped with a manual to show collectors and galleries how to maintain and fix various components. Choe tells the Creator’s Project in one of the videos above how some of the works in his studio live a complete lifecycle where they are at first born and put on display, but after time begin to degrade as certain parts stop working. Eventually he raids old artworks for parts and uses them to build new ones.

Watch the videos above to see a good sampling of his work both old and new, and he has a huge archive of videos for nearly 50 artworks over on Vimeo.

Animation Music   #music video #psychedelic

Slowly Rising: A Mesmerizing New Music Video by Hideki Inaba

November 3, 2015  Christopher Jobson

Directed and animated by Hideki Inaba, this dense and intensely beautiful music video was created for the track Slowly Rising, off the album Full Circle by BEATSOFREEN. The 3-minute animation features an unceasing barrage of seemingly infinite creatures, hybrids of flora and fauna, that swarm and multiply in space like schools of fish or flowers in a field. (via prosthetic knowledge)

Official music video for BEATSOFREEN ­” Slowly Rising”

directed by Hideki Inaba ?? ??
instagram.com/kanahebi1783/
twitter.com/kanahebi_1783
facebook.com/inabahideki1783
hide.tokyo

“Slowly Rising” suggested to me the image of the sun.

A seed was born beneath the sun, the source of all existence.
The seed absorbed the light. It created more seeds like itself, gradually increasing in number.

Time passed, but still their numbers slowly continued to rise,
and before long they were quietly swallowed up by their own shadows.

After everything that had lived had perished, nothing but an empty world remained.
There, once again, an environment where the next living things could grow silently began to spread.

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PBS News, TED Talks, DW Documentary, My Modern Met, Thisiscolossal, and National Geographic

PBS News: January 19 – 23, 2020, Shields and Brooks on Trump impeachment evidence, Democratic debate, How Trump’s USDA wants to change rules around school nutrition, Australian ecosystems left vulnerable in wake of bushfire catastrophe, Kim Phuc’s Brief but Spectacular take on pain and forgiveness,  News Wrap: Virginia becomes 38th state to ratify Equal Rights Amendment, How war and misinformation are complicating the DRC’s Ebola battle, and Disease threatens Italy’s once booming olive oil industry

TED Talks: Shubhendu Sharma An engineer’s vision for tiny forests everywhere?, and Mitchell Joachim Don’t build your home grow it?

DW Documentary:  Avocado – a positive superfood trend?

My Modern Met: Colorful Solo Show Titled “Peace” by Eduardo Kobra

Thisiscolossal: Stunning Photographs from 2019 Ocean Art Contest Explore Depths of Aquatic Life Around the World and Scientists Discover the First Biofluorescent Reptile, a ‘Glowing’ Hawksbill Sea Turtle

National Geographic: “Glowing” Sea Turtle Discovered

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 23, 2020

Jan 23, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, the Senate impeachment trial of President Trump continues, with House managers turning their prosecution to the charge of abuse of power. Plus: PBS NewsHour co-founder Jim Lehrer, a giant of American journalism, dies at age 85, and remembering Lehrer with his news partner Robert MacNeil, Justice Stephen Breyer and Sharon Percy Rockefeller. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 22, 2020

Started streaming 2 hours ago PBS NewsHour   

Wednesday on the NewsHour, the Senate has formalized the rules for the impeachment trial of President Trump, and House managers have begun laying out their case for removing him from office. Plus: Reactions to opening arguments from the impeachment prosecution, Chinese officials race to contain a deadly virus outbreak and the UN says Saudi Arabia’s crown prince may have helped hack Jeff Bezos. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS Fiery rules debate over, House managers start prosecution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKmdJ… Former Rep. Bob Barr on ‘fatally flawed’ case against Trump https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQFbi… Analyzing the prosecution in Trump’s impeachment trial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Xuno… News Wrap: At Davos, Trump urges Europe to liberalize trade https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fb-vO… What we know about deadly coronavirus — and what we don’t https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vW3ux… Did Saudi crown prince help to hack Jeff Bezos’ phone? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvqL1… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 21, 2020

Jan 21, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Tuesday on the NewsHour, the Senate impeachment trial of President Trump officially begins. Plus: The latest impeachment reporting from the Senate, impeachment trial analysis from political experts and former Senate staffers, what President Trump is saying at the World Economic Forum in Switzerland, Syrian refugees suffer in Idlib province and an exhibit on the history of the Polaroid camera. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS Senate amends impeachment trial rules, defers on witnesses https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0lDJ… What we learned in 1st day of Trump Senate impeachment trial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T43Oi… In Davos, Trump hails U.S. ‘economic boom,’ downplays trial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBP12… News Wrap: China’s viral pneumonia spreads to the U.S. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJmTz… Why refugees in Syria’s Idlib have nowhere else to go https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQWvu… How Polaroid pioneered the instant photography revolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nhOja… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 20, 2020

Jan 20, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Monday on the NewsHour, President Trump’s legal team releases its first official defense of the president as his Senate impeachment trial nears. Plus: A Virginia gun-rights rally sparks new debate, Australia’s ongoing bushfire disaster, former Defense Sec. William Cohen’s unique impeachment view, 2020 Democrats join together on the campaign trail, Politics Monday and Hollywood agent Nina Shaw. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS What to expect in Trump’s impeachment trial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6whnr… News Wrap: 3 dead, dozens injured in Baghdad protests https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wjelr… Vir. gun control protests heavily armed but peaceful https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWHxg… Could bushfires erode Australia’s climate change ‘inertia’? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_cf5… Former Defense Sec. William Cohen on impeachment evidence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jsku6… How 2020 Democrats are making final push before Iowa caucus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Nyss… Tamara Keith and Amy Walter on Iowa, impeachment politics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_L4a… Nina Shaw on driving ‘real change’ on diversity, inclusion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mEYwS… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode January 19, 2019

Jan 19, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Sunday, January 19, the Trump administration responds to House impeachment filings as the Senate trial is set to begin, violent clashes continue in Hong Kong and Lebanon, and a NewsHour Weekend special on Ukraine, a country caught in the crosshairs of conflict at home and the impeachment inquiry in the United States. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Shields and Brooks on Trump impeachment evidence, Democratic debate

Jan 17, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Syndicated columnist Mark Shields and New York Times columnist David Brooks join Judy Woodruff to discuss the week’s political news, including the opening of President Trump’s Senate trial and the announcement of his legal team, public opinion on impeachment, 2020 Democrats’ final debate before the Iowa caucuses and Michael Bloomberg’s remarkable ad spend. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

How Trump’s USDA wants to change rules around school nutrition

Jan 17, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Improving school meals was among Michelle Obama’s key initiatives during her tenure as first lady. Since then, the Trump administration has rolled back Obama-era school nutrition policies they argued went too far and were ineffective. Now, the Department of Agriculture has made additional major changes. Crystal FitzSimons of the Food Research and Action Center joins Amna Nawaz to discuss. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Australian ecosystems left vulnerable in wake of bushfire catastrophe

Jan 17, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Firefighters in Australia are finally getting some help from nature, in the form of lower temperatures and rain. But many fires are still burning, and millions of acres have been lost. The blazes have also caused tremendous damage to the surrounding ecosystems and wildlife — some of which don’t exist anywhere else in the world. Science correspondent Miles O’Brien joins Judy Woodruff to discuss. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Kim Phuc’s Brief but Spectacular take on pain and forgiveness

Jan 16, 2020  PBS NewsHour

A photograph of Phan Thi Kim Phuc as a nine-year-old girl enduring a napalm attack became a defining image of the Vietnam War. Healing has been a decades-long process. Now living in Canada, Kim Phuc shares her Brief But Spectacular take on pain and forgiveness. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

News Wrap: Virginia becomes 38th state to ratify Equal Rights Amendment

Jan 15, 2020  PBS NewsHour

In our news wrap Wednesday, Virginia became the crucial 38th state to ratify the 1972 Equal Rights Amendment, which bars discrimination on the basis of sex. Three-quarters of the states now approve the amendment. Also, Russia’s government abruptly resigned after President Vladimir Putin proposed sweeping constitutional changes that could keep him in power after his current term ends in 2024. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

How war and misinformation are complicating the DRC’s Ebola battle

Jan 15, 2020  PBS NewsHour

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An outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus has plagued Democratic Republic of Congo for nearly a year and a half, with more than 3,000 people getting sick and 2,000 dead. Major medical advances in prevention and treatment have kept the disease’s toll from rising, but ongoing war — and attacks on medical teams — have forced the response to a standstill. Special correspondent Monica Villamizar reports. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Disease threatens Italy’s once booming olive oil industry

Jan 18, 2020  PBS NewsHour

More than a third of olive oil in the U.S. comes from Italy, which has kept a longstanding reputation for quality. But the quantity of olive oil made in the south of Italy has been in sharp decline. A disease in the region of Puglia has been attacking olive trees, decimating the industry and causing Italy to import olive oil for the first time. Special correspondent Christopher Livesay reports. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

A forest planted by humans, then left to nature’s own devices, typically takes at least 100 years to mature. But what if we could make the process happen ten times faster? In this short talk, eco-entrepreneur (and TED Fellow) Shubhendu Sharma explains how to create a mini-forest ecosystem anywhere.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Shubhendu Sharma · Eco-entrepreneur

Shubhendu Sharma creates afforestation methods that make it easy to plant maintenance-free, wild and biodiverse forests.

More Resources

Further reading

How to grow a tiny forest really, really fast

In an article on Medium, Shubhendu Sharma gives a first-hand account of how he is reforesting the world, one tiny patch at a time.

More at medium.com ?

TED Fellow and urban designer Mitchell Joachim presents his vision for sustainable, organic architecture: eco-friendly abodes grown from plants and — wait for it — meat.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Mitchell Joachim · Architect, designer

Soft cars, jet packs and houses made of meat are all in a day’s work for urban designer, architect and TED Fellow Mitchell Joachim.

TED2010 | February 2010

Avocado – a positive superfood trend? | DW Documentary

May 1, 2018  DW Documentary

From avocado toast to guacamole, this superfood has stolen the hearts of foodies and the health conscious around the world. But where do avocados come from? Avocados have become a huge food trend in the Western world, where the creamy fruit has become readily available in shops, cafes and restaurants. The avocado is considered a superfood and is popular in Europe because of its nutritional value. Avocados are high in calories, contain mostly monounsaturated fat and are good for cholesterol. The fruit is full of essential nutrients, including potassium and vitamin C. But there’s a darker side to the fashionable fruit popular on toast or in salads. In Chile, one of the world’s largest suppliers, avocado cultivation has dramatic consequences and has been linked to water shortages, human rights violations and an environmentally damage. The province of Petorca has a long tradition of avocado farming. Once grown by small farmers, production has been soaring since the global avocado boom of the 1990s. Big landowners now dominate the avocado market there. And their business requires large amounts of water. It takes up to 1000 liters of water to grow one kilo of the fruit (about three avocados) – a lot more than for a kilo of tomatoes or potatoes. The region is suffering an acute water shortage, exacerbated by climate change. The riverbeds dried up years ago. Trucks bring tanks of water to families in need, while thousands of hectares of avocado groves just next door are watered with artificial reservoirs. Rodrigo Mundaca founded the NGO Modatima. He fights for the right to water – a right that’s guaranteed by the UN and that Chile has committed to. An aerial survey in 2012 revealed that 64 pipelines were diverting river water underground, apparently to irrigate the avocado fields. When the Modatima activists publicly voiced their criticism, they received death threats. Water became a commodity in Chile in 1981 under the Pinochet dictatorship, meaning it’s privatized. Those who offer the most money get water licenses, even for life, regardless of the potential consequences for the ecosystem. The avocado also has a pretty dire environmental footprint. They’re packaged to prevent damage and transported in air-conditioned cargo ships to Europe. The fruit then ripens in a factory in Rotterdam, before it’s sent “ready to eat” to German supermarkets. “Europe wants to eat healthily – at our expense,” says Mundaca. _______ Exciting, powerful and informative – DW Documentary is always close to current affairs and international events. Our eclectic mix of award-winning films and reports take you straight to the heart of the story. Dive into different cultures, journey across distant lands, and discover the inner workings of modern-day life. Subscribe and explore the world around you – every day, one DW Documentary at a time. Subscribe to DW Documentary: https://www.youtube.com/dwdocumentary… For more information visit: https://www.dw.com/en/tv/docfilm/s-3610 Instagram https://www.instagram.com/dwdocumentary/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/dw.stories DW netiquette policy: https://www.dw.com/en/dws-netiquette-p…

Category   Education

Colorful Solo Show Titled “Peace” by Eduardo Kobra

By Katie Hosmer on May 7, 2014


It’s not difficult to identify a mural that has been completed by Eduardo Kobra. The Sao Paulo-based street artist has a signature approach filled with vibrant colors and geometric shapes that merge together to form the portraits of many very prominent figures. He uses a combination of painting, airbrush, and spray paint to produce the enormous works filled with a lively spirit.

His most recent large-scale work will be featured as a solo show, entitled Peace, beginning on May 9, 2014 through June 25, 2014 at Rome’s Dorothy Circus Gallery. The selected portraits will feature people like Nelson Mandela, Mother Teresa, Albert Einstein, and the Dalai Lama.

Through his signature style of textured layers, strong lines, and fragmented sections, Kobra gives new life to these very important historical figures and topics which, according to the gallery, include “the fight against pollution, global warming, deforestation, and war, but also the ‘makeover’ of some icons of the time.”


Eduardo Kobra’s website
Dorothy Circus Gallery website
via [Hi-Fructose]

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Stunning Photographs from 2019 Ocean Art Contest Explore Depths of Aquatic Life Around the World

January 15, 2020  Grace Ebert

“Crab-Eater Seal” by Greg Lecoeur, Best of Show. All images © Ocean Art Underwater Photo Competition 2019, shared with permission

A 2019 contest organized by the Underwater Photography Guide has collected some of the best photographs of aquatic life around the globe, from an image capturing a seal maneuvering through a chunk of ice in Antarctic waters to another depicting an octopus resting on the ocean floor. This year’s Ocean Art Underwater Photo Contest drew thousands of entires from 78 countries that were judged by renowned underwater photographers Tony Wu, Martin Edge, and Marty Snyderman, along with Underwater Photography Guide publisher Scott Gietler. It also handed out more than $85,000 to entrants.

We’ve included some of our favorite photographs from across the 17 categories, including marine life behavior, portrait, conservation, and reefscapes, although a full list of winners can be found on the contest’s site. Stay tuned for information on the 2020 contest in September.

“Biodiversity” by Greg Lecoeur, Reefscapes

“Gigantic Aggregation of Munk Devil Rays in Baja California Sur” by Jason Clue, Marine Life Behavior

“Larval tripod fish” by Fabien Michenet, Blackwater

“Radiography” by Stefano Cerbai, Macro

“Strange Encounters” by Hannes Klostermann, Marine Life Behavior

“A friendly ride” by Paula Vianna, Marine Life Behavior

“Leopard Shark” by Jake Wilton, Novice Wide Angle

“Treats from Maloolaba River” by Jenny Stock, Nudibranchs

“Coconut Octopus” by Enrico Somogyi, Compact Wide Angle

“The Hypnotist” by Dave Johnson, Macro

“Eye of the Tornado” by Adam Martin, Wide Angle

“Under the Pier” by Jose Antonio Castellano, Wide Angle

Scientists Discover the First Biofluorescent Reptile, a ‘Glowing’ Hawksbill Sea Turtle

September 28, 2015  Christopher Jobson

No, this isn’t a clip from the latest Miyazaki anime, this is the first sighting of a real fluorescent turtle. Marine biologist David Gruber of City University of New York, was recently in the Solomon Islands to film a variety of biofluorescent fish and coral, when suddenly a completely unexpected sight burst into the frame: a glowing yellow and red sea turtle. The creature is a critically endangered hawksbill sea turtle, and until this sighting last July, the phenomenon had never been documented in turtles, let alone any other reptile.

Biofluorescence is the ability for an organism to reflect blue light and re-emit it as a different color, not to be confused with bioluminescence, where organisms produce their own light.

Many undersea creatures like coral, sharks, and some shrimp have shown the ability to show single green, red, or orange colors under the right lighting conditions, but according to National Geographic, no organisms have shown the ability to emit two distinct colors like the hawksbill. As seen in the video, the coloring appears not only in mottled patterns on the turtle’s shell, but even extends within the cracks of its head and feet. Gruber mentions this could be a mixture of both glowing red glowing algae attached to the turtle, but the yellow fluorescence is undoubtedly part of the animal.

Watch the video above to see the moment of discovery and learn more on Nat Geo.

EXCLUSIVE: “Glowing” Sea Turtle Discovered | National Geographic

Sep 28, 2015  National Geographic

While filming coral off the Solomon Islands, David Gruber, a National Geographic Emerging Explorer, encountered a “bright red-and-green spaceship.” This underwater UFO turned out to be a hawksbill sea turtle, which is significant because it’s the first time that biofluorescence has ever been seen in reptiles, according to Gruber. Gruber is now excited to learn more about this critically endangered species and how it is using biofluorescence. ? Subscribe: https://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe #NationalGeographic #SeaTurtles #Biofluorescence About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world’s premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what’s possible. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: https://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: https://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: https://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: https://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta David Gruber: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/exp… Click here to read more: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/20… BIOFLUORESCENCE VIDEOGRAPHER: David Gruber SENIOR PRODUCER: Jeff Hertrick EDITOR: Jennifer Murphy EXPEDITION FUNDED BY: TBA21 TBA21 CINEMAPHOTOGRAPHER: Barry Broomfield TBA21 PRODUCERS: Francesca Von Habsburg and Markus Reymann TBA21 LINE PRODUCER: Lauren Matic ADDITIONAL FOOTAGE: National Geographic Creative and Pawel Achtel EXCLUSIVE: “Glowing” Sea Turtle Discovered | National Geographic https://youtu.be/9kmE7D5ulSA National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo

Category  Entertainment

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Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – Human Rights and Nonviolence

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have A Dream”  

Artwork by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Remember Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – Human Rights and Nonviolence

Friday January 15, 2016

I did this artwork in 2010.  I enjoyed doing the research, reading Dr. King’s biography and his speeches.  Dr. King was a great writer and orator.  He could captivate the audiences with his great writing and presentation.  I would like everyone who views my artwork on Dr. King to be able to read and have some understanding of his feelings.   With his wit and energy he devoted himself to human rights and nonviolence.  It is not only his family that lost and mourned his death for the world has lost a great man.   Humanity had lost Dr. King’s ability to help bring progress to the world by achieving more civilized interaction for the human race as a whole.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, January 15, 2016 

President Barack Obama & His First Inauguration Speech Portrait and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have A Dream” two of my artworks displayed at Lincoln School auditorium for the cerebration of Dr. King’s Birthday event in 2015.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Friday, January 15, 2016 

For more information please visit please visit the following link:

Martin Luther King, Jr.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

“Martin Luther King” and “MLK” redirect here. For other uses, see Martin Luther King (disambiguation) and MLK (disambiguation).

Martin Luther King, Jr.
Born Michael King, Jr.
January 15, 1929
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
Died April 4, 1968 (aged 39)
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Cause of death Assassination
Monuments Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial
Alma mater Morehouse College (B.A.) Crozer Theological Seminary (B.D.) Boston University (Ph.D.)
Occupation clergyman, activist
Organization Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Movement African-American Civil Rights Movement, Peace movement
Religion Christianity
Denomination Baptist (Progressive National Baptist Convention)
Spouse(s) Coretta Scott King (m. 1953–1968; his death)
Children Yolanda Denise King (1955–2007) Martin Luther King III (b. 1957) Dexter Scott King (b. 1961) Bernice Albertine King (b. 1963)
Parent(s) Martin Luther King, Sr. Alberta Williams King
Awards Nobel Peace Prize (1964) Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977, posthumous) Congressional Gold Medal (2004, posthumous)

Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.

