Trip To Swansea In My Husband’s Motherland , Wales – Part 1

Ing and John traveled to Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom on September 25 – October 26, 2017.
Artwork at Newark Liberty Airport in the check in area of Air India.
On the Chinese New Year, one can see the festival and celebration from the Dragon Dancing Parade. The Chinese love the dragon symbol in red, which is a favorite color of the Chinese. This artwork reminded me of a Welsh dragon. We had some time left before we went into the gate for boarding. I enjoyed taking photographs of this artwork. We selected Air India because it was the most economical ticket fare and John loves Indian food, me too.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, January 14, 2018

Artwork at Newark Liberty Airport, New Jersey, United States

Photograph by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts


Ing & John Traveled to Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom on September 25 – October 26, 2017.

We arrived in Newark Liberty Airport, Newark, New Jersey at about 5 p.m. on Monday 25, for checking in which started at 6:30 pm. We saw a scene of nice sunset sky outside area of Air India’s glass windows.

The reflection of the television screen appeared in the sunset sky of the scene looking out of Newark Liberty Airport, Newark in the check in area of Air India.

Beautiful Sunset Sky, the scene looking out of Newark Liberty Airport,  in the check in area of Air India.

John and I were busy packing again. This time we were heading to Swansea, South Wales, the UK. John was born in Swansea, and most of his family lived there for most of their lives. “No Place Like Home”, it is John’s beloved country.

Ing & John Traveled to Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom on September 25 – October 26, 2017.

The route from Newark Liberty Airport, Newark, New Jersey, USA To Heathrow, London, UK
We boarded and the airplane took off at about 10:30 p.m. The flight attendants started to serve the food and drinks, after our bellies were satisfied by Indian food, John enjoyed checking the movies and I enjoyed learning about flight information.
The airplane from Newark passed over Boston, Windsor, Bay Roberts, Montreal and crossed Atlantic Ocean heading to Amsterdam.

At one point, I opened the flight information. It showed that outside air temperature was -540 degrees Centigrade. I thought if any one drops out of the airplane; the body probably be frozen instantly.

“Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as a small airfield (Great West Aerodrome) on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrowfrom which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there: there was a “Heathrow Farm” about where Terminal 1 is now, a “Heathrow Hall” and a “Heathrow House”. This hamlet was largely along a country lane (Heathrow Road) which ran roughly along the east and south edges of the present central terminals area.
Development of the whole Heathrow area as a very much larger airport began in 1944: it was stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the Far East. But by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended. The government continued to develop the airport as a civil airport; it opened as London Airport in 1946 and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966. The masterplan[clarification needed] for the airport was designed by Sir Frederick Gibberd, who designed the original terminals and central area buildings, including the original control tower and the multi-faith chapel of St George’s.”

For more information please visit the following link:

This flight information showed that the airplane passed through Waterford and Wexford of Island, crossed the Celtic sea passing over South Wales. John said “We should get off here then we do not have to go to Heathrow, London. Save us time and money to ride the bus for five hours from Heathrow to Swansea. For better or worse, we have to follow the system, it was the flight route. We finally reached to our destination, Heathrow Airport, London. The trip duration was about six hours.

“Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries. The airport is the primary hub of British Airways and is a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has four passenger terminals (numbered 2 to 5) and a cargo terminal. Of Heathrow’s 73.4 million passengers in 2014, 93% were international travellers; the remaining 7% were bound for (or arriving from) places in the UK.[9] The busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013.[10]”

For more information please visit the following link:

“Heathrow is 14 mi (23 km) west of central London,[3] near the south end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the built-up areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth, Longford and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow and Hatton to the east. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Slough in Berkshire by the M25 motorway. Heathrow falls entirely under the TW postcode area.
As the airport is west of London and as its runways run east–west, an airliner’s landing approach is usually directly over the conurbation of London when the wind is from the west.
Along with Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend and London City, Heathrow is one of six airports with scheduled services serving the London area, although only Heathrow and London City are within Greater London.

Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow)[2] (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the second busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic (surpassed by Dubai International in 2014), as well as the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic, and the seventh busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic. In 2016, it handled a record 75.7 million passengers, a 1.0% increase from 2015.[1]
Heathrow lies 14 miles (23 km) west of Central London,[3] and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres (4.74 sq mi). The airport is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings, which itself is owned by FGP TopCo Limited, an international consortium led by Ferrovialthat also includes Qatar Holding LLC, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, Alinda Capital Partners, China Investment Corporation and Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS).[4] London Heathrow is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic.
In September 2012, the UK government established the Airports Commission, an independent commission chaired by Sir Howard Davies to examine various options for increasing capacity at UK airports. In July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow and the government”

For more information please visit the following link:

We took the elevator to the Bus Terminal where we saw the Welcome Posters. I wonder after the Brexit, if the British will still welcome foreigners.

“Brexit (/?br?ks?t/ or /?br??z?t/) is the popular term for the prospective withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).[1]
In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9% of the participating UK electorate voted to leave the EU. On 29 March 2017, the British government invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union. The UK is thus on course to leave the EU on Friday, 29 March 2019.[2]
Prime Minister Theresa May announced that the UK would not seek permanent membership of the single market or the customs union after leaving the EU[3][4] and promised to repeal the European Communities Act of 1972 and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law.[5] Negotiations with the EU officially started in June 2017.
The UK joined the European Communities in 1973,[6][7] with membership confirmed by a referendum in 1975. In the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the EC was advocated mainly by Labour Party and trade union figures. From the 1990s, the main advocates of withdrawal were the newly founded UK Independence Party (UKIP) and an increasing number of Eurosceptic Conservatives.”

For more information please visit the following link:

“Brexit Historical background
Main article: History of Britain’s relationship with the European Union
In 1951, the “Inner Six” European countries signed the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), followed shortly by the 1957 Treaties of Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). In 1967, these became known as the European Communities (EC). The UK applied to join in 1963 and 1967, but was vetoed by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.[17] After de Gaulle relinquished the French presidency the UK successfully applied for membership and the Conservative prime minister Edward Heath signed the Treaty of Accession in 1972,[18]Parliament passed the European Communities Act later in the year[19] and the UK became a member of the EC on 1 January 1973 with Denmark and Ireland.[20]
The opposition Labour Party contested the October 1974 general election with a commitment to renegotiate Britain’s terms of membership of the EC and then hold a referendum on whether to remain in the EC on the new terms.[21] After Labour won the election the United Kingdom held its first ever national referendum on whether the UK should remain in the European Communities in 1975. Despite significant division within the ruling Labour Party[22] all major political parties and the mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC. On 5 June 1975, 67.2% of the electorate and all but two[23] UK counties and regions voted to stay in[24] and support for the UK to leave the EC in 1975 appears unrelated to the support for Leave in the 2016 referendum.[25]”

For more information please visit the following link:

“Brexit: Comparison of results of 1975 and 2016 referendums
The Labour Party campaigned in the 1983 general election on a commitment to withdraw from the EC without a referendum[26] although after a heavy defeat Labour changed its policy.[26] In 1985 the Thatcher government ratified the Single European Act—the first major revision to the Treaty of Rome- without a referendum.
In October 1990, under pressure from senior ministers and despite Margaret Thatcher’s deep reservations, the United Kingdom joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), with the pound sterling pegged to the deutschmark. Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister the following month, amid Conservative Party divisions arising partly from her increasingly Eurosceptic views. The United Kingdom and Italy were forced to withdraw from the ERM in September 1992, after the pound sterling and the lira came under pressure (“Black Wednesday”).[27]
Under the Maastricht Treaty, the European Communities became the European Union on 1 November 1993,[28] reflecting the evolution of the organisation from an economic union into a political union.[29]”

For more information please visit the following link:

We saw a lot of sparrows at the bus terminal welcoming the food given to them. Hopefully they were also welcoming us.