King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia (the Albany Movement), and helped organize the 1963 nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history.

On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches, and the following year he and SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include poverty and speak against the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled “Beyond Vietnam“.

In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People’s Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities.

King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, and as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also renamed for him. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 2011.

Early life and education

King’s high school alma mater was named after African-American scholar Booker T. Washington.

King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr., and Alberta Williams King.[1] King’s legal name at birth was Michael King,[2] and his father was also born Michael King, but the elder King changed his and his son’s names following a 1934 trip to Germany to attend the Fifth Baptist World Alliance Congress in Berlin. It was during this time he chose to be called Martin Luther King in honor of the German reformer Martin Luther.[3][4] King had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather.[5][6]

King was a middle child, between an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King.[7] King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind.[8] King liked singing and music. King’s mother, an accomplished organist and choir leader, took him to various churches to sing. He received attention for singing “I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus.” King later became a member of the junior choir in his church.[9]

King said his father regularly whipped him until he was fifteen and a neighbor reported hearing the elder King telling his son “he would make something of him even if he had to beat him to death.” King saw his father’s proud and unafraid protests in relation to segregation, such as Martin, Sr., refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as “boy” or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to move to the rear to be served.[10]

When King was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family’s home. When the boys were 6, they attended different schools, with King attending a segregated school for African-Americans. King then lost his friend because the child’s father no longer wanted them to play together.[11]

King suffered from depression throughout much of his life. In his adolescent years, he initially felt some resentment against whites due to the “racial humiliation” that he, his family, and his neighbors often had to endure in the segregated South.[12] At age 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King blamed himself and jumped out of a second story window, but survived.[13]

King was originally skeptical of many of Christianity’s claims.[14] At the age of thirteen, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, “doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly”.[15] However, he later concluded that the Bible has “many profound truths which one cannot escape” and decided to enter the seminary.[14]

Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School. He became known for his public speaking ability and was part of the school’s debate team.[16] King became the youngest assistant manager of a newspaper delivery station for the Atlanta Journal in 1942 at age 13.[17] During his junior year, he won first prize in an oratorical contest sponsored by the Negro Elks Club in Dublin, Georgia. Returning home to Atlanta by bus, he and his teacher were ordered by the driver to stand so white passengers could sit down. King refused initially, but complied after his teacher informed him that he would be breaking the law if he did not go along with the order. He later characterized this incident as “the angriest I have ever been in my life”.[16] A precocious student, he skipped both the ninth and the twelfth grades of high school.[18] It was during King’s junior year that Morehouse College announced it would accept any high school juniors who could pass its entrance exam. At that time, most of the students had abandoned their studies to participate in World War II. Due to this, the school became desperate to fill in classrooms. At age 15, King passed the exam and entered Morehouse.[16] The summer before his last year at Morehouse, in 1947, an eighteen-year-old King made the choice to enter the ministry after he concluded the church offered the most assuring way to answer “an inner urge to serve humanity”. King’s “inner urge” had begun developing and he made peace with the Baptist Church, as he believed he would be a “rational” minister with sermons that were “a respectful force for ideas, even social protest.”[19]

In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a B.A. degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a B.Div. degree in 1951.[20][21] King’s father fully supported his decision to continue his education. King was joined in attending Crozer by Walter McCall, a former classmate at Morehouse.[22] At Crozer, King was elected president of the student body.[23] The African-American students of Crozer for the most part conducted their social activity on Edwards Street. King was endeared to the street due to a classmate having an aunt that prepared the two collard greens, which they both relished.[24] King once called out a student for keeping beer in his room because of their shared responsibility as African-Americans to bear “the burdens of the Negro race.” For a time, he was interested in Walter Rauschenbusch‘s “social gospel”.[23] In his third year there, he became romantically involved with the daughter of an immigrant German woman working as a cook in the cafeteria. The daughter had been involved with a professor prior to her relationship with King. King had plans of marrying her, but was advised not to by friends due to the reaction an interracial relationship would spark from both blacks and whites, as well as the chances of it destroying his chances of ever pastoring a church in the South. King tearfully told a friend that he could not endure his mother’s pain over the marriage and broke the relationship off around six months later. He would continue to have lingering feelings, with one friend being quoted as saying, “He never recovered.”[23]

King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her parents’ house in her hometown of Heiberger, Alabama.[25] They became the parents of four children: Yolanda King (b. 1955), Martin Luther King III (b. 1957), Dexter Scott King (b. 1961), and Bernice King (b. 1963).[26] During their marriage, King limited Coretta’s role in the Civil Rights Movement, expecting her to be a housewife and mother.[27]

King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, when he was twenty-five years old, in 1954.[28]

Doctoral studies

See also: Martin Luther King, Jr. authorship issues

King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Ph.D. degree on June 5, 1955, with a dissertation on “A Comparison of the Conceptions of God in the Thinking of Paul Tillich and Henry Nelson Wieman“. An academic inquiry concluded in October 1991 that portions of his dissertation had been plagiarized and he had acted improperly. However, “[d]espite its finding, the committee said that ‘no thought should be given to the revocation of Dr. King’s doctoral degree,’ an action that the panel said would serve no purpose.”[29][30][31] The committee also found that the dissertation still “makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship.” However, a letter is now attached to King’s dissertation in the university library, noting that numerous passages were included without the appropriate quotations and citations of sources.[32]

Ideas, influences, and political stances

Religion

As a Christian minister, King’s main influence was Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King’s faith was strongly based in Jesus’ commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself, loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them. His nonviolent thought was also based in the injunction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus’ teaching of putting the sword back into its place (Matthew 26:52).[33] In his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, King urged action consistent with what he describes as Jesus’ “extremist” love, and also quoted numerous other Christian pacifist authors, which was very usual for him. In another sermon, he stated:

Before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher of the Gospel. This was my first calling and it still remains my greatest commitment. You know, actually all that I do in civil rights I do because I consider it a part of my ministry. I have no other ambitions in life but to achieve excellence in the Christian ministry. I don’t plan to run for any political office. I don’t plan to do anything but remain a preacher. And what I’m doing in this struggle, along with many others, grows out of my feeling that the preacher must be concerned about the whole man.

—?King, 1967[34][35]

In his speech “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop“, he stated that he just wanted to do God’s will.

Nonviolence

King at a Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.

Veteran African-American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin was King’s first regular advisor on nonviolence.[36] King was also advised by the white activists Harris Wofford and Glenn Smiley.[37] Rustin and Smiley came from the Christian pacifist tradition, and Wofford and Rustin both studied Gandhi‘s teachings. Rustin had applied nonviolence with the Journey of Reconciliation campaign in the 1940s,[38] and Wofford had been promoting Gandhism to Southern blacks since the early 1950s.[37] King had initially known little about Gandhi and rarely used the term “nonviolence” during his early years of activism in the early 1950s. King initially believed in and practiced self-defense, even obtaining guns in his household as a means of defense against possible attackers. The pacifists guided King by showing him the alternative of nonviolent resistance, arguing that this would be a better means to accomplish his goals of civil rights than self-defense. King then vowed to no longer personally use arms.[39][40]

In the aftermath of the boycott, King wrote Stride Toward Freedom, which included the chapter Pilgrimage to Nonviolence. King outlined his understanding of nonviolence, which seeks to win an opponent to friendship, rather than to humiliate or defeat him. The chapter draws from an address by Wofford, with Rustin and Stanley Levison also providing guidance and ghostwriting.[41]

Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi‘s success with nonviolent activism, King had “for a long time … wanted to take a trip to India”.[42] With assistance from Harris Wofford, the American Friends Service Committee, and other supporters, he was able to fund the journey in April 1959.[43] [44] The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of nonviolent resistance and his commitment to America’s struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, “Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity”.

Bayard Rustin’s open homosexuality, support of democratic socialism, and his former ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African-American leaders to demand King distance himself from Rustin,[45] which King agreed to do.[46] However, King agreed that Rustin should be one of the main organizers of the 1963 March on Washington.[47]

King’s admiration of Gandhi’s nonviolence did not diminish in later years. He went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, hailing the “successful precedent” of using nonviolence “in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to challenge the might of the British Empire … He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage.”[48]

Gandhi seemed to have influenced him with certain moral principles,[49] though Gandhi himself had been influenced by The Kingdom of God Is Within You, a nonviolent classic written by Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy. In turn, both Gandhi and Martin Luther King had read Tolstoy, and King, Gandhi and Tolstoy had been strongly influenced by Jesus‘ Sermon on the Mount. King quoted Tolstoy’s War and Peace in 1959.[50]

Another influence for King’s nonviolent method was Henry David Thoreau‘s essay On Civil Disobedience, which King read in his student days. He was influenced by the idea of refusing to cooperate with an evil system.[51] He also was greatly influenced by the works of Protestant theologians Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich,[52] as well as Walter Rauschenbusch’s Christianity and the Social Crisis. King also sometimes used the concept of “agape” (brotherly Christian love).[53] However, after 1960, he ceased employing it in his writings.[54]

Even after renouncing his personal use of guns, King had a complex relationship with the phenomenon of self-defense in the movement. He publicly discouraged it as a widespread practice, but acknowledged that it was sometimes necessary.[55] Throughout his career King was frequently protected by other civil rights activists who carried arms, such as Colonel Stone Johnson,[56] Robert Hayling, and the Deacons for Defense and Justice.[57][58]

Politics

As the leader of the SCLC, King maintained a policy of not publicly endorsing a U.S. political party or candidate: “I feel someone must remain in the position of non-alignment, so that he can look objectively at both parties and be the conscience of both—not the servant or master of either.”[59] In a 1958 interview, he expressed his view that neither party was perfect, saying, “I don’t think the Republican party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic party. They both have weaknesses … And I’m not inextricably bound to either party.”[60] King did praise Democratic Senator Paul Douglas of Illinois as being the “greatest of all senators” because of his fierce advocacy for civil rights causes over the years.[61]

King critiqued both parties’ performance on promoting racial equality:

Actually, the Negro has been betrayed by both the Republican and the Democratic party. The Democrats have betrayed him by capitulating to the whims and caprices of the Southern Dixiecrats. The Republicans have betrayed him by capitulating to the blatant hypocrisy of reactionary right wing northern Republicans. And this coalition of southern Dixiecrats and right wing reactionary northern Republicans defeats every bill and every move towards liberal legislation in the area of civil rights.[62]

Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October 1956 he said that he was undecided as to whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson or Dwight Eisenhower, but that “In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket.”[63] In his autobiography, King says that in 1960 he privately voted for Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy: “I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one.” King adds that he likely would have made an exception to his non-endorsement policy for a second Kennedy term, saying “Had President Kennedy lived, I would probably have endorsed him in 1964.”[64] In 1964, King urged his supporters “and all people of goodwill” to vote against Republican Senator Barry Goldwater for president, saying that his election “would be a tragedy, and certainly suicidal almost, for the nation and the world.”[65] King supported the ideals of democratic socialism, although he was reluctant to speak directly of this support due to the anti-communist sentiment being projected throughout America at the time, and the association of socialism with communism. King believed that capitalism could not adequately provide the basic necessities of many American people, particularly the African American community.[66]

Compensation

King stated that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups.[67]

He posited that “the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils”.[68] He presented this idea as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor, but clarified that he felt that the money should not be spent exclusively on blacks. He stated, “It should benefit the disadvantaged of all races”.[69]

The lack of attention given to family planning

On being awarded the Planned Parenthood Federation of America‘s Margaret Sanger Award on 5th May, 1966, King said:

Recently, the press has been filled with reports of sightings of flying saucers. While we need not give credence to these stories, they allow our imagination to speculate on how visitors from outer space would judge us. I am afraid they would be stupefied at our conduct. They would observe that for death planning we spend billions to create engines and strategies for war. They would also observe that we spend millions to prevent death by disease and other causes. Finally they would observe that we spend paltry sums for population planning, even though its spontaneous growth is an urgent threat to life on our planet. Our visitors from outer space could be forgiven if they reported home that our planet is inhabited by a race of insane men whose future is bleak and uncertain.
There is no human circumstance more tragic than the persisting existence of a harmful condition for which a remedy is readily available. Family planning, to relate population to world resources, is possible, practical and necessary. Unlike plagues of the dark ages or contemporary diseases we do not yet understand, the modern plague of overpopulation is soluble by means we have discovered and with resources we possess.
What is lacking is not sufficient knowledge of the solution but universal consciousness of the gravity of the problem and education of the billions who are its victims. …[70][71]

Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955

Main articles: Montgomery Bus Boycott and Jim Crow laws § Public arena

Rosa Parks with King, 1955

In March 1955, a fifteen-year-old school girl in Montgomery, Claudette Colvin, refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in compliance with Jim Crow laws, laws in the US South that enforced racial segregation. King was on the committee from the Birmingham African-American community that looked into the case; because Colvin was pregnant and unmarried, E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr decided to wait for a better case to pursue.[72]

On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat.[73] The Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed.[74] The boycott lasted for 385 days,[75] and the situation became so tense that King’s house was bombed.[76] King was arrested during this campaign, which concluded with a United States District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that ended racial segregation on all Montgomery public buses.[77][78] King’s role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement.[79]

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

In 1957, King, Ralph Abernathy, Fred Shuttlesworth, Joseph Lowery, and other civil rights activists founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). The group was created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct nonviolent protests in the service of civil rights reform. One of the group’s inspirations was the crusades of evangelist Billy Graham, who befriended King after he attended a Graham crusade in New York City in 1957.[80] King led the SCLC until his death.[81] The SCLC’s 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom was the first time King addressed a national audience.[82] Other civil rights leaders involved in the SCLC with King included: James Bevel, Allen Johnson, Curtis W. Harris, Walter E. Fauntroy, C. T. Vivian, Andrew Young, The Freedom Singers, Charles Evers, Cleveland Robinson, Randolph Blackwell, Annie Bell Robinson Devine, Charles Kenzie Steele, Alfred Daniel Williams King, Benjamin Hooks, Aaron Henry and Bayard Rustin.[83]

On September 20, 1958, while signing copies of his book Stride Toward Freedom in Blumstein’s department store in Harlem,[84] King narrowly escaped death when Izola Curry, a mentally ill black woman who believed he was conspiring against her with communists, stabbed him in the chest with a letter opener. After emergency surgery, King was hospitalized for several weeks, while Curry was found mentally incompetent to stand trial.[85][86] In 1959, he published a short book called The Measure of A Man, which contained his sermons “What is Man?” and “The Dimensions of a Complete Life”. The sermons argued for man’s need for God’s love and criticized the racial injustices of Western civilization.[87]

Harry Wachtel—who joined King’s legal advisor Clarence B. Jones in defending four ministers of the SCLC in a libel suit over a newspaper advertisement (New York Times Co. v. Sullivan)—founded a tax-exempt fund to cover the expenses of the suit and to assist the nonviolent civil rights movement through a more effective means of fundraising. This organization was named the “Gandhi Society for Human Rights”. King served as honorary president for the group. Displeased with the pace of President Kennedy’s addressing the issue of segregation, King and the Gandhi Society produced a document in 1962 calling on the President to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and use an Executive Order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation – Kennedy did not execute the order.[88]

Lyndon Johnson and Robert Kennedy with Civil Rights leaders, June 22, 1963

The FBI, under written directive from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, began tapping King’s telephone in the fall of 1963.[89] Concerned that allegations of communists in the SCLC, if made public, would derail the administration’s civil rights initiatives, Kennedy warned King to discontinue the suspect associations, and later felt compelled to issue the written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other SCLC leaders.[90] J. Edgar Hoover feared Communists were trying to infiltrate the Civil Rights movement, but when no such evidence emerged, the bureau used the incidental details caught on tape over the next five years in attempts to force King out of the preeminent leadership position.[91]

King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the Civil Rights Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s.[92][93]

King organized and led marches for blacks’ right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basic civil rights.[78] Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.[94][95]

King and the SCLC put into practice many of the principles of the Christian Left and applied the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent.[96]

Throughout his participation in the civil rights movement, King was criticized by many groups. This included opposition by more militant blacks such as Nation of Islam member Malcolm X.[97] Stokely Carmichael was a separatist and disagreed with King’s plea for racial integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African-American culture.[98] Omali Yeshitela urged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force.[99]

Albany Movement

Main article: Albany Movement

The Albany Movement was a desegregation coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, in November 1961. In December, King and the SCLC became involved. The movement mobilized thousands of citizens for a broad-front nonviolent attack on every aspect of segregation within the city and attracted nationwide attention. When King first visited on December 15, 1961, he “had planned to stay a day or so and return home after giving counsel.”[100] The following day he was swept up in a mass arrest of peaceful demonstrators, and he declined bail until the city made concessions. According to King, “that agreement was dishonored and violated by the city” after he left town.[100]

King returned in July 1962, and was sentenced to forty-five days in jail or a $178 fine. He chose jail. Three days into his sentence, Police Chief Laurie Pritchett discreetly arranged for King’s fine to be paid and ordered his release. “We had witnessed persons being kicked off lunch counter stools … ejected from churches … and thrown into jail … But for the first time, we witnessed being kicked out of jail.”[101] It was later acknowledged by the King Center that Billy Graham was the one who bailed King out of jail during this time.[102]

After nearly a year of intense activism with few tangible results, the movement began to deteriorate. King requested a halt to all demonstrations and a “Day of Penance” to promote nonviolence and maintain the moral high ground. Divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts.[103] Though the Albany effort proved a key lesson in tactics for Dr. King and the national civil rights movement,[104] the national media was highly critical of King’s role in the defeat, and the SCLC’s lack of results contributed to a growing gulf between the organization and the more radical SNCC. After Albany, King sought to choose engagements for the SCLC in which he could control the circumstances, rather than entering into pre-existing situations.[105]

Birmingham campaign

Main article: Birmingham campaign

King following his arrest in Birmingham

In April 1963, the SCLC began a campaign against racial segregation and economic injustice in Birmingham, Alabama. The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker. Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and sit-ins, openly violating laws that they considered unjust.

King’s intent was to provoke mass arrests and “create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation”.[106] However, the campaign’s early volunteers did not succeed in shutting down the city, or in drawing media attention to the police’s actions. Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist James Bevel changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations.[107] Newsweek called this strategy a Children’s Crusade.[108][109]

During the protests, the Birmingham Police Department, led by Eugene “Bull” Connor, used high-pressure water jets and police dogs against protesters, including children. Footage of the police response was broadcast on national television news and dominated the nation’s attention, shocking many white Americans and consolidating black Americans behind the movement.[110] Not all of the demonstrators were peaceful, despite the avowed intentions of the SCLC. In some cases, bystanders attacked the police, who responded with force. King and the SCLC were criticized for putting children in harm’s way. But the campaign was a success: Connor lost his job, the “Jim Crow” signs came down, and public places became more open to blacks. King’s reputation improved immensely.[108]

King was arrested and jailed early in the campaign—his 13th arrest[111] out of 29.[112] From his cell, he composed the now-famous Letter from Birmingham Jail which responds to calls on the movement to pursue legal channels for social change. King argues that the crisis of racism is too urgent, and the current system too entrenched: “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed.”[113] He points out that the Boston Tea Party, a celebrated act of rebellion in the American colonies, was illegal civil disobedience, and that, conversely, “everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was ‘legal’”.[113] King also expresses his frustration with white moderates and clergymen too timid to oppose an unjust system:

I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro’s great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen’s Councilor or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to “order” than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: “I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action”; who paternalistic-ally believes he can set the timetable for another man’s freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a “more convenient season”.[113]

St. Augustine, Florida

Main article: St. Augustine movement

In March 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with Robert Hayling’s then-controversial movement in St. Augustine, Florida. Hayling’s group had been affiliated with the NAACP but was forced out of the organization for advocating armed self-defense alongside nonviolent tactics. Ironically, the pacifist SCLC accepted them.[114] King and the SCLC worked to bring white Northern activists to St. Augustine, including a delegation of rabbis and the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts, all of whom were arrested.[115][116] During June, the movement marched nightly through the city, “often facing counter demonstrations by the Klan, and provoking violence that garnered national media attention.” Hundreds of the marchers were arrested and jailed. During the course of this movement, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.[117]

Selma, Alabama

Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches

In December 1964, King and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, where the SNCC had been working on voter registration for several months.[118] A local judge issued an injunction that barred any gathering of 3 or more people affiliated with the SNCC, SCLC, DCVL, or any of 41 named civil rights leaders. This injunction temporarily halted civil rights activity until King defied it by speaking at Brown Chapel on January 2, 1965.[119]

New York City

On February 6, 1964, King delivered the inaugural speech of a lecture series initiated at the New School called “The American Race Crisis”. No audio record of his speech has been found, but in August 2013, almost 50 years later, the school discovered an audiotape with 15 minutes of a question-and-answer session that followed King’s address. In these remarks, King referred to a conversation he had recently had with Jawaharlal Nehru in which he compared the sad condition of many African Americans to that of India’s untouchables.[120]

March on Washington, 1963

Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

King, representing the SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called “Big Six” civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on August 28, 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were Roy Wilkins from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Whitney Young, National Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James L. Farmer, Jr., of the Congress of Racial Equality.[121]

The primary logistical and strategic organizer was King’s colleague Bayard Rustin.[122] For King, this role was another which courted controversy, since he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march.[123][124] Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation. However, the organizers were firm that the march would proceed.[125] With the march going forward, the Kennedys decided it was important to work to ensure its success. President Kennedy was concerned the turnout would be less than 100,000. Therefore, he enlisted the aid of additional church leaders and the UAW union to help mobilize demonstrators for the cause.[126]

King is most famous for his “I Have a Dream” speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.S. and an opportunity to place organizers’ concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation’s capital. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone.[127] As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the “Farce on Washington”, and the Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march.[127][128]

I Have a DreamMenu0:0030-second sample from “I Have a Dream” speech by Martin Luther King, Jr., at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963
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The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for Washington, D.C., then governed by congressional committee.[129][130][131] Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success.[132] More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.C.’s history.[132]

King delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as “I Have a Dream“. In the speech’s most famous passage—in which he departed from his prepared text, possibly at the prompting of Mahalia Jackson, who shouted behind him, “Tell them about the dream!”[133][134]—King said:[135]

I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.

“I Have a Dream” came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory.[136] The March, and especially King’s speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[137][138]

The original, typewritten copy of the speech, including Dr. King’s handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa. In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it.[139]

Selma Voting Rights Movement and “Bloody Sunday”, 1965

Main article: Selma to Montgomery marches

Acting on James Bevel’s call for a march from Selma to Montgomery, King, Bevel, and the SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, attempted to organize the march to the state’s capital. The first attempt to march on March 7, 1965, was aborted because of mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has become known as Bloody Sunday, and was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the Civil Rights Movement. It was the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King’s nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present.[140]

The civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama in 1965

King met with officials in the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration on March 5 in order to request an injunction against any prosecution of the demonstrators. He did not attend the march due to church duties, but he later wrote, “If I had any idea that the state troopers would use the kind of brutality they did, I would have felt compelled to give up my church duties altogether to lead the line.”[141] Footage of police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively and aroused national public outrage.[142]

King next attempted to organize a march for March 9. The SCLC petitioned for an injunction in federal court against the State of Alabama; this was denied and the judge issued an order blocking the march until after a hearing. Nonetheless, King led marchers on March 9 to the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, then held a short prayer session before turning the marchers around and asking them to disperse so as not to violate the court order. The unexpected ending of this second march aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement.[143] The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, 1965.[144][145] At the conclusion of the march on the steps of the state capitol, King delivered a speech that became known as “How Long, Not Long“. In it, King stated that equal rights for African Americans could not be far away, “because the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice”.[a][146][147]

Chicago Open Housing Movement, 1966

Main article: Chicago Freedom Movement

President Lyndon Johnson with King in 1966

In 1966, after several successes in the South, King, Bevel, and others in the civil rights organizations tried to spread the movement to the North, with Chicago as their first destination. King and Ralph Abernathy, both from the middle class, moved into a building at 1550 S. Hamlin Ave., in the slums of North Lawndale[148] on Chicago’s West Side, as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor.[149]

The SCLC formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization founded by Albert Raby, and the combined organizations’ efforts were fostered under the aegis of the Chicago Freedom Movement.[150] During that spring, several white couple / black couple tests of real estate offices uncovered racial steering: discriminatory processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes.[151] Several larger marches were planned and executed: in Bogan, Belmont Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (a suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park, Marquette Park, and others.[150][152][153]

Abernathy later wrote that the movement received a worse reception in Chicago than in the South. Marches, especially the one through Marquette Park on August 5, 1966, were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs. Rioting seemed very possible.[154][155] King’s beliefs militated against his staging a violent event, and he negotiated an agreement with Mayor Richard J. Daley to cancel a march in order to avoid the violence that he feared would result.[156] King was hit by a brick during one march but continued to lead marches in the face of personal danger.[157]

When King and his allies returned to the South, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the South, in charge of their organization.[158] Jackson continued their struggle for civil rights by organizing the Operation Breadbasket movement that targeted chain stores that did not deal fairly with blacks.[159]

Opposition to the Vietnam War

See also: Opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War

External audio
You may watch the speech, “Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam”, by Martin Luther King here.

King long opposed American involvement in the Vietnam War,[160] but at first avoided the topic in public speeches in order to avoid the interference with civil rights goals that criticism of President Johnson’s policies might have created.[160] However, at the urging of SCLC’s former Director of Direct Action and now the head of the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, James Bevel,[161] King eventually agreed to publicly oppose the war as opposition was growing among the American public.[160] In an April 4, 1967, appearance at the New York City Riverside Church—exactly one year before his death—King delivered a speech titled “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence“.[162] He spoke strongly against the U.S.’s role in the war, arguing that the U.S. was in Vietnam “to occupy it as an American colony”[163] and calling the U.S. government “the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today”.[164] He also connected the war with economic injustice, arguing that the country needed serious moral change:

A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: “This is not just.”[165]

King also opposed the Vietnam War because it took money and resources that could have been spent on social welfare at home. The United States Congress was spending more and more on the military and less and less on anti-poverty programs at the same time. He summed up this aspect by saying, “A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death”.[165] He stated that North Vietnam “did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands”,[166] and accused the U.S. of having killed a million Vietnamese, “mostly children”.[167] King also criticized American opposition to North Vietnam’s land reforms.[168]

King’s opposition cost him significant support among white allies, including President Johnson, Billy Graham,[169] union leaders and powerful publishers.[170] “The press is being stacked against me”, King said,[171] complaining of what he described as a double standard that applauded his nonviolence at home, but deplored it when applied “toward little brown Vietnamese children”.[172] Life magazine called the speech “demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi“,[165] and The Washington Post declared that King had “diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people”.[172][173]

King speaking to an anti-Vietnam war rally at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul on April 27, 1967

The “Beyond Vietnam” speech reflected King’s evolving political advocacy in his later years, which paralleled the teachings of the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center, with which he was affiliated.[174][175] King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation, and more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice.[176] He guarded his language in public to avoid being linked to communism by his enemies, but in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism.[177][178] In a 1952 letter to Coretta Scott, he said “I imagine you already know that I am much more socialistic in my economic theory than capitalistic …”[179] In one speech, he stated that “something is wrong with capitalism” and claimed, “There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism.”[180] King had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected “traditional capitalism”, he also rejected communism because of its “materialistic interpretation of history” that denied religion, its “ethical relativism”, and its “political totalitarianism”.[181]

King also stated in “Beyond Vietnam” that “true compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar … it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring”.[182] King quoted a United States official who said that, from Vietnam to Latin America, the country was “on the wrong side of a world revolution”.[182] King condemned America’s “alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America”, and said that the U.S. should support “the shirtless and barefoot people” in the Third World rather than suppressing their attempts at revolution.[182]

On April 15, 1967, King participated in and spoke at an anti-war march from New York’s Central Park to the United Nations organized by the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam and initiated by its chairman, James Bevel. At the U.N. King also brought up issues of civil rights and the draft.

I have not urged a mechanical fusion of the civil rights and peace movements. There are people who have come to see the moral imperative of equality, but who cannot yet see the moral imperative of world brotherhood. I would like to see the fervor of the civil-rights movement imbued into the peace movement to instill it with greater strength. And I believe everyone has a duty to be in both the civil-rights and peace movements. But for those who presently choose but one, I would hope they will finally come to see the moral roots common to both.[183]

Seeing an opportunity to unite civil rights activists and anti-war activists,[161] Bevel convinced King to become even more active in the anti-war effort.[161] Despite his growing public opposition towards the Vietnam War, King was also not fond of the hippie culture which developed from the anti-war movement.[184] In his 1967 Massey Lecture, King stated:

The importance of the hippies is not in their unconventional behavior, but in the fact that hundreds of thousands of young people, in turning to a flight from reality, are expressing a profoundly discrediting view on the society they emerge from.[184]

On January 13, 1968, the day after President Johnson’s State of the Union Address, King called for a large march on Washington against “one of history’s most cruel and senseless wars”.[185][186]

We need to make clear in this political year, to congressmen on both sides of the aisle and to the president of the United States, that we will no longer tolerate, we will no longer vote for men who continue to see the killings of Vietnamese and Americans as the best way of advancing the goals of freedom and self-determination in Southeast Asia.[185][186]

Poor People’s Campaign, 1968

Main article: Poor People’s Campaign

In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the “Poor People’s Campaign” to address issues of economic justice. King traveled the country to assemble “a multiracial army of the poor” that would march on Washington to engage in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol until Congress created an “economic bill of rights” for poor Americans.[187][188]

The campaign was preceded by King’s final book, Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community?, which laid out his view of how to address social issues and poverty. King quoted from Henry George and George’s book, Progress and Poverty, particularly in support of a guaranteed basic income.[189][190][191] The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C., demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States.

King and the SCLC called on the government to invest in rebuilding America’s cities. He felt that Congress had shown “hostility to the poor” by spending “military funds with alacrity and generosity”. He contrasted this with the situation faced by poor Americans, claiming that Congress had merely provided “poverty funds with miserliness”.[188] His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of “racism, poverty, militarism and materialism”, and argued that “reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced”.[192]

The Poor People’s Campaign was controversial even within the civil rights movement. Rustin resigned from the march, stating that the goals of the campaign were too broad, that its demands were unrealizable, and that he thought that these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black.[193]

After King’s death

The plan to set up a shantytown in Washington, D.C., was carried out soon after the April 4 assassination. Criticism of King’s plan was subdued in the wake of his death, and the SCLC received an unprecedented wave of donations for the purpose of carrying it out. The campaign officially began in Memphis, on May 2, at the hotel where King was murdered.[194]

Thousands of demonstrators arrived on the National Mall and established a camp they called “Resurrection City”. They stayed for six weeks.[195]

Assassination and aftermath

Main article: Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

 The Lorraine Motel, where King was assassinated, is now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum.

I’ve Been to the Mountaintop

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Final 30 seconds of “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.


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On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.[196][197][198]

On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. King’s flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane.[199] In the close of the last speech of his career, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following:

And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?

Well, I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me now. Because I’ve been to the mountaintop. And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. So I’m happy, tonight. I’m not worried about anything. I’m not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.[200]

King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey, in Memphis. Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, testified to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often it was known as the “King-Abernathy suite”.[201] According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, King’s last words on the balcony before his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: “Ben, make sure you play ‘Take My Hand, Precious Lord‘ in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty.”[202]

King was shot at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, as he stood on the motel’s second-floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder.[203][204] Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor.[205] Jackson stated after the shooting that he cradled King’s head as King lay on the balcony, but this account was disputed by other colleagues of King’s; Jackson later changed his statement to say that he had “reached out” for King.[206]

After emergency chest surgery, King died at St. Joseph’s Hospital at 7:05 p.m.[207] According to biographer Taylor Branch, King’s autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he “had the heart of a 60 year old”, which Branch attributed to the stress of 13 years in the Civil Rights Movement.[208]

Aftermath

Further information: King assassination riots

The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington, D.C.; Chicago; Baltimore; Louisville; Kansas City; and dozens of other cities.[209][210] Presidential candidate Robert F. “Bobby” Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King’s death. He gave a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King’s ideal of nonviolence.[211] James Farmer, Jr., and other civil rights leaders also called for nonviolent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael called for a more forceful response.[212] The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers.[213]

President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader.[214] Vice President Hubert Humphrey attended King’s funeral on behalf of the President, as there were fears that Johnson’s presence might incite protests and perhaps violence.[215] At his widow’s request, King’s last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral,[216] a recording of his “Drum Major” sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to “feed the hungry”, “clothe the naked”, “be right on the [Vietnam] war question”, and “love and serve humanity”.[217] His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, “Take My Hand, Precious Lord”, at the funeral.[218]

Two months after King’s death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia.[219] Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King’s murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later.[220] On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pled guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. He was sentenced to a 99-year prison term.[220][221] Ray later claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec, with the alias “Raoul” was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy.[222][223] He spent the remainder of his life attempting, unsuccessfully, to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had.[221]

Allegations of conspiracy

Ray’s lawyers maintained he was a scapegoat similar to the way that John F. Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is seen by conspiracy theorists.[224] Supporters of this assertion say that Ray’s confession was given under pressure and that he had been threatened with the death penalty.[221][225] They admit Ray was a thief and burglar, but claim he had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon.[223] However, prison records in different U.S. cities have shown that he was incarcerated on numerous occasions for charges of armed robbery.[226] In a 2008 interview with CNN, Jerry Ray, the younger brother of James Earl Ray, claimed that James was smart and was sometimes able to get away with armed robbery. Jerry Ray said that he had assisted his brother on one such robbery. “I never been with nobody as bold as he is,” Jerry said. “He just walked in and put that gun on somebody, it was just like it’s an everyday thing.”[226]

Those suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point to the two successive ballistics tests which proved that a rifle similar to Ray’s Remington Gamemaster had been the murder weapon. Those tests did not implicate Ray’s specific rifle.[221][227] Witnesses near King at the moment of his death said that the shot came from another location. They said that it came from behind thick shrubbery near the boarding house—which had been cut away in the days following the assassination—and not from the boarding house window.[228] However, Ray’s fingerprints were found on various objects (a rifle, a pair of binoculars, articles of clothing, a newspaper) that were left in the bathroom where it was determined the gunfire came from.[226] An examination of the rifle containing Ray’s fingerprints also determined that at least one shot was fired from the firearm at the time of the assassination.[226]

Martin Luther King and Coretta Scott King’s sarcophagus, located on the grounds of the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta, Georgia

In 1997, King’s son Dexter Scott King met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray’s efforts to obtain a new trial.[229]

Two years later, Coretta Scott King, King’s widow, along with the rest of King’s family, won a wrongful death claim against Loyd Jowers and “other unknown co-conspirators”. Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King’s assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found in favor of the King family, finding Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King and that government agencies were party to the assassination.[230][231] William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial.[232]

In 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice completed the investigation into Jowers’ claims but did not find evidence to support allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommended no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented.[233] A sister of Jowers admitted that he had fabricated the story so he could make $300,000 from selling the story, and she in turn corroborated his story in order to get some money to pay her income tax.[234][235]

In 2002, The New York Times reported that a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson—not James Earl Ray—assassinated King. He stated, “It wasn’t a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way.” Wilson provided no evidence to back up his claims.[236]

King researchers David Garrow and Gerald Posner disagreed with William F. Pepper’s claims that the government killed King.[237] In 2003, William Pepper published a book about the long investigation and trial, as well as his representation of James Earl Ray in his bid for a trial, laying out the evidence and criticizing other accounts.[238] King’s friend and colleague, James Bevel, also disputed the argument that Ray acted alone, stating, “There is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man.”[239] In 2004, Jesse Jackson stated:

The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. And within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. … I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray.[240]

FBI and King’s personal life

FBI surveillance and wiretapping

FBI director J. Edgar Hoover personally ordered surveillance of King, with the intent to undermine his power as a civil rights leader.[170][241] According to the Church Committee, a 1975 investigation by the U.S. Congress, “From December 1963 until his death in 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was the target of an intensive campaign by the Federal Bureau of Investigation to ‘neutralize’ him as an effective civil rights leader.”[242]

The Bureau received authorization to proceed with wiretapping from Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the fall of 1963[243] and informed President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Stanley Levison, a New York lawyer who had been involved with Communist Party USA.[244][245] Although Robert Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King’s phones “on a trial basis, for a month or so”,[246] Hoover extended the clearance so his men were “unshackled” to look for evidence in any areas of King’s life they deemed worthy.[247] The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levison’s and King’s home and office phones, and bugged King’s rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country.[244][248] In 1967, Hoover listed the SCLC as a black nationalist hate group, with the instructions: “No opportunity should be missed to exploit through counterintelligence techniques the organizational and personal conflicts of the leaderships of the groups … to insure the targeted group is disrupted, ridiculed, or discredited.”[241][249]

NSA monitoring of King’s communications

In a secret operation code-named “Minaret“, the National Security Agency (NSA) monitored the communications of leading Americans, including King, who criticized the U.S. war in Vietnam.[250] A review by the NSA itself concluded that Minaret was “disreputable if not outright illegal.”[250]

Allegations of communism

For years, Hoover had been suspicious about potential influence of communists in social movements such as labor unions and civil rights.[251] Hoover directed the FBI to track King in 1957, and the SCLC as it was established (it did not have a full-time executive director until 1960).[91] The investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when the FBI learned that one of King’s most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison.[252]

The FBI feared Levison was working as an “agent of influence” over King, in spite of its own reports in 1963 that Levison had left the Party and was no longer associated in business dealings with them.[253] Another King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts O’Dell, was also linked to the Communist Party by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC).[254] However, by 1976 the FBI had acknowledged that it had not obtained any evidence that King himself or the SCLC were actually involved with any communist organizations.[242]

For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview that “there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida”.[255] He argued that Hoover was “following the path of appeasement of political powers in the South” and that his concern for communist infiltration of the Civil Rights Movement was meant to “aid and abet the salacious claims of southern racists and the extreme right-wing elements”.[242] Hoover did not believe King’s pledge of innocence and replied by saying that King was “the most notorious liar in the country”.[256] After King gave his “I Have A Dream” speech during the March on Washington on August 28, 1963, the FBI described King as “the most dangerous and effective Negro leader in the country”.[248] It alleged that he was “knowingly, willingly and regularly cooperating with and taking guidance from communists”.[257]

The attempt to prove that King was a communist was related to the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot but had been stirred up by “communists” and “outside agitators”.[258] However, the 1950s and ’60s Civil Rights Movement arose from activism within the black community dating back to before World War I. King said that “the Negro revolution is a genuine revolution, born from the same womb that produces all massive social upheavals—the womb of intolerable conditions and unendurable situations.”[259]

Adultery

Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964

Having concluded that King was dangerous due to communist infiltration, the FBI shifted to attempting to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs.[248] Lyndon Johnson once said that King was a “hypocritical preacher”.[260]

Ralph Abernathy stated in his 1989 autobiography And the Walls Came Tumbling Down that King had a “weakness for women”, although they “all understood and believed in the biblical prohibition against sex outside of marriage. It was just that he had a particularly difficult time with that temptation”.[261] In a later interview, Abernathy said that he only wrote the term “womanizing”, that he did not specifically say King had extramarital sex and that the infidelities King had were emotional rather than sexual.[262] Abernathy criticized the media for sensationalizing the statements he wrote about King’s affairs,[262] such as the allegation that he admitted in his book that King had a sexual affair the night before he was assassinated.[262] In his original wording, Abernathy had claimed he saw King coming out of his room with a lady when he awoke the next morning and later claimed that “he may have been in there discussing and debating and trying to get her to go along with the movement, I don’t know.”[262]

In his 1986 book Bearing the Cross, David Garrow wrote about a number of extramarital affairs, including one woman King saw almost daily. According to Garrow, “that relationship … increasingly became the emotional centerpiece of King’s life, but it did not eliminate the incidental couplings … of King’s travels.” He alleged that King explained his extramarital affairs as “a form of anxiety reduction”. Garrow asserted that King’s supposed promiscuity caused him “painful and at times overwhelming guilt”.[263] King’s wife Coretta appeared to have accepted his affairs with equanimity, saying once that “all that other business just doesn’t have a place in the very high level relationship we enjoyed.”[264] Shortly after Bearing the Cross was released, civil rights author Howell Raines gave the book a positive review but opined that Garrow’s allegations about King’s sex life were “sensational” and stated that Garrow was “amassing facts rather than analyzing them”.[265]

The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King’s family.[266] The Bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he did not cease his civil rights work.[267] One such letter sent to King just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize read, in part:

The so-called “suicide letter”,[268] mailed anonymously by the FBI

The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significant [sic]). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation.[269]

A tape recording of several of King’s extramarital liaisons, excerpted from FBI wiretaps, accompanied the letter.[270] King interpreted this package as an attempt to drive him to suicide,[271] although William Sullivan, head of the Domestic Intelligence Division at the time, argued that it may have only been intended to “convince Dr. King to resign from the SCLC”.[242] King refused to give in to the FBI’s threats.[248]

Judge John Lewis Smith, Jr., in 1977 ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBI’s electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027.[272]

Police observation during the assassination

Across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the boarding house in which Ray was staying, was a fire station. Police officers were stationed in the fire station to keep King under surveillance.[273] Agents were watching King at the time he was shot.[274] Immediately following the shooting, officers rushed out of the station to the motel. Marrell McCollough, an undercover police officer, was the first person to administer first aid to King.[275] The antagonism between King and the FBI, the lack of an all points bulletin to find the killer, and the police presence nearby led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination.[276]

Legacy

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King.