“Brexit: Consequences of withdrawal for the United Kingdom[edit]
Long term[edit]
Immigration was cited as the second-most important reason for those voting to Leave. However, some forecasts indicate that immigration ?ows to the UK will remain relatively high after Brexit.[141] KPMG – based on a survey of 2,000 EU workers in UK – estimates that about a million of EU citizens working in the UK, see their future in Britain as over or hanging in the balance[142].
Immediate effects[edit]
Official figures in March 2017 indicated that EU immigration to the UK continued to exceed emigration, but the difference between immigration and emigration (“net migration”) had fallen to its lowest for three years.[143] The number of EU nurses registering with the NHS fell from 1,304 in July 2016 to 46 in April 2017.[144]
Economic effects[edit]
Main article: Economic effects of Brexit
During the referendum, the economic arguments were a major area of debate. Most economists, including the UK Treasury, argued that being in the EU has a strong positive effect on trade and as a result the UK’s trade would be worse off if it left the EU.[145][146] Others argued for the benefits of being free of EU “red tape” regulations and from going the full route of complete free trade. Additionally, not contributing to the EU budget would improve the budget and allowing tax cuts or higher government spending.[147]
After the referendum, the Institute for Fiscal Studies published a report funded by the Economic and Social Research Council which warned that Britain would lose up to £70 billion in reduced economic growth if it didn’t retain Single Market membership, with new trade deals unable to make up the difference.[148] One of these areas is financial services, which are helped by EU-wide “passporting” for financial products, which the Financial Times estimates indirectly accounts for up to 71,000 jobs and 10 billion pounds of tax annually,[149] and some banks have announced plans to relocate some of their operations outside the UK.[150]
On 5 January 2017, Andy Haldane, the Chief Economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England, admitted that forecasts predicting an economic downturn due to the referendum were inaccurate and noted strong market performance after the referendum,[151][152][153] although some have pointed to prices rising faster than wages.[154]
Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority, currently based in London.[155] The EU is also investigating the feasibility of restricting the clearing of euro-denominated trades to Eurozone jurisdictions, attempting to end London’s dominance in this sector.[156]
Effect on academic research[edit]
Main article: Brexit and arrangements for science and technology
The UK received more from the EU for research than it contributed[157] with universities getting just over 10% of their research income from the EU.[158] All funding for net beneficiaries from the EU, including universities, was guaranteed by the government in August 2016.[159] Before the funding announcement, a newspaper investigation reported that some research projects were reluctant to include British researchers due to uncertainties over funding.[160]
Currently the UK is part of the European Research Area and the UK is likely to wish to remain an associated member.[161]
As predicted before the referendum,[162] the Scottish Government announced that officials were planning a second independence referendum on the day after the UK voted to leave and Scotland voted to stay.[163] In March 2017, the SNP leader and First Minister Nicola Sturgeon requested a second Scottish independence referendum for 2018 to 2019 (before Brexit is expected to take effect).[164] The Prime Minister immediately rejected the requested timing (although not the referendum itself).[165] The referendum was approved by the Scottish Parliament on 28 March 2017. Sturgeon is calling for a “phased return” of an independent Scotland back to the EU.[166]
After the referendum, Nicola Sturgeon also stated that Scotland might refuse consent for legislation required to leave the EU,[167] though some lawyers argue that Scotland cannot block Brexit.[168]
International agreements[edit]
The Financial Times approximates there to be 759 international agreements, spanning 168 non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU.[169] This figure does not include World Trade Organisation or United Nations opt-in accords, and excludes “narrow agreements”, which may have to be renegotiated as well.[169]
Options for continuing relationship with the EU[edit]
Main article: Continuing UK relationship with the EU
The UK’s post-Brexit relationship with the remaining EU members could take several forms. A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July 2013 proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market. These include remaining in the European Economic Area,[170]negotiating deep bilateral agreements on the Swiss model,[170] or exit from the EU without EEA membership or a trade agreement under the WTO Option. There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force.
Relations with the Republic of Ireland[edit]

The UK/Republic of Ireland border at Killeen marked only by a speed sign marked in km/h
The Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom as a whole share, since the 1920s, a Common Travel Areawithout border controls. According to statements by Theresa May and Enda Kenny, it is intended to maintain this arrangement.[171] After Brexit, in order to prevent illegal migration across the open Northern Irish land border into the United Kingdom, the Irish and British governments suggested in October 2016 a plan whereby British border controls would be applied to Irish ports and airports. This would prevent a “hard border” arising between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.[172]However, this agreement was never official and was met by opposition from political parties in the Republic of Ireland,[173] and there is still great uncertainty in relation to a ‘hard border’ between the Republic and Northern Ireland.[174]
On 23 March 2017, it was confirmed that British immigration officials would not be allowed to use Irish ports and airports in order to combat immigration concerns following Brexit.[175] A referendum for the reunification of Ireland was suggested by Sinn Féin leader Martin McGuinness immediately after the UK EU referendum results were announced.[176] Creating a border control system between Ireland and Northern Ireland could jeopardise the Good Friday Agreement established in 1998.[177] In April 2017 the European Council agreed that, in the event of Irish reunification, Northern Ireland would rejoin the EU.[178]
Border with France[edit]
The President of the Regional Council of Hauts-de-France, Xavier Bertrand, stated in February 2016 that “If Britain leaves Europe, right away the border will leave Calais and go to Dover. We will not continue to guard the border for Britain if it’s no longer in the European Union,” indicating that the juxtaposed controls would end with a leave vote. French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be “threatened” by a leave vote.[179] These claims have been disputed, as the Le Touquet 2003 treaty enabling juxtaposed controls was not an EU treaty, and would not be legally void upon leaving.[180]
After the Brexit vote, Xavier Bertrand asked François Hollande to renegotiate the Touquet agreement,[181] which can be terminated by either party with two years’ notice.[182] Hollande rejected the suggestion, and said: “Calling into question the Touquet deal on the pretext that Britain has voted for Brexit and will have to start negotiations to leave the Union doesn’t make sense.” Bernard Cazeneuve, the French Interior Minister, confirmed there would be “no changes to the accord”. He said: “The border at Calais is closed and will remain so.”[183]
Gibraltar and Spain[edit]
Main article: Gibraltar after Brexit
During the campaign leading up to the referendum[184] the Chief Minister of Gibraltar warned that Brexit posed a threat to Gibraltar’s safety.[185] Gibraltar overwhelmingly voted to remain in the EU. After the result Spain’s Foreign Minister renewed calls for joint Spanish–British control of the peninsula.[186] These calls were strongly rebuffed by Gibraltar’s Chief Minister[187] and questions were raised over the future of free-flowing traffic at the Gibraltar–Spain border.[188] The British government states it will only negotiate on the sovereignty of Gibraltar with the consent of its people.[189]”
For more information please visit the following link:

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Ing’s Peace Project and Open Doors, Newark International Art exhibition

 Ing’s Peace Project and Open Doors Art exhibition

At Newark International, Newark, New Jersey

Organized by Charley Cano

On October 19th – 30th

A glimpse of Newark’s rich ethnic and cultural diversity of artists, past and present.
Art by Esmeralda Vazquez, Grigory Gurevich, Ibou Ndoye, Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Joanne Leone, John Watts, Luisa F. Pinzon-Romero and Petra Lea
Wednesday & Thursday, 10/19&20, 6-9pm – General Viewing
Friday, 10/21, 5-11pm – Artists’ Reception [Refreshments Served]
Saturday, 10/22, 1-4pm – Poetry/Spoken Word Open Mic
4-8pm – Musical Performances
7-9pm – Dr. Law, Linda Everswick, Okestura
9-12am – Dance Party
Sunday, 10/23, 1-3pm – Informal Artist Talk
3-6pm – Closing Cocktails

Newark International

August Agency <>

August 1, 2016

Hi, Ing!

I’ve been invited to participate in this year’s Newark Open Doors (officially) and will be putting on a group show entitled ‘Newark International’. I was hoping you might be interested in participating with 1-4 pieces. Let me know!

All the best,


Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts 


August 3, 2016

Hi Charley,

It was nice to hear from you.  Thanks for your earlier response on “Honor Killing”

I will be glad to participate in your group show entitled ‘Newark International’.  If you do not mind I would like to have my finished peace project artwork exhibit.  I posted most of them on my Home page website if you would like to view them. 

John says thanks for your acknowledgement on his sister passing.  Please let me know how your preparation for the exhibition is progressing.  Where will the exhibition be held?

Look forward to hearing from you.



Newark International

August Agency <>

August 5, 2016

Hi, Ing!

Thank you so much, Ing! It means a lot to me for you to participate in the exhibit. Yes, absolutely please bring the peace project. The exhibit will be in a commercial storefront on Broad Street, most likely one I’m assigned by Newark Arts Council (probably 744 Broad) or one I have in reserve at 889 Broad (diagonally across the street from City Hall). I will keep everyone updated on all developments.

One quick question: Can you please send me a picture of the Gandhi piece(s)? I need it for the Newark Arts Council’s promotional materials for the festival. Thanks! – Charley

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts 


August 5, 2016

Hi Charley,

I am glad to be part of your exhibition, thanks for including John and I.