Martin Luther King, Jr., statue over the west entrance of Westminster Abbey, installed in 1998

Protesters at the 2012 Republican National Convention display Dr. King’s words and image on a banner

King’s main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the U.S. Just days after King’s assassination, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968.[277] Title VIII of the Act, commonly known as the Fair Housing Act, prohibited discrimination in housing and housing-related transactions on the basis of race, religion, or national origin (later expanded to include sex, familial status, and disability). This legislation was seen as a tribute to King’s struggle in his final years to combat residential discrimination in the U.S.[277]

Internationally, King’s legacy includes influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and Civil Rights Movement in South Africa.[278][279] King’s work was cited by and served as an inspiration for South African leader Albert Lutuli, who fought for racial justice in his country and was later awarded the Nobel Prize.[280] The day following King’s assassination, school teacher Jane Elliott conducted her first “Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes” exercise with her class of elementary school students in Riceville, Iowa. Her purpose was to help them understand King’s death as it related to racism, something they little understood as they lived in a predominantly white community.[281] King has become a national icon in the history of American liberalism and American progressivism.[282]

King’s wife, Coretta Scott King, followed in her husband’s footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year that Martin Luther King was assassinated, she established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide.[283] Their son, Dexter King, serves as the center’s chairman.[284][285] Daughter Yolanda King, who died in 2007, was a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training.[286]

Even within the King family, members disagree about his religious and political views about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. King’s widow Coretta said publicly that she believed her husband would have supported gay rights.[287] However, his youngest child, Bernice King, has said publicly that he would have been opposed to gay marriage.[288]

On February 4, 1968, at the Ebenezer Baptist Church, in speaking about how he wished to be remembered after his death, King stated:

I’d like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. I’d like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody.

I want you to say that day that I tried to be right on the war question. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try to feed the hungry. I want you to be able to say that day that I did try in my life to clothe those who were naked. I want you to say on that day that I did try in my life to visit those who were in prison. And I want you to say that I tried to love and serve humanity.

Yes, if you want to say that I was a drum major. Say that I was a drum major for justice. Say that I was a drum major for peace. I was a drum major for righteousness. And all of the other shallow things will not matter. I won’t have any money to leave behind. I won’t have the fine and luxurious things of life to leave behind. But I just want to leave a committed life behind.[212][289]

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

Main article: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

Beginning in 1971, cities such as St. Louis, Missouri, and states established annual holidays to honor King.[290] At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. Observed for the first time on January 20, 1986, it is called Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Following President George H. W. Bush‘s 1992 proclamation, the holiday is observed on the third Monday of January each year, near the time of King’s birthday.[291][292] On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was officially observed in all fifty U.S. states.[293] Arizona (1992), New Hampshire (1999) and Utah (2000) were the last three states to recognized the holiday. Utah previously celebrated the holiday at the same time but under the name Human Rights Day.[294]

Liturgical commemorations

King is remembered as a martyr by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with an annual feast day on the anniversary of his death, April 4.[295] The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates King liturgically on the anniversary of his birth, January 15.[296]

UK legacy and The Martin Luther King Peace Committee

In the United Kingdom, The Northumbria and Newcastle Universities Martin Luther King Peace Committee[297] exists to honour King’s legacy, as represented by his final visit to the UK to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University in 1967.[298] The Peace Committee operates out of the chaplaincies of the city’s two universities, Northumbria and Newcastle, both of which remain centres for the study of Martin Luther King and the US Civil Rights Movement. Inspired by King’s vision, it undertakes a range of activities across the UK as it seeks to “build cultures of peace.”

Awards and recognition

Martin Luther King, Jr., showing his medallion received from Mayor Wagner

Statue of King in Birmingham’s Kelly Ingram Park

Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where King ministered, was renamed Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church in 1978.

King was awarded at least fifty honorary degrees from colleges and universities.[299] On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading nonviolent resistance to racial prejudice in the U.S.[300] In 1965, he was awarded the American Liberties Medallion by the American Jewish Committee for his “exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty”.[299][301] In his acceptance remarks, King said, “Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free.”[302]

In 1957, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.[303] Two years later, he won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for his book Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story.[304] In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for “his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity”.[305] Also in 1966, King was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[306] In November 1967 he made a 24 hour trip to the United Kingdom to receive an honorary degree from Newcastle University, being the first African American to be so honoured by Newcastle.[307] In a moving impromptu acceptance speech,[308] he said

There are three urgent and indeed great problems that we face not only in the United States of America but all over the world today. That is the problem of racism, the problem of poverty and the problem of war.

In 1971 he was posthumously awarded a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam.[309]

In 1977, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was posthumously awarded to King by President Jimmy Carter. The citation read:

Martin Luther King, Jr., was the conscience of his generation. He gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the power of love could bring it down. From the pain and exhaustion of his fight to fulfill the promises of our founding fathers for our humblest citizens, he wrung his eloquent statement of his dream for America. He made our nation stronger because he made it better. His dream sustains us yet.[310]

King and his wife were also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.[311]

King was second in Gallup’s List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century.[312] In 1963, he was named Time Person of the Year, and in 2000, he was voted sixth in an online “Person of the Century” poll by the same magazine.[313] King placed third in the Greatest American contest conducted by the Discovery Channel and AOL.[314]

Memorials and eponymous places and buildings

Martin Luther King Jr. Street at Liberty Bell Park in Jerusalem, Israel

Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial in Yerba Buena Gardens

There are numerous memorials to King in the United States, including:

Numerous other memorials honor him around the world, including:

For more information please visit Wikipedia, the link is:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr.

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PBS News: January 13 – 18, 2020, and Nigeria hits polio milestone as the world eyes eradication

TED Talks: Suzanne Lee Why biofabrication is the next industrial revolution?, Grow your own clothes, Angela Belcher Using nature to grow batteries, and Neri Oxman Design at the intersection of technology and biology

Pocket Worthy: The Forgotten Life of Einstein’s First Wife – Scientific American – Pauline Gagnon

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Inspiration Grid: Surreal Paintings by David Lawrence

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PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 17, 2020

Jan 17, 2020  PBS NewsHour

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PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 16, 2020

Jan 16, 2020  PBS NewsHour

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What if we could “grow” clothes from microbes, furniture from living organisms and buildings with exteriors like tree bark? TED Fellow Suzanne Lee shares exciting developments from the field of biofabrication and shows how it could help us replace major sources of waste, like plastic and cement, with sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Suzanne Lee · Designer, biofabrication pioneer

TED Fellow Suzanne Lee is a fashion designer turned biofabrication pioneer who is nurturing a global community of innovators growing materials.

Designer Suzanne Lee shares her experiments in growing a kombucha-based material that can be used like fabric or vegetable leather to make clothing. The process is fascinating, the results are beautiful (though there’s still one minor drawback …) and the potential is simply stunning.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Suzanne Lee · Designer, biofabrication pioneer

TED Fellow Suzanne Lee is a fashion designer turned biofabrication pioneer who is nurturing a global community of innovators growing materials.

What might our clothes look like in 50 years?

For Suzanne Lee, the answer lies far beyond the traditional borders of fashion design. Might we really wear a bustier made of bacteria? Lee makes her case.

More at ideas.ted.com ?

TED2011 | March 2011

Inspired by an abalone shell, Angela Belcher programs viruses to make elegant nanoscale structures that humans can use. Selecting for high-performing genes through directed evolution, she’s produced viruses that can construct powerful new batteries, clean hydrogen fuels and record-breaking solar cells. In her talk, she shows us how it’s done.

This talk was presented to a local audience at TEDxCaltech, an independent event. TED’s editors chose to feature it for you.

About the speaker

Angela Belcher · Biological engineer

Angela Belcher looks to nature for inspiration on how to engineer viruses to create extraordinary new materials.

About TEDx

TEDx was created in the spirit of TED’s mission, “ideas worth spreading.” It supports independent organizers who want to create a TED-like event in their own community.

Designer and architect Neri Oxman is leading the search for ways in which digital fabrication technologies can interact with the biological world. Working at the intersection of computational design, additive manufacturing, materials engineering and synthetic biology, her lab is pioneering a new age of symbiosis between microorganisms, our bodies, our products and even our buildings.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Neri Oxman · Architect, designer

From the micro scale to the building scale, Neri Oxman imagines and creates structures and objects that are inspired, informed and engineered by, for and with nature.

https://getpocket.com/explore/item/the-forgotten-life-of-einstein-s-first-wife?utm_source=pocket-newtab

Pocket Worthy  Stories to fuel your mind.

The Forgotten Life of Einstein’s First Wife

She was a physicist, too—and there is evidence that she contributed significantly to his groundbreaking science.

Scientific American |    Pauline Gagnon

Photo by Tetra Images / Getty Images.

While Albert Einstein is celebrated as perhaps the best physicist of the 20th century, one question about his career remains: How much did his first wife contribute to his groundbreaking science? Mileva Mari? Einstein was a brilliant scientist, but nobody has been able to credit her with any specific part of her husband’s work. Still, their letters and numerous testimonies presented in the books dedicated to her(1-5) provide substantial evidence on how they collaborated from the time they met in 1896 up to their separation in 1914. They depict a couple united by a shared passion for physics, music and for each other. So here is their story.

Mileva Mari? was born in Titel in Serbia in 1875. Her parents, Marija Ruzi? and Miloš Mari?, a wealthy and respected member of his community, had two other children: Zorka and Miloš Jr. Mileva attended high school the last year girls were admitted in Serbia. In 1892, her father obtained the authorization of the Minister of Education to allow her to attend physics lectures reserved to boys. She completed her high school in Zurich in 1894 and her family then moved to Novi Sad. Mileva’s classmates described her as brilliant but not talkative. She liked to get to the bottom of things, was perseverant and worked towards her goals.

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm in Germany in 1879 and had one sister Maja. His father, Hermann, was an industrial. His mother, Pauline Koch came from a rich family. Albert was inquisitive, bohemian and rebel. Being undisciplined, he hated the rigor of German schools so he too finished his high school in Switzerland and his family relocated to Milan.

Albert and Mileva were admitted to the physics-mathematics section of the Polytechnic Institute in Zurich (now ETH) in 1896 with three other students: Marcel Grossmann, Louis Kollros and Jakob Ehrat. Albert and Mileva became inseparable, spending countless hours studying together. He attended only a few lectures, preferring to study at home. Mileva was methodical and organized. She helped him channel his energy and guided his studies as we learn from Albert’s letters, exchanged between 1899-1903 during school holidays: 43 letters from Albert to Mileva have been preserved but only 10 of hers remain(5). These letters provide a first-hand account on how they interacted at the time.

In August 1899, Albert wrote to Mileva: “When I read Helmholtz for the first time, it seemed so odd that you were not at my side and today, this is not getting better. I find the work we do together very good, healing and also easier.” Then on 2 October 1899, he wrote from Milan: “… the climate here does not suit me at all, and while I miss work, I find myself filled with dark thoughts – in other words, I miss having you nearby to kindly keep me in check and prevent me from meandering.”

Mileva boarded in a pension for women where she met her life-long friends Helene Kaufler-Savi? and Milana Bota. Both spoke of Albert’s continuous presence at Mileva’s place, where he would come freely to borrow books in Mileva’s absence. Milan Popovi?, Helene’s grandson, published the letters Mileva exchanged with her throughout her life(4).

By the end of their classes in 1900, Mileva and Albert had similar grades (4.7 and 4.6, respectively) except in applied physics where she got the top mark of 5 but he, only 1. She excelled at experimental work while he did not. But at the oral exam, Professor Minkowski gave 11 out of 12 to the four male students but only 5 to Mileva. Only Albert got his degree.

Meanwhile, Albert’s family strongly opposed their relationship. His mother was adamant. “By the time you’re 30, she’ll already be an old hag!” as Albert reported to Mileva in a letter dated 27 July 1900, as well as « She cannot enter a respectable family ”. Mileva was neither Jewish, nor German. She had a limp and was too intellectual in his mother’s opinion, not to mention prejudices against foreign people. Moreover, Albert’s father insisted his son found work before getting married.

In September 1900, Albert wrote to Mileva: “I look forward to resume our new common work. You must now continue with your research – how proud I will be to have a doctor for my spouse when I’ll only be an ordinary man.“ They both came back to Zurich in October 1900 to start their thesis work. The other three students all received assistant positions at the Institute, but Albert did not. He suspected that professor Weber was blocking him. Without a job, he refused to marry her. They made ends meet by giving private lessons and “continue[d] to live and work as before.” as Mileva wrote to her friend Helene Savi?.

On 13 December 1900, they submitted a first article on capillarity signed only under Albert’s name. Nevertheless, both referred to this article in letters as their common article. Mileva wrote to Helene Savi? on 20 December 1900. “We will send a private copy to Boltzmann to see what he thinks and I hope he will answer us.” Likewise, Albert wrote to Mileva on 4 April 1901, saying that his friend Michele Besso “visited his uncle on my behalf, Prof. Jung, one of the most influential physicists in Italy and gave him a copy of our article.”

The decision to publish only under his name seems to have been taken jointly. Why? Radmila Milentijevi?, a former history professor at City College in New York, published in 2015 Mileva’s most comprehensive biography(1). She suggests that Mileva probably wanted to help Albert make a name for himself, such that he could find a job and marry her. Dord Krsti?, a former physics professor at Ljubljana University, spent 50 years researching Mileva’s life. In his well-documented book(2),he suggests that given the prevalent bias against women at the time, a publication co-signed with a woman might have carried less weight.

We will never know. But nobody made it clearer than Albert Einstein himself that they collaborated on special relativity when he wrote to Mileva on 27 March 1901: “How happy and proud I will be when the two of us together will have brought our work on relative motion to a victorious conclusion.”

Then Mileva’s destiny changed abruptly. She became pregnant after a lovers’ escapade in Lake Como. Unemployed, Albert would still not marry her. With this uncertain future, Mileva took her second and last attempt at the oral exam in July 1901. This time, Prof. Weber, whom Albert suspected of blocking his career, failed her. Forced to abandon her studies, she went back to Serbia, but came back briefly to Zurich to try to persuade Albert to marry her. She gave birth to a girl named Liserl in January 1902. No one knows what happened to her. She was probably given to adoption. No birth or death certificates were ever found.

Earlier in December 1901, their classmate Marcel Grossman’s father intervened to get Albert a post at the Patent Office in Bern. He started work in June 1902. In October, before dying, his father granted him his permission to marry. Albert and Mileva married on 6 January 1903. Albert worked 8 hours a day, 6 days a week at the Patent Office while

Mileva assumed the domestic tasks. In the evenings, they worked together, sometimes late in the night. Both mentioned this to friends, he to Hans Wohlwend, she to Helene Savi? on 20 March 1903 where she expressed how sorry she was to see Albert working so hard at the office. On 14 May 1904, their son Hans-Albert was born.

Despite this, 1905 is now known as Albert’s “miracle year”: he published five articles: one on the photoelectric effect (which led to the 1921 Nobel Prize), two on Brownian motion, one on special relativity and the famous E = mc2. He also commented on 21 scientific papers for a fee and submitted his thesis on the dimensions of molecules. Much later, Albert told R. S. Shankland(6) that relativity had been his life for seven years and the photoelectric effect, for five years. Peter Michelmore, one of his biographers(7), wrote that after having spent five weeks to complete the article containing the basis of special relativity, Albert “went to bed for two weeks. Mileva checked the article again and again, and then mailed it”. Exhausted, the couple made the first of three visits to Serbia where they met numerous relatives and friends, whose testimonies provide a wealth of information on how Albert and Mileva collaborated.

Mileva’s brother, Miloš Jr, a person known for his integrity, stayed on several occasions with the Einstein family while studying medicine in Paris. Krsti?(2) wrote: “[Miloš] described how during the evenings and at night, when silence fell upon the town, the young married couple would sit together at the table and at the light of a kerosene lantern, they would work together on physics problems. Miloš Jr. spoke of how they calculated, wrote, read and debated.” Krsti? heard this directly from relatives of Mileva, Sidonija Gajin and Sofija Gali? Golubovi?.

Zarko Mari?, a cousin of Mileva’s father, lived in the countryside property where the Einsteins stayed during their visit. He told Krsti? how Mileva calculated, wrote and worked with Albert. The couple often sat in the garden to discuss physics. Harmony and mutual respect prevailed.

Gajin and Zarko Mari? also reported hearing from Mileva’s father that during the Einstein’s visit to Novi Sad in 1905, Mileva confided to him: “Before our departure, we finished an important scientific work which will make my husband known around the world.” Krsti? got this same information in 1961 from Mileva’s cousin, Sofija Gali? Golubovi?, who was present when Mileva said it to her father.

Desanka Trbuhovi?-Gjuri? published Mileva’s first biography in Serbian in 1969(3). It later appeared in German and French. She described how Mileva’s brother often hosted gatherings of young intellectuals at his place. During one of these evenings, Albert would have declared: “I need my wife. She solves for me all my mathematical problems”, something Mileva is said to have confirmed.