The following are the things that I would like you to consider which is related to the exhibition:

1.       My Gandhi’s artwork: I have different versions; please visit the following link to view some of them:

2.       For the artwork that I would like to display at your exhibition; please visit the following link to view some of them:

3.      If it is possible I would like to have a table or easel for my Peace Poster for people to write their comments on “What does Peace mean to you?” on the reception day. 

Please let me know of your decisions.



Newark International

August Agency <>

August 5, 2016

Hi, Ing,

Thanks very much for the link; it was the Gandhi #4 I was looking for. I’m already familiar with the project and you know I love your art work. Also, it won’t be a problem at all for the table and easels on the reception day. Feel free to contact me at any time with any other questions or concerns.

– Charley

Gandhi: Man of Peace and His Words – Artist Ing-on Vibulbhan-Watts

Paint Me As Part Of The Universe After I Die, Said Iris – Artist Joanne Leone

Drawing by Ibou Ndoye, ink on heavy craft paper

Sculpture – Artist John Watts

Stone Clouds – Artist John Watts

Impossible Dreamer – Artist John Watts

Made In America del Sur – Artist/Photographer Luisa F. Pinzon-Luisa F. Pinzon Romero

Drawing by Ibou Ndoye, ink on heavy craft paper

Bella – Artist Grigory Gurevich

Artist – Joanne Leone

Finished “Peace” artwork 13

Shadow of Peace and the International CranioSacral Therapists 2014, Iceland, comments on “What does Peace mean to you?” on during May and June 2014, organized by Joseph Giacalone Finished artwork, after the written comments by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Links to the finished Peace Project of the International CranioSacral Therapists 2014, Iceland artwork page:

Finished “Peace” artwork 12

Shadow of Peace and CLOUD CYPH Event 2014 in Newark, NJ, comments on “What does Peace mean to you?” on Friday, May 16th, 2014, organized by Them Cloud Kids.  Finished artwork, after the written comments by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Links to Finished Peace Project CLOUD CYPH Event – Them Cloud Kids 2014 pages:

Finished “Peace”artwork 2   

The Peace and Art Parade and festival run by the Barat Foundation in Newark on 10.23.2011, organized by Chandri and Gary Barat.  Finished artwork, after the written comments by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

It took me a while to be able to complete this project.  I spent some time to compose this second finished artwork for the Peace Project.  The writings were the comments from the people on “What does Peace mean to you?” at the Washington Park and some of the people who participated in the Creation Nation Art and Peace Parade on Sunday, October 23, 2011, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Link to Peace Project and Creation Art Peace Parade Page:                         

Print:  Shadow of Peace   “What does Peace mean to you?”          Sizes 24 inches x 40 inches

Participation art, for any viewers to write their comments with their names and dates

Link to Ing’s Peace Project Page:

Peace Poem, English and Thai by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Link to Ing’s Peace Project Page:

Drawing by Ibou Ndoye, ink on heavy craft paper

Night Birth – Artist John Watts


My Little Red Shoes – Artist Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Newark, NJ


Gandhi: Man of Peace #2 – Artist Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Newark, NJ

In The Wake of False Gods Artist Esmeralda Vazquez

Artist Petra Lea

 Fragility – new work by Petra Lea

Dauntless – Artist Petra Lea

Twiggy – Artist Petra Lea

Artist – Joanne Leone

Artist – Joanne Leone

Group Pictures from Newark International Art Exhibition on Friday, October 21, 2016

Ing with our best friend Patricia Meidel, our best friend and artist Joanne Leone and Artist/Photographer Luisa F. Pinzon

Artist/Photographer Luisa F. Pinzon and Artist Ibou Ndoye

At Friday’s opening (10.21.2016) for Newark International with 5 of 8 exhibiting artists (Ing’s not on FB, Grigory had just left, John and Petra were in England), plus the food artist, family and friends old and new. Thanks, Malcolm M. King, for the shot!

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Wars Of America Sculpture at Military Park

Wars Of America Sculpture at Military Park

Downtown Newark, New Jersey

On Thursday, May 5, 2016

Photographs by Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts

Military Park (Newark) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Military Park is a 6-acre (24,000 m2) city park in Downtown Newark, Essex County, New Jersey … Military Park Commons Historic District … A statue of Monsignor George Hobart Doane, for whom the park is named, was unveiled in 1908.

Wars of America

U.S. National Register of Historic Places

New Jersey Register of Historic Places

Wars of America located on Military Park,

614-706 Broad Street, Newark, New Jersey

Area        less than one acre,   Built        1926                  

Architect     Borglum,Gutzon

MPS              Public Sculpture in Newark MPS

NRHP Reference #      94001257[1] , Added to NRHP  October 28, 1994

NJRHP #                       1338[2]Designated NJRHP  September 13, 1994

Wars of America is a “colossal” bronze sculpture by Gutzon Borglum containing “forty-two humans and two horses”,[3]located in Military ParkNewarkEssex CountyNew Jersey, United States. The sculpture sets on a base of granite fromStone Mountain.

The sculpture was erected in 1926, eight years after World War I ended, but its intent was broadened to honor all of America’s war dead. In describing it, Borglum said “The design represents a great spearhead. Upon the green field of this spearhead we have placed a Tudor sword, the hilt of which represents the American nation at a crisis, answering the call to arms.”[4]

The sculpture was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 28, 1994.

 Military Park
Broad St. and Park Pl.

Map / Directions to Military Park
Map / Directions to all Newark Revolutionary War Sites       Washington’s troops camped here during the retreat of 1776. It is believed that        Thomas Paine began writing The American Crisis while camped here. [4]       One end of the park has a liberty pole, in the spot where the original stood in the 1700’s.          In the park is The Wars of America sculpture, depicted soldiers from all of America’s wars,         including the Revolutionary War. It was sculpted in 1926 by Gutzon Borglum,         who also sculpted Mount Rushmore.

For more information please visit the following link:

The following article is written by Linda Stamato | Star-Ledger Guest Columnist:

Wars of America: Newark’s triumphant memorial sculpture

By Linda Stamato | Star-Ledger Guest Columnist 
on May 25, 2015 at 11:17 AM, updated May 26, 2015 at 7:07 AM

Among Newark’s gems, are the public works of Gutzon Borglum, the extraordinary sculptor whose most famous work, of course, is Mount Rushmore. In Newark, far from South Dakota, and situated downtown, just across from the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, sits one of the most compelling of Borglum’s works: Wars of America. He created this magnificent sculpture over the course of six years, completing it in 1926. It memorializes all the major conflicts in which Americans participated up to and including the First World War.


On Memorial Day it seems more than fitting to reflect on why we build memorials and what this one, in particular, signifies. It was commissioned several years after the end of the World War, but its intent was not solely to honor the courageous men who fought in that war but to honor all of America’s war dead.

The bronze masterpiece consists of forty-two human beings and two horses and commemorates America’s participation in the Revolution, War of 1812; Indian Wars; Mexican War, the Civil War, Spanish American War and World War I.

It is in Military Park, which dates back to 1667–when the park was a training ground for soldiers and, later, a drill field for the Colonial and Continental armies–where the colossal Wars of America statue stands in striking relief. It is the centerpiece of the park.


Gutzon Borglum inspecting his sculpture: 1926

In describing it, Borglum said: “The design represents a great spearhead. Upon the green field of this spearhead we have placed a Tudor sword, the hilt of which represents the American nation at a crisis, answering the call to arms.” (The New York Times; November 7, 1926.)

From John Taliaferro’s “Great White Fathers: The Story of the Obsessive Quest to Create Mount Rushmore”:

“The statue is fronted by four nameless officers, one dressed in the uniform of the Revolution, one from the union army, one from World War I, and a fourth figure representing the navy. Behind them come thirty-eight more full-size figures, plus two very restive horses. Only a half dozen of the men carry weapons and the Revolutionary officer carries a sword, yet the composition still manages to evoke, in Borglum’s words, ‘an entire nation mobilizing under great pressure of war.’ The group is leaning forward en masse, a concerted thrust of citizen soldiers. Borglum wanted to express the “indignation, fear….physical distress, and pathos “ of war. He achieves all of these and more.”


“Wars” is a brilliant sculpture, that, to Taliaferro, complements all Borglum’s talent and experience. Many of the warriors were actually Borglum’s friends and acquaintances. Easiest to spot are the sculptor himself and his son, Lincoln, depicted halfway down the left flank of the sculpture as the anxious father sends his young son off to battle. His wife, Mary, also appears.

The sculpture represents a“sincere nationalism, with great faith in the United States,” according to Rosa Portell, the curator of theStamford Museum & Nature Center in Connecticut:

“Borglum was living in the era of American manifest destiny, when the United States was becoming a world power, and he felt awe for the men who created, preserved and expanded the country.”


The sculpture was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 28, 1994.

Newark has a collection of treasures waiting to be discovered over and over again. Prior to “Wars”, for example, Borglum created three other bronze sculptures that grace the city’s streets and parks: The magnificentSeated Lincoln (in 1911); theIndian and Puritan (in 1916), and a bas-relief, First Landing Party of the Founders of Newark (in 1916.)


It is in art that we capture best, I think, the spirit and courage of the brave people who fought, and those who supported them. War memorials provide symbolic, social and historical experiences that are so compelling that they can impose meaning and order beyond the temporal and chaotic experiences of life. (Ben Barber: Place, Symbol and Utilitarian Functions in War Memorials :1949)


On Memorial Day, especially, Wars of America is a sculpture to visit, to gaze upon and reflect, to give thanks for those who fought and died for the nation. But, it is also just the place to be as we hope the day comes when there is less need for more memorials.

Wars of America: A tribute to those who fought and died for the nation Pam Hasegawa 

This is the end of Linda Stamato’s article.  Thanks for her article; her conclusion is exactly the way I wish the world to be “We hope the day comes when there is less need for more memorials”.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, May 22, 2016

Gutzon Borglum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) was an American artist and sculptor. He is most associated with his creation of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota. He was associated with other public works of art, including a bust of Abraham Lincoln exhibited in the White House by Theodore Roosevelt and now held in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C..

The son of Danish-American immigrants, Gutzon Borglum was born in 1867 in St. Charles in what was then Idaho Territory. Borglum was a child of Mormon polygamy. His father, Jens Møller Haugaard Børglum (1839-1909), had two wives when he lived in Idaho: Gutzon’s mother, Christina Mikkelsen Borglum (1847-1871) and Gutzon’s mother’s sister, who was Jens’s first wife.[1] Jens Borglum decided to leave Mormonism and moved to Omaha, Nebraska where polygamy was both illegal and taboo; he left Gutzon’s mother and took his first wife with him.[2] Jens Borglum worked mainly as a woodcarver before leaving Idaho to attend the Saint Louis Homeopathic Medical College [3] in Saint Louis, Missouri. Upon his graduation from the Missouri Medical College in 1874, Dr. Borglum moved the family to Fremont, Nebraska, where he established a medical practice. Gutzon Borglum remained in Fremont until 1882, when his father enrolled him in St. Mary’s College, Kansas.[4]

After a brief stint at Saint Mary’s College, Gutzon Borglum relocated to Omaha, Nebraska, where he apprenticed in a machine shop and graduated from Creighton Preparatory School. He was trained in Paris at the Académie Julian, where he came to know Auguste Rodin and was influenced by Rodin’s impressionistic light-catching surfaces. Back in the U.S. in New York City he sculpted saints and apostles for the new Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in 1901; in 1906 he had a group sculpture accepted by the Metropolitan Museum of Art[5]— the first sculpture by a living American the museum had ever purchased—and made his presence further felt with some portraits. He also won the Logan Medal of the Arts. His reputation soon surpassed that of his younger brother, Solon Borglum, already an established sculptor.

In 1925, the sculptor moved to Texas to work on the monument to trail drivers commissioned by the Trail Drivers Association. He completed the model in 1925, but due to lack of funds it was not cast until 1940, and then was only a fourth its originally planned size. It stands in front of the Texas Pioneer and Trail Drivers Memorial Hall next to the Witte Museum in San Antonio. Borglum lived at the historic Menger Hotel, which in the 1920s was the residence of a number of artists. He subsequently planned the redevelopment of the Corpus Christi waterfront; the plan failed,[why?] although a model for a statue of Christ intended for it was later modified by his son and erected on a mountaintop in South Dakota. While living and working in Texas, Borglum took an interest in local beautification. He promoted change and modernity, although he was berated by academicians.[6]

A fascination with gigantic scale and themes of heroic nationalism suited his extroverted personality. His head of Abraham Lincoln, carved from a six-ton block of marble, was exhibited in Theodore Roosevelt‘s White House and can be found in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C. A “patriot,” believing that the “monuments we have built are not our own,” he looked to create art that was “American, drawn from American sources, memorializing American achievement,” according to a 1908 interview article. Borglum was highly suited to the competitive environment surrounding the contracts for public buildings and monuments, and his public sculpture is sited all around the United States.

In 1908, Borglum won a competition for a statue of the Civil War General Philip Sheridan to be placed in Sheridan Circle in Washington. D.C. A second version of General Philip Sheridan was erected in Chicago, Illinois, in 1923. Winning this competition was a personal triumph for him because he won out over sculptor J.Q.A.Ward, a much older and more established artist and one whom Borglum had clashed with earlier in regard to the National Sculpture Society. At the unveiling of the Sheridan statue, one observer, President Theodore Roosevelt (whom Borglum was later to include in the Mount Rushmore portrait group), declared that it was “first rate;” a critic wrote that “as a sculptor Gutzon Borglum was no longer a rumor, he was a fact.” (Smith:see References)

Borglum was active in the committee that organized the New York Armory Show of 1913, the birthplace of modernism in American art. By the time the show was ready to open, however, Borglum had resigned from the committee, feeling that the emphasis on avant-garde works had co-opted the original premise of the show and made traditional artists like himself look provincial. He lived in Stamford, Connecticut for 10 years.

Borglum was an active member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons (the Freemasons), raised in Howard Lodge #35, New York City, on June 10, 1904, and serving as its Worshipful Master 1910-11. In 1915, he was appointed Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City Consistory on October 25, 1907.[7]

Borglum was a member of the Ku Klux Klan.[8] He was one of the six knights who sat on the Imperial Koncilium in 1923, which transferred leadership of the Ku Klux Klan from Imperial Wizard Colonel Simmons to Imperial Wizard Hiram Evans.[9] In 1925, having only completed the head of Robert E. Lee, Borglum was dismissed from the Stone Mountain project, with some holding that it came about due to infighting within the KKK, with Borglum involved in the strife.[10] Later, he stated, “I am not a member of the Kloncilium, nor a knight of the KKK'”, but Howard and Audrey Shaff add that, “that was for public consumption.”[11] The museum at Mount Rushmore displays a letter to Borglum from D. C. Stephenson, the infamous Klan Grand Dragon who was later convicted of the rape and murder of Madge Oberholtzer. The 8×10 foot portrait contains the inscription, “To my good friend Gutzon Borglum, with the greatest respect”. Correspondence from Borglum to Stephenson during the 1920s detailed a deep racist conviction in Nordic moral superiority, and urges strict immigration policies.[12]

Borglum died in 1941 and is buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale in California in the Memorial Court of Honor. His second wife, Mary Montgomery Williams Borglum, 1874–1955 (they were married May 20, 1909), is interred alongside him. In addition to his son, Lincoln, he had a daughter, Mary Ellis (Mel) Borglum Vhay (1916–2002).

Borglum was initially involved in the carving of Stone Mountain in Georgia. Borglum’s nativist stances made him seem an ideologically sympathetic choice to carve a memorial to heroes of the Confederacy, planned for Stone Mountain, Georgia. In 1915, he was approached by the United Daughters of the Confederacy with a project for sculpting a 20-foot (6 m) high bust of General Robert E. Lee on the mountain’s 800-foot (240 m) rockface. Borglum accepted, but told the committee, “Ladies, a twenty foot head of Lee on that mountainside would look like a postage stamp on a barn door.'”[13]

Borglum’s ideas eventually evolved into a high-relief frieze of Lee, Jefferson Davis, and ‘Stonewall’ Jackson riding around the mountain, followed by a legion of artillery troops. Borglum agreed to include a Ku Klux Klan altar in his plans for the memorial to acknowledge a request of Helen Plane in 1915, who wrote to him: “I feel it is due to the KKK that saved us from Negro domination and carpetbag rule, that it be immortalized on Stone Mountain”.[10]


After a delay caused by World War I, Borglum and the newly chartered Stone Mountain Confederate Monumental Association set to work on this unexampled monument, the size of which had never been attempted before. Many difficulties slowed progress, some because of the sheer scale involved. After finishing the detailed model of the carving, Borglum was unable to trace the figures onto the massive area on which he was working, until he developed a gigantic magic lantern to project the image onto the side of the mountain.