In 1908, the couple constructed with Conrad Habicht an ultra-sensitive voltmeter. Trbuhovi?-Gjuri? attributes this experimental work to Mileva and Conrad, and wrote: “When they were both satisfied, they left to Albert the task of describing the apparatus, since he was a patent expert.” It was registered under the Einstein-Habicht patent. When Habicht questioned Mileva’s choice not to include her name, she replied making a pun in German: “Warum? Wir beide sind nur ein Stein.“ (“Why? The two of us are but one stone”, meaning, we are one entity).

The first recognition came in 1908. Albert gave unpaid lectures in Bern, then was offered his first academic position in Zurich in 1909. Mileva was still assisting him. Eight pages of Albert’s first lecture notes are in her handwriting. So is a letter drafted in 1910 in reply to Max Planck who had sought Albert’s opinion. Both documents are kept in the Albert Einstein Archives (AEA) in Jerusalem. On 3 September 1909, Mileva confided to Helene Savi?: “He is now regarded as the best of the German-speaking physicists, and they give him a lot of honours. I am very happy for his success, because he fully deserves it; I only hope and wish that fame does not have a harmful effect on his humanity.” Later, she added: “With all this fame, he has little time for his wife. […] What is there to say, with notoriety, one gets the pearl, the other the shell.”

Their second son, Eduard, was born on 28 July 1910. Up to 1911, Albert still sent affectionate postcards to Mileva. But in 1912, he started an affair with his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal while visiting his family who had moved to Berlin. They maintained a secret correspondence over two years. Elsa kept 21 of his letters, now in the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. During this period, Albert held various faculty positions first in Prague, back in Zurich and finally in Berlin in 1914 to be closer to Elsa.

This caused their marriage’s collapse. Mileva moved back to Zurich with her two sons on 29 July 1914. In 1919, she agreed to divorce, with a clause stating that if Albert ever received the Nobel Prize, she would get the money. When she did, she bought two small apartment buildings and lived poorly from their income. Her son, Eduard stayed frequently in a sanatorium. He later developed schizophrenia and was eventually internalised. Due to these medical expenses, Mileva struggled financially all her life and eventually lost both buildings. She survived by giving private lessons and on the alimony Albert sent, albeit irregularly.

In 1925, Albert wrote in his will that the Nobel Prize money was his sons’ inheritance. Mileva strongly objected, stating the money was hers and considered revealing her contributions to his work. Radmila Milentijevi? quote from a letter Albert sent her on 24 October 1925 (AEA 75-364). ”You made me laugh when you started threatening me with your recollections. Have you ever considered, even just for a second, that nobody would ever pay attention to your says if the man you talked about had not accomplished something important. When someone is completely insignificant, there is nothing else to say to this person but to remain modest and silent. This is what I advise you to do.

Mileva remained silent but her friend Milana Bota told a Serbian newspaper in 1929 that they should talk to Mileva to find out about the genesis of special relativity, since she was directly involved. On 13 June 1929, Mileva wrote to Helene Savi?: ”Such publications in newspapers do not suit my nature at all, but I believe that all that was for Milana’s joy, and that she probably thought that this would also be a joy for me, as I can only suppose that she wanted to help me receive some public rights with regard to Einstein. She has written to me in that way, and I let it be accepted that way, for otherwise the whole thing would be nonsense.”

According to Krsti?(2), Mileva spoke of her contributions to her mother and sister. She also wrote to her godparents explaining how she had always collaborated with Albert and how he had ruined her life, but asked them to destroy the letter. Her son, Hans-Albert, told Krsti?(2) how his parents’ “scientific collaboration continued into their marriage, and that he remembered seeing [them] work together in the evenings at the same table.” Hans-Albert’s first wife, Frieda, tried to publish the letters Mileva and Albert had sent to their sons but was blocked in court by the Einstein’s Estate Executors, Helen Dukas and Otto Nathan in an attempt to preserve the “Einstein’s myth”. They prevented other publications, including one from Krsti?(2) on his early findings in 1974. Krsti? mentions that Nathan even “visited” Mileva’s apartment after her death in 1948. On July 1947, Albert wrote to Dr Karl Zürcher, his divorce lawyer: “When Mileva will no longer be there, I’ll be able to die in peace.”

Their letters and the numerous testimonies show that Mileva Mari? and Albert Einstein collaborated closely from their school days up to 1914. Albert referred to it repeatedly in his letters, like when he wrote: « our work on relative motion”. Their union was based on love and mutual respect, which allowed them together to produce such uncommon work. She was the first person to recognize his talent. Without her, he would never have succeeded. She abandoned her own aspirations, happy to work with him and contribute to his success, feeling they were one unique entity. Once started, the process of signing their work under his unique name became impossible to reverse. She probably agreed to it since her own happiness depended on his success. Why did Mileva remain silent? Being reserved and self-effaced, she did not seek honors or public attention. And as is always the case in close collaborations, the individual contributions are nearly impossible to disentangle.

References

(1) Radmila Milentijevi?: Mileva Mari? Einstein: Life with Albert Einstein, United World Press, 2015.

(2) Dord Krsti?: Mileva & Albert Einstein: Their Love and Scientific Collaboration, Didakta, 2004.

(3) Desanka Trbuhovi?-Gjuri? Mileva Mari? Einstein: In Albert Einstein’s shadow): in Serbian, 1969, German, 1982, and French, 1991.

(4) Milan Popovi?: In Albert’s Shadow, the Life and Letters of Mileva Mari?, Einstein’s First Wife, The John Hopkins University Press, 2003.

(5) Renn and Schulmann, Albert Einstein / Mileva Mari?, The Love Letters, Princeton University Press, 1992.

(6) Peter Michelmore, Einstein, Profile of the Man, Dodd, Mead & Company, 1962.

(7) R.S. Shankland, Conversation with Albert Einstein, Am. J. of Physics, 1962.

Pauline Gagnon is a physicist and author of “Who Cares about Particle Physics: Making Sense of the Higgs boson, the Large Hadron Collider and CERN,” Oxford University Press, 2016.

The views expressed are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

More from Scientific American

This article was originally published on December 19, 2016, by Scientific American, and is republished here with permission.

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Mileva Mari?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mileva Mari? 1896
Born December 19, 1875 Titel, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now in Serbia)
Died August 4, 1948 (aged 72) Zürich, Switzerland
Resting place Friedhof Nordheim, Zürich, Switzerland
Other names Mileva Mari?-Einstein,
Mileva Mari?-Ajnštajn
Alma mater Eidgenössisches Polytechnikum (known today as the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule)
Occupation Mathematician
Spouse(s) Albert Einstein
(m. 1903; div. 1919)
Children “Lieserl” Einstein
Hans Albert Einstein
Eduard “Tete” Einstein
Parent(s) Miloš Mari?
Marija Ruži?-Mari?

Mileva Mari? (Serbian Cyrillic: ?????? ?????; December 19, 1875 – August 4, 1948), sometimes called Mileva Mari?-Einstein or Mileva Mari?-Ajnštajn (Serbian Cyrillic: ?????? ?????-????????), was a Serbian physicist and mathematician and the first wife of Albert Einstein from 1903 to 1919. She was the only woman among Einstein’s fellow students at Zürich‘s Polytechnic and was the second woman to finish a full program of study at the Department of Mathematics and Physics.[1] Mari? and Einstein were collaborators and lovers and had a daughter Lieserl in 1902, whose fate is unknown. They later had two sons, Hans Albert and Eduard.

Albert and Mileva Einstein, 1912

They separated in 1914, with Mari? taking the boys and returning to Zurich from Berlin. They divorced in 1919; that year Einstein married again. When he received the Nobel Prize in 1921, he transferred the money to Mari?, chiefly to support their sons; she had access to the interest. In 1930 at about age 20, their second son Eduard had a breakdown and was diagnosed with schizophrenia. With expenses mounting by the late 1930s for his institutional care, Mari? sold two of the three houses she and Einstein had purchased. He made regular contributions to his sons’ care, which he continued after emigrating to the United States with his second wife (Elsa, his first cousin).

For more information please visit the following link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mileva_Mari%C4%87

An Ancient Chinese Ginkgo Tree Drops an Ocean of Golden Leaves

November 24, 2015  Christopher Jobson

This towering ginkgo tree is located within the walls of the Gu Guanyin Buddhist Temple in the Zhongnan Mountains in China. Every autumn the green leaves on the 1,400-year-old tree turn bright yellow and fall into a golden heap on the temple grounds drawing tourists from the surrounding area. You can see more photos here and here. (via F*ck Yeah Chinese Garden)

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ginko-final-5

Sculptor Zheng Chunhui Spent 4 Years Carving the World’s Longest Wooden Sculpture

November 18, 2013  Christopher Jobson

tree-1

Photo by Lv Ming

tree-2

Photo by Lv Ming

tree-3

Photo by Lv Ming

tree-4

Photo by Lv Ming

Chinese artist Zheng Chunhui recently unveiled this exceptionally large wooden sculpture that measures some 40 feet (12.286) meters long. Four years in the making, the tree carving is based on a famous painting called “Along the River During the Qingming Festival,” which is a historical holiday reserved to celebrate past ancestors that falls on the 104th day after the winter solstice. On November 14th the Guinness World Records arrived in Fuzhou, Fujian Province where the piece is currently on display to declare it the longest continuous wooden sculpture in the world. You can see many more photos over on China News. (via Shanghaist)

https://theinspirationgrid.com/surreal-paintings-by-david-lawrence/

Surreal Paintings by David Lawrence

Published Jan 8, 2020

Intriguing creations by David Lawrence, a surrealist artist based in Bath, England.More art on the grid Visit his website

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Ing & John’s Street Art & The International Street Art Part 13 & 14

Ing & John’s Street Art & The International Street Art Part 13

The Halsey Street Festival, Part 1, Thursday, September 19, 2019

On Halsey Street between Bleaker Street and New Street, Downtown Newark, New Jersey, USA

John Watts demonstrated pottery,

Ing’s Peace Project, Ing & Johns Artwork,

A lot of Merchants, Food, Music and Fashion Show

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Thursday, September 19, 2019 the music stand came in the early afternoon to begin decorating The Halsey Street Festival with, logo, and music equipment for the event.

John put up my large artwork on our alleyway door with a helping hand from our neighbors.

We were very lucky to have the festival right in front of our shop.  We joined in by adding more artwork and activities to celebrate The Halsey Street Festival.

Some merchants started displaying their merchandise.

John displayed his two tall sculptures and large hand build pottery.  I posted my artwork, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. I Have A Dream.

Left: Impossible Dreamer – John Watts Artwork

Middle: Two of John Watts Sculptures

Right-Inside: Birth of a dragon – John Watts Artwork

I displayed one of my finished Peace Project Artworks and Peace Project Poster for people to write theirs comments on, “What does Peace mean to you?”.

This lady was the first person who wrote her comment on, “What does Peace mean to you?” on the Peace Project Poster.

By the early evening people started to arrive.

Merchants offered a variety of merchandise.

Please continue to view The Halsey Street Festival Part 2

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts and John Watts, Thursday, January 18, 2020

Link to Ing & John’s Street Art & The International Street Art Part 13

Ing & Johns Street Art & International Street Art Part 14

International Street Art Part 14

street art, graffiti and contemporary art in Russia

I discovered the Russian street art scene a few years ago, when some murals by P183 were becoming popular on social network sites More recently I met Zmogk in Vitry sur Seine while he was busy painting an amazing mural for a small urban art event.

I have also had the pleasure of interviewing both Yulia Vanifatieva and Julia Volchkova, two up-and-coming Russian street artists. They impressed me with their creativity and originality which was so different to anything I had seen before.

Russia is currently one of the most creative urban art hotspots in Europe. It is such a shame that so little is known about many of these artists outside of Russia. I have therefore decided to publish a list of the most interesting and creative artists. I Hope it will help you discover and fall in love with their art, follow their social networks and promote their work around the world. They deserve it!

Pavel P183

Pavel or Paul (P183) was born in Moscow in 1983 and died aged 29 on 1 April 2013. P183 is probably the best known Russian street artist and has been dubbed as the ‘Russian Banksy’ by the British press. This artist was one of the creators of the street art movement in Europe and his untimely death was a major loss to the urban art scene.

RIP P183 you wrote some amazing letters on the wall of Street Art and graffiti history. True art lovers will never forget you.

P183 artwork in Russia Moscow

street art in Russia by P183

Marat “Morik  Danilyan

Marat ‘Morik’ Danilyan is a street artist, graphic designer and illustrator from Russia. He went to art school but then went on to complete degrees in philology and economics from the Novosibirsk State University. With the rise of the Internet in the late 90’s, Morik developed a passion for graffiti through Hip-hop culture. He started to develop spray-painting skills and a love for experimenting with letter forms.

Instagram

Morik street artist from russia. portraits

Morik

Petro

Piotr Gerasimenko (Petro) was born in Zhukovsky in 1984 and is a member of the crew called Aesthetics. He’s been painting on walls for more than a decade and, while developing his style, has gone through many different stages to become one of the most prominent and respected artists on the Russian graffiti scene.

InstagramFacebookFlickr

building painted by Petro Aesthetics

Petro

Dmitry Aske

Dmitri Aske is a versatile artist from Moscow. He started his artistic career in 2000 as a graffiti writer and later moved on to graphic design, typography, illustration, murals and contemporary art.

InstagramWebsiteFacebook

building painted by famous russian urban artist dmitri aske

Dmitry Aske

Alexey Luka

Alexey Luka was born in 1983. He graduated from Moscow Architectural Institute in 2006 and lives and works in Moscow.

InstagramWebsite

graffiti masterpiece in russia by alexey luka . moscow urban art scene

Alexey Luka

VITALY TSARENKOV aka SY

Vitaly Tsarenkov (SY) was born in 1987 and lives and works in St. Petersburg. With a background in street art, he focuses on creating large-scale paintings, murals, and sculptures.

Instagram

abstract geometrical graffit art . Russian contemporary art

SY

Ivan Ninety

Ivan Ninety was born in Protvino. He was initially interested in street art and gradually developed his interest in large-format painting, collage, sculpture or photography, grew.

In his works, a mix of geometric abstraction and figurative realism can be seen. The technique he uses most often is collage.

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russian mural artwork by ivan ninety

Ivan Ninety

Nikita Nomerz

Nikita Nomerz lives in Nizhny Novgorod. The Media started getting excited about this young artist, after seeing just two of his murals in 2011.

InstagramWebsite

street art masterpiece by nikita nomerz

Nikita Nomerz

Sergey Akramov

Sergey is a Russian graffiti artist from Ekaterinburg, who specialises in abstract lettering. He paints complex murals showcasing many techniques. He loves to paint vegetation combined with abstract lettering and typography.

InstagramBehanceFacebook

huge murals in Russia .

Sergey Akramov

Vova Nootk

Vova Nootk started out as a graffiti writer 20 years ago and has now developed his work into large scale murals.

FacebookInstagramWebsite

moscow murals street art

Vova Nootk

Vitae Viazi

Vitae Viazi are a street art crew (art-collective) from Moscow. The name “Vitae Viazi” comes from the Latin word “vitae” (“of life”) and “viazi,” which is the name of a special ornamental Cyrillic (old slavonic) script. This decorative script was their initial source of inspiration. The name of the crew should be written with characters of two keyboard layouts “VITAE ????” but it is too tricky to google, so they choose – “Vitae Viazi”.

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modern art and urban art in Russia

Vitae Viazi

Julia Volchkova

Discover Julia Volchkova’s artwork in the article I published a few month ago:Artist of the week: Julia Volchkova” 

street art masterpiece by julia volchkova

Julia Volchkova

MalenkieLydi

Ivan Simonov. Artist from Russia

Instagram

street art in street of moscow

MalenkieLydi

Ilya Slak

Urban artist from Russia

Instagram

huge mural by russian urban art

Ilya Slak

Link to Ing & John’s Street Art & The International Street Art Part 14

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PBS News, TED Talks, Scientific American, BBC Click, Thisiscolossal Great Big Story and Inspiration Grid

PBS News: Jan 12 – 8, 2020, What’s in the $1.4 trillion federal spending bill, This Paris program helps refugees tell their stories through art

TED Talks: Colette Pichon Battle climate change will displace millions here’s how we prepare? And Kelsey Leonard Why lakes and rivers should have the same rights as humans

Scientific American: To Stop Wildlife Crime, Conservationists Ask Why People Poach

BBC Click: Best Of 2019, Tim Peake Talks Life In Space

Thisiscolossal: A 17-Story Dragon Climbs Thailand’s Pink 80-Meter Buddhist Temple, Meticulous Detailed Carpets Drawn with Bic Pens by Jonathan Bréchignac

Great Big Story: Ascend Thailand’s Temple of the Rising Dragon and Protecting Pangolins from Poachers in South Africa

Inspiration Grid: Surreal Digital Paintings by Cyril Rolando

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode January 12, 2020

Jan 12, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Sunday, January 12, the Trump administration defends a U.S. drone strike against Iran, House Democrats prepare to deliver impeachment articles this week, and the Latin Grammy-winning singer Concha Buika continues to defy genres with an eclectic mix of musical styles and languages. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode January 11, 2020

Jan 11, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, January 11, Iran says the downing of a Ukrainian passenger plane last week was “human error,” an influx of migrants attempting to head to the U.S. are stuck in limbo in Mexico amid shifting immigration policies, and neuroscientist Daniel Levitin explores how to age successfully. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour live episode, Jan 10, 2020

Streamed live on Jan 10, 2020 

PBS NewsHour

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Category   News & Politics

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 9, 2020

Jan 9, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, the U.S. says it is likely that Iran shot down a Ukrainian passenger plane that crashed near Tehran early Wednesday. Plus: How Congress is attempting to limit President Trump’s power to respond to Iran with military action, high stakes in Taiwan’s upcoming election, Trump’s rollback of seminal environmental regulations, a successful Las Vegas labor union and Ronan Farrow. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS U.S., other governments say Iran likely downed civilian jet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zqUGu… Can Congress effectively limit Trump’s war powers on Iran? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66eGV… News Wrap: UK’s House of Commons approves Jan. 31 for Brexit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WQSK… Taiwanese election resurfaces long-simmering China tensions https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ptq0i… Trump may roll back infrastructure environmental review law https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DX0Mw… Are Nevada’s hospitality workers the future of labor unions? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bR-Je… Ronan Farrow’s Brief But Spectacular take on pursuing truth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PG_YZ… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 8, 2020

Jan 8, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, after Iran strikes Iraqi air bases housing U.S. troops without incurring casualties, President Trump says the Islamic Republic is “standing down.” Plus: Reaction to the Iranian conflict from two members of Congress, Iran’s deadly plane crash, immense bushfire devastation in Australia and how the country’s government is responding and the promise of personalized medicine. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS Both U.S. and Iran appear to want to de-escalate conflict https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JP_w… Gallagher: Iran will again use proxies for ‘dirty work’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQ_2w… Crow: Trump hasn’t answered questions about Soleimani threat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m5u7Y… News Wrap: Puerto Rico reels from strong earthquake https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6tY4u… Ukrainian plane crashes near Tehran, killing all 176 aboard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vIXgK… Australia’s catastrophic and relentless battle with bushfire https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_StlM… How Australia is fighting fires while also mounting recovery  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OneHo… How trove of genetic data can yield individualized medicine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1BB2… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

What’s in the $1.4 trillion federal spending bill

Jan 2, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Before leaving town for the holidays, lawmakers came together to pass a huge federal spending bill that illuminates the government’s policy priorities for 2020. The deal allocates a total of $1.4 trillion to the military, education, a barrier along the U.S.-Mexico border and much more. Lisa Desjardins joins Nick Schifrin to discuss where American tax dollars will be going this year. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

This Paris program helps refugees tell their stories through art

Jan 6, 2020  PBS NewsHour

For years, refugees from the Middle East and Africa have sought shelter in Europe, igniting debates there about immigration, asylum and changing culture. But one Paris program has been using the lens of art to help some of these refugees find community in France — and to try to change the conversation around their plight. Jeffrey Brown reports. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Scientists predict climate change will displace more than 180 million people by 2100 — a crisis of “climate migration” the world isn’t ready for, says disaster recovery lawyer and Louisiana native Colette Pichon Battle. In this passionate, lyrical talk, she urges us to radically restructure the economic and social systems that are driving climate migration — and caused it in the first place — and shares how we can cultivate collective resilience, better prepare before disaster strikes and advance human rights for all.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Colette Pichon Battle · Climate justice and human rights lawyer

A Louisiana native with a deep connection to things that burrow in the mud, Colette Pichon Battle fights to advance human rights for communities on the frontline of the struggle against climate change.