Carving officially began on June 23, 1923, with Borglum making the first cut. At Stone Mountain he developed sympathetic connections with the reorganized Ku Klux Klan, who were major financial backers for the monument. Lee’s head was unveiled on Lee’s birthday January 19, 1924, to a large crowd, but soon thereafter Borglum was increasingly at odds with the officials of the organization. His domineering, perfectionist, authoritarian manner brought tensions to such a point that in March 1925 Borglum smashed his clay and plaster models. He left Georgia permanently, his tenure with the organization over. None of his work remains, as it was all cleared from the mountain’s face for the work of Borglum’s replacement Henry Augustus Lukeman. In in his abortive attempt, Borglum had developed necessary techniques for sculpting on a gigantic scale that made Mount Rushmore possible.[14]

His Mount Rushmore project, 1927–1941, was the brainchild of South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson. His first attempt with the face of Thomas Jefferson was blown up after two years. Dynamite was also used to remove large areas of rock from under Washington’s brow. The initial pair of presidents, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson was soon joined by Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt.


Ivan Houser , father of John Sherrill Houser, was assistant sculptor to Gutzon Borglum in the early years of carving; he began working with Borglum shortly after the inception of the monument and was with Borglum for a total of seven years. When Houser left Gutzon to devote his talents to his own work, Gutzon’s son, Lincoln, took over as Assistant-Sculptor to his father.


Borglum alternated exhausting on-site supervising with world tours, raising money, polishing his personal legend, sculpting a Thomas Paine memorial for Paris and a Woodrow Wilson one for Pozna?, Poland (1931).[15] In his absence, work at Mount Rushmore was overseen by his son, Lincoln Borglum. During the Rushmore project, father and son were residents of Beeville, Texas. When he died in Chicago, following complications after surgery, his son finished another season at Rushmore, but left the monument largely in the state of completion it had reached under his father’s direction.


In 1908, Borglum completed the statue of Comstock Lode silver baron John William Mackay (1831–1902). The statue is located at the University of Nevada, Reno.

In 1909, the sculpture Rabboni was created as a grave site for the Ffoulke Family in Washington, D.C. at Rock Creek Cemetery. [16]

In 1912, the Nathaniel Wheeler Memorial Fountain was dedicated in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

In 1918, he was one of the drafters of the Czechoslovak declaration of independence.[17]

One of Borglum’s more unusual pieces is the Aviator completed in 1919 as a memorial for James R. McConnell, who was killed in World War I while flying for the Lafayette Escadrille. It is located on the grounds of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.[18]

Four public works by Borglum are in Newark, NJ: Seated Lincoln (1911), Indian and Puritan (1916), Wars of America (1926), and a bas-relief, First Landing Party of the Founders of Newark (1916).[19]

Borglum sculpted the memorial Start Westward of the United States, which is located in Marietta, Ohio (1938).

He built the statue of Daniel Butterfield at Sakura Park in Manhattan (1918).[20]

He created a memorial to Sacco and Vanzetti (1928), a plaster cast of which is now in the Boston Public Library.[21]


Another Borglum design is the North Carolina Monument on Seminary Ridge at the Gettysburg Battlefield in south-central Pennsylvania. The cast bronze sculpture depicts a wounded Confederate officer encouraging his men to push forward during Pickett’s Charge. Borglum had also made arrangements for an airplane to fly over the monument during the dedication ceremony on July 3, 1929. During the sculpture’s unveiling, the plane scattered roses across the field as a salute to those North Carolinians who had fought and died at Gettysburg.

Popular culture[edit]


The following article is from PBS, American Experience: Biography Rushmore-Borglum

John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum liked to tinker with his own legend, subtracting a few years from his age, changing the story of his parentage. The best archival research has revealed that he was born in 1867 to one of the wives of a Danish Mormon bigamist.  When his father decided to conform to societal norms that were pressing westward with the pioneers, he abandoned Gutzon’s mother, and remained married to his first wife, her sister.

In 1884, when Gutzon was 16, the family moved to Los Angeles. His father, unhappy in California, soon returned to Nebraska, but Gutzon stayed behind. He studied art and met Elizabeth Jaynes Putnam, a painter and divorcee 18 years his senior. Lisa Putnam became a teacher and mentor to Gutzon, helping manage his career and advising his education. They were married in 1889. While in California, Gutzon painted a portrait of General John C. Fremont and learned the value of having a wealthy and socially connected patron. Although the general died a few years after sitting for his painting, his widow provided Borglum with contacts to men such as Leland Stanford and Theodore Roosevelt.


The Borglums traveled to Paris to work and study, and there Gutzon met sculptor Auguste Rodin. As much as he admired Rodin, more than one historian has suggested that the reason Gutzon gave up painting was to compete with his brother Solon, who had been making his name as a sculptor. Gutzon’s talent was immediately apparent and he found a few commissions (certainly the fact that Solon had already associated the name Borglum with fine sculpture didn’t hurt). At the same time, Gutzon’s marriage was falling apart. He left Paris alone in 1901 and aboard ship met Mary Montgomery, an American who had just completed her doctorate at the University of Berlin. He and Mary wed as soon as Lisa granted him a divorce. They bought a house and farm in Connecticut and named it “Borgland.”


Borglum’s major work back in America included a bust of Abraham Lincoln, which he was able to exhibit in Theodore Roosevelt’s White House. The Lincoln portrait and other much admired works gave Borglum a national reputation, and he was invited by Helen Plane of the United Daughters of the Confederacy to some of the techniques that would later be used on Rushmore.

While at Stone Mountain, Borglum became associated with the newly reborn Ku Klux Klan. Whether this accorded with a racist world view, or if it was simply one way to bond with some of his patrons on the Stone Mountain project, is unclear. Frankly, Borglum had little time for anyone, white or black, who was not a Congressman or millionaire, or happened to be in his way. There is no indication, for example, that he treated his long-suffering black chauffeur Charlie Johnson any differently than any white employee — he owed him back pay just like everyone else. Stone Mountain was not finished by Borglum, but it inspired his next job: Mount Rushmore.


When South Dakota state historian Doane Robinson read about Stone Mountain, he invited Borglum out to the Black Hills of South Dakota to create a monument there. Borglum, perhaps realizing that Stone Mountain had only regional support, immediately suggested a national subject for Rushmore: Presidents George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Theodore Roosevelt and Thomas Jefferson were added to the program soon afterward. Borglum had met and campaigned for Roosevelt, and by invoking that president’s acquisition of the Panama Canal and Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase, the Rushmore monument became a story of the expansion of the United States, the embodiment of Manifest Destiny.

Work on the mountain was not constantly supervised by Borglum. When he was at Rushmore, Borglum would be climbing all over the mountain and all over the hills, to determine the best angle for each feature, and advising the carvers on how to create the nuanced details that might not even be visible from below. But after creating the models, siting the sculpture, and developing methods for transferring the image to the mountain and carving the rock, there were long periods during which Borglum’s presence was not required. He would often leave his assistants, including his son Lincoln, to supervise the work and then travel. He would go to Washington, D.C. to lobby for more money, and he also traveled around the world, finding and completing other commissions, sculpting a Thomas Paine for Paris and a Woodrow Wilson (for Poland, and meeting politicians and celebrities such as Helen Keller. (Helping her feel pieces by his old friend Rodin, he recalled her comment: “Meeting you is like a visit from the gods.” He sometimes felt the same way about himself, writing in his journal: “I must see, think, feel and draw in Thor’s dimension.”) When he returned to the Dakotas, a rock might have been roughly blasted into an egg shape and he would be back to looking over every detail.

Borglum’s stubborn insistence on having things done his way led to numerous confrontations with John Boland, who chaired the executive committee of the Mount Rushmore Commission. His temper and perfectionism caused him to fire his best workmen (who then had to be hired back by Borglum’s son Lincoln). Borglum’s ambition and hubris motivated him to recreate a landscape in his image (a tableau of prominent white men) rather than for the Native Americans who held the Black Hills sacred. Borglum was stubborn, insistent, temperamental, perfectionist, high-reaching, and proud — but these were also the characteristics that were required to carve a mountain. Big, brash, almost larger than life, only a man like Gutzon Borglum could have conceived of and created the monument on Mount Rushmore.


On March 6, 1941, Borglum died, following complications after surgery. His son finished another season

at Rushmore, but left the monument largely in the state of completion it had reached under his father’s



“Beauty is like a soul that hovers over the surface of form. Its presence is unmistakable in Art or in Life. The measure of its revelation depends on the measure of our own soul- consciousness, the boundaries of our own spirit.” — Gutzon Borglum

Before he created Mount Rushmore, Gutzon Borglum already had a productive and successful career as an artist.

The Stamford Museum and Nature Center organized a 1999 exhibition titled “Out of Rushmore’s Shadow: The Artistic Development of Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941).” Selections from that exhibit illustrate some of the influences Borglum incorporated into his work. Frequently, Borglum favored muscular, dynamic poses for his subjects, and he also liked to make art on a large scale.

The following article is written by Mark Di Ionno | The Star-Ledger The Star-Ledger
on February 16, 2009 at 8:34 PM, updated September 01, 2009 at 2:52 PM

Four score and 18 years ago, sculptor left his mark on Newark

In this, the season of presidents, the story of Mount Rushmore is often retold. It took 14 years and 400 men to carve in stone the vision of sculptor Gutzon Borglum. A sheer mountain face of South Dakota’s granite Black Hills was shaped into a 60-foot-high monument to four great American presidents.

Borglum, born in Idaho two years after Abraham Lincoln’s death, had believed in creating art “drawn from American sources, memorializing American achievement,” he said in 1908.

Borglum’s public works reflected his sense of a big, expansive America. They were grand in scale, not absorbed by either the cityscapes of the Northeast or the mountains of the West.


Two works of such magnitude are here in Newark: “Seated Lincoln” in front of the Essex County Historic Courthouse, and “Wars of America,” the centerpiece of Military Park.

There are also two smaller Borglums in the city. A stone sculpture, known as “Puritan and Indian,” is on the north end of Washington Park, and a marble relief carving of the founding of Newark is on Saybrook Place.

Long before Mount Rushmore, Borglum exercised his artist’s vision of “American achievement” here.

“He had a sincere nationalism, with great faith in the United States,” said Rosa Portell, the curator of the Stamford Museum & Nature Center in Connecticut. Borglum had his studio in Stamford, and the museum has a large Borglum collection.

“He was living in the era of American manifest destiny, when the United States was becoming a world power, and he felt awe for the men who created, preserved and expanded the country.”

In this season of presidents, the 200th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln is being celebrated. Perhaps no other artist is as closely associated with Lincoln’s image as Borglum.

“He was dedicated and devoted to Lincoln,” Portell said. “He named his son Lincoln. He studied every available image of Lincoln, and had his own death mask made.”


His “Colossal Lincoln” was commissioned by Teddy Roosevelt and now sits in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.

“The images of Lincoln that impressed him the most were of the anguish on his face when he was getting the daily casualty reports from the battlefields,” Portell said. “He would go the White House gardens to hear these reports, and they impacted him deeply. The Newark statue, I believe, reflects that anguish.”

“Seated Lincoln” was commissioned 100 years ago by a group of Newark citizens for the century anniversary of Lincoln’s birth. (A wealthy Newark resident, Civil War veteran Amos Hoaglund Van Horn, contributed $250,000 for both Lincoln and the “Wars of America.”)


President Theodore Roosevelt came to dedicate “Seated Lincoln” on Memorial Day 1911, as thousands jammed the streets around the new courthouse.

Newark in the Gilded Age was a place of such wealth and prestige, it attracted the day’s greatest names in American public art and architecture.

Cass Gilbert, most famous for New York’s Woolworth Building, designed the Essex courthouse.

Stanford White, builder of the Washington Square Arch, the second Madison Square Garden and the New York Herald Building, did the High Street mansion of brewer Christian Feigenspan.


Landscape architect John Charles Olmsted, the son of Frederick Law Olmsted, laid out Branch Brook and Weequahic parks.

“Newark was the kind of city where wealth accumulated, but instead of buying art for their own salons, the wealthy sponsored public art,” Portell said. “That is a spirit the community should always treasure.”

Borglum’s granddaughter, Robin Borglum Carter, who lives in Corpus Christi, Texas, remembers coming to Newark “many, many years ago” to see the sculptures. She has photos of them in her book, “Gutzon Borglum: His Life and Works.”

Love Birds

“Seated Lincoln,” she said, is one of his best works. Maybe the best. And agrees with Portell that both “Seated Lincoln” and “Wars of America” are among the very best of Borglum’s inventory. Portells put them in the top five, and Carter says, “Absolutely.”

But “Wars of America” has a sentimental value to Carter, too.

In the faces of the soldiers and their families, Gutzon Borglum put himself, his wife, Mary, and son, Lincoln.

“I see my father (Lincoln), my grandfather and grandmother,” she said. “I think that’s why I’m so fond of it.”

 Public Service Electric and Gas Company’s Head Quarter  (PSE&G HQ)

All these glass buildings are great.  They act like canvases with artwork.  The artwork is changing every minute with time and climate, painting the image of the reality of sky and surrounding area at the vicinity of specific buildings.

Prudential Tower, Newark, New Jersey

I wonder why?????

These corporations such as PSE&G and Prudential are so prosperous.  They are able to build huge fancy buildings.  They get richer and bigger and bigger every year.  But the majority of customers who pay for gas and electric or insurance are saving every penny to pay for these bills.  There are so many homeless in every city and town.  These corporations are so smart to make good profit from millions of customers.  These millions of customers have to check their bills for the increasing rates every year.

I think these corporations should give their customers some reduction instead of increasing rates.  They can build houses for the homeless or give out food to needy people.  Fairness is the name of the game. If more and more people cannot pay for gas and electric or insurance bills these companies are going to lose their customers anyhow.  Corporations should run their business to serve people rather than greedily taking all that they can. 

Balance and fairness helps society go on smoothly so that peace and harmony can be with everyone.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Sunday, May 22, 2016, 3:35 A.M.

Students having pizza after school in the park           

Gutzon Borglum, The Sculptor (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941)

Below are some of Gutzon Borglum’s sculptures

1  Memorial to Charles Brantley Aycock, Noth Carolina State Capitol (1941)

2  Thomas Paine, Montsouris, Paris (1936)

3  Memorial to Henry Lawson Wyatt, North Carolina State Capitol (1912)

4  Rabboni, Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D. C. (1909)

5  Statue of John Peter Altgeld, Lincoln Park, Chicago (1915)

6  Statue of John William Mackay, Mackay School of Earth Sciences and Engineering (1908)

General Philip Sheridan, sculpted by Borglum in 1908, in Washington, D.C.

Stone Mountain located near Atlanta, Georgia

9  Monument depicting North Carolinian soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg

Mount Rushmore located in the Black Hills of South Dakota

Left:  Bust of Abraham Lincoln, Crypt of the U.S. Capitol (1908)

Right:  Seated Lincoln is a memorial sculpture by Gutzon Borglum located next to the Essex County Courthouse in NewarkEssex CountyNew Jersey, United States. The bronze sculpture of Abraham Lincoln seated at one end of a bench was dedicated by President Theodore Roosevelt on Memorial Day 1911.[3]

  Gutzon Borglum with his Colossal Lincoln, The Borglum Archives

Among the heroes being celebrated in public monuments, few were as prevalent as Abraham Lincoln. His popularity was particularly strong around 1909, the centenary of his birth. Artists vied with each other trying to prove that their version of Lincoln was the best. In 1907 Borglum had made a colossal head of Lincoln which, at Teddy Roosevelt’s urging, was shown at the White House and eventually donated to the United States Capitol Building by Eugene Meyer. Much admired by Lincoln’s son, Robert, this sculpture helped cement Borglum’s reputation as a monumental sculptor.”

Public Service Enterprise Group Inc.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Traded as

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Newark, New Jersey, U.S.