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Participate in the Gulf Coast Center for Law and Policy’s work with communities on the frontlines of climate change.

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Learn more about the Gulf South for a Green New Deal policy platform.

Water is essential to life. Yet in the eyes of the law, it remains largely unprotected — leaving many communities without access to safe drinking water, says legal scholar Kelsey Leonard. In this powerful talk, she shows why granting lakes and rivers legal “personhood” — giving them the same legal rights as humans — is the first step to protecting our bodies of water and fundamentally transforming how we value this vital resource.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

About the speaker

Kelsey Leonard · Water protector

As a water scholar and protector, Kelsey Leonard seeks to establish Indigenous traditions of water conservation as the foundation for international water policy-making.

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Learn more about the Navajo Water Project and how you can support the work of Dig Deep to bring water and sanitation access to families across the Navajo Nation.

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Learn more about the efforts of Indigenous youth to promote Indigenous water governance by bringing together diverse Indigenous water initiatives, increasing access to knowledge, connections, information and approaches.

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Donate to Mother Earth Water Walkers and help foster healing for the water.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/to-stop-wildlife-crime-conservationists-ask-why-people-poach/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=today-in-science&utm_content=link&utm_term=2020-01-10_top-stories&spMailingID=62528901&spUserID=NDQwNDA3NDcwNDMzS0&spJobID=1801330883&spReportId=MTgwMTMzMDg4MwS2

Scientific American: To Stop Wildlife Crime, Conservationists Ask Why People Poach

A novel study in Nepal shines light on why people commit wildlife crime and how others might be dissuaded from doing so in the future

By Rachel Nuwer on January 10, 2020

To Stop Wildlife Crime, Conservationists Ask Why People Poach

An Indian one-horned rhinoceroswalking in Chitwan National Park. Credit: Frank Bienewald Getty Images

Most people imprisoned in Nepal for wildlife crime share two things in common: they did not understand the seriousness of their offense, and they had little conception of how profoundly it would impact not only their lives but also the lives of their families. In interviews with more than 100 people convicted of illegally killing or trapping wildlife, researchers found some lost their businesses and land following their imprisonment. A dozen men’s wives left them. Many respondents’ children had to drop out of school, and family members of some took jobs in other countries to survive. One man’s daughter found herself unable to marry because of the stigma of his crime, and another said his mother committed suicide out of shame.

“People really underestimate the risk of getting arrested and all of the social harm that comes from that punishment,” says Kumar Paudel, who led the research and is co-founder and director of Greenhood Nepal, a science-driven nonprofit organization that focuses on the human dimensions of conservation. He is also a graduate student in conservation leadership at the University of Cambridge.

Paudel and his colleagues uncovered these gaps in awareness of the punishments for poaching as part of an effort to better understand the motivations of, and impacts on, the people who are arrested and prosecuted for wildlife crime. Such information is critical for designing effective deterrent strategies yet is often lacking, despite the hundreds of millions of dollars governments and nonprofits have poured into combatting the illegal wildlife trade worldwide.

The researchers also took their findings, published Friday in Conservation Science and Practice, a step further: they teamed up with a well-known local musician to create awareness-raising songs that share key messages from their study. They hope this effort will ultimately benefit both people and wildlife. “I don’t think scientists should wait for decision makers to come and read their paper,” Paudel says. “They should find ways to inform policy and undertake conservation interventions on the ground.”

Prakash Gandharva performing “Ban Ko Katha” at Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal. Credit: Kumar Paudel

“Full Force” Crime Fighting

Nepal takes its antipoaching efforts very seriously, particularly for charismatic megafauna such as tigers and rhinoceroses, which receive the majority of global conservation funding and attention. Nearly 7,000 military personnel patrol the country’s protected areas, and wildlife-crime-related arrests increased more than eightfold between 2009 and 2014. Official data now report around 2,000 such arrests annually, and these efforts do seem to be helping. Nepal celebrated zero rhino poaching for the first time in 2011 and has repeated that achievement several times since. Yet the possible social harms of the nation’s militarized conservation approach have gone unexplored. “This is a country that’s going full force, but we don’t know who they’re going full force against,” says Jacob Phelps, an environmental social scientist at Lancaster University in England and senior author of the new study.

Paudel, who has worked in conservation in his native Nepal since 2010, wanted to tackle this question to help develop targeted, fairer ways to combat poaching. Starting in 2016, after securing special permission from the government, he visited seven prisons across the country. He persuaded 116 people who had poached primarily rhinos but also tigers, red pandas and other species to speak with him. Paudel says it helped that he came from a similar rural background as most of the interviewees, 99 percent of whom were men.

Their answers offer nuance to experts’ understanding of the problem. Most respondents were from poor backgrounds, but surprisingly, nearly 90 percent of them said they resorted to breaking the law to make some extra money—not to meet basic economic and nutritional needs. “A really popular narrative in conservation is that poor people poach, but this overlooks other motivations by just blaming poverty,” Paudel says. A lack of awareness also factored in the decision to do so, he found. More than 90 percent of the interviewees said they knew wildlife poaching and trade were illegal, but just 30 percent understood the steep penalties involved, such as the possibility of a five- to 15-year prison sentence. Nearly half of the respondents said their imprisonment had negatively impacted their families’ livelihood, their children’s education or both.

Communities near protected areas have been particularly affected. For example, more than 20 percent of inmates in one prison near Chitwan National Park were jailed for wildlife crime, compared with about 3 percent of Nepal’s total prison population. “That’s mind-boggling, especially if you consider that many people are from the same communities that were originally expropriated” from their land to make way for the park, Phelps says. “We’re hitting them twice. That’s a huge social cost.”

Basudev Dhungana, who lives near Chitwan and is former chair of the Mrigakunja Bufferzone User Committee (which works with communities to use park revenue for local development), says he has seen firsthand the impacts described in the study. He knows several people who have been arrested for poaching, most of them heads of families. “Their arrest affects the livelihood of the family and education of their children,” he says. “Further, it affects the family’s prestige and dignity in society, because they are seen as a family of poachers.”

According to Annette Hübschle, a criminologist at the University of Cape Town in South Africa, who was not involved in the Nepal research but has interviewed rhino poachers in South Africa and Mozambique, the study provides “important, novel perspectives” on the motivations, drivers and impacts of people who engage in wildlife crime in Nepal. Yet she would have liked to see a deeper analysis on whether historical injustices, land evictions and political marginalization motivated people to retaliate or seek to reclaim land perceived as unfairly taken from them. Hübschle also wonders whether offenders agree or disagree with antipoaching rules. In southern Africa, for example, some communities contest the illegality of poaching, pointing out that hunting was their right prior to colonization. In Nepal, she says, “future research might want to explore this in more detail.”

Maheshwar Dhakal, joint secretary of Nepal’s Ministry of Forests and Environment, also believes the findings are important for shining a light on the reasons why individuals in the nation poach. While enforcement is necessary to curtail “greedy people who would like to be rich overnight,” he says, education would go a long way toward stopping others who are simply unaware of the seriousness of wildlife crime.

Singing to Stop Poaching

Paudel and Phelps agree that education could make a crucial difference on the ground, and they both say they felt a responsibility to act on their findings. They launched a fellowship program between Greenhood Nepal and Lancaster University to provide more opportunities to young Nepalese conservationists. Paudel also initiated a collaboration with a musician from the Gandharva ethnic group, whose traveling troubadours are famous in Nepal for their sorrowful ballads, played on a stringed instrument called a sarangi. Paudel wrote five songs based on his interviews. In “Shameful Name,” for example, a farmer in prison for poaching recounts how greed led to the loss of his freedom and his family’s dignity and implores the listener not to make the same mistake.

The songs are now available online as music videos and are being played on the radio and performed live in communities across Nepal. Paudel says more than 1,000 people have already seen the performances, and some were moved to tears. “Music is one of the simplest ways to communicate,” he says. “Even illiterate people can understand our songs.”

Dhungana attended a performance and agrees people responded well to it. “We all love the sarangi music,” he says. “This is a simple and an innovative approach to make communities aware of wildlife conservation.” He wonders, though, whether his neighbors will actually retain the songs’ messages over the long term. What’s really needed, he says, is for the government to invest not only in conservation enforcement but also in education and employment opportunities for communities near national parks. “Local people should be empowered to take advantage of the potential for conservation tourism and nature-based enterprises,” Dhungana says. “I think people will poach less if they get significant benefits from conservation.”

Rights & Permissions

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Rachel Nuwer

Rachel Nuwer is a freelance journalist and author of Poached: Inside the Dark World of Wildlife Trafficking (Da Capo Press, 2018). She lives in Brooklyn, N.Y.

Credit: Nick Higgins

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Best Of 2019, – BBC Click

Jan 7, 2020  BBC Click

The biggest tech stories and trends of 2019, including space travel, electric cars, 5G and the increased use by the police of facial recognition. Subscribe HERE https://bit.ly/1uNQEWR Find us online at www.bbc.com/click Twitter: @bbcclick Facebook: www.facebook.com/BBCClick

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A 17-Story Dragon Climbs Thailand’s Pink 80-Meter Buddhist Temple

December 18, 2017  Kate Sierzputowski

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The Samphran district of Thailand holds one of the most unique Buddhist temples found in the country.  The bright pink temple, called Wat Samphran, stands 17-stories high and is wrapped in a scaly green dragon. The design of the structure came to the founder of the temple during a 7-day fasting meditation, and is built 80 meters tall to honor the number of years that Buddha lived.

Visitors can climb the great building and touch the dragon’s beard or large talons from an access point on the roof. You can get a 360 perspective on the gigantic temple in the Great Big Story video below.

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Ascend Thailand’s Temple of the Rising Dragon

Dec 13, 2017  Great Big Story

In the Samphran district of Thailand sits one of the country’s most spectacular Buddhist temples. Wat Samphran is a towering pink masterpiece scaling in at 80 meters high — an homage to the number of years Buddha lived. Known for the hollow dragon’s head that encircles the temple, visitors are welcome to ascend the 17-story superstructure to touch the dragon’s beard, or climb inside the belly of the beast. SUBSCRIBE: https://goo.gl/vR6Acb This story is a part of our Planet Earth series. From mammals to insects and birds to reptiles, we share this great big world with all manner of creatures, large and small. Come with us to faraway places as we explore our great big planet and meet some of its wildest inhabitants. Got a story idea for us? Shoot us an email at hey [at] GreatBigStory [dot] com Follow us behind the scenes on Instagram: https://goo.gl/2KABeX Make our acquaintance on Facebook: https://goo.gl/Vn0XIZ Give us a shout on Twitter: https://goo.gl/sY1GLY Come hang with us on Vimeo: https://goo.gl/T0OzjV Visit our world directly: https://www.greatbigstory.com

Category   People & Blogs

Meticulous Detailed Carpets Drawn with Bic Pens by Jonathan Bréchignac

September 24, 2013  Christopher Jobson

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Art director Jonathan Bréchignac of Paris-based design studio Joe & Nathan has been working on a series of drawn carpets using ballpoint Bic pens. The first four drawings were completed last year and were made to approximate the size of Muslim prayer carpets. Bréchignac says the various designs and patterns found in each piece were inspired by an amalgam of artistic forms and influences:

Painstakingly detailed, it explores different ways and patterns to create a unique whole with only a simple tool: the “Less is more” precept. The inspiration comes from different types of art (French roman, traditional Japanese, native American and Mexican) and also military camouflage and animal patterns. Together they create a mix of civilizations and religions bringing forth a new meaning to them.

A newer carpet, aptly titled Ultraviolet, was recently completed and will be on view at the Boghossian Foundation in Brussels through 2014. (via Juxtapoz, Yatzer)

https://theinspirationgrid.com/surreal-digital-paintings-by-cyril-rolando/

Graphic Design

 Inspiration Grid: Surreal Digital Paintings by Cyril Rolando

Otherwordly Digital Paintings by Cyril Rolando

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— Cyril Rolando

More digital paintings via Design You Trust

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Ing & John’s & The International Street Art Part 11 & 12

Ing & John’s Street Art and The International Street Art-Part 11

Ing and John’s Street Art, Downtown Newark, New Jersey, USA- Part 11

Kai, The Artist, and Ing and John’s Artwork

September 9 – 13, 2019

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Left:        Midnight – John Watts’ Artwork

Middle: Vincent van Gogh’s Broken Frames– Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts’ Artwork

Right:    Homage to the Dragon – John Watts’ Artwork

John Watts’ Sculptures

Kai, The Artist, our grandson, who just turned four years old.

Kai’s Painting on Friday, September 13, 2019

John and our old friend and neighbor, Trifon

After working very hard with his painting, the artist spends time to exam the flowers.

We are happy to display our artworks in public.  There seems to be a positive reaction from the people who view them.  People comment about the beautiful plants and unique artwork.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts and John Watts, Monday, January 10, 2020,

For more information please visit the following link:

Ing & John’s Street Art and International Street Art-Part 11

Ing & John’s Street Art and The International Street Art-Part 12

The International Street Art-Part 12

PangeaSeed’s Sea Walls Program Works to Save Earth’s Oceans One Mural at a Time

June 2, 2019  Andrew LaSane

NYCHOS

Combining art and activism, the PangeaSeed Foundation is a Hawaii-based nonprofit organization tha is doing its part to help save Earth’s waters with its “Sea Walls: Artists For Oceans” international mural program. Since its inception in 2014, over 350 ocean-themed murals have been painted in 15 countries by the organization’s network of over 300 artists. With activations in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Mexico, and several other locations around the globe, the initiative engages the public and educates the world about critical environmental issues threatening our most precious resources through art, film screenings, and discussions.

PangeaSeed founder and executive director Tré Packard tells Colossal that when it comes to choosing which artists to work with and what they should paint, balance and community are key. “We always aim to create a balance between international, national and local artists,” he said. “Over the years, with the Sea Walls: Artists for Oceans program being nomadic, we’ve learned the importance of community ownership of the murals once we’ve packed up and left town. There tends to be so many incredible local creatives in the areas we host projects, so we work hand in hand with the local project director to help identify local artists who we invite to participate in the project.” Artists are given a list of topics to choose from and together with the team narrow it down to one. The murals are site-specific in that they address issues relevant to the places where they are painted. Some artists have even connected with local scientists and activists during the planning stage to better inform their designs.

Aaron Glasson and Jason Botkin

“The beauty of public art lies in the fact that it is a public good where even ‘non-artsy’ folks can be touched and empowered by experiencing the process or the finished product,” Packard said about the mural  program. “In addition to encouraging other artists to create for a purpose, our chief goal is to effect positive behavioral change at the individual and community level, so we’re thrilled when fans who aren’t artistically inclined are moved.” As for ways that people can get involved and help, he suggests finding ways to use less plastic, eating sustainable seafood, and voting for politicians with ocean-minded ideas.

Packard says that there are some dream projects on the horizon for Sea Walls, but those details are still under wraps for now. To learn more about the foundation and its upcoming activations, follow @pangeaseed and @Seawalls_ on social media.

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Textiles and Board Games Inspire Large-Scale Murals that Span Sidewalks, Streets, and Staircases

June 7, 2019Kate Sierzputowski

Baltimore-based artists Jessie Unterhalter and Katey Truhn, known as Jessie and Katey, started creating murals because of the sheer accessibility of public art. The pair have always created work with a big visual impact, but as their designs grew they began to consider the possibility of working on the ground in addition to large-scale walls. Their site-specific floor works combine inspirations from both textiles and board games to create interactive walkways that encourage play and exploration. Jessie and Katey explain to Colossal that “the compositions are inspired by the viewer and how they might travel through the work. It’s really fun watching little kids interact with the floor murals—they always know what to do.”

The math behind both textile design and quilting is an aspect that the pair must consider when painting their large-scale works, and have started to inform how the pair begins each piece’s early designs. “We approach our large-scale work a bit like screen printers, even though we don’t screen print,” the pair explains. “Our process of execution is very methodical and we tend to think in planes or layers. This is probably a result of having to develop concepts and adapt them to larger spaces in a short amount of time. It’s interesting that painting murals has informed how we paint murals.”