Key people

Ralph Izzo (Pres., CEO)
Caroline Dorsa (EVP, CFO)


  • US$ 9.968 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 9.781 billion (2012) [1]

Operating income

  • US$ 2.299 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 2.278 billion (2012) [1]

Net income

  • US$ 1.243 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 1.275 billion (2012) [1]

Total assets

  • US$ 32.522 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 31.725 billion (2012) [1]

Total equity

  • US$ 11.609 billion (2013) [1]
  • US$ 10.781 billion (2012) [1]

Number of employees

10,352 (2009)[2]


PSE&G, PSEG Power,
PSEG Energy Holdings


Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG), founded as the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey and later renamed Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G), is a publicly traded diversified energy company headquartered in Newark, New Jersey. The company’s largest subsidiary retains the old PSE&G name. New Jersey’s oldest and largest investor owned utility, Public Service Electric and Gas Company is a regulated gas and electric utility company serving the state of New Jersey.[3]

The Public Service Corporation was formed in 1903 by amalgamating more than 400 gas, electric and transportation companies in New Jersey. It was renamed Public Service Electric and Gas Company in 1948. The transportation operations of PSE&G were purchased by New Jersey Transit in 1980, leaving PSE&G exclusively in the utility business. In 1985, Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) formed as a holding company, and in 1989 established Enterprise Diversified Holdings Inc. (now PSEG Energy Holdings), to begin consolidation of its unregulated businesses. In 2000, PSE&G split its unregulated national power generation assets to form PSEG Power, while PSE&G continued operating in New Jersey as a regulated gas and electric delivery company.[4]

In June 2005, the acquisition of PSEG by Exelon, a Chicago and Philadelphia based utility conglomerate, was approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; however, the deal was never consummated and eventually dissolved after it became clear that it would not win state regulatory approval from the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities.[5]

In 2009, PSEG began installing solar panels on 200,000 utility poles in its service area in a project costing $773 million, the largest such project in the world.[6][7] The Solar 4 All project increased the capacity for renewable energy in New Jersey and was completed in 2013.[8] In addition, PSEG is building four solar farms in Edison, Hamilton, Linden, and Trenton.[9]

Public Service Enterprise Group consists of four companies:

  • Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G)
    • PSEG Long Island, LLC
  • PSEG Power
    • PSEG Fossil
    • PSEG Nuclear
    • PSEG Energy Resources and Trade
  • PSEG Energy Holdings
    • PSEG Global
    • PSEG Solar Source, LLC
    • PSEG Resources
  • PSEG Services Corporation[13]

Kearny plant

PSE&G serves the population in an area consisting of a 2,600-square-mile (6,700 km2) diagonal corridor across the state from Bergen to Gloucester Counties.[14][15] PSE&G is the largest provider of gas and electric service, servicing 1.8 million gas customers and 2.2 million electric customers in more than 300 urban, suburban and rural communities, including New Jersey’s six largest cities.

PSEG Nuclear operates three nuclear reactors at two facilities in Lower Alloways Creek Township. PSEG owns one reactor at Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station and operates two reactors at Salem Nuclear Power Plant where PSEG Nuclear holds a 57 percent stake (in partnership with Exelon Corporation). Exelon also operates two reactors at Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station in a 50/50 joint venture with PSEG.[16]

PSEG Long Island provides electricity to 1.1 million customers in Nassau and Suffolk counties, and the Rockaway Peninsula of Queens, part of New York City.[17] This system operates under an agreement with the Long Island Power Authority, the state agency that owns the system, that went into effect January 1, 2014.[18] PSEG was selected to essentially privatize LIPA, taking over near complete control of the system including its brand name, whereas before this agreement only a number of functions were performed by the private sector and the system was operated under the LIPA name.

System information

PSEG’s transmission line voltages are 500,000 volts, 345,000 volts, 230,000 volts and 138,000 volts with interconnections to utilities in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New York. The company’s subtransmission voltages are 69,000 volts and 26,000 volts. PSEG’s distribution voltages are 13,000 volts and 4,160 volts.

Environmental record

In 2001, PSEG received The Walter B. Jones Memorial and NOAA Excellence Awards in Coastal and Ocean Resource Management[19] in the category of Excellence in Business Leadership for its Estuary Enhancement Program.[20]

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have identified PSEG as the 48th-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States, with roughly five million pounds of toxic chemicals released annually into the air.[21] Major pollutants indicated by the study include manganese, chromium and nickel salts; sulfuric and hydrochloric acid.[22]

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Prudential Plant Wall Mural and Military Park

Prudential Plant Wall Mural and Military Park

Downtown Newark, New Jersey

On Thursday, May 5, 2016

Prudential Tower

I was happy to see the gardeners were working on the Plant Wall Mural.  I had a chance talking to Mr. Francisco Diaz, supervisor, exterior service of John Mini distinctive landscapes company, managing the Plant Wall Mural for Prudential Corporation.

Left: PSE&G new tall glass building

Military Park

I stopped to say thanks to the park gardeners.  I appreciate how they are cultivating the park garden so well.  I told them how downtown Newark is changing a lot, especially the buildings around Military Park.  About forty years ago during 1972-1976 I lived in Jersey City.   I took the Path train from Jersey City to Newark, Penn Station and  I walked on Raymond Boulevard from Penn station to Rutgers University on University Avenue when I studied for my undergraduate, Bachelor degree in chemistry.  There was no Public Service Electric and Gas Company ( PSE&G) new tall glass building, or Prudential Tower or New Jersey Performing Art Center ( NJPAC) at that time.  There was a small row of shops along Raymond Boulevard.  One specialty cheese shop located on Raymond Boulevard close to Broad Street sold goat milk; we usually bought goat milk for our daughter when she was a baby in 1979. 

After John read my writing he said “I remember I bought one kind of cheese that smell very strong, named Swedish Farmer’s cheese.  You did not like it I had to put it outside on the windowsill.”  I recall that moment.  I hardly knew much about cheese, at that time even cedar cheese or other ordinary cheese I still did not like.  But now I like them and can eat many kinds of cheese.  In the same token John did not like the smell of fish sauce.  So I use soy sauce to substitute for fish sauce.  We all like things we are accustomed to or dislike what we are not used to but we have to compromise and hope that time will allow us to try other culture to be able to understand the differences from one own culture in order to have a chance to live together in peaceful coexistence.

PSE&G new building complete in 1980, NJPAC building was completed in 1997 and Prudential Tower was completed in 2015.

War Memorial in Military Park, Newark, New Jersey

Beautiful Dogwood flowers in Spring

Military Park is a 6-acre (24,000 m2) city park in Downtown NewarkEssex CountyNew Jersey, United States.  It is a nearly triangular park located between Park Place, Rector Street and Broad Street, built in 1916, Architect Ely, Wilson and John; Guilbert and Betelle,  Architectural style Renaissance, Italianate.  From 1667, when the city was planned, until 1869 it was a training ground for soldiers. In 1869 it became the town commons.

The New Jersey Historical SocietyMilitary Park Building and the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, and the Robert Treat Center are located across Park Place from the park. A $3.25 million renovation led by Dan Biederman was announced in February 2012.[2][3] The reconstruction was expected to be completed in late 2013,[4][5] but due to harsh weather was postponed until spring 2014.[6] A restaurant, the first in the park, is planned.[7] The park reopened in June 2014.[8]   

Address: 51 Park Pl, Newark, NJ 07102

Year built: 1916

Military Park (Newark)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Military Park Commons Historic District

U.S. National Register of Historic Places

U.S. Historic district

Wars of America statue

Prudential Headquarters

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prudential Plaza – headquarters on Broad Street – Newark, photograph by Hudconja…

General information

Completed        1956

Opening            1960

 Height:    Roof     114 m (374 ft)

Technical details:  Floor count   24 

Design and construction:

Architect Voorhees, Walker, Smith, Smith and Haines

 Prudential Tower

Night view of new Prudential Tower in Newark, Photograph by Deepen03

General information

Construction started    2013

Completed        2015 

Opening            2015

 Height:    Roof     45.73 m (150.0 ft)

Technical details:  Floor count 44  

Prudential Financial, as it is known today, began as The Widows and Orphans Friendly Society in 1875. For a short time it was called the Prudential Friendly Society, and for many years after 1877 it was known as the Prudential Insurance Company of America,[10] a name still widely in use. Based in Newark, New Jersey, the company has constructed a number of buildings to house its headquarters downtown in the Four Corners district.[11] In addition to its own offices, the corporation has financed large projects in the city, including Gateway Center and Prudential Center. Prudential has about 5,200 employees in the city.

Prudential Home Office[edit]

The original Prudential buildings from the turn of the 20th century were early examples of steel framing in Newark, clad in gray Indiana limestone with Romanesque Gothic styling, the work of George B. Post. The four buildings were known as the Main, the North, the West, and the Northwest and were the tallest in the city at the turn of the 20th century. They were demolished in 1956 to make way for the current headquarters. The proposed 45-story Prudential Tower would have been one of the tallest in Newark had it been built.[12]

Gibraltar Building[edit]

The Gibraltar Building, headquarters for the financial services company until 1986, is situated between two other office towers later built for the firm, all of which are connected by underground passage[13] The name is inspired by the company’s logo, the Rock of Gibraltar. The Gothic Revival structure was designed by the architect Cass Gilbert, renowned for many works including the Woolworth Building and the United States Supreme Court Building. Gilbert was also architect for the Kinney Building at the southeast corner of Broad and Market Streets.[14] Sold in 1987 and later renovated and restored, it now is home the Superior Court of New Jersey‘s Essex County Vicinage Family Court, Chancery, and Tax Court, as well as other government agencies and private enterprises.[5][15] [16]

Prudential Building[edit]

“Prudential Building” redirects here. For the building in Chicago formerly known as the Prudential Building, see One Prudential Plaza.

Shortly after Prudential Building was completed in 1942, it was taken over by the federal government for use by the Office of Dependency Benefits (ODB), which was moved to Newark from Washington during World War II. The ODB was responsible for payments to military dependents and their families. Work went on round the clock at 213 Washington Street until it was returned to Prudential in 1946.

Prudential Plaza[edit]

Prudential’s current headquarters, the Prudential Plaza, opened in 1960 during the New Newark era when modernist buildings were built downtown. The International style building is one the tallest and most prominent on the Newark skyline. The facade of Vermont marble includes 1600 windows set in aluminum frames. On August 1, 2004, the U.S. Office of Homeland Security announced the discovery of terrorist threats against the Plaza prompting large-scale security measures such as concrete barriers and internal security changes such as X-ray machines.[17]

The lobby of building was originally adorned with triptych of mosaics designed by Hildreth Meiere entitled “The Pillars of Hercules,” The panels had been removed and put in storage, Two were formally installed at the Center for Hellenic Studiesin Washington, DC and another in Newark Museum.[18][19]

Prudential Tower[edit]

In 2011, Prudential announced plans to construct an office tower for its headquarters complex. The company had received a $250 million urban transit tax credit, from the state, which required that it create new jobs and build within walking distance of a transit hub.[20] The site of the $444 million 650,000 sq ft (60,000 m2) tower is on Broad Street just west of Military Park.[21][22][23] Construction began in July 2013.[24][25][26] The exterior of the tower was completed as of January 2015 and the building opened in July 2015.<r[27]

For more information on Plant Wall Murals please visit the following links:

Living/Green Walls



Left: Mt Maunganui installation designed by Tracey Peryman

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Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey


Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey

Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park, Newark, New Jersey will gives pleasure to a lot of people who have a chance to visit the park again this year, 2016.  We still remember the good times we had in the previous years and the Cherry Blossoms of 2011.     

This year Earth Day was on Friday, April 22, 2011 but my “Earth day” is every day of my life.  I love nature, I am part of nature.  Here is some of nature that I enjoy, captured to share with all of us.  The photographs are the walking steps that I treasured and captured of the Cherry Blossoms at Branch Brook Park in Newark, New Jersey, USA in my memory and my camera.  I am not a photographer but I love to take pictures to record history as I go through my life. I enjoy the beautiful flowers of Cherry Blossom trees and I also enjoy the tall trees that are absent of leaves, having only the limbs of branches spread out just like our blood veins.  The gorgeous Cherry Blossoms will be so lonely without little children running around under the trees.  The parents took snapshots to keep forever with love.  Young couple with children and without children came out to enjoy the Cherry Blossoms.  Some young couples took pictures in different posses of his or her admirer.  The young girl who dresses in a pink kimono is posing for her young man to capture her moods and movements as if she is part of the Cherry Blossoms herself, announcing to her lover to come closer, as if to say, “I am a nature, I am beautiful, enjoy me and love me”, as the young man comes closer to snap the photos with a heart beating faster and faster with every step that he takes toward her.  One can make up all kind of love stories when we walk into Cherry Blossoms land.  Now please enjoy more than one thousand pictures that I have captured from the most beautiful Cherry Blossoms that Newarkoffers to everyone.  I captured these pictures on Saturday, Sunday and Friday, April 16, 17 and 22, 2011 and previous years.

 Branch Brook Park is a county park of Essex County, New Jersey in the United States, located in the North Ward of Newark, between the neighborhoods of Forest Hill and Roseville. At 360 acres (1.5 km²), Branch Brook Park is the largest public park in the city of Newark. The park is noted for having over 4,000 cherry blossom trees in more than fourteen different varieties,[1] collectively called Cherryblossomland, as well as its spectacular Cherry Blossom Festival each April.

Branch Brook Park is currently in the midst of $25 million, ten-year, restoration program. In 2004, the Park Avenuebridge was repaired, as were the ballfields in the center of the park. By 2010, there will be more than 5,000 cherry trees in the park due to a $650,000 grant from the Essex County Recreation and Open Space Trust Fund in 2006 and private donations.[2]

Below the writing portion is my story of the Cherry Blossom at Branch Brook Park in April 1994.  There are details, direction and history of Branch Brook Park and the Cherry Blossom Trees.  I wrote this in, “The Eyes of Morris”, a smart dog that belonged to our friends.


In memory of my mother, father, my mother-in-law, and father-in-law.

In memory of Morris, he passed away in 1997.

Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts                                                            Thursday, May 19, 2011

Link to Cherry Blossoms 2013 part 1 is Below:

2 Responses to Cherry Blossoms

  1. Chelsea says:

May 23, 2011 at 9:50 am

Wow there’s so many years represented here! Its rather impressive Ing, I love to see the park though out the years in many different lights and locations. And I think the last three pictures of your mother, father and in-law’s. Those are some lovely pictures.

As always thank you for sharing the world through your eyes.

ing says:

May 24, 2011 at 8:55 pm (Edit)

Hi Chelsea,

Thanks for your comments. I am glad you enjoyed the Cherry Blossoms. I am going to add two small stories that I emailed to you because I like other people to laugh and know one of the Thai customs:

Four women came in to our shop this afternoon. They liked our jewelry and artwork, but they didn’t buy anything. So before they left the shop I asked if they have time to see my Peace Project. They enjoyed seeing my sculptures and were very glad to write their comments on my Shadow of Peace artwork. One of the ladies saw my Gandhi artwork by the door she used her foot to point at the artwork and said “Is that Gandhi? I like it”. I told her that Thais believe that if anyone uses their foot to point at anything it is considered to be very bad manners and insulting to others. This is because they believe that the foot is of very low value and head is of high value. People are never allowed to touch the head of someone older than themselves especially their parents or any older person. I do not believe that any more. But when we are inRomewe have to do as the Romans do. The lady appreciated that I told her this aspect of Thai custom.

Here is a funny story for you: A couple weeks ago I had an argument with John. We wanted to find plastic bag and we could not find it. I complained to John that he always throws everything out, and that causedMalito fight with her uncle. John replied “I didn’t throw out everything!” I realized that he meant he didn’t throw me out. I said “Oh! Yes! You smart aaa___! Then we both laughed.

Take care,


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George Bowman The Musician

George Bowman The Musician

At the tunnel walkway

From Chambers Street to World Trade Center,

New York City, New York

On Thursday, February 18th, 2016


 Cynthia’s Snow Photographs



George Bowman the Musician

He greets people

Who travel to work

Or return home

From all day work

With his trumpet

He voices out a melody


How are you today?

Let me serenade you

From a hard day’s work

Or travel from here to there

Have a pleasant day everyone!!!


With his horn of melody

Soothing the ears of those

Who pass by


Good morning!!!

Good afternoon!!!

Or good night!!!

His trumpet sounds

Connecting to human souls


George Bowman the Musician

Happy to serenade

The travelers who pass by

His life is fulfilled

With happiness and peace

It is a life well lived


Ing-On Vibulbhan-Watts, Saturday, February 20, 2016


George Bowman the Musician

On Thursday, February 18, 2016 about 1:30 P.M., I traveled on the E-train, subway in New York City.  I got out at Chambers Street and walked along the tunnel, underground to the World Trade Center to get the Path train heading home to Newark, New Jersey.  I saw a man standing near the wall with his trumpet in his hands.  I always want to have a conversation with the musicians who perform in the subway or out on the streets but I never have a chance.  Listening to his music, I decided to approach him; luckily there was no one there at that moment so I began asking him some questions.  We had a nice short conversation.  Then I asked if he would play one more tune or a song for me to record and told him that I would like to use the material to post on my website and Google +, post a video on YouTube.  He wrote his name and information for me before he serenaded me with his interpretation of, Somewhere Over the Rainbow tune.  I was very happy and felt privileged to know him.  I showed the video to my husband, John Watts.  He likes the music and my conversation with Mr. George Bowman.

If you would like to listen to Mr. George Bowman music and our conversation please visit YouTube at the following link:


 Cynthia’s Snow Photographs

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