This summer Jessie and Katey are working with the Robert W. Deutsch Foundation in Baltimore to create a site-specific mural for the Foundation’s new community space. The artists will also be painting a piece in Sacramento in collaboration with Wide Open Walls and later this fall will be working on an immersive installation incorporating recycled materials at Baltimore’s Goucher College, a rare opportunity for the pair to work in three dimensions. You can view more of Jessie and Katey’s work on their website and Instagram

For more information please visit the following link:

Ing & John’s Street Art and International Street Art – Part 12

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PBS News, TED Talks, Washington Post, Best Documentary, Global News, ABC News, and Thisiscolossal

PBS News: December 31, 2019 and January 1 – 7, 2020, Shields and Brooks on 2019 in review, At rare J.M.W. Turner show, the watercolors are as fragile as they are many, Despite extreme weather and surging activism, 2019 saw political paralysis on climate

TED Talks: The lies our culture tells us about what matters — and a better way to live – David Brooks, How to escape education’s death valley, Bring on the learning revolution!,   Sir Ken Robinson Keynote Speaker at the 2018 Better Together: California Teachers Summit,  – Sir Ken Robinson, Guy Winch How to turn off work thoughts during your free time,

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PBS NewsHour live episode, Jan 7, 2020

Started streaming 42 minutes ago  PBS NewsHour

Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 6, 2020

Jan 6, 2020  PBS NewsHour

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PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode January 5, 2020

Jan 5, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, January 5, tensions escalate in the Middle East amid an outpouring of grief over the killing of Iran’s top military leader by a U.S. airstrike. Also, our ongoing series “Peril & Promise” examines the impact of climate change on communities along the Mississippi River in Louisiana and Missouri. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour Weekend Full Episode January 4, 2020

Jan 4, 2020  PBS NewsHour

On this edition for Saturday, January 4, the diplomatic fallout over the killing of Iranian military leader Qassim Suleimani, wildfires rage out of control in Australia, and the first part of our ongoing Peril and Promise series explores how climate change is impacting communities along the Mississippi River. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode Jan. 3, 2020

Jan 3, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Friday on the NewsHour, a targeted U.S. attack in Baghdad kills a top Iranian general, raising ongoing tensions between the U.S. and Iran to new heights. Plus: American lawmakers respond to the killing of Qassam Soleimani, what’s next for the U.S. and Iran after Soleimani’s death, disinformation on the 2020 campaign trail and Mark Shields and David Brooks analyze the week’s political news. WATCH TODAY’S SEGMENTS: Who was Qassam Soleimani, and what does his death mean? https://youtu.be/Y1Ih9abqb6w Kaine says Trump’s Iran policy is hurting U.S. allies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8zyB… Risch says Soleimani was ‘ratcheting up’ attacks on the U.S. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZhHJF… Why the U.S. targeted Soleimani — and how Iran might react https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1u2f7… News Wrap: Senate still divided on impeachment trial process https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejXH-… How 2020 candidates are grappling with online disinformation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syCEN… Shields and Brooks on Soleimani’s death, 2020 fundraising https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aX5ID… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 2, 2020

Jan 2, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Thursday on the NewsHour, Australia is still burning amid a record fire season that has destroyed millions of acres and killed 17 people. Plus: Financing the 2020 presidential race, President Trump’s support among evangelical Christians, why millennials are leaving organized religion, what’s in the huge 2020 federal spending bill, Carlos Ghosn flees Japan and psycholinguist Jean Berko Gleason. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour full episode, Jan 1, 2020

Jan 1, 2020  PBS NewsHour

Wednesday on the NewsHour, a standoff outside the U.S. Embassy in Iraq ends — but tensions over American involvement in the country remain high. Plus: What North Korea’s nuclear decision means for relations with the U.S., new laws go into effect as 2020 begins, Antarctic penguins warn of climate change consequences, the decline of local newspapers and harvesting water from fog. WATCH TODAYS SEGMENTS News Wrap: Death in Australian wildfires rises to 17 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8LE2U… Crisis at Baghdad embassy is over, but tensions remain https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl9wR… Amid stalled U.S. talks, Kim Jong Un’s ‘major policy shift’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ocQU… How state laws are changing in 2020 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LAtFe… What America is losing as local newsrooms shutter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NSVIX… Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

PBS NewsHour live episode, Dec 31, 2019

Streamed live on Dec 31, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6 Follow us: Facebook: https://www.pbs.org/newshour Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/newshour Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/newshour Snapchat: @pbsnews

Shields and Brooks on 2019 in review, 2020

Dec 27, 2019  PBS NewsHour

Syndicated columnist Mark Shields and New York Times columnist David Brooks join Amna Nawaz to discuss the week’s political news, including the battle between House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell over rules for a Senate impeachment trial, how the presidential primary race is shaping up among 2020 Democrats and the year’s most surprising political developments. Sream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

At rare J.M.W. Turner show, the watercolors are as fragile as they are many

Dec 26, 2019  PBS NewsHour

British painter J.M.W. Turner was both prolific and peripatetic, producing more than 30,000 watercolors during a lifetime in which he traveled throughout Europe. But these works are extremely susceptible to light damage and can be shown only once in a generation. Now, they’re on view at the Mystic Seaport Museum in Connecticut — their only North American stop. Jared Bowen of WGBH reports. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

Despite extreme weather and surging activism, 2019 saw political paralysis on climate

Dec 25, 2019  PBS NewsHour

By almost any measure, 2019 was a year of especially sobering news on climate change, with grim warnings about what could happen in the future along with extreme weather events occurring now. The year also saw a global protest movement, initiated by young people, arise to try to tackle the problem. But as Miles O’Brien reports, the call for action was often divorced from political reality. Stream your PBS favorites with the PBS app: https://to.pbs.org/2Jb8twG Find more from PBS NewsHour at https://www.pbs.org/newshour Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2HfsCD6

The lies our culture tells us about what matters — and a better way to live | David Brooks

Jul 3, 2019   TED

Our society is in the midst of a social crisis, says op-ed columnist and author David Brooks: we’re trapped in a valley of isolation and fragmentation. How do we find our way out? Based on his travels across the United States — and his meetings with a range of exceptional people known as “weavers” — Brooks lays out his vision for a cultural revolution that empowers us all to lead lives of greater meaning, purpose and joy. Get TED Talks recommended just for you! Learn more at https://www.ted.com/signup. The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You’re welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know. For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request here: https://media-requests.ted.com/ Follow TED on Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/TEDTalks Like TED on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: https://www.youtube.com/TED

Category   People & Blogs

How to escape education’s death valley | Sir Ken Robinson

May 10, 2013  TED

Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to flourish — and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational “death valley” we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility. TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and much more. Find closed captions and translated subtitles in many languages at https://www.ted.com/translate Follow TED news on Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/tednews Like TED on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/TEDtalksD…

Category   Education

Bring on the learning revolution! | Sir Ken Robinson

May 24, 2010  TED

In this poignant, funny follow-up to his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for a radical shift from standardized schools to personalized learning — creating conditions where kids’ natural talents can flourish. TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on TED.com, at https://www.ted.com/translate. Follow us on Twitter https://www.twitter.com/tednews Checkout our Facebook page for TED exclusives https://www.facebook.com/TED

Category   Education

Sir Ken Robinson Keynote Speaker at the 2018 Better Together: California Teachers Summit

Aug 13, 2018   Better Together: California Teachers Summit

At the 2018 Better Together: California Teachers Summit, Sir Ken Robinson, a leading education and creativity expert, delivered the keynote address from the Summit’s headquarters at Cal State Fullerton. Sir Ken’s thought-provoking speech challenged California’s teachers to transform our education system by building personal relationships and developing the appetite and curiosity of learners. Because, as he put it, “when the conditions are right, miracles happen everywhere.”

Category   Education

Category   Nonprofits & Activism

Feeling burned out? You may be spending too much time ruminating about your job, says psychologist Guy Winch. Learn how to stop worrying about tomorrow’s tasks or stewing over office tensions with three simple techniques aimed at helping you truly relax and recharge after work.

This talk was presented at a TED Salon event given in partnership with Brightline Initiative. TED editors featured it among our selections on the home page. Read more about TED Salons.

About the speaker

Guy Winch · Psychologist, author

Guy Winch asks us to take our emotional health as seriously as we take our physical health — and explores how to heal from common heartaches.

More Resources

How to Fix a Broken Heart

Guy Winch

TED Books (2018)

Emotional First Aid

Guy Winch

Plume (2014)

Buy now ?

About TED Salon

TED Salons welcome an intimate audience for an afternoon or evening of highly-curated TED Talks revolving around a globally relevant theme. A condensed version of a TED flagship conference, they are distinct in their brevity, opportunities for conversation, and heightened interaction between the speaker and audience.

TED Salon: Brightline Initiative | November 2019

https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/world/climate-environment/climate-change-tasmania/?utm_source=pocket-newtab

2°C: Beyond the limit

On land, Australia’s rising heat is ‘apocalyptic.’ In the ocean, it’s worse.

By Darryl Fears  Photos by Bonnie Jo Mount
Graphics by John Muyskens and Harry Stevens Dec. 27, 2019

BRUNY ISLAND, Tasmania — Even before the ocean caught fever and reached temperatures no one had ever seen, Australia’s ancient giant kelp was cooked.

Rodney Dillon noticed the day he squeezed into a wet suit several years ago and dove into Trumpeter Bay to catch his favorite food, a big sea snail called abalone. As he swam amid the towering kelp forest, he saw that “it had gone slimy.” He scrambled out of the water and called a scientist at the University of Tasmania in nearby Hobart. “I said, ‘Mate, all our kelp’s dying, and you need to come down here and have a look.’

“But no one could do anything about it.”

https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/world/climate-environment/climate-change-tasmania/img/1800/ECE6XKHZEMI6THQCDVC4WPP2R4.jpg

Strands of bull kelp at Shelly Point in Tasmania. The Tasman Sea is warming, and once plentiful giant kelp forests have rapidly declined. Indigenous artists rely on a kelp habitat for traditional jewelry and basket making.

Climate change had arrived at this island near the bottom of the world, and the giant kelp that flourished in its cold waters was among the first things to go.

Over recent decades, the rate of ocean warming off Tasmania, Australia’s southernmost state and a gateway to the South Pole, has climbed to nearly four times the global average, oceanographers say.

More than 95 percent of the giant kelp — a living high-rise of 30-foot stalks that served as a habitat for some of the rarest marine creatures in the world — died.

Giant kelp had stretched the length of Tasmania’s rocky east coast throughout recorded history. Now it clings to a tiny patch near Southport, the island’s southern tip, where the water is colder.

“This is a hot spot,” said Neil Holbrook, a professor who researches ocean warming at the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania. “And it’s one of the big ones.”

Click any temperature underlined in the story to convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit

Climate scientists say it’s essential to hold global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius above preindustrial times to avoid irreversible damage from warming.

The Tasman Sea is already well above that threshold.

The Washington Post’s examination of accelerated warming in the waters off Tasmania marks this year’s final installment of its global series “2C: Beyond the Limit,” which identified hot spots around the world. The investigation has shown that disastrous impacts from climate change aren’t a problem lurking in the distant future: They are here now.

Nearly a tenth of the planet has already warmed 2 degrees Celsius since the late 19th century, and the abrupt rise in temperature related to human activity has transformed parts of the Earth in radical ways.

In the United States, New Jersey is among the fastest-warming states, and its average winter has grown so warm that lakes no longer freeze as they once did. Canadian islands are crumbling into the sea because a blanket of sea ice no longer protects them from crashing waves. Fisheries from Japan to Angola to Uruguay are collapsing as their waters warm. Arctic tundra is melting away in Siberia and Alaska, exposing the remains of woolly mammoths buried for thousands of years and flooding the gravesites of indigenous people who have lived in an icy world for centuries.

Australia is a poster child for climate change. Wildfires are currently raging on the outskirtsof itsmost iconic city and drought is choking a significant portion of the country.

Nearly 100 fires are burning in New South Wales, nearly half of them out of control. Residents of the state, where Sydney sits, wear breathing masks to tolerate the heavy smoke, which has drifted more than 500 miles south to the outskirts of Melbourne.

This is happening even though average atmospheric temperatures in Australia have yet to increase by 2 degrees Celsius.

The ocean is another story.

A stretch of the Tasman Sea right along Tasmania’s eastern coast has already warmed by just a fraction below 2 degrees Celsius, according to ocean temperature data from the Hadley Center, the U.K. government research agency on climate change.

Sea surface temperature change in a region off the coast of Tasmania

Trend

1900195019802018-202ºF above 1900-2018average-101ºC above 1900-2018average

+1.9ºCAnnual average for the region

Source: Met Office Hadley Center for Climate Science and Services

As the marine heat rises and the kelp simmers into goo, Dillon and other descendants of Tasmania’s first people are losing a connection to the ocean that has defined their culture for millennia.

Aboriginals walked to present-day Tasmania 40,000 years ago during the Stone Age, long before rising sea levels turned the former peninsula into an island.

Cut off from Aboriginals on the mainland, about a dozen nomadic tribes were the first humans to live so close to the end of the Earth, fishing amid the giant kelp for abalone, hunting kangaroo and mutton birds, turning bull kelp into tools, and fashioning pearlescent snail shells into jewelry for hundreds of generations.

But that was before British colonizers took their land and deployed an apartheid-like system to wipe them out.

Now, as descendants try to finally get full recognition as the first people and original owners of Tasmania, climate change is threatening to remove the marine life that makes so much of their culture special.

Two of the most severe marine heat waves ever recorded struck back to back in recent years.

In the first, starting in 2015, ocean temperatures peaked at nearly 3 degrees Celsius above normal in the waters between Tasmania and New Zealand. A blob of heat that reached 2 degrees Celsius was more than seven times the size of Tasmania, an island the size of Ireland.

The region’s past heat waves normally lasted as long as two months. The 2015-2016 heat wave persisted for eight months. Alistair Hobday, who studied the event, compared it to the deadly 2003 European heat wave that led to the deaths of thousands of people.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/world/climate-environment/climate-change-tasmania/heat-wave-map-2-medium.jpg?v=5

Marine heat waves, Feb. 1, 2016

MAINLAND

AUSTRALIA

AUSTRALIA

Mild heat wave

Moderate

TASMANIA

Severe

Extreme

100 MILES

Source: Robert Schlegel, Ocean Frontier Institute

“Except in this case, it’s the animals that are suffering,” said Hobday, a senior research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, a government agency.

South of the equator, Australia’s summer stretches from December to February — and soaring temperatures turned the mainland deadly this year. An estimated 23,000 giant fruit bats — about a third of that species’s population in Australia — dropped dead from heat stress in Queensland and New South Wales in April.

The bats, called flying foxes, cannot survive temperatures above 42 degrees Celsius. Another 10,000 black flying foxes, a different species, also died. Bodies plopped into meadows, backyard gardens and swimming pools.

A month later, more than 100 ringtail possums fell dead in Victoria when temperatures topped 35 degrees Celsius for four consecutive days.

The warming waters off Tasmania are not just killing the giant kelp, but transforming life for marine animals.

Warm-water species are swimming south to places where they could not have survived a few years ago. Kingfish, sea urchins, zooplankton and even microbes from the warmer north near the mainland now occupy waters closer to the South Pole.

“There’s about 60 or 70 species of fish that now have established populations in Tasmania that used not to be here,” said Craig Johnson, who leads the ecology and biodiversity center at the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania. “You might see them occasionally as sort of vagrants, but they certainly did not have established populations.”

But the region’s indigenous cold-water species have no place to go. Animals such as the prehistoric-looking red handfish are accustomed to the frigid water closer to the shore. They cannot live in the deep-water abyss between the bottom tip of Tasmania and Antarctica.

“It’s a geographic climate trap,” Johnson said. Marine animals unique to Australia — the wallabies and koalas of the deep — could easily vanish. “So there’s going to be a whole bunch of species here that we expect will just go extinct.

“You know, it’s not a happy story.”

Genocide

Every time he dives for abalone, Rodney Dillon plays his part in what is arguably Tasmania’s saddest story of all.

At 63, he’s getting too old for the occasional plunge. Before a dive on a windy day in September, two people had to wrestle his wet suit over a thick athlete’s body softened by time.

Dillon persists because diving puts a favorite food on the family table, and, more important, it carries on a dying Aboriginal custom nearly ended by the British crown and the Australian governors it appointed.

A Man Among Orcas – Wildlife Documentary

Jun 3, 2017  Best Documentary

Enduring raging winds and icy waters with minimal protection, he enters the intimacy of elephant seals and orcas using clever ethological analyses and gets them used to his presence. Then comes the extraordinary: meet a man who communicates with penguins with body language, calms young seals and turns them into live pillows, lies underwater with 8 ton orcas or mature male seals…

Category   Pets & Animals

In memoriam: those we lost in 2019

Dec 31, 2019  Global News

Global News looks back at the exceptional individuals we said goodbye to in 2019, with a retrospective produced by Global National’s Eric Sorensen and videographer Trevor Owens. For more info, please go to https://www.globalnews.ca Subscribe to Global News Channel HERE: https://bit.ly/20fcXDc Like Global News on Facebook HERE: https://bit.ly/255GMJQ Follow Global News on Twitter HERE: https://bit.ly/1Toz8mt Follow Global News on Instagram HERE: https://bit.ly/2QZaZIB #2019PeopleWeLost #GlobalNews #2019InMemoriam

Category   News & Politics

The Year 2019: Remembering those we lost l ABC News

Dec 23, 2019  ABC News

We lost many legends this year, from actress Valerie Harper to “Beverly Hills 90210” star Luke Perry, fashion icon Gloria Vanderbilt and ABC News’ own Cokie Roberts. #ABCNews #ValerieHarper #BH90210 #LukePerry #CokieRoberts #GloriaVanderbilt

Category News & Politics

VTN Architects Designed a Vietnam Home With the Green Space on the Inside

March 24, 2019  Andrew LaSane

Images via Vo Trong Nghia Architects / Hiroyuki Oki

Blurring the line between the interior and exterior, Vo Trong Nghia Architects designed and built a three-level residential home in Ho Chi Minh City that is overflowing from within with fiddle leaf fig plants, various palms, and winding vines. Going beyond arrangements of potted house plants, the architects integrated the flora into the physical structure. Corridors, staircases, and rooms are lined with natural dividers that add color, block sunlight, and ventilate the space.

The latest project in the firm’s “House for Trees” series, the Stepping Park House is a commentary on environmental issues in Vietnam caused by a lack of green spaces. Views of the exterior show that the driveway, balconies, and perimeter fence have also sprouted leaves. The top floor of the building has an open slatted design with spaces that are filled with even more greenery, which further connects the home with the surrounding environment, and in particular to the rare park nearby. (via Jeroen Apers)

The Twist: A New Gallery in Kistefos Sculpture Park Connects Two River Banks

September 24, 2019  Laura Staugaitis

A sinuous new gallery and bridge reaches across the Randselva River in Jevnaker, Norway. Designed by Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG), the aluminum-clad structure joins north and south river fronts on the campus of Kistefos Sculpture Park. 15,000 square feet of space allows visitors to explore Kistefos’s large art collection while also taking in the surrounding landscape through floor-to-ceiling windows. The Twist opened to the public on September 18th, with an exhibition featuring the work of conceptual artist Martin Creed and painter Howard Hodgkin. Kistefos Sculpture Park has  ticketed admission, which includes entry to The Twist, and is open seasonally from the end of May to mid-November. (via Design Milk)

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Happy New Year 2020 Around the World – Part 1 – Daily Mail

Thanks to Daily Mail for posting this

Say hello to 2020! Europe brings in the New Year following huge fireworks displays across the rest of the world

  • People around the world are ringing in the New Year and a new decade as 2019 comes to an end at midnight
  • Auckland and Sydney became the first major cities to kick off the celebrations with huge firework displays
  • They were joined by Seoul, Tokyo and Pyongyang, before Hong Kong marked the New Year amid protests  
  • South East Asia welcomed the new year next with epic firework displays from Singapore and Thailand  
  • The celebrations then drove westward, with western European countries now setting the skies alight 
  • The UK, Brazil and America are among the countries still waiting to put on a big show for 2020 

By Ryan Fahey and Sophie Tanno and Chris Pleasance for MailOnline and Afp

Published: 05:32 EST, 31 December 2019 | Updated: 19:49 EST, 31 December 2019

Billions of people around the world are celebrating the start of a new year and a new decade after the clock struck midnight across the globe. 

Sydney and Auckland became the first major world cities to let rip with huge firework displays, after a handful of remote Pacific island near the international date line had already flipped the calendar to 2020.

Organisers in Sydney decided to go ahead with their show despite calls for it to be cancelled amid wildfires that have brought swathes of devastation across the country, killing at least 12 and destroying dozens of homes. 

There were also fraught scenes in Hong Kong as the state marked the start of the New Year amid pro-democracy protests, as Beijing and Singapore celebrated at the same time. 

It comes ahead of Brazil and America who are still set to put on a big show when their times come. Hawaii will be one of the last to mark the end of 2019.  

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2020/01/01/00/22859310-7839809-image-m-162_1577838106283.jpg

In London , the familiar ring of Big Ben ushered in 2020 amid what Mayor Sadiq Khan promised would be the ‘best fireworks the city has ever seen’ to ring in the new decade

Fireworks explode over The Coca-Cola London Eye, Westminster Abbey and Elizabeth Tower near Parliament as thousands of revelers gather along the banks of the River Thames to ring in the New Year on January 1, 2019 in London, England

Fireworks explode over The Coca-Cola London Eye, Westminster Abbey and Elizabeth Tower near Parliament as thousands of revelers gather along the banks of the River Thames to ring in the New Year on January 1, 2019 in London, England

Fireworks explode over The Coca-Cola London Eye, Westminster Abbey and Elizabeth Tower near Parliament as thousands of revelers gather along the banks of the River Thames to ring in the New Year on January 1, 2019 in London, England

Fireworks explode over The Coca-Cola London Eye, Westminster Abbey and Elizabeth Tower near Parliament as thousands of revelers gather along the banks of the River Thames to ring in the New Year on January 1, 2019 in London, England

Revellers look on by the London Eye during New Year's celebrations in central London just after midnight on January 1, 2020

Revellers look on by the London Eye during New Year’s celebrations in central London just after midnight on January 1, 2020

The London pyrotechnics show featured more than 12,000 fireworks, with the display set to a soundtrack 'inspired by London and Europe'

The London pyrotechnics show featured more than 12,000 fireworks, with the display set to a soundtrack ‘inspired by London and Europe’

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2020/01/01/00/22859344-7839809-image-a-163_1577838118940.jpg

Fireworks light up the sky in Edinburgh during the Hogmanay New Year celebrations on 01 January, 2020

Fireworks light up in the fog in front of Atomium Monument to celebrate the arrival of the new year 2020, in Brussels, Belgium, 01 January 2020

Fireworks light up in the fog in front of Atomium Monument to celebrate the arrival of the new year 2020, in Brussels, Belgium, 01 January 2020

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2020/01/01/00/22858964-0-image-a-144_1577837453997.jpg

The New Year is being celebrated on and around the Erasmus Bridge with the National Fireworks, in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 01 January 2020

The New Year is being celebrated on and around the Erasmus Bridge in Rotterdam with the National Fireworks on 1 January 2020

The New Year is being celebrated on and around the Erasmus Bridge in Rotterdam with the National Fireworks on 1 January 2020

01 January 2020

The New Year is being celebrated on and around the Erasmus Bridge with the National Fireworks, in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 01 January 2020

The New Year is being celebrated on and around the Erasmus Bridge with the National Fireworks, in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 01 January 2020

A new firework display on and above the Binnenhof and Hofvijver near the Dutch parliament in The Hague marks the start of the new year 2020 during the National Countdown Moment

A new firework display on and above the Binnenhof and Hofvijver near the Dutch parliament in The Hague marks the start of the new year 2020 during the National Countdown Moment

Fireworks illuminate the sky over the Arc de Triomphe during the New Year's celebrations on the Champs Elysees in Paris, France January 1, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the sky over the Arc de Triomphe during the New Year’s celebrations on the Champs Elysees in Paris, France January 1, 2020

People take pictures of the fireworks erupting in the sky over the Arc de Triomphe during the New Year's celebrations on the Champs Elysees avenue, in Paris, on on January 1, 2020

People take pictures of the fireworks erupting in the sky over the Arc de Triomphe during the New Year’s celebrations on the Champs Elysees avenue, in Paris, on on January 1, 2020

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/12/31/23/22857996-7839809-image-m-106_1577835377190.jpg

Fireworks explode over the Brandenburg Gate on New Year’s Eve at midnight in Berlin, Germany, 01 January 2020

moke rise as people set off fireworks near the Reichstag during New Year celebrations in Berlin, Germany January 1, 2020

Smoke rise as people set off fireworks near the Reichstag during New Year celebrations in Berlin, Germany January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode over the Brandenburg Gate on New Year's Eve at midnight in Berlin, Germany, 01 January 2020. The city welcomed the year 2020 with its annual fireworks display and street party near the German capital's most prominent symbol

Fireworks explode over the Brandenburg Gate on New Year’s Eve at midnight in Berlin, Germany, 01 January 2020. The city welcomed the year 2020 with its annual fireworks display and street party near the German capital’s most prominent symbol

The sky is lit in a display of fireworks during New Year celebrations at Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany January 1, 2020

The sky is lit in a display of fireworks during New Year celebrations at Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode around the Berlin television tower during New Year celebrations in Berlin, Germany, January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode around the Berlin television tower during New Year celebrations in Berlin, Germany, January 1, 2020

Fireworks light the sky during New Year celebrations in Frankfurt, Germany, Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Fireworks light the sky during New Year celebrations in Frankfurt, Germany, Wednesday, January 1, 2020

People stand on a bridge and watch fireworks during New Year celebrations near the buildings of the banking district in Frankfurt, Germany, late Wednesday, January 1, 2020

People stand on a bridge and watch fireworks during New Year celebrations near the buildings of the banking district in Frankfurt, Germany, late Wednesday, January 1, 2020

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/12/31/23/22857886-0-image-a-94_1577835152303.jpg

Fireworks explode over Daugava river during New Year celebration in Riga, Latvia January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode over Daugava river during New Year celebration in Riga, Latvia January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode over Daugava river during New Year celebration in Riga, Latvia January 1, 2020

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/12/31/23/22857894-7839809-image-m-112_1577836268088.jpg

Fireworks light the sky above illuminated Christmas tree at the Cathedral Square in Vilnius, Lithuania, shortly after midnight during the New Year’s celebrations, Wednesday, January 1, 2020

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2020/01/01/00/22858340-7839809-image-a-133_1577836804106.jpg

Thousands of anti-government protesters and citizens watch a firework display during the New Year’s celebrations in Martyrs’ Square in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Lebanese anti-government protesters and citizens watch fireworks illuminate the night sky during New Year's celebrations at Martyrs' Square in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, 01 January 2020

Lebanese anti-government protesters and citizens watch fireworks illuminate the night sky during New Year’s celebrations at Martyrs’ Square in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, 01 January 2020

Thousands of anti-government protesters and citizens gather during the New Year's celebrations in Martyrs' Square in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, January 1, 2020. Protesters have been holding demonstrations since October 17 demanding an end to widespread corruption and mismanagement by the political class that has ruled the country for three decades

Thousands of anti-government protesters and citizens gather during the New Year’s celebrations in Martyrs’ Square in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, January 1, 2020. Protesters have been holding demonstrations since October 17 demanding an end to widespread corruption and mismanagement by the political class that has ruled the country for three decades

https://i.dailymail.co.uk/1s/2019/12/31/23/22857560-0-image-a-82_1577834604665.jpg

Fireworks explode over Alexander Nevski cathedral during the New Year celebrations in Sofia, Bulgaria, January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode over Alexander Nevski cathedral during the New Year celebrations in Sofia, Bulgaria, January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode over Alexander Nevski cathedral during the New Year celebrations in Sofia, Bulgaria, January 1, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the Athenian sky as the temple of Parthenon sits atop the Acropolis hill during the New Year celebrations in Athens Greece, 01 January, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the Athenian sky as the temple of Parthenon sits atop the Acropolis hill during the New Year celebrations in Athens Greece, 01 January, 2020

Video – Athens lights up in majestically as Greece welcome New Year

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7839809/People-globe-begin-celebrating-New-Years-Eve-2019.html#v-1623743920128047106

Fireworks explode over the ancient temple of the Parthenon on top of the Acropolis hill as part of Greece's celebrations for the New Year in Athens on January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode over the ancient temple of the Parthenon on top of the Acropolis hill as part of Greece’s celebrations for the New Year in Athens on January 1, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the Athenian sky as the temple of Parthenon sits atop the Acropolis hill during the New Year celebrations in Athens Greece, 01 January 2020

Fireworks illuminate the Athenian sky as the temple of Parthenon sits atop the Acropolis hill during the New Year celebrations in Athens Greece, 01 January 2020

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A shower of fireworks explodes, illuminating the Athenian sky next to the temple of the Parthenon atop the Acropolis hill during New Year celebrations in Athens, Greece tonight 

Fireworks explode over the Kremlin in Moscow during New Year celebrations, on January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode over the Kremlin in Moscow during New Year celebrations, on January 1, 2020

Fireworks light up the night sky over the Red Square within the new year celebrations in Moscow, Russia on January 01, 2020

Fireworks light up the night sky over the Red Square within the new year celebrations in Moscow, Russia on January 01, 2020

Fireworks explode over the Kremlin tonight during New Year's celebrations in Red Square in Moscow, Russia

Fireworks explode over the Kremlin tonight during New Year’s celebrations in Red Square in Moscow, Russia

The view from the Moskva River of the New Year's Eve celebrations over Red Square in Moscow this evening

The view from the Moskva River of the New Year’s Eve celebrations over Red Square in Moscow this evening

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People gather at Erbil Citadel for the new year celebrations in Erbil, Iraq on January 01, 2020

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Children spin burning steelwools to sprinkle fire sparks as they celebrate the new year on a street of Kibera slum in Nairobi, on January 1, 2020

Girls look at burning tires to celebrate the new year at the Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya, on December 31, 2019

Girls look at burning tires to celebrate the new year at the Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya, on December 31, 2019

Men start buring tires on a broken bridge to celebrate the new year at the Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya, on December 31, 2019

Men start burning tires on a broken bridge to celebrate the new year at the Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya, on December 31, 2019

A girl spins a burning steelwool near a bonfire to sprinkle fire sparks as they celebrate the new year on a street of Kibera slum in Nairobi, on January 1, 2020

A girl spins a burning steelwools near a bonfire to sprinkle fire sparks as they celebrate the new year on a street of Kibera slum in Nairobi, on January 1, 2020

Children spin burning steelwools to sprinkle fire sparks as they celebrate the new year on a street of Kibera slum in Nairobi, on January 1, 2020

Children spin burning steelwools to sprinkle fire sparks as they celebrate the new year on a street of Kibera slum in Nairobi, on January 1, 2020

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Happy New Year 2020 Around the World – Part 2 – Daily Mail

Thanks to Daily Mail for posting this

Say hello to 2020! Europe brings in the New Year following huge fireworks displays across the rest of the world

  • People around the world are ringing in the New Year and a new decade as 2019 comes to an end at midnight
  • Auckland and Sydney became the first major cities to kick off the celebrations with huge firework displays
  • They were joined by Seoul, Tokyo and Pyongyang, before Hong Kong marked the New Year amid protests  
  • South East Asia welcomed the new year next with epic firework displays from Singapore and Thailand  
  • The celebrations then drove westward, with western European countries now setting the skies alight 
  • The UK, Brazil and America are among the countries still waiting to put on a big show for 2020 

By Ryan Fahey and Sophie Tanno and Chris Pleasance for MailOnline and Afp

Published: 05:32 EST, 31 December 2019 | Updated: 19:49 EST, 31 December 2019

Billions of people around the world are celebrating the start of a new year and a new decade after the clock struck midnight across the globe. 

Sydney and Auckland became the first major world cities to let rip with huge firework displays, after a handful of remote Pacific island near the international date line had already flipped the calendar to 2020.

Organisers in Sydney decided to go ahead with their show despite calls for it to be cancelled amid wildfires that have brought swathes of devastation across the country, killing at least 12 and destroying dozens of homes. 

There were also fraught scenes in Hong Kong as the state marked the start of the New Year amid pro-democracy protests, as Beijing and Singapore celebrated at the same time. 

It comes ahead of Brazil and America who are still set to put on a big show when their times come. Hawaii will be one of the last to mark the end of 2019.  

Fireworks illuminate the night sky behind July 15 Martyrs' Bridge within the new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey on January 01, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the night sky behind July 15 Martyrs’ Bridge within the new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey on January 01, 2020

Fireworks go off and illuminate the night sky over people at the Uludag ski resort within the new year celebrations in Bursa, Turkey on January 1, 2020

Fireworks go off and illuminate the night sky over people at the Uludag ski resort within the new year celebrations in Bursa, Turkey on January 1, 2020

People celebrate the turn of the year in front of the Ortakoy mosque and 15 July Martyrs Bridge near the Bosphorus during new year's celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey, 01 January, 2020

People celebrate the turn of the year in front of the Ortakoy mosque and 15 July Martyrs Bridge near the Bosphorus during new year’s celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey, 01 January, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the night sky in front of Ortakoy Mosque and July 15 Martyrs' Bridge within the new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey on January 01, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the night sky in front of Ortakoy Mosque and July 15 Martyrs’ Bridge within the new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey on January 01, 2020

This evening's celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey, as fireworks explode over the July 15 Martyrs' Bridge

This evening’s celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey, as fireworks explode over the July 15 Martyrs’ Bridge

Fireworks illuminate the night sky in front of Ortakoy Mosque and July 15 Martyrs' Bridge within the new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey on January 01, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the night sky in front of Ortakoy Mosque and July 15 Martyrs’ Bridge within the new year celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey on January 01, 2020

People celebrate the turn of the year in front of the Ortakoy mosque and 15 July Martyrs Bridge near the Bosphorus during new year's celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey, 01 January, 2020

People celebrate the turn of the year in front of the Ortakoy mosque and 15 July Martyrs Bridge near the Bosphorus during new year’s celebrations in Istanbul, Turkey, 01 January, 2020

Fireworks explode in the sky over the Ortakoy Mosque by the July 15 Martyrs' Bridge during the New Year's celebrations, in Istanbul on January 1, 2020

Fireworks explode in the sky over the Ortakoy Mosque by the July 15 Martyrs’ Bridge during the New Year’s celebrations, in Istanbul on January 1, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the night sky over fairy chimneys, the famous volcanic rock formations at the historical region of Cappadocia, during the new year celebrations in Nevsehir, Turkey on January 01, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the night sky over fairy chimneys, the famous volcanic rock formations at the historical region of Cappadocia, during the new year celebrations in Nevsehir, Turkey on January 01, 2020

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Fireworks light up the sky as part of new year celebrations in Baku, Azerbaijan on January 1, 2020

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Fireworks illuminate the sky around Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, during New Year’s 2020 celebrations in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 01 January 2020

Video – Burj Khalifa lights up Dubai as the UAE sees in the New Year

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Fireworks go off at the Burj Khalifa on New Year's Eve 2019 on January 1, 2019 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Fireworks go off at the Burj Khalifa on New Year’s Eve 2019 on January 1, 2019 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Fireworks illuminate the sky around Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, during New Year's 2020 celebrations in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 01 January, 2020

Fireworks illuminate the sky around Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, during New Year’s 2020 celebrations in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 01 January, 2020 

The Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, is prepared for the fireworks of New Year 2020 celebrations in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 December 2019

The Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, is prepared for the fireworks of New Year 2020 celebrations in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 December 2019

People gather near to Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, prior to the fireworks of New Year's eve 2020 in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 December 2019

People gather near to Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, prior to the fireworks of New Year’s Eve 2020 in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 December 2019

People gather near to Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, prior to the fireworks of New Year's eve 2020 in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 December 2019

 People gather near to Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, prior to the fireworks of New Year’s Eve 2020 in the Gulf emirate of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 31 December 2019

Fireworks explode out of the Burj Khalifa as Dubai welcomes in the 2020 new year

Fireworks explode out of the Burj Khalifa as Dubai welcomes in the 2020 new year

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi on January 1, 2020

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi on January 1, 2020

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi on January 1, 2020

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi on January 1, 2020

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi, Pakistan 

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi on January 1, 2020

People watch fireworks as part of the New Year celebrations in Rawalpindi on January 1, 2020

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Fireworks are seen over the Gateway of India monument on New Year’s Day in Mumbai, India, January 1, 2020

New Year's Eve fireworks erupt over Mumbai's iconic Gateway of India on January 1, 2020

New Year’s Eve fireworks erupt over Mumbai’s iconic Gateway of India on January 1, 2020

People release balloons as they celebrate the New Year's countdown event in a road in Ahmedabad, India, January 1, 2020

People release balloons as they celebrate the New Year’s countdown event in a road in Ahmedabad, India, January 1, 2020

People gather around a vendor blowing bubbles during celebrations to welcome the New Year in a road in Ahmedabad, India, December 31, 2019

People gather around a vendor blowing bubbles during celebrations to welcome the New Year in a road in Ahmedabad, India, December 31, 2019

People wearing masks blow horns during celebrations to welcome the New Year in a road in Ahmedabad, India, December 31, 2019

People wearing masks blow horns during celebrations to welcome the New Year in a road in Ahmedabad, India, December 31, 2019

Revelers get together to celebrate on New Year's eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019

Revelers get together to celebrate on New Year’s Eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019

A policeman jumps over a railing to manage a crowd of revelers who assembled to celebrate on New Year's eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019

A policeman jumps over a railing to manage a crowd of revelers who assembled to celebrate on New Year’s Eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019 

Revelers get together to celebrate on New Year's eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019

Revelers get together to celebrate on New Year’s Eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019

Revelers get together to celebrate on New Year's eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019

Revelers get together to celebrate on New Year’s Eve in Bangalore, India, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 2019

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Sri Lankans watch fireworks during new year’s celebrations in Colombo, on January 1, 2020

Sri Lankans watch fireworks during new year's celebrations in Colombo, on January 1, 2020

Sri Lankans watch fireworks during new year’s celebrations in Colombo, on January 1, 2020

Sri Lankans watch fireworks during new year's celebrations in Colombo, on January 1, 2020

Sri Lankans watch fireworks during new year’s celebrations in Colombo, on January 1, 2020

Sri Lankans watch fireworks during new year's celebrations in Colombo, on January 1, 2020

Sri Lankans watch fireworks during new year’s celebrations in Colombo, on January 1, 2020

Nepalese people make a human flag of Nepal and light candles to welcome 2020 in Swayambhunath New Year Celebrations, Kathmandu, Nepal on 31 December, 2020

Nepalese people make a human flag of Nepal and light candles to welcome 2020 in Swayambhunath New Year Celebrations, Kathmandu, Nepal on 31 December, 2020

Fireworks explode after midnight over Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural park as part of New Year celebrations in Bali, Indonesia

Fireworks explode after midnight over Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural park as part of New Year celebrations in Bali, Indonesia

Fireworks explode after midnight over Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural park part of New Year celebrations in Bali, Indonesia

Fireworks explode after midnight over Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural park part of New Year celebrations in Bali, Indonesia

People wearing rain coats gather at Bundaran Hotel Indonesia roundabout as they attend New Year's Eve celebrations in Jakarta

People wearing rain coats gather at Bundaran Hotel Indonesia roundabout as they attend New Year’s Eve celebrations in Jakarta

A woman takes selfie pictures next to 2020 decoration during New Year's Eve celebrations in Jakarta, Indonesia on December 31

A woman takes selfie pictures next to 2020 decoration during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Jakarta, Indonesia on December 31

A couple takes pictures as National Monument (Monas) is illuminated by video mapping during New Year's Eve celebrations in Jakarta

A couple takes pictures as National Monument (Monas) is illuminated by video mapping during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Jakarta

A woman uses a phone as National Monument (Monas) is illuminated by video mapping during New Year's Eve celebrations in Jakarta

A woman uses a phone as National Monument (Monas) is illuminated by video mapping during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Jakarta

Video – Hello 2020!  Bangkok brings in New Year with major fireworks display

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Revellers take a selfie while arriving for a New Year countdown party outside a shopping mall in downtown Bangkok on December 31

Revellers take a selfie while arriving for a New Year countdown party outside a shopping mall in downtown Bangkok on December 31

Revellers take a selfie while arriving for a New Year countdown party outside a shopping mall in downtown Bangkok on December 31

Revellers take a selfie while arriving for a New Year countdown party outside a shopping mall in downtown Bangkok on December 31

Fireworks explode for the 'Amazing Thailand Countdown 2020' at Icon Siam during the New Year's celebrations on January 1, 2020 in Bangkok, Thailand

Fireworks explode for the ‘Amazing Thailand Countdown 2020’ at Icon Siam during the New Year’s celebrations on January 1, 2020 in Bangkok, Thailand

Fireworks explode over Chao Phraya River during the New Year's celebrations in Bangkok, Thailand

Fireworks explode over Chao Phraya River during the New Year’s celebrations in Bangkok, Thailand

Fireworks explode over Chao Phraya River in Bangkok in a dazzling display to ring in 2020

Fireworks explode over Chao Phraya River in Bangkok in a dazzling display to ring in 2020 

Fireworks explode for the 'Amazing Thailand Countdown 2020' at Icon Siam during the New Year's celebrations on January 1, 2020 in Bangkok, Thailand

Fireworks explode for the ‘Amazing Thailand Countdown 2020’ at Icon Siam during the New Year’s celebrations on January 1, 2020 in Bangkok, Thailand

For more information please visit the following link:

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7839809/People-globe-begin-celebrating-New-Years-Eve-2019.html

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